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1

Valuing QALYs at the end of life.  

PubMed

The possibility of weighting QALYs differently for different groups of patients has been a source of debate. Most recently, this debate has been extended to the relative value of QALYs at the end of life (EoL). The objective of this study is to provide evidence of societal preferences in relation to this topic. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted amongst Spanish general population (n = 813). Survey 1 compared increases in life expectancy for EoL patients with health gains from temporary health problems. Survey 2 compared health gains for temporary health problems with quality of life gains at the EoL (palliative care). Survey 3 compared increases in life expectancy with quality of life gains, both for EoL patients. Preferences were elicited using Person Trade-Off (PTO) and Willingness to pay (WTP) techniques presenting two different durations of health benefit (6 and 18 months). Health benefits, measured in QALYs, were held constant in all comparisons. In survey 1 mean WTP was higher for life extending treatments than for temporary health problems and the majority of respondents prioritised life extension over temporary health problems in response to the PTO questions. In survey 2 mean WTP was higher for palliative care than for temporary health problems and 83% prioritized palliative care (for both durations) in the PTO questions. In survey 3 WTP values were higher for palliative care than for life extending treatments and more than 60% prioritized palliative care in the PTO questions. Our results suggest that QALYs gained from EoL treatments have a higher social value than QALYs gained from treatments for temporary health problems. Further, we found that people attach greater weight to improvements in quality of life than to life extension at the end of life. PMID:24820408

Pinto-Prades, Jose-Luis; Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando-Ignacio; Corbacho, Belen; Baker, Rachel

2014-07-01

2

Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.  

PubMed

Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822

Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

2014-09-01

3

Conditions of Life and Parental Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kohn's work on the relationship between social class and parental values was expanded by searching for value dimensions other than Kohn's self-direction/conformity construct and by investigating three aspects of social structure: immigrant status, quality of neighborhood, and housing type. Data were collected from parents of 305 9- to 11-year-old…

Burns, Ailsa; And Others

4

The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.  

PubMed Central

Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values. PMID:6803602

Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

1982-01-01

5

Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

Carlstrom, Aaron H.

2011-01-01

6

Pathways From Religion to Advance Care Planning: Beliefs About Control Over Length of Life and End-of-Life Values  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the extent to which religious affiliation and self-identified religious importance affect advance care planning (ACP) via beliefs about control over life length and end-of-life values. Design and Methods: Three hundred and five adults aged 55 and older from diverse racial and socioeconomic groups seeking outpatient care in New Jersey were surveyed. Measures included discussion of end-of-life preferences; living will (LW) completion; durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC) appointment; religious affiliation; importance of religion; and beliefs about who/what controls life length, end-of-life values, health status, and sociodemographics. Results: Of the sample, 68.9% had an informal discussion and 46.2% both discussed their preferences and did formal ACP (LW and/or DPAHC). Conservative Protestants and those placing great importance on religion/spirituality had a lower likelihood of ACP. These associations were largely accounted for by beliefs about God’s controlling life length and values for using all available treatments. Implications: Beliefs and values about control account for relationships between religiosity and ACP. Beliefs and some values differ by religious affiliation. As such, congregations may be one nonclinical setting in which ACP discussions could be held, as individuals with similar attitudes toward the end of life could discuss their treatment preferences with those who share their views. PMID:23161430

Garrido, Melissa M.

2013-01-01

7

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

2007-01-01

8

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for adolescents (n = 100). It was hypothesized

John Brunelle; Steven J. Danish; Tanya Forneris

2007-01-01

9

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2014-04-01

10

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2013-04-01

11

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2011-04-01

12

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2012-04-01

13

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2010-04-01

14

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2012-07-01

15

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2011-07-01

16

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2010-07-01

17

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2014-07-01

18

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2013-07-01

19

76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder or Reversionary...Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder or Reversionary...tables in valuing annuities, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or...

2011-08-10

20

The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.  

PubMed Central

Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems. PMID:1413777

Klessig, J

1992-01-01

21

The Game of Life: College Sports and Educational Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on historical research, data on alumni giving, information on budgetary spending on college athletics, and a database of 90,000 students from 30 selective colleges and universities in the 1950s, 1970, and 1990s, this book demonstrates how athletics influences the class composition and campus ethos of selective schools. The chapters are:…

Shulman, James L.; Bowen, William G.

22

Fatigue life of cold-forging dies with various values of hardness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four selected die materials commonly used in the cold-forging process were examined in the present study to obtain the relationship between the hardness and the die fatigue life. The die materials were first heat-treated by a developed process to obtain different values of hardness, while the ductility was retained at a favorable level. The material properties of these die materials

Yi-Che Lee; Fuh-Kuo Chen

2001-01-01

23

More evidence on smoke detector effectiveness and the value of saving a life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic models of the fire fatality rate give estimates of smoke detector effectiveness. These estimates are much smaller than those generally accepted. Reasonable interpretation of these estimates, combined with the cost of a smoke detector and the risk of a fire death, places the smoke detector-based value of life saving in a range of $ 1.41 to $ 2.487 million

Christopher Garbacz

1991-01-01

24

Valuing health at the end of life: A stated preference discrete choice experiment.  

PubMed

A source of debate in the field of health care priority setting is whether health gains should be weighted differently for different groups of patients. The debate has recently focused on the relative value of life extensions for patients with short life expectancy. However, few studies have examined empirically whether society is prepared to fund life-extending end-of-life treatments that would not meet the reimbursement criteria used for other treatments. A web-based discrete choice experiment was conducted in 2012 using a sample of 3969 members of the general public in England and Wales. The study design was informed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's supplementary policy for the appraisal of life-extending end-of-life treatments. The choice tasks involved asking respondents which of two hypothetical patients they would prefer to treat, assuming that the health service has enough funds to treat only one of them. Conditional logit regressions were used for modelling. Choices about which patient to treat were influenced more by the sizes of treatment gains than by patients' life expectancy without treatment. Some respondents appear to support a health-maximisation type objective throughout, whilst a small minority always seek to treat those who are worse off without treatment. The majority of respondents, however, seem to advocate a mixture of the two approaches. Overall, we find little evidence that members of the general public prefer to give higher priority to life-extending end-of-life treatments than to other types of treatment. When asked to make decisions about the treatment of hypothetical patients with relatively short life expectancies, most people's choices are driven by the size of the health gains offered by treatment. PMID:25461861

Shah, Koonal K; Tsuchiya, Aki; Wailoo, Allan J

2015-01-01

25

Intracranial resistive index (RI) values in normal term infants during the first day of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine normal resistive index (RI) values for term neonates during the first day of life\\u000a as part of an ongoing prospective study of RI values in term infants with perinatal asphyxia.Materials and methods. Forty normal term neonates underwent cranial sonography and Doppler during the first 24 h after birth. Transfontanelle Doppler\\u000a was

J. W. Allison; L. A. Faddis; D. L. Kinder; P. K. Roberson; C. M. Glasier; J. J. Seibert

2000-01-01

26

Nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to assess the nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods. Samples of foreshank and short loin subprimals were excised from chilled carcasses (n = 20) of beef steers that were individually finished (120 days) on either supranutritional seleni...

27

Value-Able Still Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how she made a major improvement to her fifth-grade lesson plan by providing a hands-on Internet experience before students worked on their own oil pastel still life. It was a success with beautiful finished products and highly motivated, engaged students. Details of this lesson are described in this article.

Gardner, Susan

2005-01-01

28

Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

Cunningham, George B.

2009-01-01

29

The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

2010-01-01

30

Do Extreme Values of Daily-Life Gait Characteristics Provide More Information About Fall Risk Than Median Values?  

PubMed Central

Background Gait characteristics estimated from daily-life trunk accelerations reflect gait quality and are associated with fall incidence in older adults. While associations are based on median values of these gait characteristics, their extreme values may reflect either high-risk situations or steady-state gait and may thus be more informative in relation to fall risk. Objective The objective of this study was to improve fall-risk prediction models by examining whether the use of extreme values strengthens the associations with falls. Methods Trunk acceleration data (Dynaport MoveMonitor) were collected from 202 older adults over a full week. From all walking episodes, we estimated the median and, as reliable estimates of the extremes, the 10th and 90th percentiles of gait characteristics, all over 10-second epochs. In addition, the amount of daily activities was derived from the acceleration data, and participants completed fall-risk questionnaires. Participants were classified as fallers based on one or more falls during 6 months of follow-up. Univariate analyses were performed to investigate whether associations with falls were stronger for the extremes than for the medians. Subsequently, three fall-risk models were compared: (1) using questionnaire data only, (2) adding the amount of activities and medians of gait characteristics, and (3) using extreme values instead of medians in the case of stronger univariate associations of the extremes. Results Stronger associations were found for the extreme characteristics reflecting high regularity, low frequency variability, and low local instability in anterior-posterior direction, for high symmetry in all directions and for low entropy in anterior-posterior and vertical directions. The questionnaire-only model improved significantly by adding activities and gait characteristics’ medians. Replacing medians by extremes with stronger associations did improve the fall prediction model, but not significantly. Conclusions Associations were stronger for extreme values, indicating “high gait quality” situations (ie, 10th and 90th percentiles in case of positive and negative associations, respectively) and not for “low gait quality” situations. This suggests that gait characteristics during optimal performance gait provide more information about the risk of falling than high-risk situations. However, their added value over medians in prediction is limited. PMID:25560937

Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

2015-01-01

31

Social values as an independent factor affecting end of life medical decision making.  

PubMed

Research shows that the physician's personal attributes and social characteristics have a strong association with their end-of-life (EOL) decision making. Despite efforts to increase patient, family and surrogate input into EOL decision making, research shows the physician's input to be dominant. Our research finds that physician's social values, independent of religiosity, have a significant association with physician's tendency to withhold or withdraw life sustaining, EOL treatments. It is suggested that physicians employ personal social values in their EOL medical coping, because they have to cope with existential dilemmas posed by the mystery of death, and left unresolved by medical decision making mechanisms such as advanced directives and hospital ethics committees. PMID:24965073

Cohen, Charles J; Chen, Yifat; Orbach, Hedi; Freier-Dror, Yossi; Auslander, Gail; Breuer, Gabriel S

2015-02-01

32

'In a twilight world'? Judging the value of life for the minimally conscious patient.  

PubMed

The recent ruling from England on the case of M is one of very few worldwide to consider whether life-sustaining treatment, in the form of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, should continue to be provided to a patient in a minimally conscious state. Formally concerned with the English law pertaining to precedent autonomy (specifically advance decision-making) and the best interests of the incapacitated patient, the judgment issued in M's case implicitly engages with three different accounts of the value of human life, which respectively emphasise its self-determined, intrinsic and instrumental value. The judge appeared to be most persuaded by the intrinsic value of life and he concluded that treatment ought to continue. Assessing whether his approach or conclusion were ethically appropriate involves significant substantive and evidential questions regarding where the burden of proof should lie and what standard of proof should be required when decisions are to be made about the fates of patients inhabiting 'twilight worlds'. PMID:23065494

Huxtable, Richard

2013-09-01

33

Life Sciences IBM Institute for Business Value  

E-print Network

Life Sciences IBM Institute for Business Value IBM Global Business Services Cultivating innovation of California, San Francisco, reveals the business models and attitudes that can help make these collaborations. 2 IBM Global Business Services #12;3 Cultivating innovation beyond corporate walls Cultivating

34

Inherent variation in stable isotope values and discrimination factors in two life stages of green turtles.  

PubMed

We examine inherent variation in carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of multiple soft tissues from a population of captive green turtles Chelonia mydas to determine the extent of isotopic variation due to individual differences in physiology. We compare the measured inherent variation in the captive population with the isotopic variation observed in a wild population of juvenile green turtles. Additionally, we measure diet-tissue discrimination factors to determine the offset that occurs between isotope values of the food source and four green turtle tissues. Tissue samples (epidermis, dermis, serum, and red blood cells) were collected from captive green turtles in two life stages (40 large juveniles and 30 adults) at the Cayman Turtle Farm, Grand Cayman, and analyzed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. Multivariate normal models were fit to the isotope data, and the Bayesian Information Criterion was used for model selection. Inherent variation and discrimination factors differed among tissues and life stages. Inherent variation was found to make up a small portion of the isotopic variation measured in a wild population. Discrimination factors not only are tissue and life stage dependent but also appear to vary with diet and sea turtle species, thus highlighting the need for appropriate discrimination factors in dietary reconstructions and trophic-level estimations. Our measures of inherent variation will also be informative in field studies employing stable isotope analysis so that differences in diet or habitat are more accurately identified. PMID:22902371

Vander Zanden, Hannah B; Bjorndal, Karen A; Mustin, Walter; Ponciano, José Miguel; Bolten, Alan B

2012-01-01

35

Mentors in Life and at School: Impact on Undergraduate Protege Perceptions of University Mission and Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University undergraduates (84 women, 80 men: M age=19.1 years old) reported school mission and value perceptions, life and/or school mentor relationships, and social desirability tendencies. No significant social desirability effect was obtained. Proteges with mentors at school and in life (n=52) reported greater cognitive and informational…

Ferrari, Joseph R.

2004-01-01

36

An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

Maguire, Gail Hills

1983-01-01

37

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

38

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

39

Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

Elosua, Paula

2011-01-01

40

The shape of a life and the value of loss and gain  

Microsoft Academic Search

We ordinarily think that, keeping all else equal, a life that improves is better than one that declines. However, it has proven\\u000a challenging to account for such value judgments: some, such as Fred Feldman and Daniel Kahneman, have simply denied that these\\u000a judgments are rational, while others, such as Douglas Portmore, Michael Slote, and David Velleman, have proposed justifications\\u000a for

Joshua Glasgow

41

COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS, VALUE OF A STATISTICAL LIFE AND CULTURE: CHALLENGES FOR REGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author studies three aspects of human live valuation and its relation with and cost benefit analysis in administrative regulation. More precisely, the author addresses the problem of valuation of a statistical human life and its relation with cost benefit analysis in mortality risk reduction policies. First, studies the debate about Valuation of a Statistical Human Life (VSL) and Cost-Benefit

Carlos Pablo MÆrquez Escobar

2007-01-01

42

Valuing Australia's protected areas: A life satisfaction approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the life satisfaction approach to value Australia's protected areas, grouped by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories. We find significant positive life satisfaction effects of living in close proximity to protected areas in three of the seven categories. These life satisfaction effects correspond to implicit willingness-to-pays, in terms of annual household income, ranging from AUD$2950

Christopher L. Ambrey; Christopher M. Fleming

2012-01-01

43

The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.  

PubMed

Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

2013-01-01

44

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15

45

Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.  

PubMed

Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, ?-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

2014-04-01

46

Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

1989-01-01

47

The Value of Public Transportation for Improving the Quality of Life for the Rural Elderly  

E-print Network

community is no longer able to drive, issues that come with living in a rural area may be exacerbated, and the individual may experience a decrease in their quality of life. Although individuals may be able to use public transportation most existing options...

Israel, Alicia Ann

2012-07-16

48

Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees  

PubMed Central

Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

2011-01-01

49

[The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].  

PubMed

The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

2014-01-01

50

EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

51

Do general dimensions of quality of life add clinical value to symptom data?  

PubMed

Since global health-related quality of life (GHRQL) reflects broad impacts of treatment, its assessment in an advanced-stage disease trial should add valuable clinical information beyond that of a targeted symptom. Using latent trajectory modeling that allowed for individual trends as well as overall relationships, we reanalyzed three repeated assessments of the present pain intensity from the McGill Pain Questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of life Questionnaire- Core 30 (QLQ-C30) GHRQL score from a hormone-refractory prostate cancer trial. Within- and between-treatment differences not detected in the original S9916 report of pain palliation and GHRQL suggested substantial individual variation in GHRQL level and change after controlling for within-assessment pain. The treatment had a differential effect on the relationship between GHRQL and pain; we observed an approximately threefold stronger association of reported pain with GHRQL in the docetaxel plus estramustine (D + E) arm compared with the mitoxantrone plus prednisone (M + P) arm (P = .02). In addition, the treatment had an effect, on average, on the rate of change in GHRQL, after controlling for pain level. GHRQL for patients on the M + P arm tended to improve over the assessment period while GHRQL tended to deteriorate for patients on the D + E arm (P = .02). Important, interpretable effects and systematic individual variation in GHRQL remain after controlling statistically for the effects of pain, the targeted symptom, in this trial. In addition, identifying the rate at which a person's GHRQL changes or responds to treatment provides clinically relevant information. PMID:17951229

Moinpour, Carol M; Donaldson, Gary W; Redman, Mary W

2007-01-01

52

Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

Le, Thao N.

2008-01-01

53

Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?  

PubMed

The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being. PMID:24749643

Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

2014-08-01

54

Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value of a Statistical Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph for the first time in over a decade. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred,

Orley C. Ashenfelter; Michael Greenstone

2002-01-01

55

Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value of a Statistical Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987, the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph for the first time in over a decade. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred,

Orley Ashenfelter; Michael Greenstone

2003-01-01

56

Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value of a Statistical Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred, this institutional change provides an…

Ashenfelter, Orley; Greenstone, Michael

2004-01-01

57

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE  

E-print Network

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY-344-3957, vmf5@columbia.edu 2 Center for Life Cycle Analysis, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA 3 SunPower Corporation, San Jose, CA, USA ABSTRACT: This paper summarizes a comprehensive life cycle analysis based

58

Purpose in life and value changes following conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Purpose in Life Test (PIL) and the Rokeach Value Survey were completed by 91 undergraduates. There were 4 groups of religious converts: less than 1 wk, for 1 mo, up to 6 mo, and 6 mo or longer. Two groups of nonconverts served as controls. Converts scored higher on the PIL than nonconverts. New converts showed a sharp rise

Raymond F. Paloutzian

1981-01-01

59

Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

2011-01-01

60

The predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms for quality of life: a longitudinal study of physically injured victims of non-domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about longitudinal associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and quality of life (QoL) after exposure to violence. The aims of the current study were to examine quality of life (QoL) and the predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for QoL in victims of non-domestic violence over a period of 12 months. METHODS: A single-group (n

Venke A Johansen; Astrid K Wahl; Dag Erik Eilertsen; Lars Weisaeth; Berit R Hanestad

2007-01-01

61

An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

2013-04-01

62

Measuring the value of life HEDS Discussion Paper 09/14  

E-print Network

QALY, while operating under this fixed budget. While there is no fixed cost-effectiveness threshold of the healthcare budget and the level of the cost-effectiveness threshold. This research has predominantly used, is to determine the appropriate size of the healthcare budget. Bodies, such as the National Institute for Health

Oakley, Jeremy

63

The Value of Vitalism and Schrodinger's "What Is Life?" in the Contemporary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classic experiments and novel ideas in the history of science are often mentioned in passing in contemporary college-level science curricula. This study indicates that the detailed and creative recapitulation of a few well-chosen and famous, if well-known, results and ideas has the potential to increase students' understanding and appreciation of…

Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

2009-01-01

64

Laughter as Immanent Life-Affirmation: Reconsidering the Educational Value of Laughter through a Bakhtinian Lens  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I try to conceive a new approach towards laughter in the context of formal schooling. I focus on laughter in so far as it is a bodily response during which we are entirely delivered to uncontrollable, spasmodic reactions. To see the educational relevance of this particular kind of laughter, as well as to understand why laughter is…

Vlieghe, Joris

2014-01-01

65

Life experience and the value-free foundations of Blumer's collective behavior theory.  

PubMed

Herbert Blumer stated throughout his long career that his ideas regarding collective behavior originated with his introduction to pragmatist philosophy under the auspices of G. H. Mead at the University of Chicago. Blumer's biography, however, presents a different picture. Firsthand experiences with mob behavior, collective outrage, and the fallout associated with Blumer's public utterances early in his career may have had significant impact on the eventual corpus of collective behavior. PMID:21462195

Keys, David; Maratea, R J

2011-01-01

66

The value of vitalism and Schrodinger's What is Life? in the contemporary classroom.  

PubMed

Classic experiments and novel ideas in the history of science are often mentioned in passing in contemporary college-level science curricula. This study indicates that the detailed and creative recapitulation of a few well-chosen and famous, if well-known, results and ideas has the potential to increase students' understanding and appreciation of the scientific method and provides them with an altogether novel perspective of science. Since the students are usually aware of the salient facts involved, they are free to concentrate on the method, rather than worry about assimilating new facts. Such an approach has the potential to promote original thinking and rekindle enthusiasm for science, even at the university level. PMID:21567724

Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

2009-05-01

67

Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute' criterion) was calculated as 0.75 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CMC = e(0.8403 ? ln(hardness)-3.572) where the 'ln hardness' is the natural logarithm of the water hardness. Likewise, the criterion continuous concentration (CCC, or 'chronic' criterion) was calculated as 0.37 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CCC = (e(0.6247 ? ln(hardness)-3.384)) ? (1.101672 - ((ln hardness) ? 0.041838))). Using data that were independent of those used to derive the criteria, the criteria concentrations were evaluated to estimate whether adverse effects were expected to the biological integrity of natural waters or to selected species listed as threatened or endangered. One species was identified that would not be fully protected by the derived CCC, the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Exposure to CCC conditions likely would lead to population decreases in Hyalella azteca, the food web consequences of which probably would be slight if macroinvertebrate communities were otherwise diverse. Some data also suggested adverse behavioral changes are possible in fish following long-term exposures to low levels of cadmium, particularly in char (genus Salvelinus). Although ambiguous, these data indicate a need to periodically review the literature on behavioral changes in fish following metals exposure as more information becomes available. Most data reviewed indicated that criteria conditions were unlikely to contribute to overt adverse effects to either biological integrity or listed species. If elevated cadmium concentrations that approach the chronic criterion values occur in ambient waters, careful biological monitoring of invertebrate and fish assemblages would be prudent to validate the prediction that the assemblages would not be adversely affected by cadmium at criterion concentrations.

Mebane, Christopher A.

2006-01-01

68

The Value of LifeAn Argument for the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminologists have generally attacked capital punishment and have argued for its abolition. They contend (1) that there is no evidence showing the superior general deterrent effectiveness of the death penalty, (2) that the death penalty has been applied discriminatorily in the past, (3) that innocent persons may be executed, (4) that the public does not want a constitutionally acceptable form

Marlene W. Lehtinen

1977-01-01

69

Modeling Life Insurance Liability at Fair Value: An Analysis of Embedded Options in With-Profit Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life insurance contracts are often very complex financial products which embed interest rate guarantee and other implicit options. Focusing on the With-Profit life insurance policy in China, this paper presents a dynamic model to develop suitable fair valuation techniques for liability of this category contract. Unlike traditional actuarial valuation method, the model captures several essential elements of With-Profit policy, such

Xu Nan-nan; Ren Ruo-en; Zheng Hai-tao

2009-01-01

70

Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.  

PubMed

Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2015-03-01

71

Development and Validation of a Short Form of the Valued Life Activities Disability Questionnaire for Rheumatoid Arthritis  

PubMed Central

Objective Develop and validate a shortened version of the Valued Life Activities disability and accommodations scale (VLA) for individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods To shorten the existing VLA measure, item response theory analyses were conducted using data from 449 patients with RA. Next, the resulting 14-item shortened version of the VLA scale (S-VLA) was evaluated by structured interviews among 20 RA patients. Lastly, the S-VLA was administered to 150 RA patients along with other measures including the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and SF-36. A random sample of 50 patients completed the S-VLA two weeks later to assess reliability. Item statistics were calculated to evaluate correlations between individual items and S-VLA total score. Correlations between the S-VLA and other measures were used to evaluate validity. Results Test–retest reliability was 0.91, while Cronbach’s alpha for the S-VLA was 0.95. None of the 14 items were associated with improved alpha coefficients when omitted. All items were strongly correlated with the S-VLA total score. S-VLA scores were highly positively correlated with HAQ (r=0.81; p?0.001), patient-reported disease activity (r=0.71; p?0.001), satisfaction with abilities (r=0.82; p?0.001), and number of days with activity limitations (r=0.65; p?0.001). In addition, as hypothesized, the S-VLA was inversely correlated with SF-36 Physical Component Summary score (r=?0.78; p?0.001) and subscales: Physical Functioning (r=?0.80; p?0.001), Role Physical (r=?0.67; p?0.001) and Social Functioning (r=?0.72; p?0.001). Conclusions The S-VLA is a short, valid, and reliable instrument that may prove useful for monitoring disability among individuals with RA. PMID:21905253

Katz, Patricia P.; Radvanski, Diane C.; Allen, Diane; Buyske, Steven; Schiff, Samuel; Nadkarni, Anagha; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Maclean, Ross; Hassett, Afton L.

2011-01-01

72

The Place of Health, Physical Culture and Sport Activity in the Life and Value Orientation of Soviet School Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1982\\/83, in consideration of the increasing significance of physical culture and sport, the attitudes of more than 2000 school students toward health and sport in an east Siberian territory were investigated. It was shown that boys, when they finished school, placed higher value on health and sport than girls, and also than younger students. Value orientation towards sport and

Vladislav I. Stoljarov; A. M. Gendin; M. I. Sergeev; A. N. Falaleev

1985-01-01

73

Work Preferences, Life Values, and Personal Views of Top Math\\/Science Graduate Students and the Profoundly Gifted: Developmental Changes and Gender Differences During Emerging Adulthood and Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math\\/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers’ priorities changed.

Kimberley Ferriman; David Lubinski; Camilla P. Benbow

2009-01-01

74

Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value  

PubMed Central

Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

Klatt, Björn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-01-01

75

Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value.  

PubMed

Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar-acid-ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

Klatt, Björn K; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-01-22

76

Market-Consistent Embedded Value in Non-Life Insurance: How to Measure it and  

E-print Network

for these two types of companies. Economic value added (EVA) (see Malmi and Ikäheimo, 2003) and return on risk a sensitivity analysis, and the use MCEV as a performance metric within a value added analysis. Keywords: Non-Life Insurance, Value Based Management, Embedded Value, Value Added 1. Introduction In light of the rapidly

Ulm, Universität

77

Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of these values with quality of life using M. Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values scale. M.Rokeach distinguished terminal values (such as world peace, wisdom, and happiness), which are preferred end-states of existence, and instrumental values (such as responsibility and cooperation), which are preferred modes of conduct. Methods We performed a representative anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of nurses working in regional hospitals of Lithuania. The nurses who participated in the study were distributed into four work cohorts: the Veterans, the Baby Boomers, the Generation Xers, and the Generation Nexters. The majority of the nurses belonged to the Baby Boomers and the Generation Xers cohorts. Since in Lithuania, like in the whole Europe, the representatives of the Baby Boomers generation are predominating among working people, we selected this cohort (N = 387) for the analysis. The survey data was processed using the SPSS statistical software package Results The main values in life were family security, tranquility, and a sense of accomplishment. However, such values as true friendship, equality, and pleasurable and leisured life were seen as rather insignificant. The most important instrumental values were honesty, skillfulness, and responsibility. Our study showed a statistically significant (albeit weak) correlation between the QOL and terminal values such as the sense of accomplishment, tranquility, equality, and pleasure, as well as the instrumental value – obedience. We detected a statistically significant relationship between good QOL and satisfaction with oneself, relationships with the surrounding people, and friends' support. Conclusion The findings of our study showed that, although Lithuania was under a totalitarian regime for 50 years, both the terminal and the instrumental values of the Baby Boomers generation are very similar to those of the same generation in other countries. PMID:17996067

Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Jakusovaite, Irayda

2007-01-01

78

CALORIFIC VALUES IN THE PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POTENTIAL ENERGY, MODE OF LIFE AND THE EVOLUTION OF ENTOPARASITISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the calorific values (kcal\\/g) of seventeen species of animals from six phyla has shown that they have a skewed distribution with a modal fre quency at or near the lower range limit (Slobodkin and Richman, 1%1 ) . This was regarded as support for the hypothesis that natural selection generally favors production of the maximum number of

P. CALOW; J. B. JENNINGS

79

Value of real life (in situ) simulation training for tracheal intubation skills in medical undergraduates during short duration anesthesia rotation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Skill of a successful endotracheal intubation needs to be acquired by training and attaining several competencies simultaneously. It becomes more challenging when we have to deliver the key concepts in a limited period of time. The medium fidelity simulator is a valuable tool of training for such scenarios. For this purpose we aim to compare the efficacy of structured training in endotracheal intubation between real life simulation and the conventional teaching method. Materials and Methods: The year 4 medical students had their attachment in anaesthesia for a period of 6 months from Jun — Dec 2009 were randomly divided into Group (Gp) A who had conventional teaching and Group B who were taught by four simulated sessions of endotracheal intubation. Performance of both the groups was observed by a person blinded to the study against a checklist on a 7 point rating scale in anaesthetized patient. Results: Total 57 students, 29 in Gp A and 28 in Gp B were rotated in the anaesthesia during the study period. Evaluation of the individual component tasks revealed that simulated group achieved a significant difference in the scoring for laryngoscope and intubation technique. (P = 0.026, 0.012) The comparison of overall competence again showed that the 64.3% of student in Gp B achieved an excellent score in comparison to Gp A in which only 41.4% achieved excellent. (P = 0.049). Similarly the lesser number of students in Gp B (14.3%) require remediation as compared to the Gp A, in which the requirement was 40% (P=0.04). Conclusion: We conclude that all essential skills components of tracheal intubation in correct flow and sequence are acquired more efficiently by real life simulated training. PMID:25425771

Minai, Fauzia; Shafiq, Faraz; Ul Haq, Muhammad Irfan

2014-01-01

80

PRODUCTIVE LIFE INCLUDING ALL LACTATIONS, LONGER LACTATIONS, AND CALF VALUE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Longer lactations are more profitable than in the past, and daughter pregnancy rate evaluations now allow separate selection for cow fertility and longevity. Measures of productive life were compared and updated life expectancy factors were derived to replace those estimated in 1993. Extra credits f...

81

Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity. PMID:24010852

Boldt, Joachim

2013-10-01

82

Exploring traditional end-of-life beliefs, values, expectations, and practices among Chinese women living in England: Informing culturally safe care.  

PubMed

Objective: This study explores the end-of-life (EoL) beliefs, values, practices, and expectations of a select group of harder-to-reach Chinese women living in England. Method: A cultural safety approach was undertaken to interpret 11 in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese. Transcripts were translated and back-translated by two researchers. Findings were analyzed using the technical analytical principles of grounded theory. Results: The key themes generated from our analysis include: acculturation; differential beliefs and norms in providing care: family versus health services; language and communication; Eastern versus Western spiritual practices and beliefs; and dying, death, and the hereafter. Significance of Results: End-of-life discussions can be part of an arduous, painful, and uncomfortable process, particularly for migrants living on the margins of society in a new cultural setting. For some Chinese people living in the United Kingdom, end-of-life care requires attention to acculturation, particularly Western versus Eastern beliefs on religion, spirituality, burial practices, and provision of care, and the availability of culturally specific care, all of which encompass issues related to gender. Stories of a purposive sample of Chinese women were viewed through a cultural safety lens to gain a deeper understanding of how social and cultural norms and expectations, in addition to the pressures of acculturation, impact gendered roles and responsibilities. The analysis revealed variations between/within Eastern and Western culture that resulted in pronounced, and oftentimes gendered, differences in EoL care expectations. PMID:25346037

Fang, Mei Lan; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sixsmith, Judith; Wong, Louise Yuen Ming; Callender, Matthew

2014-10-27

83

AN EMPIRICAL BAYES APPROACH TO COMBINING ESTIMATES OF THE VALUE OF A STATISTICAL LIFE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This analysis updates EPA's standard VSL estimate by using a more comprehensive collection of VSL studies that include studies published between 1992 and 2000, as well as applying a more appropriate statistical method. We provide a pooled effect VSL estimate by applying the empi...

84

Universal values of Canadian astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

2012-11-01

85

Use of life table statistics and degree-day values to predict the invasion success of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life table statistics and degree-day requirements for Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, a parasitoid of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata (Say), were used to estimate the number of expected parasitoid generations in California (USA). Between two to 51 and one to 37 generations per year were estimated across different climatic regions in California, using life table and degree-day models, respectively. Temperature-based values

Leigh J. Pilkington; Mark S. Hoddle

2006-01-01

86

What Does "Value" Evoke for Children? A Detection Study as to Transferring Values to Daily Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have been carried out because of the importance of values education in recent years. The studies have shown their effects on the curriculum of 2005. In many classes it is aimed to provide individuals with the gains kneaded with appropriate values. Social Studies are one of them. However, no satisfactory studies as to whether the…

Coskun Keskin, Sevgi

2012-01-01

87

The Value of Reciprocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

2007-01-01

88

What drives the persistence of presenteeism as a managerial value in hotels?: Observations noted during an Irish work-life balance research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project on work-life balance and Irish hotel managers by McLaughlin and Cullen (Managers and work-life balance: a case of Irish hospitality industry, Irish Management Institute, Dublin) noted high levels of presenteeism amongst focus group participants. This paper analyses the qualitative data obtained during this project with a view to identifying drivers of this finding and discusses possible consequences

John Cullen; Andrew McLaughlin

2006-01-01

89

Quality of life and functional status in patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx: pretreatment values of a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the pretreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of patients with advanced oral and\\u000a oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty patients were investigated. HRQOL was assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30\\/QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires. Functional\\u000a status assessment comprised speech and oral function tests. The results revealed a wide range of HRQOL and functional deficits\\u000a before treatment. HRQOL appeared to be related to some

Pepijn A. Borggreven; Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; Martin J. Muller; Milou L. C. H. Heiligers; Remco de Bree; Neil K. Aaronson; C. René Leemans

2007-01-01

90

Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of the human…

Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

91

Five Values of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

2011-01-01

92

End of Life Care  

MedlinePLUS

End of Life Care Basic Facts & Information What is Life Sustaining Treatment? Advances in medical technology have often created medical dilemmas. ... discuss this with your healthcare provider. End of Life Considerations There are situations that ill older adults ...

93

23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the payments to be received over the life of the agreement, or highest...

2011-04-01

94

23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value basis, highest net present value of the payments to be received over the life of the agreement, or highest...

2010-04-01

95

Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

2003-01-01

96

The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning About Biodiversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the\\u000a environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial\\u000a and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of fieldwork

Graham W. Scott; Raymond Goulder; Phillip Wheeler; Lisa J. Scott; Michelle L. Tobin; Sara Marsham

2011-01-01

97

[The concept of dignity and life science law: a symbolic, dynamic value at the heart of the social construction of man].  

PubMed

Included in human rights law just after the Second World War, dignity is the quality common to all people in that it symbolises their human condition. Inherent to each person, it is therefore independent of any other personal and random condition (physical state, origin, colour, religion...) just as it is independent of social conditions (a person's dignity cannot be questioned by society). However, the very context of this recognition--in the aftermath of the defeat of Nazism--emphasises the fact that it was not something evident in human history. So there is in this manifestation of the international community a strong political sign which makes dignity as much a construction of man as a quality consubstantial with his nature. A symbol of the human condition, dignity is therefore also a dynamic value, a combat value. As such, it forces us to wonder about what belongs to the human sphere and also about the particular responsibility which springs for every man and for mankind, from the dignity with which he is invested. PMID:21766723

Byk, Christian

2010-12-01

98

Value of Information References  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

99

Value of Information References  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

2014-12-12

100

Are physicians' estimations of future events value-impregnated? Cross-sectional study of double intentions when providing treatment that shortens a dying patient's life.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to corroborate or undermine a previously presented conjecture that physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions. We used questionnaire based cross-sectional design and described a situation where an imminently dying patient was provided with alleviating drugs which also shortened life and, additionally, were intended to do so. We asked what would happen to physicians' own trust if they took the action described, and also what the physician estimated would happen to the general publics' trust in health services. Decrease of trust was used as surrogate for an undesirable action. The results are presented as proportions with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI). Statistical analysis was based on inter-rater agreement (Weighted Kappa)-test as well as ? (2) test and Odds Ratio with 95 % CI. We found a moderate inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.552) between what would happen with the physicians' own trust in healthcare and their estimations of what would happen with the general population's trust. We identified a significant difference between being pro et contra the treatment with double intentions and the estimation of the general population's trust (?(2) = 72, df = 2 and p < 0.001). Focusing on either decreasing or increasing own trust and being pro or contra the action we identified a strong association [OR 79 (CI 25-253)]. Although the inter-rater agreement in the present study was somewhat weaker compared to a study about the explicit use of the term 'physicians assisted suicide' we found that our hypothesis-physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions-was corroborated. This might have implications in research as well as in clinical decision-making. We suggest that Merton's ideal of disinterestedness should be highlighted. PMID:24449290

Rydvall, Anders; Juth, Niklas; Sandlund, Mikael; Lynøe, Niels

2014-08-01

101

Time Value of Money  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This PowerPoint presentation from University of Tennessee's Suzan Murphy gives an excellent tutorial for the Time Value of Money, which is the concept that "money received sooner rather than later allows one to use the funds for investment or consumption purposes." The presentation focuses on methods of using a calculator (specifically Hewlett Packard 17B II calculator) to solve problems of Time Value. This easy-to-understand tutorial presents basic concepts, story problems, and solutions to the story problems.

102

School of Life Sciences 1 Life Sciences  

E-print Network

and advise you throughout the course." Megan Buckley Biomedical Science Laboratories You will have for conservation'. Laboratory-based projects have included; `using microarray data to investigate the functionSchool of Life Sciences · 1 School of Life Sciences Undergraduate Brochure Biological Sciences

Davies, Christopher

103

Cultural and moral values surrounding care and (in)dependence in late life: reflections from India in an era of global modernity.  

PubMed

In India, many are participating in a shift from the intergenerational family as the central site of aging and elder care, to an increasing reliance on individual selves, the state, and private institutions. Over recent years, the nation has witnessed a proliferation of old age homes and a new industry of aging-focused institutions offering social, emotional, and practical support for older persons living alone. This article examines Indians' perspectives on elder care and the significant changes underway in their nation and world. Qualitative ethnographic fieldwork was conducted primarily in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) among older persons, their families, and community members, with a focus on old age homes. Beliefs and practices surrounding competing models of elder care--such as in the family or in old age homes--speak not only to elder care per se, but also to broader cultural-moral visions of the relationship among persons, families, and states, and the nature and aims of the human life course. PMID:16544869

Lamb, Sarah

2005-01-01

104

Defending Definitions of Life.  

PubMed

Abstract Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life. Key Words: Astrobiology-Life-Metabolism-Origin of life-Phylogeny. Astrobiology 15, xxx-xxx. PMID:25415254

Mix, Lucas John

2014-11-21

105

Value of Information spreadsheet  

DOE Data Explorer

This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

106

Value of Information spreadsheet  

SciTech Connect

This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

2014-05-12

107

What makes a life event traumatic for a child? The predictive values of DSM-Criteria A1 and A2  

PubMed Central

Background The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-Criteria A1 and A2 for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been discussed extensively, with several studies in adults or adolescents supporting the removal of Criterion A2. However, solid research in children is missing. Objective This study evaluated the DSM-Criteria A1 and A2 in predicting posttraumatic stress in children. Method A sample of 588 Dutch school children, aged 8–18 years, completed a self-report questionnaire to determine if they met Criteria A1 and/or A2. Their posttraumatic stress response was assessed using the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale. Results The contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children is of greater importance than the contribution of Criterion A1. Children who met Criterion A2 reported significantly higher levels of posttraumatic stress and were nine times more likely to develop probable PTSD than children who did not meet Criterion A2. When Criterion A1 was met, a child was only two times more likely to develop probable PTSD as compared with those where Criterion A1 was not met. Furthermore, the low sensitivity of Criterion A1 suggests that children may regularly develop severe posttraumatic stress in the absence of Criterion A1. The remarkably high negative predictive value of Criterion A2 indicates that if a child does not have a subjective reaction during an event that it is unlikely that he or she will develop PTSD. Conclusions In contrast to most adult studies, the findings of this study emphasize the significant contribution of Criterion A2 to the prediction of posttraumatic stress in children and raise fundamental questions about the value of the current Criterion A1. PMID:23977424

Verlinden, Eva; Schippers, Mirjam; Van Meijel, Els P. M.; Beer, Renée; Opmeer, Brent C.; Olff, Miranda; Boer, Frits; Lindauer, Ramón J. L.

2013-01-01

108

Economic Value of Veterinary  

E-print Network

Economic Value of Veterinary Diagnostics Public Investment in Animal Health Testing Yields Economic Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) works to protect animal and human health through diagnostic testing of samples of animals and products. In 2007, TVMDL performed 708,300 tests in support of $65.4 million in interstate

109

The Quality of Life in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

Park, Chong-Min

2009-01-01

110

Nutritive Value of Foods.  

E-print Network

.......... '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Tables I Equivalents by volume and weight ....................................................... . 2 Nutritive values of the edible part of foods: Dairy products ......................................................................... 4 Eggs... shown in table 2 are the amounts present in the edible part of the item, that is, in only that portion customarily eaten- corn without cob, meat without bone, potatoes without skin, European-type grapes without seeds. If additional parts are eaten...

Anoymous,

1982-01-01

111

Transvaluation of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The enthymeme--a syllogism in which one proposition is unexpressed--is adapted by the author to rhetorical analysis of movements and becomes the foundation for a theory of social change emphasizing social values and their historical transformation. Relating the enthymeme to the Burkean concepts of acceptance, rejection, casuistics stretching, and…

Purnell, Sandra E.

112

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

Johnson, Miss

2011-04-07

113

Limitations of terrestrial life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions of the suitability of other planets in the solar system for terrestrial organisms are discussed. It is found that life forms similar to terrestrial organisms but modified to fit the prevailing conditions could exist on Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Of these, only in the case of Jupiter is there any evidence that life would have been able to evolve. Life on Jupiter would be restricted to the clouds. It is pointed out that life may have developed on other celestial bodies in forms which are quite dissimilar to terrestrial organisms with regard to their biochemistry.

Molton, P.

1973-01-01

114

Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

115

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

116

Life's Underlying Unity Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life  

E-print Network

Mid--level of Biological Hierarchylevel of Biological Hierarchy ·· Organ systemsOrgan systems ­­ Heart and blood vesselsIndividual organism ­­ Organ systems functioning togetherOrgan systems functioning together ­­ Each system supportingLife''s Underlying Unitys Underlying Unity #12;Composed of cellsComposed of cells ·· FirstFirst organisms were

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

117

Origin of Life  

E-print Network

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Ashwini Kumar Lal

2012-01-16

118

Schooling, Values, Objective Life Conditions and Social Support: Their Predictive Power in the Reported Use of Coercive Behaviors by Mothers of 6- to 8-Year Old Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was undertaken to identify the relative contribution of personal and environmental variables to the reported frequency of use of coercive control behaviors in a nonclinical sample of mothers. Seventy mothers of 6- to 8-year-old children participated; half were from single-parent families. Results of analysis of variance indicate that…

Bouchard, Camil

119

Diversity of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students perform library research on an assigned marine animal, create a formatted poster of their topic, and share with their classmates what they've learned in a poster session, conducted in the way of poster sessions at science conferences. Afterward, students complete a written assignment where they are asked to reflect on their experience as a participant in a community of science students, their focused learning on their own marine animal, their larger learning about the diversity of marine life from their poster session participation, and what it implies about the intrinsic value of the ocean realm, and the need for conservation. The outcomes for this assignment are aligned with course-specific outcomes articulated in the Minnesota Transfer Curriculum. They are: Synthesize central concepts from assigned readings of scientific literature in written assignments. Discuss/compare characteristics of diverse environments in the context of ocean science. Interpret data generated by oceanographic techniques, and present written and oral summaries of their findings. Explain the basic structure and function of the ocean realm, the impact of humans on it, and the impact of the ocean realm on humans.

David Kobilka

120

The Financial Value of a Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years have passed since the U.S. Census Bureau published synthetic estimates of work-life earnings by educational attainment. This paper updates those figures with the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's annual Current Population Surveys, and adds net present value analysis of the financial benefit of a college degree to the…

Kantrowitz, Mark

2007-01-01

121

Quantum Game of Life  

E-print Network

We introduce a quantum version of the Game of Life and we use it to study the emergence of complexity in a quantum world. We show that the quantum evolution displays signatures of complex behaviour similar to the classical one, however a regime exists, where the quantum Game of Life creates more complexity, in terms of diversity, with respect to the corresponding classical reversible one.

D. Bleh; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

2012-01-23

122

End of Life Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

123

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

124

The Real Value of a Dollar.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simulation that helps secondary students to distinguish between nominal and real dollar values is presented. It was designed for use as part of a junior or senior high school US history unit on life at the beginning of the twentieth century. (RM)

Lankiewicz, Donald

1985-01-01

125

End of Life Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although end-of-life decision making is critical for good oncology care, physicians often do not initiate discussions until\\u000a the last days of life and do not use good communication skills and evidence-based techniques. Research on deficits in decision\\u000a making has found that patients often misunderstand information the first time it is provided or may not be ready to hear bad\\u000a news,

Sydney Morss Dy

126

The value of values Birmingham's got talent  

E-print Network

's champion How cancer taught one man to live THE UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM'S ALUMNI MAGAZINE Autumn 2013 #12 worked in teaching and local government children's services for many years, I was really interested and teaching successes throughout this magazine. Best wishes, Professor david eastwood Vice

Birmingham, University of

127

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

128

The Feasibility and Educational Value of Hear My Voice, a Chaplain-Led Spiritual Life Review Process for Patients with Brain Cancers and Progressive Neurologic Conditions.  

PubMed

Research continues to establish the importance of spirituality for many persons with medical illnesses. This paper describes a pilot study titled, "Hear My Voice," designed to provide an opportunity for persons with progressive neurologic illnesses, including brain tumors and other neurodegenerative diseases, to review and discuss their spirituality with a board-certified chaplain, and to prepare a spiritual legacy document (SLD). First, we provide background information that underscores the importance of such a project for this patient population that is particularly vulnerable to cognitive impairment and communication difficulties. Second, we provide detailed methodology, including the semi-structured interview format used, the development of the SLD, and an overview of responses from participants and investigators. We also describe the quantitative and qualitative approaches to analysis taken with the aim of developing scientific validation in support of the Hear My Voice project. PMID:24952300

Piderman, Katherine M; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen; Jenkins, Sarah M; Lovejoy, Laura A; Dulohery, Yvette M; Marek, Dean V; Durland, Heidi L; Head, Debra L; Swanson, Spence W; Hogg, James T; Evans, John L; Jorgenson, Scott E; Bunkowski, Laura J; Jones, Karl L; Euerle, Terin T; Kwete, Gracia M; Miller, Keith A; Morris, Jacob R; Yoder, Timothy J; Lapid, Maria I; Jatoi, Aminah

2014-06-22

129

Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

2012-01-01

130

Life of A Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Watterson, Miss.

2010-04-30

131

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

132

End of life care.  

PubMed

NHS England is working with statutory and voluntary organisations to develop a five-year plan for end of life care. In the meantime, it has published a framework titled Actions for End of Life Care 2014-2016. This has four interdependent components aimed at ensuring that: individuals and carers are engaged and informed, by providing information and seeking feedback; health and care professionals are committed to partnership working by developing capability and communities of practice; processes provide more consistent, co-ordinated care; and resources and commissioning approaches that improve end of life care are developed. Specific actions to identify and address inequalities are included in each component. To read the document, go to tinyurl.com/p3dv4ce. PMID:25629343

2015-01-28

133

Geography of European Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life…

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2011-01-01

134

Life Cycles of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

135

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students? understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

136

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

137

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Resources, Wisconsin D.

2012-05-12

138

The Half-Life of Actinouranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values of the half-life of actinouranium are obtained from data on a Morogoro pitchblende and a uraninite from Great Bear Lake, analyzed by von Grosse and Marble, respectively. Computations were made with two extreme values, 0.03 and 0.04, for the actinium \\

Arthur E. Ruark

1934-01-01

139

Values of American College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was a reexamination of the norms developed on American college students for the Polyphasic Values Inventory, and a longitudinal study of value change among students 10 years later. A change of values was detected. Greater institutional differences were noted in the original study. (Author/GK)

Kayne, Jon B.; Houston, Samuel R.

1981-01-01

140

Work Values of Singaporean Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study attempted to determine the predominant work values among Singaporean students, possible changes in the work values of adolescents as they proceed from early to late adolescence, and the role of gender in forming work values. Using a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling techniques, a sample of 645 boys and 735 girls was…

Tan, Esther

141

The Logic of Values Clarification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

Kazepides, A. C.

1977-01-01

142

Teaching the Value of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors…

Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

2015-01-01

143

What shapes an individual's work values? An integrated model of the relationship between work values, national culture and self-construal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of life values has become a central in studies of individual level motivations and behaviour, particularly in HRM and organisational behaviour. Among the various types of life values, work values (or goals) are often viewed as a central determinant of a wide range of an individual's work-related attitudes and behaviours. The importance of understanding work values is further

Peter Gahan; Lakmal Abeysekera

2009-01-01

144

Tissues of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Science Museum of Minnesota offers a fun and interactive way to learn about the structure and function of the body's tissues. While some activities provided are designed to complement an on-site visit to the Tissues of Life exhibit, the Web site also includes many stand-alone Web-based features. For example, with Explore Body Tissues, students can take a look at cross-sections of actual human bodies, browse through a gallery of scar photos (and perhaps add a photo of their own!), explore parts of the human body at 30X actual size, or play a game while learning about the different cells involved in wound healing. Tissues of Life does not include Web-based lesson plans, but this engaging Web site would be a great addition to related classroom activities for a range of grade levels.

145

The medicalization of life  

PubMed Central

Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

Illich, Ivan

1975-01-01

146

The Educational Value of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors identified 12 hotel-management schools that maintain full-service hotels as part of their curriculum and that involve faculty in the oversight of the facility. This study investigated the perceived importance of such \\

Stephen M. LeBruto; Kenneth T. Murray

1994-01-01

147

The Epistemology Of Value  

E-print Network

context." P. F. Strawson, "The Justification of Induction, in Human Understanding: Studies in the Philosophy of David Hume, ed. Alexander Sesonske and Noel Fleming TBelmont, Cal.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc., 1968), pp. 79-80. 2 , ,W. K. Clifford..., "The Ethics of Belief," in The Ethics of Belief and 0ther Essays, ed. Leslie Stephen and Sir Frederick Pollock (London: Watts 6 Co., 19M7), p. 73. ...

Cohen, Elliot D.

1978-06-01

148

The Value of Limitations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

David Horner, a recent president of North Park College and Theological Seminary has suggested that, in light of the tension between the demands of free inquiry and the need for religious inculcation, Christian colleges have two options: either redefine academic freedom or limit it and be up front and principled about it. In this article, the…

Hardy, Lee

2006-01-01

149

The Value of Cocurriculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

Paterson, Jim

2012-01-01

150

Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

2014-01-01

151

The value of place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

Dentzau, Michael W.

2014-03-01

152

The Value of Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department explores the role of the wetlands in our environment, including providing habitats for wildlife, acting as natural water filters, and playing a part in the greater water cycle.

2007-08-09

153

The Value of Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)…

Hynes, Warren

2013-01-01

154

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

155

Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Health Calculators AOA Partnerships Giving the Gift of Life at the End of Life Page Content ? Today there are more than 121, ... using organ transplantation to treat a number of life-threatening diseases, there hasn’t been a corresponding ...

156

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

Shirley, Yancy

157

End of Life: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

2012-01-01

158

Comprehensive carbon footprint analysis of the value chains  

E-print Network

, carbon sequestration) VTT: expertise in sustainability assessment (life cycle analysis, carbon footprint.4.2010 Carbon footprint Amount of green house gases produced along product's life cycle · Includes fossilComprehensive carbon footprint analysis of the value chains of forest industry SHOK Summit 20

159

The Value of Information Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and users of Information Visualization are convinced that it has value. This value can easily be communicated\\u000a to others in a face-to-face setting, such that this value is experienced in practice. To convince broader audiences, and also,\\u000a to understand the intrinsic qualities of visualization is more difficult, however. In this paper we consider information visualization\\u000a from different points of

Jean-Daniel Fekete; Jarke van Wijk; John Stasko; Chris North

2008-01-01

160

Values as lived experience: evolving value sensitive design in support of value discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Value Sensitive Design (VSD) methodology provides a comprehensive framework for advancing a value-centered researchand designagenda. AlthoughVSDprovideshelpful ways of thinking about and designing value-centered com- putational systems, we argue that the specific mechanics of VSD create thorny tensions with respect to value sensitivity. In particular, we examine limitations due to value classifica- tions, inadequateguidanceon empiricaltools for design, and the ways

Christopher A. Le Dantec; Erika Shehan Poole; Susan P. Wyche

2009-01-01

161

The Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the whole process of the plant life cycle? 1) You will need to open the Flow Chart. Flow Chart 2) Be sure to print out your own Flow Chart so you can record your information. 3) Look at the chart of the Life Cycle and print out your own copy. Chart showing the steps of the life cycle 4) Record each step of the Plant Life Cycle in your Flow Chart starting ...

Ms. Kingsford

2010-11-04

162

Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?  

PubMed

We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

Skeggs, Bev

2014-03-01

163

Triumph of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

164

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

165

Life Products of Stars  

E-print Network

We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

2006-06-27

166

The Value of Medican and Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper attempts to quantify the private and public economic value of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the economic value of such treatments, in particular bariatric surgery, is large for treated patients, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $20,000 per life-year saved. Our approach accounts for competing risks to life expectancy, health care cost savings,

Pierre-Carl Michaud; Dana Goldman; Darius Lakdawalla; Yuhui Zhen; Adam H. Gailey

2011-01-01

167

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video-enhanced lesson, students will explore Floridaâs springs using video segments from the NATURE film âSprings Eternal: Floridaâs Fountain of Youthâ and related activities and discussions. Students will learn about how the springs are formed and will explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students will also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs. At the end of the lesson, students will conduct research and give a presentation about one species that lives in and/or around the springs.

2010-01-01

168

Communicating the Value of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life Americans enjoy today and the United States's ability to compete in the global economy have many of their roots in the country's long history of leadership in scientific research and discovery. Federally supported basic research has led to innovations such as GPS, earthquake hazard mapping, and hundreds of technological spinoffs from the space program, including heart monitors and material that protects us from fire.

McEntee, Chris

2014-07-01

169

Incremental Singular Value Decomposition of Uncertain Data with Missing Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an incremental singular value decomposition (SVD) of incomplete data. The SVD is developed as data arrives, and can handle arbitrary missing\\/untrusted values, correlated un- certainty across rows or columns of the measurement matrix, and user priors. Since incomplete data does not uniquely specify an SVD, the procedure selects one having minimal rank. For a dense p q matrix

Matthew Brand

2002-01-01

170

The Value of Economic Reality: Applying Economic Value Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of Economic Value Added (EVA) is a revolutionary way to measure the value of a business. In its simplest form, EVA is a system that determines companies’ worth and performance based on their economic reality, not numbers produced according to traditional accounting rules. EVA sets high standards for measuring performance and is essential for all companies wishing to

David M Phillips

2007-01-01

171

Economic value added and the creation of value  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the ways the Economic Value Added (EVA) contributes to creating value within corporations. For this purpose, this paper discusses EVA in relation to more conventional measures and examine its strengths, the advan- tages as well as any potential drawbacks. In this paper, EVA is considered not only as a measure of operating performance, but also as the

Beom Joon Yu

2001-01-01

172

MEASUREMENT OF VALUE CREATION: ECONOMIC VALUE ADDED AND NET PRESENT VALUE  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are some major frameworks within value based management system. This paper analyses the two most basic approaches - economic value added (EVA) and discounted cash flows (DCF) techniques - that are used to measure value creation of companies. These models are frequently applied in company's valuation and investment project valuation. EVA and NPV measures are consistent with the maximization

Daiva Burksaitiene

173

Preparing for the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking about death, ... it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how people die ...

174

The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on

Robert Costanza; Ralph D'Arge; Rudolf de Groot; Stephen Farber; Monica Grasso; Bruce Hannon; Karin Limburg; Shahid Naeem; Robert V. O'Neill; Jose Paruelo; Robert G. Raskin; Paul Sutton; Marjan van den Belt

1997-01-01

175

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

176

The Origin of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In modern organisms, there is a division of labor between two kinds of molecule: DNA, which stores and transmits genetic information, and proteins, which do all the work. They are connected by the genetic code, whereby DNA specifies what kinds of proteins can be made. This process of translation is well understood, but it is far too complicated to have arisen by chance in the primitive oceans. This video lecture explores how this apparent paradox can be resolved. The video explains: the importance of heredity to the definition of life; how nucleotides pair and transfer information; how tRNA is used to transfer a message to enzymes; and how evolution consists of several major changes in the way information is stored, transmitted, and used. The video is 1 hour in length.

2007-04-14

177

Game of Life Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

178

38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of cash value in monthly installments. 6.16 Section 6... UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly installments. Effective...

2010-07-01

179

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013  

SciTech Connect

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-12-30

180

Origins and Evolution of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

2011-01-01

181

Quality of life philosophy I. Quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life.  

PubMed

In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL). The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one"s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it "coherence". Maslow called it "transcendence". Frankl called it "meaning of life". We call it simply "being". To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with "quality of life as medicine" that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient"s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence. PMID:14646011

Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

2003-12-01

182

The Life of Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life of Mammals is a new 10-part BBC Nature series hosted by David Attenborough. This "biggest ever wildlife series devoted to mammals" has a suitably enormous companion Web site, which offers more interactive, multimedia features than you can imagine. Video previews, quizzes and challenges, Web cams, in-depth articles, recommended books -- the list goes on. Mammalian social behavior, body shape, intelligence, diet, and habitat comprise the main themes of this Web site, presented with so much dazzle as to cast aside any doubt that we as mammals find ourselves endlessly fascinating. Particularly engaging are the Web cams, including one for Margot the mouse and her new brood (born January 12, 2003).

2001-01-01

183

Capacity Value of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

2011-05-04

184

Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

Bertka, Constance M.

2009-09-01

185

The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

Hung, Marianne Andrews

186

Quality of life in dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QoL) for patients with inflammatory skin disease can be significant, but has been evaluated in just one study in dermatomyositis (DM). Objective To examine the relationship between the Cutaneous Disease and Activity Severity Index (CDASI), a DM-specific cutaneous severity instrument, and various QoL study instruments and to determine the impact of DM on QoL. Methods Skin-specific QoL instruments, the Skindex and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and global medical QoL instruments, the SF-36 and the HAQ-DI, were used. Pruritus was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a 0–10 scale in DM and CLE populations, respectively. Results There was a significant correlation between the CDASI and all skin-specific QoL scores (lowest p=0.0377). Using the SF-36, DM was found to have significantly worse QoL scores than the general population with the exception of bodily pain (all subscore p values <0.01). Furthermore, DM had a significantly lower vitality score, representing energy level, compared to CLE, HTN, diabetes, and recent MI scores (lowest p=0.003). There was a significantly lower mental health score, representing overall mood, to all compared diseases except CLE and clinical depression (p values < 0.01 when significant). We found that DM produces more pruritus than CLE (p < 0.0001). Limitations A larger patient population needs to be studied to further assess QoL in DM patients. Conclusion We conclude that DM has a large impact on QoL, even when compared to other diseases, and that DM skin disease activity correlates with a poorer QoL. PMID:21722989

Goreshi, Renato; Chock, Monika; Foering, Kristen; Feng, Rui; Okawa, Joyce; Rose, Matt; Fiorentino, David; Werth, Victoria

2010-01-01

187

Half-life of 241Pu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The half-life of 241Pu was determined by studying the ingrowth of 241Am by ? spectrometry. A synthetic mixture was prepared by mixing was prepared by mixing different isotopes of plutonium so as to obtain a 238Pu/(239Pu+240Pu) ? activity ratio of nearly 0.1 and an increase in the ? activity ratio due to the ingrowth of 241Am of about 0.1 after a period of 30 days. This was done to get a desired change periodically in the ? activity ratio and to measure this change with high precision and accuracy. The initial values of 239Pu/241Pu and 240Pu/241Pu atom ratios in the mixture were obtained by mass spectrometry. The ingrowth of 241Am was measured periodically by ? spectrometry on electrodeposited sources using a silicon surface barrier detector. From the 80 ? spectrometric measurements carried out on five electrodeposited sources over a period of 457 days, a value of 14.42+/-0.09 yr is obtained for the half-life of 241Pu using a value of 432.6 yr for the half-life of 241Am. The uncertainty quoted on the value is a combination of one standard deviation on the average value and the error evaluated from the estimate on various error components. The half-life obtained in this work is in good agreement with the preliminary results reported recently by CBNM (Geel), NBS (Washington), and AERE (Harwell) using different methods. RADIOACTIVITY 241Pu half-life; measured: 241Am ingrowth by ? spectrometry, 239Pu/241Pu and 240Pu/241Pu atom ratios by mass spectrometry.

Aggarwal, S. K.; Jain, H. C.

1980-05-01

188

The Epistemic Value of Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic value. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…

Robertson, Emily

2013-01-01

189

The Value of Value Stream Mapping to Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides a discussion of the value of teaching the lean manufacturing topic of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to senior students in engineering. Value Stream Mapping is a technique that is used to view, on a broad level, a company's manufacturing of a part family. The technique is used to identify possible improvement areas within the manufacturing plant. Once identified, the appropriate Lean Manufacturing technique is used to meet specific improvement metrics. These techniques include visual systems, 5S, TPM, cellular layout, work balancing, JIT, etc. Engineering students in college typically do not have an extensive understanding, or the experience, in a manufacturing environment. Unless the topic of value stream mapping is presented correctly the student may not be able to properly use the technique in an actual applied situation. One method of re-enforcing the technique is to have the students working in teams to perform an actual analysis of a manufacturing system and present appropriate and realistic opportunities for improvement. In order to organize this paper, an overview of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) technique will be discussed first. The primary section of the paper will be on the method of incorporating active learning in the presentation of VSM to engineering students.

Lobaugh, Michael

190

Detection of life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft experiments and equipment to detect extraterrestrial life outside earth centers on observations of chemical compounds similar to amino acids and proteins, on signs of metabolism in the form of nutrient absorption, and life form impressions in fossiles or signs of civilization.

Corliss, W.

1974-01-01

191

Measuring quality of life in oculoplastic patients  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate if there is any published evidence of impaired quality of life in conditions which are corrected by oculoplastic surgery and whether there is proven benefit in the quality of life such procedures. METHODS We searched a number of databases to determine the level of evidence available for common conditions amenable to oculoplastic surgery. Search terms concentrated on quality of life measures rather than anatomical correction of deformities. RESULTS The level of evidence available for different conditions was very variable. Certain conditions had extensive research documenting reduction in quality of life, with some evidence for improvement after surgery. Some other common conditions had little or no evidence supporting of reduction in quality of life to support the need for surgery. CONCLUSION The evidence is sparse for quality of life improvement after some of our most commonly performed procedures. Many of these procedures are now being identified by primary care trusts (PCTs) as of “low clinical value”, and are no longer being routinely commissioned in certain parts of the UK. There is a need to address this lack of evidence to determine whether oculoplastic surgery should continue to be commissioned by PCTs. PMID:24634879

Ridyard, Edward; Inkster, Clare

2014-01-01

192

The value of percutaneous cholangiography  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

1973-01-01

193

Forecasting the Value of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

Basarab, Dave

2011-01-01

194

The evolution of complex life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

Billingham, J.

1985-01-01

195

The Evolution of Complex Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

Billingham, John

1989-01-01

196

healthy lives Quality of Life  

E-print Network

Ality of life, you can choose from a variety of career paths. As a health and wellness professional, you can through health and wellness. And Oregon State University is a great place to get started. Oregon State that involves working with people across the life span. With a focus on health and wellness studies, you might

Escher, Christine

197

A Philosophical Time of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Looks at aging from three perspectives: (1) a young person who notices thinning hair; (2) an older friend who is thinking about suicide if the quality of her life deteriorates; and (3) one leading a seminar on "Your New Life," for retirees considering a move. Describes the new meanings of aging in the socioeconomic context. (JOW)

Manheimer, Ronald J.

2000-01-01

198

Life Cycles of Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a brief introduction, the page is divided into Places to go, People to see, Things to do, Teacher resources and a Bibliography. Each division has several links. For example the Places to go division has links to frog, ant, coral reef, and American bald eagle life cycles.

2010-01-01

199

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

Wnet

2010-11-05

200

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This material was created to complement the Milstein Hall of Ocean Life exhibit of the Museum of Natural History. A selection of links provides access to dioramas of various animals and ocean habitats. Links to ecosystems provides information and illustrations of a variety of ocean ecosystems. A section on ocean life provides an overview of a selection of marine organisms from modern and ancient oceans. The final section provides a history of the Milstein Hall of Ocean Life itself, its planning, construction, and exhibits.

201

Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

Dierking, Lynn D.

2010-01-01

202

The Value of a Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of botanical, community, and other gardens in preserving biodiversity and in contributing to sustainable communities. It introduces several concepts drawn from system dynamics, including feedback loops, behavior-over-time graphsand more! It includes a PowerPoint presentation, Feedback Loops in Flower Gardening,of 29 slides that will guide teachers and students through activities that generate feedback loops.

M.E. Krasny, P. Newton, and L. Tompkins (Cornell University;)

2004-11-05

203

The Quality of Life over the Family Life Cycle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies conducted in the 1960s (Aldous and Hill, 1969) examining the quality of life in families based on their affective and financial resources identified the childbearing stage and the stage when adolescents were present as especially stressful periods. Findings from the 1978 Quality of American Life survey (Campbell and Converse, 1980) were…

Aldous, Joan; And Others

204

Life of Pi and the moral wound.  

PubMed

The "moral wound," rendered symbolically in the form of the tiger in Life of Pi, is a complex trauma in which the victim, in order to survive in life-threatening circumstances, commits an ethical transgression against his or her deeply held values. Pi experiences such a trauma and deals with it by dissociating it in the form of the tiger and then has to simultaneously both preserve the tiger and wish it to disappear. Jonathan Shay's work relating the experiences of returning Vietnam veterans to Homer's Odyssey is used to further an understanding of both Life of Pi and American soldiers returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Reasons are considered for the possible delayed effect of trauma as a factor in the increased suicide rate of older veterans. Finally, the concept of the "moral wound" is discussed, with an eye to its treatment. PMID:25503752

Allen, Thomas E

2014-12-01

205

Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

2013-01-01

206

Life Domain Satisfactions as Predictors of Overall Life Satisfaction Among Workers: Evidence from Chile.  

PubMed

This article examines the subjective antecedents of life satisfaction of workers. Adopting a 'bottom-up' perspective, we assessed the unique influence that satisfaction with multiple life domains have on evaluative judgments of overall life satisfaction. Based on a nationwide sample of 530 Chilean workers, we simultaneously tested the effects of seven life domain satisfactions that have been consistently included in extant models of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. These were satisfaction with health, financial situation, social relationships, one's self-worth, leisure-time, family, and work. Having controlled for age and gender, results showed that satisfaction with one's financial situation was the dominant predictor of overall life satisfaction of workers, with a weight of .36. Satisfaction with family, work, and health had effects of .25, .14, and .14, respectively. Interestingly, satisfaction with one's self-worth, leisure-time, and social relationships did not have statistically significant effects on life satisfaction, although the first two showed t values near the critical value. PMID:25018580

Loewe, Nicolas; Bagherzadeh, Mehdi; Araya-Castillo, Luis; Thieme, Claudio; Batista-Foguet, Joan Manuel

2014-01-01

207

[Value of intraoperative laparoscopic cholangiography].  

PubMed

Discussion about the necessity of intraoperative cholangiography restarted when laparoscopic cholecystectomy was established. The value of cholangiography was examined in a prospectively randomized study of one hundred patients. We could show that the routinely performed intraoperative cholangiography represents a careful, secure and sensitive method for the detection of common bile duct stones. As it is not very time consuming nor linked to high costs we believe it to be unrenouncible. It allows a detailed anatomic presentation and may be combined with ERCP for definitive treatment of bile duct stones. PMID:9206908

Tusek, D; Hufschmidt, M; Raguse, T

1997-01-01

208

Half-life of /sup 218/Po  

SciTech Connect

The decay of Po 218 is accompanied by the emission of 6.00-MeV alpha particles. The most suitable method for studying it is the alphaspectrometric method. To generate radon, the source for RaA, the authors used a preparation of Ra 226 with a high degree of purity. Targets were prepared for measuring the half-life on a radon setup. Approximately 30 sec after holding in a radon atmosphere the target was placed with the polonium deposited on it into a vacuum chamber. It was noted that the intensity of the peak at 6.70 MeV decreases at the same rate as the decay of Po 218, and the ratio of the intensities of their peaks was equal to 0.037 +/- 0.007%. The spectra (alpha was analyzed on an LP-4900 analyzer. The values of the half-life that were obtained are in good agreement with the values obtained previously.

Potapov, V.G.; Soloshenkov, P.S.

1986-10-01

209

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

210

A Rooted Net of Life  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

Williams, David

211

Water, a host of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

2012-04-01

212

Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer. Reference values are employed to quantify a subject’s muscle force. It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were; first to confirm the reliability of the utilization of hand-held dynamometers for isometric strength measurement; second to determine reference values for a population of Dutch workers; third to compare these values with those of a USA population. Methods 462 Healthy working subjects (259 male, 203 female) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 60 years with a mean (sd) of 41 (11) years. Muscle force values from elbow flexion and extension, knee flexion and extension, and shoulder abduction were measured with the break method using a MicroFet 2 hand-held dynamometer. Reliability was analyzed by calculating ICC’s and limits of agreement. Muscle force expressed in Newton, means, and confidence intervals were determined for males and females in age groups ranging from twenty to sixty years old. Regression equations and explained variances were calculated from weight, height, age, and gender. The mean values and 95% CI were compared to the results from other studies. Results Reliability was good; the ICC ranged between 0.83 to 0.94. The explained variance ranged from 0.25 to 0.51. Comparison of data for the Dutch population mean muscle force values with those from the USA revealed important differences between muscle force reference values for the American and Dutch populations. Conclusions Muscle force measurements demonstrate a sound reliability. Reference values and regressions equations are made available for the Dutch population. Comparison with other studies indicates that reference values differ between countries. PMID:24568140

2014-01-01

213

Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course  

PubMed Central

We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263

Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

2013-01-01

214

Half-life of {sup 66}Ga  

SciTech Connect

We measured the half-life of {sup 66}Ga by observing positrons from the {beta}{sup +} branch to the ground state of {sup 66}Zn with a superconducting Wu-type beta spectrometer. Our result is t{sub 1/2}=9.304(8)hours, which is the highest-precision measurement to date and disagrees with the Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS) value by over 6{sigma}.

Severin, G. W.; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.; George, E. A. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 (United States)

2010-12-15

215

Quality of Life and the Migration of the College-Educated: A Life-Course Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how the college-educated population-segmented into selective demographic groups, from young adults to the elderly-differentially values quality-of-life (QOL) indicators of metropolitan areas in the United States. Using data from the 2000 Census and the 1997 \\

RONALD L. WHISLER; BRIGITTE S. WALDORF; GORDON F. MULLIGAN; DAVID A. PLANE

2008-01-01

216

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Alumni Organization With a special presentation. Agricultural Research and Extension Center With updates from: Alan Grant, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life

Buehrer, R. Michael

217

The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger.  

PubMed

Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother's life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of "double effect," while Islamic law cites the maq??id, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I

2010-11-01

218

The value of biliary endoscopy.  

PubMed

The value of biliary endoscopy was determined in 100 consecutive patients undergoing choledochotomy. Using a compact, rigid, right-angled choledochoscope with a rod-lens optical system the biliary tract was inspected for residual stomes following conventional exploration. Completion operative cholangiography and postoperative T-tube cholangiography were performed in all patients. Of 52 patients undergoing primary choledocholithotomy, the duct was cleared of all calculi in 51. A small residual stone was found by postoperative cholangiography in one patient. Exploration revealed no calculi in the ducts of the remaining 30 patients. Biliary endoscopy was of benefit to the surgeon in the majority of patients. In 17 patients, calculi missed by standard exploration were detected; in five of these, the calculi could be retrieved only under endoscopic control. In 11 patients, interpretation of operative cholangiograms was aided, while in three the endoscopic findings clarified operative strategy. The use of biliary endoscopy did not increase the postoperative morbidity or mortality rates beyond those oridinarily encountered in choledocholithotomy. Current experience indicates that the new choledhchoscope overcomes limitations of previous endoscopes and should serve as the definitive diagnostic tool for operative biliary endoscopy. The addition of this technique to the armamentarium of the biliary surgeon will play a significant role in overcoming the age-old problem of the retained common duct stone. PMID:1129668

Shore, J M; Berci, G; Morgenstern, L

1975-04-01

219

Psoriasis and the life cycle of persistent life effects.  

PubMed

Psoriasis is associated with significant physical, social, and behavioral comorbidities that create a substantial burden. We outline herein that these comorbidities start early in life and persist for decades, ultimately impacting the entire life course of patients with psoriasis. By highlighting the ages that psoriasis patients are affected with physical, social, behavioral and emotional comorbidities, we demonstrate the age-appropriate considerations for psoriasis patients. PMID:25412781

Garshick, Marisa Kardos; Kimball, Alexa Boer

2015-01-01

220

Promoting Religious Values in an Age of Violence and Terror  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rabbi Marc H. Tanenbaum, a prominent leader in the Jewish-Christian dialogue movement, has called on Jews and Christians to promote a "new humanism that seeks to restore the Biblical value of life in the face of growing callousness to human suffering throughout the globe". (Editor)

Intellect, 1977

1977-01-01

221

Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts  

PubMed Central

A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of “life course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept of “life course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences of “life course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

2012-01-01

222

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

223

A New Form of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article introduces the discovery of a new extreme-loving microorganism, Spirochaeta americana, in California's exotic Mono Lake. It compares the geology of Mono Lake to the Gusev Crater on Mars and discusses the implications for finding organisms in extreme environments on Earth when speculating about life on other planets. It also offers a description of tufa formation and explains why the discovery of tufa on Mars would be indicative of microbial life. The resource includes a downloadable audio file of the author reading the article and links to more information.

Phillips, Tony; Science @ NASA

224

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.  

PubMed

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

2010-01-01

225

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life  

PubMed Central

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

2010-01-01

226

Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

1971-01-01

227

Fossil evidence of Archaean life  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500?Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500?Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500?Myr ago. PMID:16754604

Schopf, J. William

2006-01-01

228

The Quality of Life in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

2009-01-01

229

Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

Knauth, Paul

2000-01-01

230

An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

Bedau, Mark A.

2010-12-01

231

On the decomposition of life expectancy and limits to life.  

PubMed

Life expectancy is a measure of how long people are expected to live and is widely used as a measure of human development. Variations in the measure reflect not only the process of ageing but also the impacts of such events as epidemics, wars, and economic recessions. Since 1950, the influence of these events in the most developed countries has waned and life expectancy continues to lengthen unabated. As a result, it has become more difficult to forecast long-run trends accurately, or identify possible upper limits. We present new methods for comparing past improvements in life expectancy and also future prospects, using data from five developed, low-mortality countries. We consider life expectancy in 10-year age intervals rather than over the remaining lifetime, and show how natural limits to life expectancy can be used to extrapolate trends. We discuss the implications and compare our approach with other commonly used methods. Supplementary material for this article is available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00324728.2014.972433. PMID:25600052

Mayhew, Les; Smith, David

2015-03-01

232

The common ancestry of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: It is common belief that all cellular life forms on earth have a common origin. This view is supported by the universality of the genetic code and the universal conservation of multiple genes, particularly those that encode key components of the translation system. A remarkable recent study claims to provide a formal, homology independent test of the Universal Common

Eugene V Koonin; Yuri I Wolf

2010-01-01

233

Quality of Life Project Presentation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Quality of Life Project at Eastfield College (Texas), a set of campus and community activities designed to promote involvement in influencing the campus and community environments, is described by three people who were involved in its development and activities: Kathryn Berry, Coordinator of Student Services at Eastfield; Eleanor Ott,…

Ott, Eleanor; And Others

234

Wolbachia pipientis - Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Encyclopedia of Life species page offers a comprehensive summary of the biology, ecology, evolution and relevance of Wolbachia pipientis. It includes an interactive media panel with images, videos and distribution maps, as well as a navigable classification structure. The page is supplemented with links to literature references, educational opportunities and additional research links.

Life, Encyclopedia O.

235

Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement  

E-print Network

Life Cycle Assessment of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement to Improve Asphalt Pavement Sustainability By-melt old binder on the RAP #12;Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) · #12;Asphalt Pavement Life Cycle Road-filled after use #12;Asphalt Pavement Life Cycle Road Construction Aggregates Additives Bitumen Down- Cycled

Minnesota, University of

236

Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

2014-01-01

237

Interaction Analysis of Value-Clarification Behaviors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help children use valuing processes, a teacher uses strategies of value clarification. The Flanders' Interaction Analysis Behaviors can be used as a model to construct an instrument for use with value-clarifying responses by teachers. The instrument entitled, "Interaction Analysis of Value-Clarification Behvaiors" (IAVCB) is constructed on this…

Geisinger, Robert W.

238

Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

Veisson, Marika

2009-01-01

239

Sources of Teachers' Values and Attitudes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Philosophers have written extensively about values and have long understood that internalized values define character and decisions. However, scholarship on sources of values, particularly for teachers, remains relatively unexplored. Sources of teachers' values are usually mentioned only in passing in books or articles dealing with other aspects…

Collinson, Vivienne

2012-01-01

240

Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

Parrott, Allen

2002-01-01

241

The Value of English Picture Story Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a study investigating EFL teachers' views on the educational values of English picture story books in Taiwan. Ten teachers with experience of using the books with primary school children participated in this study. The results suggest three main educational values perceived by the teachers: (1) linguistic value, (2) the value…

Hsiu-Chih, Sheu

2008-01-01

242

The Tree of Animal Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

Braude, Stan

2007-01-01

243

The Chemistry of Life's Origin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

Ferris, James P.

1984-01-01

244

The Tree of Life Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

Milbrath, Sherry

2009-01-01

245

Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

2012-01-01

246

IMPORTANCE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. CA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so mater...

247

Max Ernst: "Tree of Life."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan introducing K-3 grade students to visual elements in art and the idea that artists use dreams and fantasies as subjects for their art using Max Ernst's "Tree of Life." Outlines instructional strategies and lesson objectives. (GEA)

Bray, Pam

1988-01-01

248

The architecture of life.  

PubMed

The role of tensegrity in the architecture of organic structures is examined. Topics include a definition of tensegrity, principles of tensegrity applied to the skeleton and cytoskeleton, mechanics in biochemistry, self-assembly of organic structures, geodesic forms in cellular structure, and the universality of the geodesic form. PMID:11536845

Ingber, D E

1998-01-01

249

Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All cells, organs and tissues of a living organism are built of molecules. Some of them are small, made from only a few atoms. There is, however, a special class of molecules that make up and play critical roles in living cells. These molecules can consist of many thousands to millions of atoms. They are referred to as macromolecules (or large biomolecules).

2012-07-19

250

Constructor Theory of Life  

E-print Network

Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the sophisticated adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, and has not been developed, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end I apply Constructor Theory's new mode of explanation to provide an exact formulation of the appearance of design, of no-design laws, and of the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection, within fundamental physics. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterisation in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a "vehicle" constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer.

Chiara Marletto

2014-11-04

251

Constructor theory of life.  

PubMed

Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

Marletto, Chiara

2015-03-01

252

MATHEMATICAL DEFINITION OF "LIFE"  

E-print Network

of formulating mathematically the fundamental concepts of biology in a very general setting, i.e. in highly Theorems 1 and 2 in Section 5), nor should a whale or elephant be con- sidered more organized than a person

Jönsson, Henrik

253

First Day of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... breathing, color, activity and muscle tone, and grimace reflex response. The baby is given a score of ... and babies spend a lot of time studying faces — especially their parents'. Your baby may turn or ...

254

The Ladder of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners identify the DNA base bars guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. Learners create a DNA model using colored paper clips to resemble these base pairs. This activity is featured on pp.19-20 (part of a lesson that begins on p.18) of the "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Agricultural Biology" unit of study for grades 6-8.

Indianapolis, The C.

2007-01-01

255

The Molecules of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

Weinberg, Robert A.

1985-01-01

256

Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Director's Message The Center for the Environment (C4E) is one of 10 core centers in Purdue's Discovery Park. The Center was established to develop methods of protecting the environment while sustaining a healthy economy. Researchers working with the center study ways to model and predict the impact of human activities on ecosystems, monitor environmental quality, and manage and protect our

Richard Garlikov

2007-01-01

257

The Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan helps students understand the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem through five activities. From these activities, students will understand that an animal's needs determine its preferred habitat, the concept of ecosystems and interdependence, and that interrelating communities are components of an ecosystem.

Friend, Duane

258

Game of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does over-fishing mean? What are the effects of over-fishing on fish stocks? Through the game in this lesson, students will understand the effects of over-fishing on the sustainability of fish stocks and, thus, the ability to meet the human demand for seafood.

259

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

260

Extinctions of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1988-01-01

261

Continuity of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on classification of organisms, reproduction, cell structure and function includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. The activities impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

262

Phylogeny of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site, students browse through University of California at Berkeley's musuem exhibits relating to phylogeny. The exhibits explore the ancestor/descendant relationships which connect all organisms, past and present. Search by taxonomy, time period, or topic. Site also includes information on how scientists systematically approach diversity and patterns of events that have led to it.

Collins, Allen; Waggoner, Ben; Speer, Brian; Whitney, Colleen; Smith, David; Guralnick, Rob

2007-12-12

263

Measurement of Quality of Care and Quality of Life at the End of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Consumers and providers demand better indi- cators for quality of care and quality of life at the end of life. This article presents recommendations for advancing the science of measurement at end of life. Design and Methods: The authors reviewed the extant literature and applied the Institute of Medicine's conceptual framework for national health care quality to end-of-life care

Virginia P. Tilden; Susan Tolle; Linda Drach; Susan Hickman

2002-01-01

264

Quality of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... cause acne. The occurrence of acne can be reduced by keeping your skin clean and using an ... that the Americans with Disabilities Act provides some protection against discrimination. Staying active is very important. If ...

265

Quality of life theory II. Quality of life as the realization of life potential: a biological theory of human being.  

PubMed

This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL) used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life) questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life), which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research. Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life. PMID:14570994

Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jørgen

2003-10-13

266

Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webpage for every organism on earth is the goal of this site, which was initially funded in 2007 by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation. To "learn how to navigate EOL, search for content, customize your experience, and explore pages..." visitors can start with the tab "Using the Site" at the top of the page. Here, there is a video tour on general "Navigation" of the site and instructions on how specifically to use the "Species Pages". Users can check out the FAQs section under the same tab for more help. Visitors can select the "Language" tab at the top of the page to view the site in English, Spanish, Russian, Ukranian, German, or French. In the "About EOL" tab on the far upper right hand side of the page, visitors can check out the "Content Partners" link about halfway down the menu. There are over two dozen partners and links to their websites listed, including the Nearctic Spider Database, Mushroom Observer, FishBase, and AntWeb.

267

Measuring Meaning in Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present studies addressed the need for a comprehensive, economical, and psychometrically adequate measure of existential\\u000a meaning. In Study 1, principal-axis factor analysis of participants’ responses to popular meaning measures identified five\\u000a latent constructs underlying them, labelled purposeful life, principled life, valued life, exciting life, and accomplished\\u000a life. These dimensions resonate with the meaning in life concept as understood by

Jessica Morgan; Tom Farsides

2009-01-01

268

The Dawn of Animal Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Miller Museum Online Exhibit, the Dawn of Animal Life, is provided by the Miller Museum of Geology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Patrons can explore the evolution of life from three billion to about 500 million years ago by clicking on the various links, which include the formation of the earth, eukaryotic cells, the oldest known animal fossils, the ediacarian fauna, the mistaken point fossil assemblage, and the world's oldest complex animal fossils found in Newfoundland called Charnia. The site offers non-technical descriptions of where the fossils were found, what their significance is, and a host of very interesting photographs of the fossils themselves. Although the fossils presented are limited to certain locations, the site does a good job of explaining how they help researchers learn about the past around the globe.

269

Half-Life of $^{14}$O  

E-print Network

We have measured the half-life of $^{14}$O, a superallowed $(0^{+} \\to 0^{+})$ $\\beta$ decay isotope. The $^{14}$O was produced by the $^{12}$C($^{3}$He,n)$^{14}$O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ion beam of $^{14}$O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil. The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. We find $t_{1/2} = 70.696\\pm 0.052$ s. This result is $1.5\\sigma$ higher than an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees more closely with the most recent previous measurement.

J. T. Burke; P. A. Vetter; S. J. Freedman; B. K. Fujikawa; W. T. Winter

2006-07-27

270

Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"  

PubMed Central

Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

Durzan, Don J

2009-01-01

271

The origin of cellular life.  

PubMed

This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce. PMID:11084632

Ingber, D E

2000-12-01

272

[The nutritive value of wheat germ floc].  

PubMed

The experimental investigation of the food value of wheat germ floc included the study of their chemical composition, biological value, and assimilability of the protein. Basing on the results obtained the authors have made a conclusion on the high food value of wheat germ floc and on their promising use as enriching additives to varying foodstuffs. PMID:2399684

Safronova, A M; Vysotski?, V G; Narodetskaia, R V; Trushina, E N; Sandakova, G K; Kolkunova, G K

1990-01-01

273

The value of nursing: a literature review.  

PubMed

This article is part of a wider study entitled Value of Nursing, and contains the literature search from electronic databases. Key words for the search included 'values of nursing', 'values in nursing', 'organisational values' and 'professional identity'. Thirty-two primary reports published in English between 2000 and 2006 were identified. The findings highlight the importance of understanding values and their relevance in nursing and how values are constructed. The value of nursing is seen to be influenced by cultural change, globalization, and advancement in technology and medicine. These factors are crucial in providing a more structured and measured view of what nursing is, which will result in greater job satisfaction among nurses, better nurse retention and enhanced patient care within a supportive and harmonious organization. The findings of this review have implications for policy makers in recruitment and retention in determining the global value of nursing. PMID:17901183

Horton, Khim; Tschudin, Verena; Forget, Armorel

2007-11-01

274

Towards the bibliography of life  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole. The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them. PMID:22207811

King, David; Morse, David R.; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

2011-01-01

275

19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

2010-04-01

276

Some inconsistencies in NICE's consideration of social values.  

PubMed

The UK's National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recently proposed amendments to its methods for the appraisal of health technologies. Previous amendments in 2009 and 2011 placed a greater value on the health of patients at the "end of life" and in cases where "treatment effects are both substantial in restoring health and sustained over a very long period". Drawing lessons from these previous amendments, we critically appraise NICE's proposals. The proposals repeal "end of life" considerations but add consideration of the "proportional" and "absolute" quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) loss from illness. NICE's cost-effectiveness threshold may increase from £20,000 to £50,000 per QALY on the basis of these and four other considerations: the "certainty of the ICER [incremental cost-effectiveness ratio]"; whether health-related quality of life is "inadequately captured"; the "innovative nature" of the technology; and "non-health objectives of the NHS". We demonstrate that NICE's previous amendments are flawed; they contain logical inconsistencies which can result in different values being placed on health gains for identical patients, and they do not apply value weights to patients bearing the opportunity cost of NICE's recommendations. The proposals retain both flaws and are also poorly justified. Applying value weights to patients bearing the opportunity cost would lower NICE's threshold, in some cases to below £20,000 per QALY. Furthermore, this baseline threshold is higher than current estimates of the opportunity cost. NICE's proposed threshold range is too high, for empirical and methodological reasons. NICE's proposals will harm the health of unidentifiable patients, whilst privileging the identifiable beneficiaries of new health technologies. PMID:25145802

Paulden, Mike; O'Mahony, James F; Culyer, Anthony J; McCabe, Christopher

2014-11-01

277

The Poet as Creator of Social Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

Sanchez, Sonia

1985-01-01

278

Antihypertensive therapy and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is an important attribute of antihypertensive therapy. Previous studies have not addressed the importance of a patient's prior pharmacotherapy on quality of life, which may serve as the basis of reference for a new therapy. Nor have previous studies compared commonly used quality of life instruments for consistency, or investigated whether improvement or worsening of quality of

Matthew R. Weir; L. Michael Prisant; Vasilios Papademetriou; Michael A. Weber; Isaac A. Adegbile; Demissie Alemayehu; Martin P. Lefkowitz

1996-01-01

279

Perturbation expansions of complex-valued travel time along real-valued reference rays  

E-print Network

Perturbation expansions of complex-valued travel time along real-valued reference rays Martin of the complex­valued travel time (complex­valued action function). The solution of the complex­valued Hamilton­ Jacobi equation for complex­valued travel time by Hamilton's equations of rays would require complex

Cerveny, Vlastislav

280

26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2010-04-01

281

26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2011-04-01

282

Exobiology and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

1976-01-01

283

Improving Health and Quality of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... CFS) Share Compartir Improving Health and Quality of Life On this Page Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Support ... their ability to function and their quality of life. Doctors may refer some of their CFS patients ...

284

Enhance End-of-Life Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... lead in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. Photo: Corbis ...

285

Diagnosing Quality of Life in Working Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Esprit Project 5374 QLIS (Quality of Life in the Information Society) aims to develop a Software Scenario Support Tool (3ST) for the assessment and forecasting of the implications of IT applications for Quality of Life. In order to reach this goal, a consortium of partners with complementary knowledge was set up comprising sociologists with knowledge about quality of life

D. Cordelle; D. Bronisz

1993-01-01

286

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

287

Value of Topics in Consumer Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports preliminary findings from students who have completed a course in consumer education which address this question: What value do you now place on selected topics in consumer education? Topics with the greatest value were budgeting, dishonest and deceptive sales schemes, automobile insurance, principles of wise buying, and value comparison.…

Garman, E. Thomas; Gummerson, Ronald R.

1977-01-01

288

The Life of Roger Langdon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface H. Clifton Lambert; 1. 'Why was I born?'; 2. Childhood's days; 3. Starting in life; 4. My secret departure; 5. Life in Jersey; 6. Return and marriage; 7. Scientific achievements; 8. Closing years; Appendices.

Langdon, Roger; Langdon, Ellen

2010-11-01

289

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2014-04-01

290

26 CFR 25.2512-5T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2011-04-01

291

26 CFR 25.2512-5T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2010-04-01

292

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2012-04-01

293

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2013-04-01

294

Grant Title: PURPOSES AND VALUES OF EDUCATION Funding Opportunity Number: N/A  

E-print Network

Grant Title: PURPOSES AND VALUES OF EDUCATION Funding Opportunity Number: N/A Area of Research: Relationship between public and political understandings of educational purposes and values and educational. Summary: The foundation values education for its contributions to civic, political, and community life

Farritor, Shane

295

The Relationship Between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) Adv Exp Soc Psychol 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values they believed were held by scientists. Schwartz postulated that cultural values

Valarie L. Akerson; Cary A. Buzzelli; Jennifer Eastwood

2010-01-01

296

The Value of Young Trustees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the concept of "college student trusteeship" is opposed, the idea of having qualified young people as full voting members of governing boards is strongly supported. The real qualification required is the confidence and consent of their jurisdiction and not the fact of being a student. (MSE)

Mossman, Bradley J.

1980-01-01

297

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

298

The Amenity Value of Wetlands  

E-print Network

family homes using actual sales prices of properties from 1991 to 2005 in Chatham County, Georgia, where wetland resources are unevenly distributed in terms of types and quantities of wetlands. Separate hedonic models are investigated to understand...

Gao, Shan

2010-07-14

299

Black smokers and the Tree of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular biology revolution has turned the classification of life on its head. Is Whittaker's five-kingdom scheme for the classification of living things no longer relevant to life science education? Coupled with this is the discovery that most microscopic life cannot yet be brought into culture. One of the key organisms making this knowledge possible is Methanococcus jannishi a microorganism

Michael Linich

2002-01-01

300

Computational Challenges from the Tree of Life  

E-print Network

Computational Challenges from the Tree of Life Bernard M.E. Moret compbio.unm.edu Department Tiger snake ­ p. 1 #12;The Tree of Life AnimalsPurple bacteria Chlamydiae Pyrodictium Thermococcus Slime Deinococci Aquifex Diplomonads Trichomonads Methanococcus BACTERIA EUKARYA ARCHEA ­ p. 1 #12;The Tree of Life

Moret, Bernard

301

Correlates of Life Satisfaction: An Aid Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Automatic Interaction Detector (AID 3) was used to develop a model based on the interaction of predictors of life satisfaction. Predictors were used representing demographics, environmental variables, and social psychological variables. The most important predictors of life satisfaction were family life satisfaction, personal health…

Toseland, Ron; Rasch, John

1979-01-01

302

The Nutritional Value of Soybeans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The 1935 recommendations of the Committee on Nutrition of the League of Nations emphasize that all possible steps should be\\u000a taken to make food supplies, and especially protective foods, available at prices within the reach of all classes of the community.\\u000a One answer to this recommendation is given in a recent publication from the Food Research Division of the U.

A. A. Horvath

1938-01-01

303

Values education in the mathematics classroom: subject values, educational values and one teacher's articulation of her practice1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issue of values has been a longstanding concern of mathematics education research. Attempts have been made to analyze the specifically mathematical values which characterize the practice of mathematics teachers. In this paper we draw on one teacher's articulation of her practice to explore values issues in the teaching of mathematics, drawing both on the mathematics education literature and the

Liz Bills; Chris Husbands

2005-01-01

304

The Tree of Animal Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal groups in a general way. Though the activity doesn't teach about each animal group's characteristics in great detail, the process of sorting of atypical examples (e.g., bat, octopus) does spark interesting discussions among students on the differences between animals and how scientists classify them. I've conducted the activity with students of various ages.

Stan Braude

2007-09-01

305

The diagnostic value of pedobarography.  

PubMed

Pedobarography can quantify static and dynamic foot pressure. Despite an increase in the clinical use of pedobarography, the results and the clinical diagnosis do not always correlate, leading to confusion and misdiagnosis. The authors evaluated the potential of pedobarography to diagnose several diseases associated with abnormal pressure across the plantar surface. The study included 72 patients (96 cases) between January 2009 and August 2012 with symptoms of excessive plantar pressure. The average age was 50.9 years (range, 18-92). Patients had the lesion for an average of 17 months (range, 8-29). Pedobarographic measurements were used to evaluate the compatibility between the highest pressure on pedobarography and the clinical peak pressure with plantar ulcers or calluses. Maximal peak pressure was evaluated by static and dynamic measurements using numeric and graphic measurements in pedobarography. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was analyzed by comparing clinical peak pressure and pedobarographic measurements. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was 17.7% to 51% for static measurement and 13.5% to 49% for dynamic measurement. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was low for intractable plantar keratosis and metatarsal head callus associated with metatarsophalangeal dislocation in rheumatoid arthritis. However, it was 57% to 100% for Charcot arthropathy with midfoot ulcers. When used to compare numeric pressure and graphic peak pressure for each part of the foot, pedobarography showed low diagnostic correlation. Based on the study results, the diagnostic validity of pedobarography is low. PMID:25437079

Choi, Young Rak; Lee, Ho Seong; Kim, Dong Eun; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Jong Min; Ahn, Ji Yong

2014-12-01

306

The Economic Value of Teeth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

2010-01-01

307

The work value of information  

E-print Network

We present quantitative relations between work and information that are valid both for finite sized and internally correlated systems as well in the thermodynamical limit. We suggest work extraction should be viewed as a game where the amount of work an agent can extract depends on how well it can guess the micro-state of the system. In general it depends both on the agent's knowledge and risk-tolerance, because the agent can bet on facts that are not certain and thereby risk failure of the work extraction. We derive strikingly simple expressions for the extractable work in the extreme cases of effectively zero- and arbitrary risk tolerance respectively, thereby enveloping all cases. Our derivation makes a connection between heat engines and the smooth entropy approach. The latter has recently extended Shannon theory to encompass finite sized and internally correlated bit strings, and our analysis points the way to an analogous extension of statistical mechanics.

Oscar C. O. Dahlsten; Renato Renner; Elisabeth Rieper; Vlatko Vedral

2009-08-04

308

Nova Online: Odyssey of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a companion to its NOVA Odyssey of Life series, PBS has created a fascinating web site that is highlighted by a morphing embryos section that allows the viewer (with the proper software) to see the development of fish, chicken, pig, and human embryos. Also at the site are a virtual tour of the microscopic animals that live on you, your furniture, clothes, and books; an interview with Lennart Nilsson, the famous endoscope photographer; a cyberdebate between a creationist and an evolutionist; and a teacher's guide for both parts of the series (under Learn).

309

The Systematic Unity of Value  

E-print Network

, that it should not be. There is nothing self-contradictory in the eternal requirement of something whose full realization would involve self-contradiction, and contradictions therefore have a mean­ ingful role in evaluative and also in religious discourse... oneself in every possible person's shoes, and should then frame ends that take account of and also rise above all that one might pursue in all these conceived situatim1s seen together, and which would there­ fore have a certain ideal collectivity...

Findlay, J.N.

1968-01-01

310

The Value of Marching Band.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The marching band can become an effective avenue for providing students with a valid music and aesthetic education. By careful selection of and concern for the music and meticulous attention to drill design, the marching band experience can be a vital part in the student's musical growth. (RM)

Garrison, Paul K.

1986-01-01

311

The Value of Professional Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article begins with the author's personal experience within The National Association for Music Education (MENC) and stresses the importance of professional organizations by addressing issues that have a consequential benefit to both students and teachers. Additionally, issues are addressed that seem problematic for some individuals within…

Madsen, Clifford K.

2010-01-01

312

Therapists Value of Interprofessional Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of occupational (OT), physical (PT), and recreational therapists (RT), as well as speech- language pathologists (SLP), is interrelated and requires effective teamwork and collaboration to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. Literature shows that health care professionals are ill prepared to work in an interprofessional manner due…

De Vries, Dawn R.

2012-01-01

313

The Value of DNA Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA is a powerful investigative tool because, with the exception of identical twins, no two people have the same DNA. Therefore, DNA evidence collected from a crime scene can be linked to a suspect or can eliminate a suspect from suspicion. During a sexual assault, for example, biological evidence such as hair, skin cells, semen, or blood can be left

314

Quality of life of caregivers: a cross-sectional study.  

PubMed

This descriptive study was conducted to evaluate the quality of life of cancer caregivers. One hundred and seventy-eight caregivers of patients who were diagnosed with cancer in Gaziantep oncology hospital participated in the study. Data were collected by using a questionnaire and quality of life scale. The scale was scored between 0 and 10, where '10' indicated the best and '0' indicated the worst level. It was determined that the majority of caregivers were young and female, the overall total score average of quality of life was 4.5?±?1.1, and the subdomain with the lowest value was the psychological subdomain. All quality of life subdomain score averages and the overall total score averages were observed to be low in women, as well as in those who provided care for their own children, who lived in the same house with the patient and who gave care for 19-24?h daily. PMID:25157944

Ovayolu, Ozlem; Ovayolu, Nimet; Tuna, Döndü; Serçe, Sibel; Sevinç, Alper; Pirbudak Çöçelli, Lütfiye

2014-08-01

315

Rock Surfaces as Life Indicators: New Ways to Demonstrate Life and Traces of Former Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life and its former traces can only be detected from space when they are abundant and exposed to the planetary atmosphere at the moment of investigation by orbiters. Exposed rock surfaces present a multifractal labyrinth of niches for microbial life. Based upon our studies of highly stress-resistant microcolonial fungi of stone monument and desert rock surfaces, we propose that microbial biofilms that develop and become preserved on rock surfaces can be identified remotely by the following characteristics: (1) the existence of spectroscopically identifiable compounds that display unique adsorption, diffraction, and reflection patterns characteristic of biogenerated organic compounds (e.g., chlorophylls, carotenes, melanins, and possibly mycosporines), (2) demonstrably biogenic geomorphological features (e.g., biopitting, biochipping, and bioexfoliation), and (3) biominerals produced in association with biofilms that occupy rock surfaces (e.g., oxalates, forsterite, and special types of carbonates, sulfides, and silicates). Such traces or biosignatures of former life could provide macroscopically visible morphotypes and chemically identifiable products uniquely indicative of life. This work was supported by DFG grants Go 897/2-1 and Kr 333/30-1.

Gorbushina, A. A.; Krumbein, W. E.; Volkmann, M.

2002-12-01

316

Rock Surfaces as Life Indicators: New Ways to Demonstrate Life and Traces of Former Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life and its former traces can only be detected from space when they are abundant and exposed to the planetary atmosphere at the moment of investigation by orbiters. Exposed rock surfaces present a multifractal labyrinth of niches for microbial life. Based upon our studies of highly stress-resistant microcolonial fungi of stone monument and desert rock surfaces, we propose that microbial biofilms that develop and become preserved on rock surfaces can be identified remotely by the following characteristics: (1) the existence of spectroscopically identifiable compounds that display unique adsorption, diffraction, and reflection patterns characteristic of biogenerated organic compounds (e.g., chlorophylls, carotenes, melanins, and possibly mycosporines), (2) demonstrably biogenic geomorphological features (e.g., biopitting, biochipping, and bioexfoliation), and (3) biominerals produced in association with biofilms that occupy rock surfaces (e.g., oxalates, forsterite, and special types of carbonates, sulfides, and silicates). Such traces or biosignatures of former life could provide macroscopically visible morphotypes and chemically identifiable products uniquely indicative of life.

Gorbushina, Anna A.; Krumbein, Wolfgang E.; Volkmann, Marc

2002-06-01

317

Measurement of the 225Ac half-life.  

PubMed

The (225)Ac half-life was determined by measuring the activity of (225)Ac sources as a function of time, using various detection techniques: ?-particle counting with a planar silicon detector at a defined small solid angle and in a nearly-2? geometry, 4??+? counting with a windowless CsI sandwich spectrometer and with a pressurised proportional counter, gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector and with a NaI(Tl) well detector. Depending on the technique, the decay was followed for 59-141 d, which is about 6-14 times the (225)Ac half-life. The six measurement results were in good mutual agreement and their mean value is T(1/2)((225)Ac)=9.920 (3)d. This half-life value is more precise and better documented than the currently recommended value of 10.0 d, based on two old measurements lacking uncertainty evaluations. PMID:22940415

Pommé, S; Marouli, M; Suliman, G; Dikmen, H; Van Ammel, R; Jobbágy, V; Dirican, A; Stroh, H; Paepen, J; Bruchertseifer, F; Apostolidis, C; Morgenstern, A

2012-11-01

318

Fingerprints of Life CD and Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher resource on astrobiology and life in extreme environments contains classroom activities, presentation-ready slideshows with scripts and many other resources. It shows how NASA research on microbial life on Earth helps identify possible signs of life on Martian meteorites.

2004-01-01

319

Only six kingdoms of life.  

PubMed Central

There are many more phyla of microbes than of macro-organisms, but microbial biodiversity is poorly understood because most microbes are uncultured. Phylogenetic analysis of rDNA sequences cloned after PCR amplification of DNA extracted directly from environmental samples is a powerful way of exploring our degree of ignorance of major groups. As there are only five eukaryotic kingdoms, two claims using such methods for numerous novel 'kingdom-level' lineages among anaerobic eukaryotes would be remarkable, if true. By reanalysing those data with 167 known species (not merely 8-37), I identified relatives for all 8-10 'mysterious' lineages. All probably belong to one of five already recognized phyla (Amoebozoa, Cercozoa, Apusozoa, Myzozoa, Loukozoa) within the basal kingdom Protozoa, mostly in known classes, sometimes even in known orders, families or genera. This strengthens the idea that the ancestral eukaryote was a mitochondrial aerobe. Analogous claims of novel bacterial divisions or kingdoms may reflect the weak resolution and grossly non-clock-like evolution of ribosomal rRNA, not genuine phylum-level biological disparity. Critical interpretation of environmental DNA sequences suggests that our overall picture of microbial biodiversity at phylum or division level is already rather good and comprehensive and that there are no uncharacterized kingdoms of life. However, immense lower-level diversity remains to be mapped, as does the root of the tree of life. PMID:15306349

Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

2004-01-01

320

Understanding Innovation as Change of Value Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a view of innovation as a process that changes value systems of producers and adopters of creative design\\u000a ideas. Value systems comprise interpretations of the function and behaviour of an artefact, encapsulated in a producer’s or\\u000a adopter’s situation. Changes in these value systems can be induced using distinct classes of processes. The paper shows that\\u000a innovation requires

John S. Gero; Udo Kannengiesser

2009-01-01

321

[The human meaning of life].  

PubMed

Technical development has produced a curious phenomenon, the ebbing of the moral imperative of reproduction. After 2000 years of fight against diseases and death, the respect for life has declined threatening the destruction of Western civilization and family by destroying unborn babies via abortion. Artificial in vitro experimentation can potentially lead to elimination of very young, old, or sick people. Dr. Bernard Nathanson in his book "Aborting America" called abortion infanticide, one of the most abominable crimes. The beginning of life start at conception as shown by recent extra-corporal, in vitro fertilization resulting in a viable fetus, as in the case of Luisa Brown who was conceived in a tube by Drs. Edwards' and Steptoe's technique. The creation of human embryo banks and experimentation on human embryos amount to biological pronography. Respect for the human species and reproduction should manifest itself in the fight against sterility and genetic diseases, such as muscular dystrophy, hemophilia, Down's syndrome, and Huntington's chorea. The fight against AIDS and the elimination of the risk of contracting it by contaminated blood is also a medical priority. In the end, the question still remains: can science itself save the world without moral imperatives, is not the dilemma of Faust and the vileness of Mephistopheles conjured with the nuclear experience and human experimentation. PMID:2502845

Lejeune, J

1989-01-01

322

CONTESTING THE VALUE OF THE SHARED VALUE Andrew Crane  

E-print Network

whilst simultaneously driving greater profitability. In the words of Porter and Kramer3 , CSV `can give developed into a broader analysis of how to integrate corporate social responsibility (CSR) into core

Sheldon, Nathan D.

323

A Rooted Net of Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko. PMID:21936906

2011-01-01

324

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

325

The work values of Chinese project managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the research is to investigate project managers' work values and the relationship between the work values of project managers and their competence. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This research project is based on a category of work-related values generated from the literature. The authors conducted a web-based questionnaire survey on Chinese project managers in The People's Republic of

Shi-Rui Song; Andrew Gale

2007-01-01

326

The half-life of ²¹⁸Po  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct observation of the ²¹⁸Po alpha-peak decay with a microcomputer-controlled alpha-spectrometer yielded a mean half-life value of 3.040 +\\/- 0.008 min, where the error quoted represents twice the standard deviation of the means from 38 separate decay measurements. The 1912 and 1924 ²¹⁸Po half-life measurements, which provided the 3.05-min value listed in nuclear tables for the past 60 y, are

D. E. Martz; R. T. Harris; G. H. Jr. Langner

1989-01-01

327

Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease  

PubMed Central

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374

Vickers, Mark H.

2014-01-01

328

Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

2011-01-01

329

The Benefits of Reflecting on and Discussing Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of understanding and pursuing one's purposes in life are well documented. However, few studies have addressed potential interventions for enhancing purpose. This article presents the results of an empirical investigation testing whether reflecting on and discussing one's core values, life goals, and purposes in life has benefits for…

Bundick, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

330

Improving the quality of life.  

PubMed

It is encouraging that most developing countries now have population policies, but it is discouraging that some countries have been unable to implement their policies. Therefore, Indonesia believes technical cooperation should be strengthened among developing countries. International cooperation is working in 108 developing countries, but the desired impact has yet to be reached, and the quality of life in many countries is still unacceptable. For example, life expectancy at birth in developing countries is 14-17 years shorter for females and 10-13 years shorter for males as compared to developed countries which have superior health and welfare systems. The speed of population growth is also hindering efforts to help improve living conditions, and the biggest increase in growth will occur in Asia and Africa. This will increase the numbers of poor, hungry, and illiterate in developing countries and will lead to a lack of arable land, deterioration in education, and increase in unsafe sanitation. In order to slow population growth, quality family planning (FP) services must be provided to those who want them. By the year 2000, developed countries and donors should be ready to provide half of the required US$10.5 billion to FP services in developing countries. In Indonesia, population programs and policies have been governed by the National FP Coordinating Board as well as by the State Ministry for Population and the Environment, which was divided into two ministries in 1993 in order to deal with the enormity and seriousness of the two issues. PMID:12345388

Suyono, H

1993-12-01

331

The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is often said that youth are society's future; individuals need to prepare and nurture them if they desire that future to be bright and productive. Yet, with the spotlight currently on slow economic growth and high unemployment across the U.S., there has been little focus on the plight of youth as they transition from school to adult life. But…

Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.; Rosen, Rachel

2012-01-01

332

Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2011-06-01

333

Quality of life in asthma patients.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a study whose main aim is the measurement of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with asthma and the presentation of a first draft of normative values as measured by the SF-6D for asthma patients. In addition, we investigate how far non-disease-specific HRQoL measures can distinguish groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. The Portuguese versions of the EQ-5D, SF-6D, AQLQ(S) and ACQ were administered using personal interviews to a representative sample of the Portuguese population with asthma. Most of the individuals did not report significant problems in the dimensions used, with the exception of the physical functioning, where individuals reported moderate limitations. The mean utility value was 0.86. Male gender, young, single, individuals with high educational attainment level, employed, individuals with high income and those residing in urban areas reported higher utility levels. As expected, those who were in a severe stadium of the disease reported lower mean utility levels than those who were in a less severe stadium of the disease. Normative values for the SF-6D were computed for patients with asthma by gender, age, marital status, educational attainment level, employment status, area of residence and average monthly net income. The preference-based measures used in this study distinguish patient groups with asthma in terms of socio- demographic groups. The normative values can be used in economic evaluation and clinical studies as they incorporate patients' preferences and translate the value attributed to patients' health state. PMID:20054507

Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Brito, Ulisses; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

2010-01-01

334

Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

White, Ronald (editor); Leonard, Joel (editor)

1991-01-01

335

Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

2007-01-01

336

On the uniqueness of the Shapley value  

Microsoft Academic Search

L.S. Shapley [1953] showed that there is a unique value defined on the classD of all superadditive cooperative games in characteristic function form (over a finite player setN) which satisfies certain intuitively plausible axioms. Moreover, he raised the question whether an axiomatic foundation could be obtained for a value (not necessarily theShapley value) in the context of the subclassC (respectivelyC',

P. Dubey

1975-01-01

337

Boundary Values of Cohomology Classes as Hyperfunctions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work defines the boundary value of a cohomology class of degree q (0 ? q ? m ?1) valued in the sheaf of germs of holomorphic functions, in a wedge whose edge lies on an arbitrary m-dimensional totally real (smooth) submanifold X of Cm and whose directing cone has its singular homology in dimension q generated by one q-cycle

P. D. Cordaro; S. Gindikin; F. Treves

1995-01-01

338

Operation of ULCS - real life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the real life operation of ULCS (Ultra Large Container Ships) is presented from the point of view of shipmasters. The paper provides interpretation of results of questionnaire filled by masters of large container ships during Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships (TULC) EUI FP7 project. This is done in a way that results of questionnaire are further reviewed and commented by experienced master of ULCS. Following phenomena are subject of questionnaire and further discussed in the paper: parametric rolling, slamming, whipping, springing, green water and rogue waves. Special attention is given to the definition of rough sea states as well as to measures that ship masters take to avoid them as well as to the manoeuvring in heavy seas. The role of the wave forecast and weather routing software is also discussed.

Prpi?-Orši?, Jasna; Parunov, Joško; Šiki?, Igor

2014-12-01

339

Distinctive Patterns of Valued Career Attributes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The possible existence and stability of different national patterns of career-values in nine locations (Brazil, Mexico, England, Germany, Italy, Yugoslavia, Chicago, Austin, and Japan) was tested by administering an Occupational Values Inventory to 6,400 urban children in seven of the locations in 1965, and to a new sample of 3,600 in 1969. The…

Peck, Robert F.

340

Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

Bagnell, Rhea

2012-01-01

341

Value of Demand Response -Introduction Klaus Skytte  

E-print Network

Value of Demand Response - Introduction Klaus Skytte Systems Analysis Department February 7, 2006: Curtailment of load, Direct load control, e.g. central control of electric comfort heating. Reservation prices to pay for electricity and the service level. Value of power depend on the service level: Basic service

342

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

343

Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four roller profiles used in cylindrical roller bearing design and manufacture were analyzed using both a closed form solution and finite element analysis (FEA) for stress and life. The roller profiles analyzed were flat, tapered end, aerospace, and fully crowned loaded against a flat raceway. Four rolling-element bearing life models were chosen for this analysis and compared. These were those of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, Ioannides and Harris, and Zaretsky. The flat roller profile without edge loading has the longest predicted life. However, edge loading can reduce life by as much as 98 percent. The end tapered profile produced the highest lives but not significantly different than the aerospace profile. The fully crowned profile produces the lowest lives. The resultant predicted life at each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both Lundberg-Palmgren and Iaonnides-Harris equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMAJISO standards. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field.

Poplawski, Joseph V.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Peters, Steven M.

2000-01-01

344

The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values…

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

2010-01-01

345

Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

Moosmayer, Dirk

2011-01-01

346

Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction. Part 1; Comparison of Bearing Life Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four rolling-element bearing life theories were chosen for analysis and compared for a simple roller-race geometry model. The life theories were those of Weibull; Lundberg and Palmgren; Ioannides and Harris; and Zaretsky. The analysis without a fatigue limit of Ioannides and Harris is identical to the Lundberg and Palmgren analysis, and the Weibull analysis is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. The resultant predicted life a each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. The least variation in predicted life with Weibull slope comes with the Zaretsky equation. Except for a Weibull slope of 1.11, at which the Weibull equation predicts the highest lives, the highest lives are predicted for the Zaretsky equation. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both the Lundherg-Palmgren and Ioannides-Harris (where tau(sub u) = 0) equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMA/ISO standard. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field. The assumption of as shear stress fatigue limit tau(sub u) results in Hertz stress-life exponents greater than are experimentally verifiable.

Poplawski, Joseph V.; Peters, Steven M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

347

75VALUES, OBJECTIVITY, AND RELATIONALISM The Journal of Value Inquiry 38: 7590, 2004.  

E-print Network

of arbitrari- ness, preference manipulation, and value elitism.2 Non-relational accounts, in contrast, appear accounts. 1. Objective Versus Subjective Value People value a wide range of objects, activities, goals manipulation where the

Nissenbaum, Helen

348

Questions of life and death.  

PubMed

The continuous evolution of health care technology has brought with it a growing need to evaluate the quality of the lives it saves or prolongs. Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) orders, euthanasia and living wills all raise the issue of who decides about the quality of a person's life. Although nurses and other health care professionals have developed codes of ethics to deal with these difficult evaluations, ethics are not law. Ethics are derived from culture, religion and societal and individual concepts of morality. Law is the set of rules a society chooses to enact and enforce. Real difficulty arises when health care providers must face a situation where personal and professional codes of ethics clash with the law. PMID:8500086

Grant, A

1993-05-01

349

Feeding value of pastures for ruminants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perennial ryegrass is the primary forage component of ruminant diets in New Zealand. It is persistent and palatable, and immature ryegrass has a high nutritive value (NV). However, seed-head development substantially lowers its feeding value (FV) as fibre concentration increases, the rate and extent of digestibility decreases, and voluntary intake declines. Ryegrass pastures are susceptible to accumulation of endophytic and

GC Waghorn; DA Clark

2004-01-01

350

An Analysis of the Value Added by Secondary Schools in England: Is the Value Added Indicator of Any Value?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the value added score published for all publicly funded secondary schools in England is an unreliable indicator of school performance. A substantial proportion of the between-school variation in the value added score is accounted for by factors outside the school's control. These factors include several pupil-related variables such as the proportion of pupils on free school

Jim Taylor; Anh Ngoc Nguyen

2006-01-01

351

The Tree of Life's Macromolecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students start with images of living organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. They "zoom" into cells and tissues to discover that they are made of different macromolecules. Students observe that these macromolecules are polymers. They zoom into polymers to find that some are made from almost identical monomers, while others, such as proteins, are made from a set of different monomers. They discover that all monomers making up biological macromolecules are composed of just a few types of chemical elements: C, H, O, N, P and S. Students will be able to:Identify typical molecular building blocks (monomers) that form biological macromolecules; determine the types of atoms that make up most biopolymers; reason about the uniformity and diversity at the atomic level of life's molecular building blocks.

Molecular Literacy Project

352

Building the blueprint of life.  

SciTech Connect

With recent breakthroughs in experimental microbiology making it possible to synthesize and implant an entire genome to create a living cell, the challenge of constructing a working blueprint for the first truly minimal synthetic organism is more important than ever. Here we review the significant progress made in the design and creation of a minimal organism. We discuss how comparative genomes, gene essentiality data, naturally small genomes, and metabolic modeling are all being applied to produce a catalogue of the biological functions essential for life. We compare the minimal gene sets from three published sources with functions identified in 13 existing gene essentiality datasets. We examine how genome-scale metabolic models have been applied to design a minimal metabolism for growth in simple and complex media. Additionally, we survey the progress of efforts to construct a minimal organism, either through implementation of combinatorial deletions in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli or through the synthesis and implantation of synthetic genomes.

Henry, C. S.; Overbeek, R.; Stevens, R. L.; Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes

2010-07-01

353

The Mysterious Life of Caves  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a companion website to a NOVA television series investigating strange life-forms found in toxic caverns. The program reviews the traditional theory of cave formation; introduces new theories of microbial sulfuric acid production; examines the role of oil-feeding microbes in dissolving limestone; presents the discovery of microbes in caves that live solely on chemical nutrients; and reviews other extreme environments. The site offers an interview with a microbiologist, an essay by a caver, a slide show of decorated caves, a teacher's guide including the classroom activity entitled "Microbial Townhouse," and interactive animation about cave formation. The video of the program may be ordered from PBS (Public Broadcasting Service), but is not necessary to complete the activites.

NOVA Science Programming on Air and Online

354

The Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of a flower? How does seed dispersal work? These are a few of the important questions answered by this site which offers a refresher on the life cycle of plants. The five areas here include "Seed Growth", "Parts of a flower", "Seed Dispersal", and "Plant Identification". Clicking on each of the first three sections mentioned here will reveal a set of interactive diagrams and illustrations that show different scenarios documenting the conditions that can affect plant growth. The "Seed Dispersal" area is quite a pip, as visitors can learn about such phenomenon as "Shakers", "Water", and "Animal Food" and how they affect plant growth. Finally the "Plant Identification" area features a handy guide to identifying plants based on some simple illustrations with key features highlighted.

355

The Owen value of stochastic cooperative game.  

PubMed

We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness. PMID:24892100

E, Cheng-Guo; Li, Quan-Lin; Li, Shi-Yong

2014-01-01

356

The governance of global value chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance patterns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature – transaction costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning – to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are: (1) the complexity of

Gary Gereffi; John Humphrey; Timothy Sturgeon

2005-01-01

357

The Owen Value of Stochastic Cooperative Game  

PubMed Central

We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness. PMID:24892100

E, Cheng-Guo; Li, Quan-Lin; Li, Shi-Yong

2014-01-01

358

Variables of Which Values Are a Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ordinary-language concept of values has a complex history in psychology and in science generally. The traditional fact-value distinction commonly found in traditional scientific perspectives has been challenged by the varieties of philosophical pragmatism, which have similarities to Skinner's radical behaviorism. Skinner's challenge to the…

Leigland, Sam

2005-01-01

359

The Tides People (Tlingit Indians of Southeast Alaska). A Narrative Account of Tlingit Culture and Values Written by a Tlingit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written by a Tlingit for purposes of affirming Tlingit life style, values, and laws, this narrative account of the Alaskan Tlingit culture and values presents illustrations of the cultural values and value systems manifest in Tlingit language, art forms, music, ceremonies, and rituals. Designed to be instructional, the chapters of this document…

Peck, Cyrus E., Sr.

360

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

361

Effect of spectral shape on acoustic fatigue life estimates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods for estimating fatigue life due to random loading are briefly reviewed. These methods include a probabilistic approach in which the expected value of the rate of damage accumulation is computed by integrating over the probability density of damaging events and a method which consists of analyzing the response time history to count damaging events. It is noted that it

R. N. Miles

1992-01-01

362

Death: A Part of Life. An Experimental Unit.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experimental unit on death employs a cross-cultural comparison of death and burial customs to increase student understanding of the values and reasons behind events surrounding the end of the life cycle. Nine activities are presented in which students collect, label, analyze, and generalize about the relationship of death customs to the…

Otero, George G.

363

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

364

Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

365

Possible origin of life between mica sheets: does life imitate mica? Helen Greenwood Hansma*  

E-print Network

Possible origin of life between mica sheets: does life imitate mica? Helen Greenwood Hansma. Sarma (Received 1 June 2012; final version received 23 July 2012) The mica hypothesis for the origin of life proposes that life originated between the sheets of muscovite mica. This paper elaborates on two

Hansma, Helen

366

The meaning of negative weak values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of approaches to quantum mechanics incorporate negative values for quantities that were classically positive, such as the Wigner-Moyal density approach or the Feynman negative probability approach, etc. In the re-formulation of quantum mechanics using weak values and weak measurements, we encounter a new situation where weak values of projection operators turn out to be negative. We emphasize the differences between these negative weak values and the negative values encountered in the other formalisms: in the previous formalisms, the mathematical entity whose average yielded the negative values are not density operators. While they do yield the correct average of a function, they also have non-physical aspects, i.e. mathematical artifacts, when the densities become negative. The reason is that if we attempt to actually measure such ``negative" properties, then the result does not correspond to a physical observable in Hilbert Space. E.g. if we did attempt to cheat quantum mechanics by projecting onto p and x as densities simultaneously in Wigner-Moyal, then we obtain the parity operator, the most non-local result. On the other hand, in the case of weak values, we obtain a new situation: when we use a bonafide measuring device to measure these properties ideally, then the very same measuring device will yield the predicted negative weak values when the measurement interaction is simply weakened.

Troupe, James; Tollaksen, Jeff

2008-03-01

367

Complexity of service value networks: Conceptualization  

E-print Network

the structure and dynamics of the value network as well as customer expectations influence the complexity technology (ICT) plays in coordinating and delivering value and managing this complexity. A conceptual model such as transportation, govern- ment, hospitality, wholesale, and retail, to business activities such as finance

368

Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada is a member of the Sun Life Financial group of companies. 2005 Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. All rights reserved.  

E-print Network

JL 5/26/09 Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada is a member of the Sun Life Financial group of companies. © 2005 Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. All rights reserved. Sun Life Financial and the globe symbol are registered trademarks of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. SLPC 5302 07/02 H I G H

Mullins, Dyche

369

Obesity and Sexual Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Reduced sexual quality of life is a frequently reported yet rarely studied consequence of obesity. The objectives of this study were to 1) examine the prevalence of sexual quality-of-life difficulties in obese individuals and 2) investigate the association between sexual quality of life and BMI class, sex, and obesity treatment–seeking status.Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects consisted of 1) 500

Ronette L. Kolotkin; Martin Binks; Ross D. Crosby; Truls Østbye; Richard E. Gress; Ted D. Adams

2006-01-01

370

Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?".

Margulis, L.; Guerrero, R.

1995-01-01

371

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES CHECKSHEET for a MINOR in INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES  

E-print Network

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES CHECKSHEET for a MINOR in INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES Offered by Academic Programs in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Effective for Students Graduating 2015 The minor in International Agricultural and Life Sciences focuses on agricultural

Liskiewicz, Maciej

372

SETG: An instrument for detection of life on Mars ancestrally related to life on Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life on Mars, if it exists, may be related to life on Earth. 12 This common ancestry hypothesis is supported by theoretical and experimental studies of meteoritic exchange between Earth and Mars, exchange that could have spread life between those planets. If so, we can target the basic building blocks of life, DNA or RNA, in our search. We are

Clarissa Lui; Christopher E. Carr; Holli Rowedder; Gary Ruvkun; Maria Zuber

2011-01-01

373

Nonlinear boundary value problem of magnetic insulation  

E-print Network

On the basis of generalization of upper and lower solution method to the singular two point boundary value problems, the existence theorem of solutions for the system, which models a process of magnetic insulation in plasma is proved.

A. V. Sinitsyn

2000-09-09

374

Accuracy Evaluation of the Unified P-Value from Combining Correlated P-Values  

PubMed Central

Meta-analysis methods that combine -values into a single unified -value are frequently employed to improve confidence in hypothesis testing. An assumption made by most meta-analysis methods is that the -values to be combined are independent, which may not always be true. To investigate the accuracy of the unified -value from combining correlated -values, we have evaluated a family of statistical methods that combine: independent, weighted independent, correlated, and weighted correlated -values. Statistical accuracy evaluation by combining simulated correlated -values showed that correlation among -values can have a significant effect on the accuracy of the combined -value obtained. Among the statistical methods evaluated those that weight -values compute more accurate combined -values than those that do not. Also, statistical methods that utilize the correlation information have the best performance, producing significantly more accurate combined -values. In our study we have demonstrated that statistical methods that combine -values based on the assumption of independence can produce inaccurate -values when combining correlated -values, even when the -values are only weakly correlated. Therefore, to prevent from drawing false conclusions during hypothesis testing, our study advises caution be used when interpreting the -value obtained from combining -values of unknown correlation. However, when the correlation information is available, the weighting-capable statistical method, first introduced by Brown and recently modified by Hou, seems to perform the best amongst the methods investigated. PMID:24663491

Alves, Gelio; Yu, Yi-Kuo

2014-01-01

375

The Relationship Between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers’ Cultural Values and their Perceptions of Scientists’ Cultural Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers’ cultural values and the values they believe\\u000a are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) Adv Exp Soc Psychol 25:331–351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment\\u000a of the values they believed were held by scientists. Schwartz postulated that cultural values

Valarie L. AkersonCary; Cary A. Buzzelli; Jennifer Eastwood

2010-01-01

376

46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2012-10-01

377

46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2012-10-01

378

46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2010-10-01

379

46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2014-10-01

380

46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2010-10-01

381

46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2013-10-01

382

46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2011-10-01

383

46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2013-10-01

384

46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2014-10-01

385

46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

2011-10-01

386

Approach to End of Life Care  

PubMed Central

End of life care is often overlooked in busy day-to-day medical practice. Physicians need to recognize that death is inevitable for many medical conditions despite aggressive treatment. Optimal end of life care begins with an honest discussion of disease progression and prognosis. By coordinating the care with the family and a hospice program, terminally ill patients can achieve relief of pain and other unwanted symptoms, leading to a good quality of life during their remaining days. PMID:22822325

Lee, David H.

2002-01-01

387

Factors affecting the nutritive value of bermudagrasses  

E-print Network

FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BERMUDAGRASSES A Thesis by Nilliam Aylmer Rainwater Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December..., 1975 Major Subject: Animal Nutrition FACTORS AFFECTING THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF BERMUDAGRASSES A Thesis by WILLIAM AYLMER RAINWATER Approved as to style and content by: , ~A; (' v'~ (Chairman of Committee) t-c-+ (Head of Departm t) d. ~ c . D...

Rainwater, William Aylmer

1975-01-01

388

Quality of Life and Social Life Situation in Islet Transplanted Patients: Time for a Change in Outcome Measures?  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the overall goals in health care is to prolong life, increase patients’ wellbeing and quality of life. Many of patients with severe insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus experience fear of hypoglycemia (FoH), which forces them to change their lives both physically and socially to avoid episodes of hypoglycemia. Objective: To investigate the quality of life and the social life situation, with special focus on the consequences of FoH in islet transplanted patients. Methods: 11 patients (4 women and 7 men) were included; they have undergone islet transplantation at Uppsala University Hospital during the period 2001–2009. Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Swedish version Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (Swe-HFS) were used to investigate quality of life, in relation to FoH. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted to investigate the patients social life situation in relation to FoH, after islet transplantation and were analyzed using a content analysis method. Results: The mean value for quality of life was lower than that in the normal population. 3 out of 10 patients experienced FoH; one patient declined to answer the questionnaire. 3 predominant themes were revealed; one theme associated with pre-transplant, was “struggle for control of social life situation” and two themes associated with post-transplant, were “regain power and control of social life situation” and “at peace with the balance between the present and the future.” Conclusion: The patients experienced improved control over social life situation while quality of life in relation to FoH may have improved following islet transplantation. PMID:25013604

Häggström, E.; Rehnman, M.; Gunningberg, L.

2011-01-01

389

Time dependency of strainrange partitioning life relationships  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of exposure time (or creep rate) on the CP life relationship is established by conducting isothermal CP tests at varying exposure times on 316 Ss at 1300 and 1500 F. A reduction in the CP cycle life is observed with an increase in the exposure time of the CP test at a given inelastic strain-range. This phenomenon is characterized by modifying the Manson-Coffin type of CP relationship. Two new life relationships: (1) the Steady State Creep Rate (SSRC) Modified CP life relationship, and (2) the Failure Time (FT) Modified CP life relationship, are developed in this report. They account for the effect of creep rate and exposure time within the CP type of waveform. The reduction in CP cyclic life in the long exposure time tests is attributed to oxidation and the precipitation of carbides along the grain boundaries.

Kalluri, S.; Manson, S. S.

1984-01-01

390

Comparative values of advanced space solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

Slifer, L. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

391

Personality and Life Events as Predictors of Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: Do Life Events Mediate the Link between Personality and Life Satisfaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association among personality traits, life events and life satisfaction, and the underlying pathways from personality traits to life satisfaction. A total of 1,961 adolescents were recruited from 21 secondary schools in Hong Kong. The adolescent version of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-A), the Chinese…

Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.; Cheung, Shu Fai

2008-01-01

392

End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life…

Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

2010-01-01

393

ShelfLife Prediction of Chilled Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span\\u000a can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion,\\u000a others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes

Gudmundur Gudmundsson; Kristberg Kristbergsson

2009-01-01

394

Signs of Life on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some images, but were absent in the other or altered their shape. What sources of energy, in principle, could be used by life in the high temperature oxigenless atmosphere? The objects found are large enough, they are not micro-organisms. It is most natural to assume that, like on Earth, Venusian fauna is heterotrophic, and the source of its life is hypothetical autotrophic flora. There is enough light for flora's photosynthesis. Since the critical temperature of water on Venus is about 320°C and the temperature at the surface is about 460°C, the metabolism of organisms on Venus (if any) should be built without water, on the basis of some other liquid medium. Based on data analyzed it has been suggested that because of the limited energy capacity of the Venusian fauna, the temporal characteristics of their physical actions can be much longer than that of the Earth.

Ksanfomality, L.

2012-04-01

395

Origins of life: An operational definition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two very different models are used for the scientific study of life's origins: in the Troland-Muller model, life is molecular and its defining characteristic is gene function; in the Oparin-Haldane model, life is cellular and its defining characteristic is metabolic function. While each of these models implicitly defines the living, neither provides criteria by which theemergence of life could be recognized in the laboratory. Anoperational definition of the living makes explicit the system logic of metabolic self-production: (1) that whatever form it may take, life is a function of its biochemical processes; (2) that no single biochemical process has integrity apart from an entire network of processes; (3) that a network of processes can have continuity only by being enclosed within a boundary structure, i.e., by the selective partition of a microenvironment as a domain for the bioenergetic-biosynthetic network; and (4) that life is a single phenomenon, distinct in its continuity of capture and storage of energy in such networks, driving the processes that produce its material constituents. This paper presentsautopoiesis as life-defining and discusses the utility of its criteria in our search for the origins of life on Earth. Enactment of the autopoietic criteria would result in aminimal cell and would demonstrate the experimental recapitulation of life's Archaean origins.

Fleischaker, Gail Raney

1990-03-01

396

Optimistic biases in observational learning of value  

PubMed Central

Action-outcome contingencies can be learnt either by active trial-and-error, or vicariously, by observing the outcomes of actions performed by others. The extant literature is ambiguous as to which of these modes of learning is more effective, as controlled comparisons of operant and observational learning are rare. Here, we contrasted human operant and observational value learning, assessing implicit and explicit measures of learning from positive and negative reinforcement. Compared to direct operant learning, we show observational learning is associated with an optimistic over-valuation of low-value options, a pattern apparent both in participants’ choice preferences and their explicit post-hoc estimates of value. Learning of higher value options showed no such bias. We suggest that such a bias can be explained as a tendency for optimistic underestimation of the chance of experiencing negative events, an optimism repressed when information is gathered through direct operant learning. PMID:21354558

Nicolle, A.; Symmonds, M.; Dolan, R.J.

2011-01-01

397

20 CFR 416.1230 - Exclusion of life insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Definitions —(1) Life insurance. Life insurance is a contract under which...The insured is the person upon whose life insurance is effected. (4) Owner...insurance. Term insurance is a form of life insurance having no cash...

2010-04-01

398

Value of the energy data base  

SciTech Connect

An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

1982-03-31

399

Evolution of Life: A Cosmic Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents that the concept of life being a cosmic phenomenon is rapidly gaining support, with new evidence from space science, geology and biology. In this picture life on Earth resulted from the introduction of bacteria from comets, and the subsequent evolution of life required the continuing input of genes from comets. This paper is accompanied by a synopsis of the hypothesis, Life from Space: An Emerging Paradigm, at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/wickramasinghe/article.html and a counterpoint commentary at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/wickramasinghe/review.html.

N. Chandra Wickramasinghe and Fred Hoyle (Cardiff University, UK;)

2001-05-01

400

Understanding the value of boutique hotels  

E-print Network

In recent decades, boutique hotels have witnessed a dramatic increase in popularity in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of boutique hotel value and conditions that ...

Wheeler, Daniel F. (Daniel Fairchild)

2006-01-01

401

Efficient Estimation of the Standardized Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We derive an estimator of the standardized value which, under the standard assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, is more efficient than the established (asymptotically efficient) estimator and discuss its gains for small samples. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

Longford, Nicholas T.

2009-01-01

402

The Semantic Values of "Ser" and "Estar."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the distinctions that exist among the uses of "ser" and "estar" in Spanish. They are explained with reference to the semantic values present in the three basic functions of these verbs: principal, auxiliary, and attributive. (NCR)

DeMello, George

1979-01-01

403

Values Education: Why the Teaching of Values in Schools Is Necessary, but Not Sufficient  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, a growing demand by educators, governments, and the community for the teaching of values in public schools has led to the implementation of values education. As acknowledged by the 2010 Living Skills Values Education Program, values education is an essential part of schooling. In the public school system, there have been attempts…

Etherington, Matthew

2013-01-01

404

Potential value of Cs-137 capsules  

SciTech Connect

We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

1985-04-01

405

Group Retirement Services are provided by Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, a member of the Sun Life Financial group of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, 2011.  

E-print Network

Group Retirement Services are provided by Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, a member of the Sun Life Financial group of companies. © Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada, 2011. McLean Budden name

Northern British Columbia, University of

406

A THEORY OF WASTE AND VALUE  

E-print Network

and value in construction at three scales: systemic, synergistic and discrete and from the perspectives of stakeholders: owners (strategic), middle managers (logistics) and field personnel (tactical). This paper uses literature search, critical... major contract breakdown). These scales of waste are interpreted differently by stakeholders, such as owners (strategic), planners (logistics) and workers (tactical). Furthermore, at the level of theory, waste is the inverse opposite of value since...

Fernández-Solis, José; Rybkowski, Zofia K.

2015-02-08

407

The Life of the Cosmos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lee Smolin offers a new theory of the universe that is at once elegant, comprehensive, and radically different from anything proposed before. Smolin posits that a process of self organization like that of biological evolution shapes the universe, as it develops and eventually reproduces through black holes, each of which may result in a new big bang and a new universe. Natural selection may guide the appearance of the laws of physics, favoring those universes which best reproduce. The result would be a cosmology according to which life is a natural consequence of the fundamental principles on which the universe has been built, and a science that would give us a picture of the universe in which, as the author writes, "the occurrence of novelty, indeed the perpetual birth of novelty, can be understood."Smolin is one of the leading cosmologists at work today, and he writes with an expertise and force of argument that will command attention throughout the world of physics. But it is the humanity and sharp clarity of his prose that offers access for the layperson to the mind bending space at the forefront of today's physics.

Smolin, Lee

1999-03-01

408

Cataract management: effect on patients' quality of life.  

PubMed

This article summarises the epidemiology of cataract, the normal and altered physiology of the eye's lens, and the causes of and risk factors associated with the condition. It outlines the aims of modern cataract surgery and discusses the main surgical approaches. The effects of 'cataract blindness' on the patient's quality of life are addressed, with particular reference to the negative effect of the onset of depression. The role of the nurse in promoting quality of life is explored with reference to the value of psychosocial theory in the care of and promotion of health to older patients with cataracts. PMID:25605115

Watkinson, Susan; Seewoodhary, Ramesh

2015-01-21

409

Materials 2: Life Cycle View of Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains what is meant by a materials life cycle framework. It describes what happens at each step in the life cycle and why designers should consider the life cycle in the design process. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

410

Half-life of 32Si  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Beta rays from a 32Si sbnd 32P source, produced in 1968-1969 via the 30Si(t,p) 32Si reaction using a Van de Graaff beam at E t = 3.4 MeV, were counted with an end-window gas-flow proportional counter system including an automatic precision sample changer. Comparison counts were taken on the ? rays from a 36Cl source. Measurements beginning February, 1982 were made at approximately 4-week intervals, each consisting of a total of 40 hours of counting on each sample. The decay rate was determined from the 32Si/ 36Cl ratio of counts. Small periodic annual deviations of the data points from an exponential decay curve were observed, but are of uncertain origin and had no significant effect on the result. Based on the analysis of 53 points taken in 48 months, the value T 1/2 = 172(4) yr is adopted for the half-life of 32Si. This result is substantially greater than two previously reported measurements of 108(18) yr and 101(18) yr but is lower than values based on geophysical evidence.

Alburger, D. E.; Harbottle, G.; Norton, E. F.

1986-06-01

411

The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.

Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.

2000-01-01

412

27Student Life Student Life  

E-print Network

26 III Student LIfe #12;27Student Life Student Life The and recreational phases of their college experience. Thesamecodeofhonorthatgovernsacademic life also governs's superior academic preparation com- bined with the character-building responsibilities of student life mark

Dresden, Gregory

413

Quality of Life in Macau, China  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We report the initial findings of an ongoing, long-term investigation into subjective quality of life in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China. Data were collected via quarterly public surveys (2007 to 2009; n = 8,230), as part of the Macau Quality of Life Report. The main aims of the study were to: (a) ascertain the public's…

Rato, Ricardo; Davey, Gareth

2012-01-01

414

Values in the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

Wees, W. R.

1980-01-01

415

Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

2013-01-01

416

The Meaning of Work\\/Life: A Corporate Ideology of Work\\/Life Balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organizations wield great power over the structure of contemporary life. Using the rhetorical method of cluster analysis, we investigated the construction of work\\/life issues on Web sites of companies on Fortune's 2004 list of “100 Best Companies to Work for.” By identifying key terms and the terms that clustered around them, we uncovered a corporate ideology of work\\/life: 1) work

Mary F. Hoffman; Renee L. Cowan

2008-01-01

417

On the life time of contrail cirrus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Contrails represent reproducible prototypes of cirrus clouds which are easier to understand scientifically and offer better chances for experimental investigations than natural cirrus. In the past, investigation of contrails led to important general insight into the atmosphere system, such as the detection of ice supersaturation, homogeneous and heterogeneous ice particle formation, and subvisible cirrus. Even the Brewer-Dobson circulation was detected because contrails were observed to be short-lived at multitudes above the tropopause. Here we present results constraining the mean life time of contrail cirrus based on comparisons of results from a new contrail cirrus model, ECMWF forecast data and several years of Meteosat satellite observations for the North Atlantic and Europe. The mean life time of contrails is not yet well known. Persistent contrails form at aviation cruise altitudes mainly in the upper troposphere, when the temperature is below the Schmidt-Appleman (SAC) threshold temperature and when the ambient atmosphere is humid enough for long-lived contrails. The SAC threshold depends on aircraft and fuel properties, pressure and humidity. Contrails spread and persist in ice supersaturated air masses. Contrails are visible also for several minutes or even longer when the relative humidity is slightly below saturation, in particular at low temperatures. Contrails survive until the ambient air gets dried beyond ice saturation (e.g. by subsidence, mixing with dry air, radiative warming) or until the ice particles get large enough to sediment quickly and to fall down into drier air masses or, rarely, precipitate to ground. Contrails with large ice particles may end in fallstreaks (i.e. in a curtain of large and quickly falling ice particles). With time, contrails may loose their identity and become part of other thicker cirrus clouds. We model the formation and decay of contrails for a fleet of aircraft using a recently developed Lagrangian contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP (Schumann, U.: A contrail cirrus prediction model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 4, 3185-3293, doi:10.5194/gmdd-4-3185-2011, 2011). The formation of contrails and their transition into contrail cirrus is modeled for given aircraft types, aircraft tracks and given meteorology (taken from ECMWF). We found that the computed contrail cover is highly sensitive to the processes which limit the life time of contrail cirrus. The life-time of contrail clusters should be similar to the lifetime of ice supersaturated regions (ISSR) which has been estimated at mid-latitudes to vary from minutes to possibly a few days with median values of order hours. Here, we estimate the life-time of ISSR regions by computing the age of trajectories which start at aircraft waypoints satisfying the SAC in ice supersaturated air and last until the ambient humidity drops below ice saturation. This aircraft-related ISSR-life-time is not the life-time of ISSR per se, but the life-time of ice supersaturation relevant for contrails. For this purpose we use the Lagrangian trajectory model part of CoCiP for a passive tracer with ECMWF data. Most of such trajectories end after less than one hour. The age frequency distribution follows an exponential function. Based on such a fit the mean and median ages of ISSR regions are 14.6 and 10.1 h. The life time depends on many parameters; it is large in particular in the upper and mid polar and upper tropical troposphere. When we apply CoCiP for contrails including ice formation form ambient ice supersaturation but without any particle number loss process, we compute ages which exceed the ISSR ages. The larger life time result from the reservoir of ice water built up in the contrails while staying in the ISSR. This ice water reservoir is a maximum just when the ISSR regime ends. It takes considerable time to mix drier ambient air into the contrail and to sublimate this ice. Hence, the total contrail age without ice loss processes could reach about 1.5 times the age of ISSR masses. With some loss processes included in the model, the c

Schumann, U.; Graf, K.

2012-04-01

418

Inquiry-Based Learning: Personalisation or the Rehabilitation of Human Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I argue that the concept of personalisation is simply rhetorical unless it facilitates theory and practice which takes seriously and engages with the value of the human person. The idea of human value is a fundamental theme in social and cultural life and the motor behind many psychological and social processes. Traditionally,…

Steed, Chris

2009-01-01

419

Inquiry-based learning: personalisation or the rehabilitation of human value  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article I argue that the concept of personalisation is simply rhetorical unless it facilitates theory and practice which takes seriously and engages with the value of the human person. The idea of human value is a fundamental theme in social and cultural life and the motor behind many psychological and social processes. Traditionally, knowledge presented as abstract and

Chris Steed

2009-01-01

420

Integrating Work and Basic Values into the Spherical Model of Interests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two prominent models of values, one in work and the other in life, were examined as they each related to the dimensions underlying the Spherical Model of Interests (Tracey & Rounds, 1996) as measured by the Personal Globe Inventory (PGI; Tracey, 2002). The technique of external property vector fitting was utilized to plot the value constructs onto…

Sodano, Sandro M.

2011-01-01

421

Charles Darwin and the origin of life.  

PubMed

When Charles Darwin published The Origin of Species 150 years ago he consciously avoided discussing the origin of life. However, analysis of some other texts written by Darwin, and of the correspondence he exchanged with friends and colleagues demonstrates that he took for granted the possibility of a natural emergence of the first life forms. As shown by notes from the pages he excised from his private notebooks, as early as 1837 Darwin was convinced that "the intimate relation of Life with laws of chemical combination, & the universality of latter render spontaneous generation not improbable". Like many of his contemporaries, Darwin rejected the idea that putrefaction of preexisting organic compounds could lead to the appearance of organisms. Although he favored the possibility that life could appear by natural processes from simple inorganic compounds, his reluctance to discuss the issue resulted from his recognition that at the time it was possible to undertake the experimental study of the emergence of life. PMID:19633921

Peretó, Juli; Bada, Jeffrey L; Lazcano, Antonio

2009-10-01

422

The value of an infectious diseases specialist.  

PubMed

Infectious diseases (ID) specialists have played a major role in patient care, infection control, and antibiotic management for many years. With the rapidly changing nature of health care, it has become necessary for ID specialists to articulate their value to multiple audiences. This article summarizes the versatile attributes possessed by ID specialists and delineates their value to patients, hospitals, and other integral groups in the health care continuum. PMID:12684914

Petrak, Russell M; Sexton, Daniel J; Butera, Michael L; Tenenbaum, Marvin J; MacGregor, Mary C; Schmidt, Mary E; Joseph, W Patrick; Kemmerly, Sandra A; Dougherty, Mark J; Bakken, Johan S; Curfman, Maria F; Martinelli, Lawrence P; Gainer, R Brooks

2003-04-15

423

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

424

Nursing research into quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the scope of nursing research in the area of quality of life. The strategy used to identify research reports relied heavily on nursing publications included in the Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) from 1983 (when the database first included the subject, quality of life) to December, 1991. During this period, over 1,000 references

G. V. Padilla; M. M. Grant; B. Ferrell

1992-01-01

425

Parasitism, the diversity of life, and paleoparasitology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The parasite-host-environment system is dynamic, with several points of equilibrium. This makes it difficult to trace the thresholds between benefit and damage, and therefore, the definitions of commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis become worthless. Therefore, the same concept of parasitism may encompass commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis. Parasitism is essential for life. Life emerged as a consequence of parasitism at the molecular

Adauto Araújo; Ana Maria Jansen; Françoise Bouchet; Karl Reinhard; Luiz Fernando Ferreira

2003-01-01

426

Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Describes the development of a new instrument, the Life Experiences Survey (LES), for the measurement of life changes. The LES is a 57-item self-report measure that is divided into 2 sections: Section 1 consists of 47 items that refer to life changes in a wide variety of situations; Section 2 consists of 10 items that are designed primarily for use

Irwin G. Sarason; James H. Johnson; Judith M. Siegel

1978-01-01

427

The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles  

PubMed Central

In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

Tschinkel, Walter R.

2012-01-01

428

The life cycle and life span of Namibian fairy circles.  

PubMed

In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called "fairy circles" are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43-75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

Tschinkel, Walter R

2012-01-01

429

The land value impacts of wetland restoration.  

PubMed

U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels <0.5 mi from EEP restoration sites have significantly lower sale prices, while 3) parcels >0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels <0.5 mi from EEP sites exhibit lower values, and sites 0.5-0.75 mi away exhibit increased values. Our work points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. PMID:23792789

Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

2013-09-30

430

A new determination of the 209Po half-life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A substantial 25% error in the then-known and accepted (102 ± 5) year half-life of 209Po was reported on in 2007. This error was detected from decay data from two separate primary standardizations of a 209Po solution standard, which were performed approximately 12 years apart. Despite author claims that this observation was not a new half-life determination, it was nevertheless included in subsequent nuclear data evaluations and compilations to obtain a currently tabulated value of (115 ± 13) a, computed from the median and range of the two half-life reports. A third primary standardization on the identical 209Po solution has since been performed to derive a new half-life value of (125.2 ± 3.3) a. This half-life determination was obtained from 30 distinct data sets over a period of 20.7 years, encompassing over 700 liquid scintillation measurements with nearly 50 counting sources all prepared from the same solution, and as obtained over a very broad range of measurement conditions (composition of cocktails, characteristics of counters, time sequencing) during five periods in 1993, 1994, 2005, and 2013.

Collé, R.; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Laureano–Perez, L.

2014-10-01

431

Life Sciences 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of  

E-print Network

Life Sciences 1 Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of --Life Sciences This publication refers syllabuses Life Sciences The Department of Life Sciences (Faculty of Natural Sciences) at Imperial comprises. The Department has an outstanding international reputation for research in the life sciences. The wide specialist

432

Structural Validity of the Life Regard Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Counselors and researchers interested in examining meaning in life often use the Life Regard Index (LRI; J. Battista & R. Almond, 1973). In this study, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of several factor models based on J. Battista & R. Almond's work failed to support the structural validity of the LRI. CFA results suggested an influence of…

Steger, Michael F.

2007-01-01

433

Theory and Validity of Life Satisfaction Scales  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National accounts of subjective well-being are being considered and adopted by nations. In order to be useful for policy deliberations, the measures of life satisfaction must be psychometrically sound. The reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of life satisfaction measures are reviewed. The scales are stable under unchanging conditions,…

Diener, Ed; Inglehart, Ronald; Tay, Louis

2013-01-01

434

Computational Challenges from the Tree of Life  

E-print Network

Computational Challenges from the Tree of Life Bernard M.E. Moret compbio.unm.edu Department Challenge: The Tree of Life AnimalsPurple bacteria Chlamydiae Pyrodictium Thermococcus Slime molds Aquifex Diplomonads Trichomonads Methanococcus BACTERIA EUKARYA ARCHEA ­ p. 1 #12;Scale of The Tree

Moret, Bernard

435

The Quality of Life in Hong Kong  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

Sing, Ming

2009-01-01

436

The Shapley value of phylogenetic trees.  

PubMed

Every weighted tree corresponds naturally to a cooperative game that we call a tree game; it assigns to each subset of leaves the sum of the weights of the minimal subtree spanned by those leaves. In the context of phylogenetic trees, the leaves are species and this assignment captures the diversity present in the coalition of species considered. We consider the Shapley value of tree games and suggest a biological interpretation. We determine the linear transformation M that shows the dependence of the Shapley value on the edge weights of the tree, and we also compute a null space basis of M. Both depend on the split counts of the tree. Finally, we characterize the Shapley value on tree games by four axioms, a counterpart to Shapley's original theorem on the larger class of cooperative games. We also include a brief discussion of the core of tree games. PMID:17805545

Haake, Claus-Jochen; Kashiwada, Akemi; Su, Francis Edward

2008-04-01

437

Measuring the quality of later life.  

PubMed Central

This paper examines quality of life as a scientific construct with a wide range of applications. The assessment of patients' quality of life is assuming increasing importance in medicine and health care. Illnesses, diseases and their treatments can have significant impacts on such areas of functioning as mobility, mood, life satisfaction, sexuality, cognition and ability to fulfil occupational, social and family roles. The emerging quality of life construct may be viewed as a paradigm shift in outcome measurement since it shifts the focus of attention from symptoms to functioning. This holistic approach more clearly establishes the patient as the centre of attention and subsumes many of the traditional measures of outcome. Quality of life assessment is particularly relevant to ageing populations both for healthy elderly and for those who develop chronic diseases where maintenance of quality of life rather than cure may be the primary goal of treatment. This paper introduces the concept of quality of life and describes the significant difficulties in definition, measurement and interpretation that must be addressed before such measures can be used as reliable and valid indicators of disease impact and treatment outcomes. It is argued that approaches to quality of life assessment in the elderly should incorporate advances in knowledge about the psychological adaptation to ageing. Consequently, the unique perspective of the individual on his or her own quality of life must be incorporated into outcome assessments aimed at improving the quality of health care. Incorporating measures of subjective outcome such as quality of life into policy decisions on resource allocation in health care will prove one of the major challenges for health services over the next decade. PMID:9460072

O'Boyle, C A

1997-01-01

438

Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

2012-01-01

439

Capacity Value of Wind Power - Summary  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for generation system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to generation system aequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America, along with some new analysis, are highlighted with a discussion of relevant issues also given.

O'Malley, M.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Dent, C.; Keane, A.

2010-01-01

440

Lie symmetries of nonlinear boundary value problems  

E-print Network

Nonlinear boundary value problems (BVPs) by means of the classical Lie symmetry method are studied. A new definition of Lie invariance for BVPs are proposed by the generalization of existing those on much wider class of BVPs. The class of two-dimensional nonlinear boundary value problem, modeling the process of melting and evaporation of metals, is studied in details. Using the definition proposed, all possible Lie symmetries and the relevant reductions (with physical meaning) to BVPs for ordinary differential equations are constructed. An example how to construct exact solution of the problem with correctly-specified coefficients is presented and compared with the results of numerical simulations published earlier.

Cherniha, Roman

2010-01-01

441

Science, Policy, and the Transparency of Values  

PubMed Central

Background: Opposing groups of scientists have recently engaged in a heated dispute over a preliminary European Commission (EC) report on its regulatory policy for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition to the scientific issues at stake, a central question has been how scientists can maintain their objectivity when informing policy makers. Objectives: Drawing from current ethical, conceptual, and empirical studies of objectivity and conflicts of interest in scientific research, we propose guiding principles for communicating scientific findings in a manner that promotes objectivity, public trust, and policy relevance. Discussion: Both conceptual and empirical studies of scientific reasoning have shown that it is unrealistic to prevent policy-relevant scientific research from being influenced by value judgments. Conceptually, the current dispute over the EC report illustrates how scientists are forced to make value judgments about appropriate standards of evidence when informing public policy. Empirical studies provide further evidence that scientists are unavoidably influenced by a variety of potentially subconscious financial, social, political, and personal interests and values. Conclusions: When scientific evidence is inconclusive and major regulatory decisions are at stake, it is unrealistic to think that values can be excluded from scientific reasoning. Thus, efforts to suppress or hide interests or values may actually damage scientific objectivity and public trust, whereas a willingness to bring implicit interests and values into the open may be the best path to promoting good science and policy. Citation: Elliott KC, Resnik DB. 2014. Science, policy, and the transparency of values. Environ Health Perspect 122:647–650;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408107 PMID:24667564

Resnik, David B.

2014-01-01

442

The Quality of Life in Singapore  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Asia Barometer Survey of 1,038 respondents shows that most Singaporeans are happy and enjoy life, although they do not feel a correspondingly high level of accomplishment. Good health, a comfortable home, a job, time with family and having enough to eat emerged as key priorities in life. While Singaporeans are most satisfied with their…

Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Tan, Soo Jiuan; Kau, Ah Keng

2009-01-01

443

Mechanical Simulation of a Half-Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The exponential function model of radioactive decay and the concept of a half-life are used in nuclear experiments that appear in introductory and intermediate laboratories. In our interactions with students, we have found that students at all levels have significant confusion about both the term exponential and what is meant by a half-life as…

Grove, T. T.; Masters, M. F.

2008-01-01

444

THE DISCOVERY OF LIFE ON MARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is life on Mars. Evidence that the Red Planet harbors life and has for eons was discovered by the author by examining NASA photograph PIA10214, a westward view of the West Valley of the Columbia Basin in the Gusev Crater that was taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in November 2007 and beamed back to the Earth. This

Andrew D. Basiago

445

The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen  

E-print Network

Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 NP #12;The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen ­ `The Daring Viking' Fram:1890's Kodak Brownie Camera Events of Period U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 #12;The.S. Civil War 1861-1865 2nd Industrial Rev. 1880's Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 #12;The Inspirational Life

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

446

The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen  

E-print Network

with dead bodies," Roland Huntford Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 Let's name the countries Scandanavian Nations with dead bodies," Roland Huntford Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 F #12;The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 F S #12;The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen ­ ,,The Daring Viking "Polar exploration

Fabrikant, Sara Irina

447

Triggers of daily life ischaemia  

PubMed Central

Objective—To determine the usual triggers of silent and symptomatic ischaemia.?Design—Patients wore an ambulatory recorder for 48 hours. The device emitted a tone on detection of ischaemia and patients noted activities, feelings, and symptoms so that ischaemia could be attributed to one of four triggers: physical stress, mental stress, combined physical/mental stress, or no stressor.?Setting—Home environment.?Patients—Patients (n = 38) with stable coronary disease, positive exercise electrocardiography, and ischaemic episodes on ambulatory electrocardiography.?Main outcome measure—Matching ischaemic episodes with perceived triggers.?Results—Altogether 257 ischaemic episodes (53% silent) were documented. Triggers were: physical stress, 56%; mental stress, 5%; combined physical/mental stress, 8%; no identifiable trigger, 31%. Episodes associated with mental or no stress were more often silent (69% and 75%, respectively) than those associated with physical stress (45%, p < 0.01), while combined physical/mental stress episodes were usually symptomatic (10% silent, p < 0.01 v other stressors). Although physical stress was less commonly a trigger of silent ischaemia than angina (47% v 65%, p < 0.01), it was still the predominant trigger of silent ischaemia. There was no identifiable trigger in 45% of silent and only 17% of anginal episodes (p < 0.01). Only nine silent episodes involved mental stress alone as a trigger.?Conclusions—Daily life ischaemia is usually triggered by physical activity. Mental stress alone is an uncommon trigger of either silent or symptomatic ischaemia, while combined physical/mental stress is a significant but minor trigger of angina. Patients can identify a trigger in 83% of anginal episodes, compared with only half of silent ischaemic episodes.?? Keywords: silent ischaemia;  ambulatory electrocardiography PMID:9930050

Freedman, S; Wong, C

1998-01-01

448

The value of medical care for health promotion.  

PubMed Central

A "rediscovery" of the value of prevention in the 1970s has led to the denigration of medical care, which had been occurring also for other reasons--aversion to high technology, demonstrable abuses, spiraling medical costs, etc. The achievements of prevention in conquering infectious diseases had long been recognized, and preventive strategies in the 1970s and 1980s were beginning to show reductions in mortality from the non-communicable chronic diseases as well. Yet the benefits of medical care in extending life expectancy over recent decades have often been overlooked. The quality of life in the later years has also been substantially improved by effective medical care. Most important, access to medical care has definite value in facilitating the prevention of disease and the promotion of health, both in developing and developed countries. It is too often forgotten that prevention embodies a range of activities, merging from general health promotion through specific disease prevention and early case-detection to rehabilitation and prevention of disability. Medical care, in other words, should not be counterposed to prevention, but rather should be integrated with it for the benefit of both health strategies. PMID:6696154

Roemer, M I

1984-01-01

449

Puzzles of Biochemistry of Extraterrestrial Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological exclusion principles are briefly explained. The author would like to discuss whether or not the exclusion principle can also be applied on biochemistry and molecular biology of extraterrestrial life.

Oshima, T.

2013-11-01

450

The Definition of Life and The Origin of Life on Earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition and origin of life are key questions at the heart of astrobiology, yet we do not have a consensus definition of life, for this requires an understanding of the nature of living systems that has not yet been achieved. Such an understanding is critical for many areas of astrobiology, including the origin and evolution of life on Earth, the detection of extant or extinct life on other solar system bodies, and the possibility for alternative carbon-based life. Ultimately, the question ``What is life?" becomes reduced to listing canonical features of terrestrial life that can be used to construct models for the origin of life and to develop possible ``biosignatures" for detecting life elsewhere. Origin of life studies have focused on the conditions during the first few hundred million years after Earth accreted, the sequence of chemical and biochemical steps leading to a living entity, the characteristics of the earliest microbial communities, and the events leading to greater complexity at the levels of individual cells, multi-cellular organisms and ecosystems. Theories on the origin of life range from the first living entity being clay crystals, protein or ribonucleic acid worlds (``RNA world"), metabolizing entities without information-containing molecules, or self-assembling membranes capable of capturing proteins and nucleic acids. It may be that in fact all of these theories played a role in the origin of life drama, perhaps at different times and places. Even though some experimental progress has been made, the origin of life remains one of the great-unsolved questions of science. Moreover, the possibility for multiple origins of life is an open question with profound implications for detecting life elsewhere in the universe

Baross, J. A.

2002-12-01

451

On the value of a language  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We live in an age where the extinction of languages has become a topic of discussion in many different circles. Opinions on whether the process should be stopped or considered profitable differ widely even in the field of linguistics, let alone in the public domain. A rational attitude presupposes the recognition that a language may constitute a value for some and that value judgements are controlled by more or less outspoken and divergent interests. In the case of a language, interest is taken in its maintenance (or suppression) at all the levels from the individual via the speech community and the scientific community up to mankind. These interests have to be made explicit before the value of a language can be assessed. Ultimately, such an evaluation must even be confronted with the costs that arise in the maintenance of a minority language or in the revitalization of a dying language.

Lehmann, Christian

2006-05-01

452

Statistical analysis of life history calendar data.  

PubMed

The life history calendar is a data-collection tool for obtaining reliable retrospective data about life events. To illustrate the analysis of such data, we compare the model-based probabilistic event history analysis and the model-free data mining method, sequence analysis. In event history analysis, we estimate instead of transition hazards the cumulative prediction probabilities of life events in the entire trajectory. In sequence analysis, we compare several dissimilarity metrics and contrast data-driven and user-defined substitution costs. As an example, we study young adults' transition to adulthood as a sequence of events in three life domains. The events define the multistate event history model and the parallel life domains in multidimensional sequence analysis. The relationship between life trajectories and excess depressive symptoms in middle age is further studied by their joint prediction in the multistate model and by regressing the symptom scores on individual-specific cluster indices. The two approaches complement each other in life course analysis; sequence analysis can effectively find typical and atypical life patterns while event history analysis is needed for causal inquiries. PMID:23117406

Eerola, Mervi; Helske, Satu

2012-11-01

453

Impact Assessment of Life Management Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a research project designed to determine if the model Life Management Curriculum formulated in Project III-6-987 and available at California community colleges since 1987 is meeting intended goals and if male and female students are making progress in achieving career/family balance and improved quality of life. An evaluation…

Driggers, Joann; Wright, Richard N.

454

The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

455

Offender Perceptions on the Value of Employment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of

Scott, Terri-Lynne

2010-01-01

456

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture  

E-print Network

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture Gregory Graff, Ryan Mortenson, Rebecca Goldbach, Dawn of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agricultural Sciences, and the Office of Engagement Colorado the Colorado Department of Agriculture and the Colorado State University Office of Engagement. The authors

Stephens, Graeme L.

457

The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

2006-01-01

458

Career Values of the New Lifestyle Professionals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports the descriptive results of a national study undertaken to profile the 1982 graduating college senior in terms of his or her work-related attitudes, interests, expectations, perceptions, and values. Introductory sections present a statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, a review of the literature, and a discussion of…

LaMarre, Sandra E.; Hopkins, David M.

459

Exploring the Value of the Whole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the relationship between parts and the whole. These relationships were developed earlier and require the students to consider the size or value of the same fraction when different "wholes" are compared (i.e., the value of x is relative to the whole; x of a small pie is not equivalent to x of a large pie). This lesson promotes problem solving and reasoning as the students compare similar fractions with different "wholes." Students develop communication skills as they work in pairs and share their understanding about the relationship between the value of a fraction and the whole. (from NCTM Illuminations) This is the last lesson of a five lesson unit.

Illuminations

2012-02-05

460

26 CFR 20.2031-7 - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...the fair market value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2014-04-01

461

26 CFR 20.2031-7 - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...the fair market value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2012-04-01

462

26 CFR 20.2031-7 - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...the fair market value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2013-04-01

463

Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

Pohorille, Andrew

2006-01-01

464

Nutritional Value of Crude Glycerin for Nonruminants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The apparent metabolizable energy value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the ISU Swine Nutrition Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight (BW) of 11.0 ±0.5kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal diet combined...

465

Mining the network value of customers  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major applications of data mining is in helping companies determine which potential customers to market to. If the expected profit from a customer is greater than the cost of marketing to her, the marketing action for that customer is executed. So far, work in this area has considered only the intrinsic value of the customer (i.e, the

Pedro Domingos; Matthew Richardson

2001-01-01

466

Personal Value Systems of Managers and Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present report summarizes the major findings of the Personal Values Project being conducted at the University of Minnesota for the past six years. A number of studies have been completed dealing with various groups of individuals in diverse organizational settings (managers, educational administrators, union leaders and naval officers). These…

England, George W.

467

"Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

468

Educational Computing: Mirrors of Educational Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper looks at how computers are used in education and discusses how the uses with which they have come to be commonly associated are more a reflection of dominant values about education and knowledge than of the intrinsic characteristics or qualities of computers themselves. The critique of educational computing offered by Michael Streibel is used as the start point.

Vivien E. Hodgson

1993-01-01

469

Tolerating failures of continuous-valued sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures onto one that can is presented. Issues addressed include modifying specifications in order to accommodate uncertainty in sensor values and averaging sensor values in a fault tolerant manner. In addition, a hierarchy of sensor failure models is identified, and both the attainable accuracy and the run-time complexity of sensor averaging with respect to this hierarchy is discussed.

Marzullo, Keith

1990-01-01

470

Detecting Molecular Signatures of Life on Mars: the Life Marker Chip (lmc) Instrument  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the rise of interest in planetary exploration and the emergence of Astrobiology as a promising field of research have lead to a number of programmes aiming to develop sensitive instruments for the detection of the molecular signatures of life in extreme environments. An antibody assay-based life detection instrument, the Life Marker Chip (LMC), is currently under development

Mariliza Derveni

2010-01-01

471

Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

Yalcin, Ilhan

2011-01-01

472

Measurement and utilization of healthy life expectancy: conceptual issues.  

PubMed Central

The periodic calculation of healthy life expectancies permits the evaluation of the impact of new health policies at a given moment, as well as the assessment of trends under changing health conditions. In spite of their apparent simplicity, the results obtained will have to be interpreted by experts. Useful reference values can be provided by international comparisons. However, several choices remain to be made, such as (i) the types of morbidity and disability data to be associated with mortality data; (ii) the multiple indicators available; (iii) the type of observations to be recorded, i.e., "abilities" or "performances"; (iv) whether or not the recovery of lost functions should be considered; (v) the mode of computation, i.e., life expectancy before the first morbid event or global healthy life expectancy; and (vi) the determination of thresholds based on either relative or absolute criteria. PMID:1486677

Robine, J. M.; Michel, J. P.; Branch, L. G.

1992-01-01

473

Investigating Pedagogical Value of Wiki Technology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study investigates the potential of Wiki technology as a tool for teaching and learning. Wikis are a component of Web 2.0 technology tools that provide collaborative features and active learning opportunities in a web-based environment. This research study sought to empirically determine the pedagogical value of using Wiki…

Hazari, Sunil; North, Alexa; Moreland, Deborah

2009-01-01

474

An Analysis of Economic Value Added  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview and analysis of the Economic Value Added metric. Several large, well known companies have begun to use EVA in recent years as an internal measure of performance, and one may speculate that its popularity will only continue. This paper shows what the EVA metric is and highlights some advantages and

Mike Rago

2008-01-01

475

Enhancing the Educational Value of Business Internships  

Microsoft Academic Search

The educational value of business internships can be enhanced through academic assignments. Seven assignments are suggested that are both practical and reflective in nature. These assignments are described in terms of their ability to promote the following learning objectives: (a)understand one's self and the job context, (b) gather evidence of experience gained, (c) learn how to learn from experience, and

Sue Campbell Clark

2003-01-01

476

Quality of life theory III. Maslow revisited.  

PubMed

In 1962, Abraham Maslow published his book Towards a Psychology of Being, and established a theory of quality of life, which still is considered a consistent theory of quality of life. Maslow based his theory for development towards happiness and true being on the concept of human needs. He described his approach as an existentialistic psychology of self-actualization, based on personal growth. When we take more responsibility for our own life, we take more of the good qualities that we have into use, and we become more free, powerful, happy, and healthy. It seems that Maslow's concept of self-actualization can play an important role in modern medicine. As most chronic diseases often do not disappear in spite of the best biomedical treatments, it might be that the real change our patients have for betterment is understanding and living the noble path of personal development. The hidden potential for improving life really lies in helping the patient to acknowledge that his or her lust for life, his or her needs, and his or her wish to contribute, is really deep down in human existence one and the same. But you will only find this hidden meaning of life if you scrutinize your own life and existence closely enough, to come to know your innermost self. PMID:14570995

Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jørgen

2003-10-13

477

The value of genuine and polite smiles.  

PubMed

Humans show remarkable ability to adapt their social behavior to suit the changing requirements of their interactions. An interaction partner's social cues, particularly facial expressions, likely play an important role in motivating and reinforcing this behavioral adaptation. Over three studies, we test a key aspect of this idea. Specifically, we ask how the reinforcement value of facial expressions compares to that of nonsocial feedback and to what degree two frequently occurring expressions (genuine and polite smiles) differ in reinforcement value. Our findings show that social feedback is preferred over nonsocial feedback and that genuine smiles are preferred over polite smiles. Based on a logistic model of our data, we show that both monetary and social values of stimuli contribute significantly to participants' decisions. Indeed, participants were willing to sacrifice the chance of a monetary reward to receive a genuine smile and produced inflated estimates of the value of genuinely smiling faces. These findings suggest that genuine smiles, and potentially other social cues, may be useful social reinforcers and therefore important in the control of social behavior on a moment-to-moment basis during interaction. PMID:21401236

Shore, Danielle M; Heerey, Erin A

2011-02-01

478

Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications  

SciTech Connect

This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.