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1

The values of life.  

PubMed

In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational value which gradually develops from some point substantially later than conception. PMID:11656609

Den Hartogh, Govert

1997-01-01

2

Valuing QALYs at the end of life.  

PubMed

The possibility of weighting QALYs differently for different groups of patients has been a source of debate. Most recently, this debate has been extended to the relative value of QALYs at the end of life (EoL). The objective of this study is to provide evidence of societal preferences in relation to this topic. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted amongst Spanish general population (n = 813). Survey 1 compared increases in life expectancy for EoL patients with health gains from temporary health problems. Survey 2 compared health gains for temporary health problems with quality of life gains at the EoL (palliative care). Survey 3 compared increases in life expectancy with quality of life gains, both for EoL patients. Preferences were elicited using Person Trade-Off (PTO) and Willingness to pay (WTP) techniques presenting two different durations of health benefit (6 and 18 months). Health benefits, measured in QALYs, were held constant in all comparisons. In survey 1 mean WTP was higher for life extending treatments than for temporary health problems and the majority of respondents prioritised life extension over temporary health problems in response to the PTO questions. In survey 2 mean WTP was higher for palliative care than for temporary health problems and 83% prioritized palliative care (for both durations) in the PTO questions. In survey 3 WTP values were higher for palliative care than for life extending treatments and more than 60% prioritized palliative care in the PTO questions. Our results suggest that QALYs gained from EoL treatments have a higher social value than QALYs gained from treatments for temporary health problems. Further, we found that people attach greater weight to improvements in quality of life than to life extension at the end of life. PMID:24820408

Pinto-Prades, Jose-Luis; Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando-Ignacio; Corbacho, Belen; Baker, Rachel

2014-07-01

3

Value of Human Life in Canada. 173 ARTICLE XIII. --On the Relative Value of Human Life in Diffe-  

E-print Network

Value of Human Life in Canada. 173 ARTICLE XIII. -- On the Relative Value of Human Life in Diffe 40 Thus the inhabitants of the best houses, in the best streets, live #12;Value of Human Life the population greatly fluctuates, according to the accidents of im- migration or commercial prosperity, the same

Genest, Christian

4

Frederick Douglass & the Value of My Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" can be used to explore differences between biography and autobiography, and how a personal account can be used to change attitudes of others. Presents poems written by 10th- and 11th-grade students composed after reading Douglass's "Narrative."…

Adisa, Opal Palmer

1996-01-01

5

Conditions of Life and Parental Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Kohn's work on the relationship between social class and parental values was expanded by searching for value dimensions other than Kohn's self-direction/conformity construct and by investigating three aspects of social structure: immigrant status, quality of neighborhood, and housing type. Data were collected from parents of 305 9- to 11-year-old…

Burns, Ailsa; And Others

6

Life values in patients with COPD: Relations with pulmonary functioning and health related quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theories of coping and response shift have suggested that emotional adaptation is related to value changes, e.g. a deemphasized importance of lost life values and an enlargement of the scope of values. Perceived attainment and importance of 82 life values were examined in 65 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and related to clinical and Health-Related Quality of Life

Lars-Olof Persson; Carl-Peter Engström; Anna Rydén; Sven Larsson; Marianne Sullivan

2005-01-01

7

Health as a Life Value of Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is based on materials from a questionnaire survey of tenth-graders in the city of Toliatti [Togliatti], conducted by the monitoring division of the Resource Center of the Department of Education. A total of 958 adolescents in eighteen schools took part in the survey in March and April 2005. Nine schools served as "base" schools, which…

Tsvetkova, I. V.

2006-01-01

8

Introduction: The Right to Life and the Value of Life: Orientations in Law, Politics and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biological and political processes which create, maintain, and end life, are assessed within the evolving parameters of the 'right to life' and the 'value of life.' These processes are the product of a multi-dimensional relationship between individuals, companies, and governments, and it is necessary to place these relationships under scrutiny to ensure that mortal choices are made legitimately (see

Jon Yorke

9

What Determines the Value of Life? A Meta-Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A large literature has developed in which labor market contracts are used to estimate the value of a statistical life (VSL). Reported estimates of the VSL vary substantially, from less than $100,000 to more than $25 million. This research uses meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the VSL literature. Results from existing studies are pooled to…

Mrozek, Janusz R.; Taylor, Laura O.

2002-01-01

10

Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

2010-01-01

11

Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

Carlstrom, Aaron H.

2011-01-01

12

Performance of valued life activities reflected asthma-specific quality of life more than general physical function  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe examined the prevalence of disability in valued life activities (VLAs) among a group of adults with asthma and the impact of general physical function and performance of VLAs on asthma-specific quality of life (QOL).

Patricia P. Katz; Edward H. Yelin; Mark D. Eisner; Gillian Earnest; Paul D. Blanc

2004-01-01

13

MEASUREMENT OF PARAMETERS TO VALUE HUMAN LIFE EXTENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In safety analysis as in engineering, the development of a satisfactory mathematical model is required to identify the parameters that need to be measured and calculated. The establishment of a proper calculus of safety begins with the recognition that the fundamental concept is life expectancy, and then, by extension, the increase in life expectancy that a safety measure brings about.

Philip Thomas; Roger Jones; James Kearns

2009-01-01

14

The value of genetic information in the life insurance market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the effects of additional information in a life insurance market under adverse selection. Individuals have an incentive to acquire information about their risk type if their informational status cannot be observed by insurers. In aggregate, however, the existence of a testing opportunity has an effect on the equilibrium premium. We describe the conditions under which, from an

Michael Hoy; Mattias Polborn

2000-01-01

15

How Do People Value Life?  

PubMed Central

Who should be saved when health resources are limited? Although bioethicists and policymakers continue to debate which metric should be used to evaluate health interventions, public policy is also subject to public opinion. We investigated how the public values life when evaluating vaccine-allocation policies during a flu epidemic. We found that people’s ratings of the acceptability of policies were dramatically influenced by question framing. When policies were described in terms of lives saved, people judged them on the basis of the number of life years gained. In contrast, when the policies were described in terms of lives lost, people considered the age of the policy’s beneficiaries, taking into account the number of years lived to prioritize young targets for the health intervention. In addition, young targets were judged as more valuable in general, but young participants valued young targets even more than older participants did. PMID:20424038

Li, Meng; Vietri, Jeffrey; Galvani, Alison P.; Chapman, Gretchen B.

2012-01-01

16

At Home in the Web of Life: Religious Values & Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1995, Appalachian Catholic bishops released a pastoral letter stating that Appalachia, the nation, and the world stand at a crossroads concerning future development. One direction continues down the path of ecological and social devastation. The bishops encourage the path of sustainable development based on religious values of respect for…

Rausch, John S.

1996-01-01

17

Major life goals of college students: An investigation of personality traits, vocational interests, and values.  

E-print Network

??Life goals, values, vocational interests, and personality traits are important factors that influence career and everyday life decision-making. This dissertation presents a framework for how… (more)

Sun, Jo-Tzu

2011-01-01

18

The Effect of Urban Life on Traditional Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three models are elaborated that predict an association between urbanism and nontraditional behavior. Secondary analysis of American survey data on religiosity, church attendance, and attitudes toward alcohol and birth control confirm the general urbanism-deviance association and suggest the accuracy of the model which regards such behavior as due…

Fischer, Claude S.

1975-01-01

19

An internalist view on the value of life and some tricky cases relevant to it.  

PubMed

If we understand death as the irreversible loss of the good life, we can give meaning to the idea that for suffering patients in the end stage of their illness, life may become an evil and death no longer a threat. Life may lose its good already in the living person. But what does the good of life consist in, then? I defend an internalist view according to which the goodness of life is intrinsically related to the attitudes, concerns, interests and experiences of the person who is leading the life. This results in the contention that the core of what we understand as the value of the person's life is to be identified with what makes life go well for the person living the particular life. This internalist view does not presuppose (or imply) hedonism or mentalism, nor does it pose an experience requirement. Something may be good for you, because it is valuable as seen from your authentic viewpoint, even if you do not actually experience this goodness, or think otherwise because you are mistaken about your own well-being. To test this position, and the authenticity-requirement it includes, I discuss three cases of patients who are persistent in denying that in their life any value is left and who contend that death is not worse than further living. Internalism acknowledges that in the life of these patients there may be 'functionings' and 'beings' that are worthwhile, where the test of value is at least partially independent of subjective assessment. Still, internalism claims that something truly valuable can only contribute to the good of one's life of it has positive meaning as seen from the attitudinal viewpoint that identifies oneself. PMID:14582500

Van Willigenburg, T

2001-01-01

20

The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.  

PubMed Central

Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems. PMID:1413777

Klessig, J

1992-01-01

21

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2013-07-01

22

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2012-07-01

23

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2011-07-01

24

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2013-04-01

25

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2010-04-01

26

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2012-04-01

27

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2014-04-01

28

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2011-04-01

29

Prediction of Drug Abuse by the Life Values Questionnaire: Interim Report, May 1973-February 1974.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three experimental psychological tests were investigated to determine if they added significantly to the prediction of eight drug abuse criteria when combined with a basic predictor set consisting of background variables only. Of the four tests investigated, only one, the Life Values Questionnaire appeared to add any significant unique variance to…

Weeks, Joseph L.; And Others

30

Whose knowledge? What values? The comparative politics of patenting life forms in the United States  

E-print Network

Whose knowledge? What values? The comparative politics of patenting life forms in the United States decades, a variety of groups have begun to argue that the US and European patent systems do not adequately represent the public interest in their decision making and that they need to undergo fundamental changes

Colorado at Boulder, University of

31

Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined patients' and surro- gates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement pro- ject, a longitudinal study designed to investigate psychological assumptions underlying

Nikki Ayers Hawkins; Peter H. Ditto; Joseph H. Danks; William D. Smucker

2005-01-01

32

Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined patients' and surrogates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement project, a…

Hawkins, Nikki Ayers; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

2005-01-01

33

Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently\\u000a debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal\\u000a was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL).\\u000a We focused on the impact of value

Richard Heijink; Pieter van Baal; Mark Oppe; Xander Koolman; Gert Westert

2011-01-01

34

Valuing the person's story: Use of life story books in a continuing care setting  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing focus on promoting person-centred systems across continuing care settings, emphasizing the need to enhance the quality of life of older adults. Life story books (LSB) can provide a holistic view of older adults, promote relationship-centred care and enhance person-centred care. The process of developing LSB involve collecting and recording aspects of a person’s life both past and present. The purpose of this study was to engage residents in developing life story books in a nursing home setting and then to explore the narratives and documented life story books with residents and their families. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was utilized for the study. Five residents and three family carers participated. Focus groups were tape recorded and thematically analyzed and a review of the LSB was conducted. The central themes from the data analysis related to the social construction of people’s lives, social roles and religious values, relationships and loss, and sense of self. PMID:18982924

Wills, Teresa; Day, Mary Rose

2008-01-01

35

'In a twilight world'? Judging the value of life for the minimally conscious patient.  

PubMed

The recent ruling from England on the case of M is one of very few worldwide to consider whether life-sustaining treatment, in the form of clinically assisted nutrition and hydration, should continue to be provided to a patient in a minimally conscious state. Formally concerned with the English law pertaining to precedent autonomy (specifically advance decision-making) and the best interests of the incapacitated patient, the judgment issued in M's case implicitly engages with three different accounts of the value of human life, which respectively emphasise its self-determined, intrinsic and instrumental value. The judge appeared to be most persuaded by the intrinsic value of life and he concluded that treatment ought to continue. Assessing whether his approach or conclusion were ethically appropriate involves significant substantive and evidential questions regarding where the burden of proof should lie and what standard of proof should be required when decisions are to be made about the fates of patients inhabiting 'twilight worlds'. PMID:23065494

Huxtable, Richard

2013-09-01

36

The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

2010-01-01

37

Life Sciences IBM Institute for Business Value  

E-print Network

Life Sciences IBM Institute for Business Value IBM Global Business Services Cultivating innovation of California, San Francisco, reveals the business models and attitudes that can help make these collaborations. 2 IBM Global Business Services #12;3 Cultivating innovation beyond corporate walls Cultivating

38

Mapping oral health related quality of life to generic health state values  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A summary utility index is useful for deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for cost analyses or disability weights for burden of disease studies. However, many quality of life instruments provide descriptive profiles rather than a single utility index. Transforming quality of life instruments to a utility index could extend the use of quality of life instruments to costs analyses

David S Brennan; A John Spencer

2006-01-01

39

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

40

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

41

Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

Elosua, Paula

2011-01-01

42

Inherent Variation in Stable Isotope Values and Discrimination Factors in Two Life Stages of Green Turtles  

E-print Network

employing stable isotope analysis so that differences in diet or habitat are more accurately identified. Introduction Stable isotope analysis is commonly used to investigate con- sumer foraging patterns in ecological431 Inherent Variation in Stable Isotope Values and Discrimination Factors in Two Life Stages

43

Keene v. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Inc.: On the Value of a Life with Mental Retardation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analysis of the Keene malpractice court case, which awarded compensatory damages to a child with severe disabilities probably contracted shortly after birth, focuses on how the court calculated life expectancy and the loss of life enjoyment, concluding discrimination against people with mental retardation, in that the decision assumes these…

Vitello, Stanley J.

2003-01-01

44

The Income Elasticity of the Value per Statistical Life: Transferring Estimates between High and Low Income Populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The income elasticity of the value per statistical life (VSL) is an important parameter for policy analysis. Mortality risk reductions often dominate the quantified benefits of environmental and other policies, and estimates of their value are frequently transferred across countries with significantly different income levels. U.S. regulatory agencies typically assume that a 1.0 percent change in real income over time

James K. Hammitt; Lisa A. Robinson

2011-01-01

45

Neutron life time value measured by storing ultracold neutrons with detection of inelastically scattered neutrons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The neutron life time ?n was measured by storage of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a material bottle covered with Fomblin oil. The inelastically scattered neutrons were detected by surrounding neutron counters monitoring the UCN losses due to upscattering at the bottle walls. Comparing traps with different surface to volume ratios the free neutron life time was deduced. Consistent results for

S. Arzumanov; L. Bondarenko; S. Chernyavsky; W. Drexel; A. Fomin; P. Geltenbort; V. Morozov; Y. Panin; J. Pendlebury; K. Schreckenbach

2000-01-01

46

[An approach to abortion and immigration in Spain. The social economic value of the human life].  

PubMed

This paper enters the analysis of the phenomenon of the abortion in Spain, across the study of the reasons of his practices in the group of immigrant women resident in Murcia. The following aims appear are: a) know the prevalence of abortions in the immigrant population of an urban center of primary care health in the state of Murcia, b) know the personal attitude before this population's c) analized abortion this population's socio-economic and religious characteristics and to value their possible relationship with the abortion. The material and method used form a descriptive traverse study, carried out in primary care (Center of primary care San Andrés-state of Murcia) carried out during the months of June to December of 2007. 230 women were included. The collection of data was made by means of interview clinic carrying out a survey semistructured with open and closed questions, in total 14 items, enlarged to 23 items in case one declares voluntary abortions. The Results show us as the fundamental motives for those who are aborted they were the lack of economic means, the disadvantages for his personal projects and the pressure on the part of his pair or family. The conclusions, force first, from the bioethic reflection, to the denunciation of the political- social inaction with regard to the abortion and the ideological manipulation of the socioeconomic reasons of the same practices; and secondly, to the promotion of networks of help to the embarrassed woman and to the public defense of the absolute value of the human life. PMID:21090843

Fernández López, Maria Isabel; Carrillo Navarro, Francisco; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Carrillo Cañaveras, Israel; Carrillo Navarro, Efraím; Lozano Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández Riquelme, Sergio; Pastor, Luis Miguel

2010-01-01

47

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15

48

Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.  

PubMed

Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, ?-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

2014-04-01

49

An Empiric Estimate of theValue of Life: Updating the Renal Dialysis Cost-Effectiveness Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Proposals to make decisions about coverage of new technol- ogy by comparing the technology's incremental cost-effectiveness with the traditional benchmark of dialysis imply that the incremental cost- effectiveness ratio of dialysis is seen a proxy for the value of a statistical year of life. The frequently used ratio for dialysis has, however, not been updated to reflect more recently

Chris P. Lee; Glenn M. Chertow; Stefanos A. Zenios

2009-01-01

50

Exploring the Effects of Television Viewing on Perceived Life Quality: A Combined Perspective of Material Value and Upward Social Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

American television programs have been criticized for being filled with images endorsing capitalist consumerism and for being weighted toward the upper middle classes. This study proposed that heavy viewing of these distorted representations may culminate in decreases in viewers' life satisfaction. A path model investigated this supposition, based on material value and social comparison perspectives. Surveys were administered to 225

Hyeseung Yang; Mary Beth Oliver

2010-01-01

51

How to Shape Children's Value Attitudes toward the Rural Way of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The crisis of rural life in Russia involves a declining and aging population, emigration of rural young people to urban areas, lack of employment, and farms in urgent need of modernization. Programs in rural schools can be used more deliberately to encourage young people to remain in the village and to equip them to be agents of rural…

Gur'ianova, M. P.

2011-01-01

52

Implications of Life Style Preferences and Work Values on Careers for High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines new attitudes and explores impact on career development and life-style preferences of high school students. Data reveal a picture not unlike the present. There are indications that the lot of working women may be easier but some husbands will find the prospect of a working wife difficult to handle. (Author/BEF)

Burke, Ronald J.

1980-01-01

53

Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees  

PubMed Central

Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

2011-01-01

54

Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

2013-04-01

55

Women's Pursuit of Personal Goals in Daily Life With Fibromyalgia: A Value-Expectancy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-nine women with fibromyalgia completed the Life Orientation Test, identified health and social goals, and answered questions from the Goal Systems Assessment Battery (P. Karoly & L. Ruehlman, 1995) about their valuation of, and self-efficiency in attaining, each goal. For 30 days, they responded to palm-top computer interviews about their pain and fatigue and rated their goal effort, goal progress,

Glenn Affleck; Howard Tennen; Alex Zautra; Susan Urrows; Micha Abeles; Paul Karoly

2001-01-01

56

Ordinary nature: the value of exploring and restoring nature in everyday life  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal has been accomplished during the past decade in the area of urban wildlife conservation, restoration, and management. Natural resource managers and agencies have been responsible for initiating a wide variety of ambitious and innovative programs and policies, helping to gain new awareness and appreciation of the value of conserving and enhancing wildlife habitat and species in urban

Stephen Kellert

2004-01-01

57

Humangrowth: An Essay on Growth, Values and the Quality of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five essays analyze human needs and values in relation to population and economic growth. The first, "The Trouble With Growth," discusses current problems: the benefits of growth are unfairly distributed; growth can damage the environment and waste resources; unproductive and dysfunctional growth is not distinguished from productive and socially…

Cleveland, Harlan; Wilson, Thomas W., Jr.

58

Q value and half-life of double-electron capture in Os-184  

E-print Network

Os-184 has been excluded as a promising candidate for the search of neutrinoless double-electron capture. High-precision mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP resulted in a marginal resonant enhancement with = -8.89(58) keV excess energy to the 1322.152(22) keV 0+ excited state in W-184. State-of-the-art energy density functional calculations are applied for the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements to the excited states predicting a strong suppression due to the large deformation of mother and daughter states. The half-life of the transition in Os-184 exceeds T_{1/2} > 1.3 10^{29} years for an effective neutrino mass of 1 eV.

C. Smorra; T. R. Rodriguez; T. Beyer; K. Blaum; M. Block; Ch. E. Düllmann; K. Eberhardt; M. Eibach; S. Eliseev; K. Langanke; G. Martinez-Pinedo; Sz. Nagy; W. Nörtershäuser; D. Renisch; V. M. Shabaev; I. I. Tupitsyn; N. A. Zubova

2012-09-24

59

The development of life skills and values in high school sport: Is there a gap between stakeholder's expectations and perceived experiences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has shown that youth can learn life skills and values through sport, and a multitude of scholars assert that sport is a context that should promote the development of life skills and values, little research has investigated the collective expectations and experiences of youth sport stakeholders. This research was designed to examine stakeholders' expectations regarding the influence sport

Tanya Forneris; Martin Camiré; Pierre Trudel

2012-01-01

60

The development of life skills and values in high school sport: Is there a gap between stakeholder's expectations and perceived experiences?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although research has shown that youth can learn life skills and values through sport, and a multitude of scholars assert that sport is a context that should promote the development of life skills and values, little research has investigated the collective expectations and experiences of youth sport stakeholders. This research was designed to examine stakeholders' expectations regarding the influence sport

Tanya Forneris; Martin Camiré; Pierre Trudel

2011-01-01

61

Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?  

PubMed

The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being. PMID:24749643

Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

2014-08-01

62

Value of Human Life in Canada. 188 on some of the causes of the excessive mortality  

E-print Network

as for both Births and Deaths in the sur- rounding counties. Yet they only record religious ceremonies. The population of the six counties was 81,291 in 1861, to which the average increase, viz., 2,938, is added year,567 493 37.4 90 Average of 4 years 113,358 5,339 3,989 1,350 35.4 75 5. Six adjacent Counties: Returns

Genest, Christian

63

The derivation and application of a risk related value of the spend for saving a statistical life.  

PubMed

The concept of a risk related value of the spend for saving a statistical life (VSSSL) is advanced for use in cost-benefit studies across the power generation sector, and the nuclear industry in particular. For illustrative purposes, a best estimate VSSSL is set based on HSE guidance at 2 M pounds. Above a risk of 10(-3) y(-1) it is assumed that the VSSSL may approach this maximum sustainable value. As the risk reduces so does the VSSSL. At a risk level of 10(-6) y(-1) a VSSSL of 0.5 M pounds is applied. For risks below 10(-9) y(-1) the value of further risk reduction approaches zero, although a nominal VSSSL of 10 k pounds is applied as a pragmatic way forward in this study. The implications of adopting this concept as an aid to decision making in determining the spend on radiological dose reduction measures are illustrated through a worked example with a banded approach to estimating collective dose. PMID:15080548

Jackson, D; Stone, D; Butler, G G; McGlynn, G

2004-03-01

64

The role and value of information for supply loop management: Framework and application for the end-of-life cell phone industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good decision making regarding product end-of-life management requires information from different life cycle stages. If information is missing or not accessible when needed by the decision maker, it can affect the performance of the entire supply loop. In this paper we investigate the role and value of information for supply loop management. We introduce a generic evaluation method to assess

Vered Doctori-Blass; Roland Geyer

2008-01-01

65

Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

Zelizer, Viviana A.

1978-01-01

66

Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

2011-01-01

67

Quality of Life in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Predictive Value of Disability and Support Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the concept of quality of life has increasingly been used in the field of intellectual disabilities over the past three decades, the factors contributing to quality of life of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received relatively little attention. In this study, disability and support characteristics associated with…

Renty, J. O.; Roeyers, Herbert

2006-01-01

68

The predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms for quality of life: a longitudinal study of physically injured victims of non-domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about longitudinal associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and quality of life (QoL) after exposure to violence. The aims of the current study were to examine quality of life (QoL) and the predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for QoL in victims of non-domestic violence over a period of 12 months. METHODS: A single-group (n

Venke A Johansen; Astrid K Wahl; Dag Erik Eilertsen; Lars Weisaeth; Berit R Hanestad

2007-01-01

69

The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

Razumnikova, O. M.

2005-01-01

70

Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes. Student attitudes of the use of IT are measured in a structural equation model derived from an instrument based on the principles of undergraduate practice of Chickering and Ehrmann (1996). Institutional and background data are included. By…

Sandler, Martin E.

2010-01-01

71

The 'V' Factor: Thinking About Values as The Epicentre of Leadership, Learning and Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper places the 'V' factor at the epicentre of meaningful and productive living, learning and leadership endeavour. It explores the authors' reflections upon their own professional experiences, research studies and review of the literature as they work towards establishing 'working with' leadership practices appropriate for a knowledge era. This paper also reports on Nanschild's preliminary PhD research findings of

Deborah Nanschild; Heather Davis

72

The Value of Vitalism and Schrodinger's "What Is Life?" in the Contemporary Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Classic experiments and novel ideas in the history of science are often mentioned in passing in contemporary college-level science curricula. This study indicates that the detailed and creative recapitulation of a few well-chosen and famous, if well-known, results and ideas has the potential to increase students' understanding and appreciation of

Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

2009-01-01

73

Nurturing the Life of the Mind: If Schools Don't Value Intellect, Who Will?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

If schools were strongholds of intellect, the most academically able would be stars. Gifted kids often have trouble with school; academically uninterested kids enjoy cult-hero status; and the humanities are undervalued. Schools' purpose has been to train future employees and consumers, not create intellectual citizens. (MLH)

Vail, Kathleen

2001-01-01

74

Life Satisfaction, Openness Value, Self-Transcendence, and Wisdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies suggest a positive association between life satisfaction and wisdom. In a sample with 123 European American\\u000a community-dwelling adults, the results suggest that wisdom and life satisfaction are positively intertwined, and that openness\\u000a value is an important factor for life satisfaction, a self-transcendence orientation, and wisdom.

Thao N. Le

2011-01-01

75

An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

2013-04-01

76

Muscles of mice deficient in -sarcoglycan maintain large masses and near control force values throughout the life span  

E-print Network

of the pathology and the effects on muscle structure and function throughout the life span are not known. Thus throughout the life span Christina M. Consolino,1,2 Franck Duclos,3 Jane Lee,3 Roger A. Williamson,4 Kevin P Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa Submitted 27 December 2004

Campbell, Kevin P.

77

Economic valuation of air pollution mortality: A 9-country contingent valuation survey of value of a life year (VOLY)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a key element for the calculation of the damage costs of air pollution, namely the valuation of mortality, important because premature mortality makes by far the largest contribution. Whereas several studies have tried to quantify the cost of air pollution mortality by multiplying a number of deaths by the ‘value of prevented fatality’ (also known as ‘value

B. Desaigues; D. Ami; A. Bartczak; M. Braun-Kohlová; S. Chilton; M. Czajkowski; V. Farreras; A. Hunt; M. Hutchison; C. Jeanrenaud; P. Kaderjak; V. Máca; O. Markiewicz; A. Markowska; H. Metcalf; S. Navrud; J. S. Nielsen; R. Ortiz; S. Pellegrini; A. Rabl; R. Riera; M. Scasny; M.-E. Stoeckel; R. Szántó; J. Urban

2011-01-01

78

Meaning and agency in discussing end-of-life care: a study of elderly veterans' values and interpretations.  

PubMed

The authors of this exploratory study used textual analysis of transcribed interviews to examine the mental constructs that individuals form around advance care terminology and to learn how elderly veterans conceptualize the language used in the Veterans Administration advance directive. They found that respondents often negotiated meaning by drawing on rigid schemas, specific mental constructs already in place: The Lord's Will, Machine Talk, Being a Burden, and Being Productive. The authors also examined the transcripts for agency. In addition to assigning external agency for end-of-life care decisions, respondents often expressed a complex interaction of "self" and "other" agency. These results challenge us to develop communication methods that allow patients to claim agency and participate fully in decisions regarding their health care, especially at the end of life. PMID:14556418

Young, Amanda J; Ofori-Boateng, Terri; Rodriguez, Keri L; Plowman, Judith L

2003-10-01

79

Work Preferences, Life Values, and Personal Views of Top Math\\/Science Graduate Students and the Profoundly Gifted: Developmental Changes and Gender Differences During Emerging Adulthood and Parenthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math\\/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers’ priorities changed.

Kimberley Ferriman; David Lubinski; Camilla P. Benbow

2009-01-01

80

Measuring and Valuing Health-Related Quality of Life among Children and Adolescents in Mainland China - A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D), a new generic preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, has been validated for use in young people in both the UK and Australia. The main objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using a Chinese version of the CHU9D (CHU9D-CHN) to assess HRQoL and to investigate the association of physical activity, homework hours and sleep duration with HRQoL in children and adolescents in Mainland China. Methods Data were collected using a multi-stage sampling method from grades 4–12 students in May 2013 in Nanjing, China. Consenting participants (N?=?815) completed a self-administered questionnaire including the CHU9D-CHN instrument and information on physical activity, homework and sleep duration, self-reported health status, and socio-demographic characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken. CHU9D-CHN utility scores were generated by employing two scoring algorithms currently available for the instrument, the first derived from UK adults utilising the standard gamble (SG) valuation method and the second derived from Australian adolescents utilising the best-worst scaling (BWS) method. Results It was found that CHU9D utility scores discriminated well in relation to self-reported health status and that better health status was significantly associated with higher utility scores regardless of which scoring algorithm was employed (both p<0.001). The adjusted mean utilities were significantly higher for physically active than inactive students (0.023 by SG, 0.029 by BWS scoring methods, p<0.05). An additional hour of doing homework and sleep duration were, separately, associated with mean utilities of ?0.019 and 0.032 based on SG, and ?0.021 and 0.040 according to BWS scoring algorithms (p<0.01). Conclusion The CHU9D-CHN shows promise for measuring and valuing the HRQoL of children and adolescents in China. Levels of self-reported physical activity, homework and sleep time were important influencers of utility scores. PMID:24586607

Stevens, Katherine; Zhou, HaiRong; Qi, ShengXiang; Wang, ZhiYong; Hong, Xin; Chen, XuPeng; Yang, HuaFeng; Wang, ChenChen; Ratcliffe, Julie

2014-01-01

81

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE  

E-print Network

PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE Vasilis Fthenakis1,2 , Rick Betita2 , Mark Shields3 , Rob the metric of Net Energy Production Value (NEPV), which shows the solar electricity production after of LCA is the cumulative energy demand, encompassing all energy used in the production and the other

82

Extending shelf-life and nutritive value of green beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.), by controlled atmosphere storage: micronutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage has become a useful technique for extending vegetables shelf-life. The aim of this work is to select the most suitable conditions for green beans storage under CA, for the maintenance of micronutrients (vitamins and mineral content). Samples were stored at 8 °C, under different conditions (normal atmospheric air, 5%O2+3%CO2, 3%O2+3%CO2 and 1%O2+3%CO2), and analyzed periodically during 1

M. C Sánchez-Mata; M Cámara; C D??ez-Marqués

2003-01-01

83

Value of real life (in situ) simulation training for tracheal intubation skills in medical undergraduates during short duration anesthesia rotation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims: Skill of a successful endotracheal intubation needs to be acquired by training and attaining several competencies simultaneously. It becomes more challenging when we have to deliver the key concepts in a limited period of time. The medium fidelity simulator is a valuable tool of training for such scenarios. For this purpose we aim to compare the efficacy of structured training in endotracheal intubation between real life simulation and the conventional teaching method. Materials and Methods: The year 4 medical students had their attachment in anaesthesia for a period of 6 months from Jun — Dec 2009 were randomly divided into Group (Gp) A who had conventional teaching and Group B who were taught by four simulated sessions of endotracheal intubation. Performance of both the groups was observed by a person blinded to the study against a checklist on a 7 point rating scale in anaesthetized patient. Results: Total 57 students, 29 in Gp A and 28 in Gp B were rotated in the anaesthesia during the study period. Evaluation of the individual component tasks revealed that simulated group achieved a significant difference in the scoring for laryngoscope and intubation technique. (P = 0.026, 0.012) The comparison of overall competence again showed that the 64.3% of student in Gp B achieved an excellent score in comparison to Gp A in which only 41.4% achieved excellent. (P = 0.049). Similarly the lesser number of students in Gp B (14.3%) require remediation as compared to the Gp A, in which the requirement was 40% (P=0.04). Conclusion: We conclude that all essential skills components of tracheal intubation in correct flow and sequence are acquired more efficiently by real life simulated training.

Minai, Fauzia; Shafiq, Faraz; Ul Haq, Muhammad Irfan

2014-01-01

84

The value of the qualitative method for adaptation of a disease-specific quality of life assessment instrument: the case of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL) in Estonia  

PubMed Central

Background Due to differences in current socio-economical situation and historically shaped values, different societies have their own concepts of high-quality life. This diversity of concepts interferes with quality of life (Qol) research in health sciences. Before deciding to apply a Qol assessment tool designed in and for another society, a researcher should answer the question: how will this instrument work under the specific circumstances of my research. Our study represents an example of the utilization of qualitative research methods to investigate the appropriateness of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQol) for the assessment of Qol in Estonian patients. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of Tartu University Hospital and these were analyzed using the principles of the grounded theory. Results We described the significance of the questionnaire's items for our patients and also identified topics that were important for the Qol of Estonian RA patients, but that were not assessed by the RAQol. We concluded that the RAQol can be successfully adapted for Estonia; the aspects of Qol not captured by the questionnaire but revealed during our study should be taken into account in future research. Conclusions Our results show that qualitative research can successfully be used for pre-adaptation assessment of a Qol instrument's appropriateness. PMID:15579209

Tammaru, Marika; Strömpl, Judit; Maimets, Kadri; Hanson, Ele

2004-01-01

85

Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

2014-01-01

86

Do Corporate Outsourcing Partnerships Add Value to Student Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how student affairs needs to be an active participant in campus decisions about corporate outsourcing partnerships to ensure that the effects of these relationships on student life are considered. (Contains 24 references.) (GCP)

Moore, James E.

2002-01-01

87

The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering Across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5–96 years old). A selectivity task was used in which participants were

Alan D. Castel; Kathryn L. Humphreys; Steve S. Lee; Adriana Galván; David A. Balota; David P. McCabe

2011-01-01

88

NEEDS / VALUES + FOCUS + POSITIVE ATTITUDE = MOTIVATION (IDENTIFY PRIMARY NEED) + (SPECIFIC GOALS) + (POSITIVE OUTLOOK ON LIFE) = (MOTIVATION)  

E-print Network

MOTIVATION NEEDS / VALUES + FOCUS + POSITIVE ATTITUDE = MOTIVATION (IDENTIFY PRIMARY NEED) + (SPECIFIC GOALS) + (POSITIVE OUTLOOK ON LIFE) = (MOTIVATION) "Nothing in the world can take place __________________________________________ Physiological Increasing Motivation Through Needs Identification MASLOW'S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS: 5. Self

89

Value of Travel Time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Record includes 6 papers covering important areas of travel time value analysis, such as travel time value theory, conceptual problems in travel time value, methods of deriving travel time values, review of empirical travel time value studies, applica...

R. Gronau

1976-01-01

90

“ESSENTIALLY A LADY”: RESISTANT VALUES OF THE SHABBY-GENTEEL IN ELLEN WOOD'S NOVELS OF HIGH LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This reassessment of Ellen Wood's ongoing experiments with new suitable sensational spaces seeks to suggest that her reworking of earlier fashionable fiction in her mid-century novels engenders an intriguing projection of domestic Gothic back into traditional great house narratives. Within this twofold inversion of late eighteenth-century “female” Gothic, Wood can be seen to capitalize on the revaluation of impoverished gentility

Tamara S. Wagner

2008-01-01

91

Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity. PMID:24010852

Boldt, Joachim

2013-10-01

92

Valuing the benefit of varicella vaccination: a comparison of willingness to pay and Quality-Adjusted Life years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaccination is different from most health interventions because it is preventative, it protects against infectious disease (leading to knock-on effects), the diseases it prevents are usually acute and self-limiting, and most vaccines are given to children from whom it is very difficult to elicit preferences. Because of its unique characteristics, vaccination may possess its own specific attributes. In this paper,

Marc Brisson; John Edmunds

2004-01-01

93

The value of health  

PubMed Central

Background A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary. Methods This paper presents a simple empirical model to estimate the compensating income variation of diseases and health problems. The model is estimated using data for the Netherlands. Results The compensating income variation is between €20,000 and €90,000. This is higher than most of the ultimate values used by policy-makers to decide whether an intervention is cost-effective. Our figures are roughly similar to those found in studies about the value of a statistical life year. Conclusion Estimates on the compensating income variation of diseases and health problems may provide useful information on the maximum acceptable cost-effectiveness ratio of medical interventions than those currently used by policy makers. PMID:18578854

Groot, Wim; Brink, Henriette Maassen van den

2008-01-01

94

Universal values of Canadian astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

2012-11-01

95

The Value of Reciprocity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

2007-01-01

96

Five Values of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

2011-01-01

97

Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of

Aurelija Blazeviciene; Irayda Jakusovaite

2007-01-01

98

Quality of life and functional status in patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx: pretreatment values of a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the pretreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of patients with advanced oral and\\u000a oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty patients were investigated. HRQOL was assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30\\/QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires. Functional\\u000a status assessment comprised speech and oral function tests. The results revealed a wide range of HRQOL and functional deficits\\u000a before treatment. HRQOL appeared to be related to some

Pepijn A. Borggreven; Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; Martin J. Muller; Milou L. C. H. Heiligers; Remco de Bree; Neil K. Aaronson; C. René Leemans

2007-01-01

99

Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of the human…

Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

100

A Myriad of Values: A Brief History.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. public education has always been value laden, and a straightforward approach concerning what values will be taught is an appropriate policy. In spite of U.S. pluralism, a relatively common set of traditional values is possible and desirable. Three assumptions have been accepted in this essay: (1) no one lives a value-neutral life; (2)…

Hodge, R. Lewis

101

EVALUATION OF HUMAN COST OF NON-FATAL TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS BASED ON THE STATISTICAL VALUE OF LIFE USING STANDARD GAMBLING SURVEY ON WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate of human cost in monetary terms for slight casualties and serious casualties consisting as a result of traffic accidents. In order to estimate the value, a questionnaire survey of \\

Jing JING; Hideo Yamanaka; Eiji Tamura

102

Precise half-life values for two-neutrino double-beta decay  

SciTech Connect

All existing positive results on two-neutrino double-beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo-{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd-{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}), and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed, and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for the half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-03-15

103

Precise half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay  

E-print Network

All existing "positive" results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for the half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

A. S. Barabash

2010-03-04

104

The Value of Discretion  

Microsoft Academic Search

[Excerpt] In Shakespeare’s Henry IV, the lazy and lecherous Sir John Falstaff is attacked during battle, falls to the ground, and feigns his death. Falstaff attempts to justify his act of cowardice by explaining: “The better part of valor is discretion, in the which better part I have sav’d my life.” By exercising his “discretion” to fake his death, Falstaff

Blake R. Bertagna

2012-01-01

105

Brief Report: Valued Life Activities and Readiness to Quit Smoking among Mobility Impaired Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective People with physical disabilities smoke at a higher rate than their non-disabled peers, with rates as high as 28–40% among non-elderly adults with functional impairments. One possible explanation for these findings is that restriction of valued life activities (social, professional, pleasurable or otherwise meaningful) due to mobility impairment interferes with smoking cessation. Methods Forty-seven smokers (48.9% female; Mage = 48.91) with chronic mobility impairments (i.e., regularly use equipment to ambulate) were interviewed over the telephone. We assessed demographics, self-efficacy to quit smoking, stage of change, current engagement in valued activities, current restriction of valued activities due to physical limitations, and efforts to replace restricted valued activities in a cross sectional design. Results Bivariate results indicate that 74% of those in the preparation stage had satisfactory replacements for their most valued restricted activity, while only 27% in the contemplation stage and 17% in the pre-contemplation stage had such satisfactory replacements. Multinomial ordinal regression analyses revealed that (a) having satisfactory replacements for activities restricted due to physical disability was significantly associated with higher stage of change and (b) more current valued activities and, to a lesser extent, fewer restricted activities were significantly associated with higher levels of self-efficacy to quit smoking. Conclusions These results support the need for the development of treatments for smoking cessation that aim to increase engagement in valued activities, such as Behavioral Activation. PMID:21875204

Busch, Andrew M.; Borrelli, Belinda

2011-01-01

106

Exploring the Viability and Perceived Pedagogical Value of the Virtual Interactive Biology Experience (VIBE) Assignment Format in Higher Education Life Science Courses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current Net generation has grown up surrounded by technology. Today's technological devices have become integrated in every aspect of our lives, including education. Utilizing design-based research methodology we have developed a unique technology-rich, multimedia embedded 3D virtual assignment format dubbed Virtual Interactive Biology Experiences , or VIBE. The focus of this sequential mixed methods study was to gather empirical data related to the viability and perceived pedagogical value of the VIBE assignment format. Quantitative data was collected on the student's current usage of, and attitudes towards, technology prior to their exposure to the VIBE format. Students' responses to an assignment questionnaire indicated their perceived value of the VIBE assignment format. Student responses were collected immediately following both the first and last (third) exposure to the VIBE format. A repeated T-test indicated that students' attitudes towards the pedagogical value of this format become more positive with increased familiarity. Additionally, specific covariates associated with the students responses on the technology survey were identified as predictive for the students reported values of the VIBE format to varying degrees. Multiple regression predictive models were developed which differed between the initial and repeated measures data. This variation supported the repeated measures finding emphasizing differences in responses associated with the first and subsequent uses of the VIBE format. Future studies are planned in which potential learning gains associated with the use of this format may be evaluated.

Klesath, Marta Jean

107

Dealing with Life's Dilemmas: Exploring Values through English and Drama.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The nine original one-act plays in this collection are meant to be performed in the classroom or at any social gathering where an informal reading or enactment by a group can take place. The plays touch on a number of conflicts that people may encounter when seeking independence; looking for jobs; trying romance; relating to family members;…

Milgrim, Sally-Anne

108

Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

2003-01-01

109

Value of Information Lotteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essence of decision-making is understanding the economic impact of uncertainty. In this paper a previous discussion of information value theory is extended to illustrate how the availability of information on the uncertain factors of a problem affects the probability density function of profit, the profit lottery. A bidding problem serves to demonstrate the type of calculations required and their

Ronald Howard

1967-01-01

110

Value of space defenses  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

Canavan, G.H.

1992-10-29

111

Economic Value of Veterinary  

E-print Network

Economic Value of Veterinary Diagnostics Public Investment in Animal Health Testing Yields Economic Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) works to protect animal and human health through diagnostic testing of samples of animals and products. In 2007, TVMDL performed 708,300 tests in support of $65.4 million in interstate

112

The value of anecdote.  

PubMed

Anecdote is defined as "a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident" and are not often deemed scientifically valuable (www.merriam-webster.com). Anecdotes can be analyzed, however, and those observations can become the initiation of important and groundbreaking work. In this article, we describe aecdotes of several cases which by themselves had seemingly little value. The value was added later, when these concepts were extrapolated to important projects, which expanded into series of experiences, which were reproducible and able to be analyzed and judged as valuable devices and/or methods. The authors recognize that some of the images are old and not of great quality but the information provided is as complete as possible and reliable. PMID:24468424

Parodi, Juan C; Parodi, Federico E

2014-04-01

113

Recovery of uranium values  

SciTech Connect

A process and apparatus are described for stripping uranium values from a uranium-loaded organic extractant phase containing, usually, a tertiary amine capable of forming organic-soluble uranium complexes. The sulphate-containing aqueous strip liquor is fed in co-current with the extractant phase to be stripped through a number of mixing stages in series connected one to another without intermediate settling stages and finally to a final settling stage. A ''primary'' dispersion is maintained in each mixing stage and controlled stepwise ph adjustment of the mixing stages is effected by metered addition of a base, such as ammonia.

Rowden, G.A.

1980-02-12

114

Marx's "Phenomenology" Of Value  

E-print Network

, the first moment of which is "sense-certainty;" the stance of certainty reflects passive acceptance and uncritical immediacy. As Hegel develops it, this position of sense-certainty likewise contains a dialectic issuing from the immediacy of the "this..., as value, is "given." Money is wealth-in-itself, it is valuable because money is valuable. Society is likewise "in-itself;" it is a whole which is passive before wealth in that it does not create wealth, it merely acquires it, in the same sense that...

Main, Edward

1976-11-01

115

Creating Value with Long Term R&D: The life science industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agilent Laboratories looks to the future to identify, invest and enable technologies and applications that will nurture the world’s people, environment and economies, and help ensure Agilent’s continuing leadership. Following a brief introduction to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Laboratories, Solomon will discuss how innovation and long-term R&D are transcending traditional boundaries. Focusing on the life sciences industry, she will discuss current trends in R&D and the importance of measurement in advancing the industry. She will describe some of the challenges that are disrupting the pharmaceutical industry where significant and sustained investment in R&D has not translated into large numbers of block-buster therapeutics. Much of this gap results from the profound complexity of biological systems. New discoveries quickly generate new questions, which in turn drive more research and necessitate new business models. Solomon will highlight examples of Agilent’s long-range R&D in life sciences, emphasizing the importance of physics. She’ll conclude with the importance of creating sustainable value with R&D.

Soloman, Darlene J. S.

2008-03-01

116

The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of welfare state and labor market structure that potentially affect the distribution of

Ellen Verbakel; Thomas A. DiPrete

2008-01-01

117

The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of

Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

118

Value-Added is of Little Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published indicators of school "performance", such as those shown annually in league tables in England, have been controversial since their inception. Raw-score figures for school outcomes are heavily dependent on the prior attainment and family background of the students. Policy-makers in Wales have reacted to this fundamental flaw by withdrawing…

Gorard, Stephen

2006-01-01

119

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

Johnson, Miss

2011-04-07

120

Limitations of terrestrial life.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Questions of the suitability of other planets in the solar system for terrestrial organisms are discussed. It is found that life forms similar to terrestrial organisms but modified to fit the prevailing conditions could exist on Venus, Mars, and Jupiter. Of these, only in the case of Jupiter is there any evidence that life would have been able to evolve. Life on Jupiter would be restricted to the clouds. It is pointed out that life may have developed on other celestial bodies in forms which are quite dissimilar to terrestrial organisms with regard to their biochemistry.

Molton, P.

1973-01-01

121

End-Of-Life Care Discussions May Miss Patient Priorities  

MedlinePLUS

... Life Care Discussions May Miss Patient Priorities Care preferences, prognosis, values, fears important to the ill and ... life issues that should be discussed were: care preferences in the event of life-threatening illness; patient ...

122

The Financial Value of a Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five years have passed since the U.S. Census Bureau published synthetic estimates of work-life earnings by educational attainment. This paper updates those figures with the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's annual Current Population Surveys, and adds net present value analysis of the financial benefit of a college degree to the…

Kantrowitz, Mark

2007-01-01

123

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

124

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts

K. Michaelian

2009-01-01

125

Exploratorium: Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Designed to complement the redesigned Traits of Life exhibit at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, this fine site allows visitors to view a photo gallery of the new exhibit, investigate some provocative online exhibits, and explore a host of links that are germane to the nature of biology. The exhibits constitute the core of the material available at the site, and are divided into four thematic areas, including "The Stuff of Life," "Life Needs Energy," "Making More Life," and "Change Over Time." "The Stuff of Life" is quite fascinating, as it profiles cells with a flair for the interactive. Users can learn about the workings of a cell through the "Cell Explorer" exhibit, read an interview with David Goodsell (a molecular biologist), and view a poster that describes how proteins make muscles work. The other three areas of online exhibits are similarly arranged and provide a host of educational materials that can be used as teaching aids or as compelling intellectual diversions.

126

Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Lal, Ashwini Kumar

2008-10-01

127

Origin of Life  

E-print Network

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Ashwini Kumar Lal

2009-07-21

128

Nutritive Value of Foods.  

E-print Network

.2 130 .2 202 . 1 230 . 2 14 Trace 192 .1 12 Trace Pota~? sium (N) Mil/i g,ams 73 71 28 17 111 190 177 217 193 47 34 21 27 107 5 30 39 257 308 31 46 61 79 69 " 314 19 292 18 Vitamin Thiamin Ribo- A value navin... QUANTITY Fltty Acids Satu- Unuturlted Carbo- Calcium Phos- Iron rated Oleic Lino- hydrate phorus (tuta/) leic (G) (H) (I) (J) (K) (L) (M) Potas sium (N) Per u"t Cal- Grams Grams Grams Grams Grants Grams Mil/i- Mil/i- Mil/i- Mil/i grams uril...

Anoymous,

1982-01-01

129

Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

2012-01-01

130

Quantum Game of Life  

E-print Network

We introduce a quantum version of the Game of Life and we use it to study the emergence of complexity in a quantum world. We show that the quantum evolution displays signatures of complex behaviour similar to the classical one, however a regime exists, where the quantum Game of Life creates more complexity, in terms of diversity, with respect to the corresponding classical reversible one.

D. Bleh; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

2010-10-22

131

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

E-print Network

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants ...

Michaelian, K

2009-01-01

132

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

133

Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will understand the life cycle of plants such as growth of plants and reproduction of plants. KWL chart First, I want you to fill out out a KWL chart. I want you to fill in what you already know about the life cycle of plants. Keep your KWL chart throughout the lesson to fill it back in when you find out more on plants. Movie Next, I want you ...

Carly, Ms.

2011-11-02

134

Capacity Value of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

2012-11-10

135

Value Orientations and Action Conflicts in Students' Everyday Life: An Interview Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that today's German students are able to successfully combine synthesis achievement values and well-being values appears to be overly optimistic when regarded from the perspective of motivational psychology. The results of a qualitative-quantitative interview study with 25 students indicate that achievement and well-being values may…

Schmid, Sebastian; Hofer, Manfred; Dietz, Franziska; Reinders, Heinz; Fries, Stefan

2005-01-01

136

The Value of Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Product quality is probably undervalued by firms because there is little consensus about appropriate measures and methods to research quality. We suggest that published ratings of a product's quality are a valid source of quality information with important strategic and financial impact. We test this thesis by an event analysis of abnormal returns to stock prices of firms whose new

Gerard J. Tellis; Joseph Johnson

2007-01-01

137

The Value of Cocurriculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

Paterson, Jim

2012-01-01

138

The value of place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

Dentzau, Michael W.

2014-03-01

139

The Epistemology Of Value  

E-print Network

has suggested a formula for discerning "the directly evident" which provides us with the epistemic analogue of our formula for discerning the intrinsically valuable. For, he tells us there that the justification of a directly evident proposition..., it then appears that anyone else who has those (quali­ tatively) same grounds for believing that p will, ceteris paribus, also be justified in believing that p. So that we may say that in back of our justification judgements there lie certain principles...

Cohen, Elliot D.

1978-06-01

140

Value of intensified nursing.  

PubMed

The concept "intensified nursing" is mentioned in differentiation to concepts of "nursing care" or "nursing" which intensifies resources or patient contact. Especially psychic and social needs of patients are very appreciated in nursing. A similar type of nursing is known under the concept "advanced nursing practice" (ANP) which means, that a specialised, academically trained nurse offers an extended nursing care in which a focus on the published knowledge of evidence based research is made.From the thin literature to this topic a selection of predetermined topics was analysed where at least two articles with a sufficient high methodical quality were available. The selected topic groups were: "Infant and paediatric nursing", "gerontology" and "oncology". Generally the five publications concerning infant and paediatric nursing could conclusive show a benefit of intensified nursing. Further research is still needed to prove intensified nursing care. Two publications could be found to the gerontological intensified nursing; both used an extended nursing model and an enlarged use of resources. Both studies demonstrated a measurable success in the applied parameters. Two studies also could be analysed in the oncological field in which successes were also provable by the applied parameters. The success was given especially in a higher patient satisfaction, one study showed an improved scheduling (time planning) of nurses.There was not one article concerning economic questions of intensified nursing care. It has to be taken into account that the financial resources have to be used effectively also in nursing nowadays. It has to be assumed that the costs are driven by increased use of resources. Savings can be achieved, however, in the form of avoided therapies and days in hospital by intensified nursing. The intensified nursing can be considered as similar cost-effective as conventional models of nursing.Ethically it is necessary to consider that the possibilities of the intensified nursing should be exhausted as much as possible for the patients. The daily work is limited, due to restrictions of resource. This means a conflict for nurses between knowledge and the predefined resource requirements which often leaded to overtaxing and dissatisfaction. It is desirable that decision makers of the health policy appreciate the evidence and promote intensified nursing care models.Nursing science has to do special research to prove the meaning and effectiveness of intensified nursing and establish this in the health care delivery system. PMID:21289955

Frank, Wilhelm; Konta, Brigitte; Prusa, Nina; Raymann, Cornelia

2006-01-01

141

The Value of \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effect of using boutique vs. full service investment banks as financial advisors on deal outcomes and shareholders' wealth in M&A transactions. Boutique investment banks are defined as independent financial advisors whose focus is M&A advising. This is the first paper to examine the role of financial advisors from this perspective. We identify 202 boutique banks from

Weihong Song

142

The Value of Biologics  

PubMed Central

American Health & Drug Benefits™ has reached out to a health and drug benefit decision maker to open a dialogue on the benefits coverage implications surrounding the high cost of biologic drugs. We asked Dr. Gary Owens to discuss with us how payors are turning data points, demographic trends, and pharmacologic discoveries into formularies and benefit designs that balance the demands of cost, quality, and access to care. With a decade of experience chairing the Pharmacy & Therapeutics Committee at Independence Blue Cross until 2006 to inform him, Dr. Owens described how benefit design structures are being redesigned to meet these interlocking needs. PMID:25126214

2008-01-01

143

The Value of Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department explores the role of the wetlands in our environment, including providing habitats for wildlife, acting as natural water filters, and playing a part in the greater water cycle.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

144

Something of Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Through relaxed civil service requirements, the Defense Department placed Neighborhood Youth Corps trainees in military installations, with permanent jobs to follow 9 months of training and work experience. (BH)

Manpower, 1972

1972-01-01

145

[Value of external dacryocystorhinostomy].  

PubMed

Present surgical techniques to distal obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct system are the external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and alternatively the endonasal laser-assisted DCR and the transcanalicular laser-assisted DCR. Combining the own experiences and the overview of bibliography the different surgical techniques are compared. As criteria are used the success rate (long term patency rate), the perioperative conditions and the patient selection. The conclusion is that the success rates for conventional external lacrimal surgery are better than those for endonasal and transcanalicular laser-assisted DCR. Therefore at present the external DCR still remains the gold standard by which other methods are measured. PMID:10448630

Struck, H G

1999-07-01

146

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

147

Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

2014-01-01

148

The Financial Value of a Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five years have passed since the U.S. Census Bureau published synthetic estimates of work-life earnings by educational attain- ment. This paper updates those fi gures with the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's annual Current Population Surveys, and adds net present value analysis of the fi nancial benefi t of a college degree to the individual and to

Mark Kantrowitz

149

Towards an expanded definition of value.  

PubMed

Much of the change being sought in the United State's health-care system is predicated on improving value. Value is most simply defined as quality divided by cost, and physicians increasingly rely on the quality-adjusted life year as the numerical measure to justify their services. However, there are many other definitions of value being advocated by various stakeholders in the health-care reform effort. Incentive programs and pilot studies implemented by private and public payers are steering much of the current change. Expanding our understanding of how value is defined by health-care economists and policy makers can help spine providers navigate the evolving health-care landscape. PMID:23582428

Smith, Matthew J; Standaert, Christopher J

2013-11-01

150

Habitats of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

151

Life of A Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Watterson, Miss.

2010-04-30

152

The Value of Healthy Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife. They provide food, supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treat waste and runoff to maintain water quality, protect coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation and marine operations, and nurture a balance of the food web upon which all life depends.

Robert Christian (Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences;)

2009-03-22

153

The Economic Value of Teeth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy teeth are a vital and visible component of general well-being, but there is little systematic evidence to demonstrate their economic value. In this paper, we examine one element of that value, the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes, by exploiting variation in access to fluoridated water during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by

Sherry Glied; Matthew Neidell

2008-01-01

154

Chemical Origins of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

Fox, J. Lawrence

1972-01-01

155

The Business of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

Dunski, Jonathan F.

1997-01-01

156

Geography of European Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2011-01-01

157

A Child's World of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children need to share their personal lives with other persons in a relationship of mutual respect and responsiveness; i.e., in a relationship of love. Children are an end, not a means, people to be valued for their own sakes. Adults must help children to know who they are and who they can become. Values contribute to the fulfillment of a person's…

Mulcahy, Mary

158

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

Program, The W.

159

The encyclopedia of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biology, crossing the digital divide, has begun a still largely unheralded revolution: the exploration and analysis of biodiversity at a vastly accelerated pace. Its momentum will return systematics from its long sojourn at the margin and back into the mainstream of science. Its principal achievement will be a single-portal electronic encyclopedia of life.

Edward O. Wilson

2003-01-01

160

Game of Life Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. Ejs Game of Life model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_GameOfLife.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-15

161

Thermodynamic Function of Life  

E-print Network

Darwinian Theory depicts life as being overwhelmingly consumed by a fight for survival in a hostile environment. However, from a thermodynamic perspective, life is a dynamic, out of equilibrium process, stabilizing and coevolving in concert with its abiotic environment. The living component of the biosphere of greatest mass, the plants and cyanobacteria, are involved in the transpiration of vast amounts of water. Transpiration is part of the global water cycle, and it is this cycle that distinguishes Earth from its apparently life barren neighboring planets, Venus and Mars. The water cycle, including the absorption of sunlight in the biosphere, is by far the greatest entropy producing process occurring on Earth. Life, from this perspective, can therefore be viewed as performing an important thermodynamic function; acting as a dynamic catalyst by aiding process such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents to produce entropy. The role of animals in this view is that of unwitting but dedicated servants of the plants and cyanobacteria, helping them to grow and to spread into initially inhospitable areas.

K. Michaelian

2009-06-30

162

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

163

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Resources, Wisconsin D.

2012-05-12

164

Half-life, branching-ratio, and Q-value measurement for the superallowed 0{sup +}{yields}0{sup +}{beta}{sup +} emitter {sup 42}Ti  

SciTech Connect

The half-life, the branching ratio, and the decay Q value of the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 42}Ti were measured in an experiment performed at the JYFLTRAP facility of the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae. {sup 42}Ti is the heaviest T{sub z}=-1 nucleus for which high-precision measurements of these quantities have been tried. The half-life (T{sub 1/2}=208.14{+-}0.45 ms) and the Q value [Q{sub EC}=7016.83(25) keV] are close to or reach the required precision of about 0.1%. The branching ratio for the superallowed decay branch [BR=47.7(12)%], a by-product of the half-life measurement, does not reach the necessary precision yet. Nonetheless, these results allow one to determine the experimental ft value and the corrected Ft value to be 3114(79) and 3122(79) s, respectively.

Nieto, T. Kurtukian; Souin, J.; Audirac, L.; Blank, B.; Giovinazzo, J. [Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Bordeaux Gradignan-Universite Bordeaux 1-UMR 5797 CNRS/IN2P3, Chemin du Solarium, BP 120, F-33175 Gradignan (France); Eronen, T.; Aeystoe, J.; Elomaa, V.-V.; Hager, U.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Kessler, T.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilae, H.; Rahaman, S.; Reponen, M.; Rissanen, J.; Saastamoinen, A. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P. O. Box 35, FI-40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)] (and others)

2009-09-15

165

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

166

The Life of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Greene, Logan

2011-04-06

167

Communicating the Value of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life Americans enjoy today and the United States's ability to compete in the global economy have many of their roots in the country's long history of leadership in scientific research and discovery. Federally supported basic research has led to innovations such as GPS, earthquake hazard mapping, and hundreds of technological spinoffs from the space program, including heart monitors and material that protects us from fire.

McEntee, Chris

2014-07-01

168

Incremental Singular Value Decomposition of Uncertain Data with Missing Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce an incremental singular value decomposition (SVD) of incomplete data. The SVD is developed as data arrives, and can handle arbitrary missing\\/untrusted values, correlated un- certainty across rows or columns of the measurement matrix, and user priors. Since incomplete data does not uniquely specify an SVD, the procedure selects one having minimal rank. For a dense p q matrix

Matthew Brand

2002-01-01

169

The Half-Life of Actinouranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values of the half-life of actinouranium are obtained from data on a Morogoro pitchblende and a uraninite from Great Bear Lake, analyzed by von Grosse and Marble, respectively. Computations were made with two extreme values, 0.03 and 0.04, for the actinium \\

Arthur E. Ruark

1934-01-01

170

Life Satisfaction across Four Stages of Adult Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

For men life satisfaction was related to age stage in a monotonic increasing fashion. Life satisfaction scores remained relatively constant across the age stages for women. Family life and standard of living were found to be significant determinants of life satisfaction, for both sexes at each stage of adulthood. (Author)

Medley, Morris L.

1980-01-01

171

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade'05  

E-print Network

All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

A. S. Barabash

2006-02-08

172

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-2013  

E-print Network

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

Barabash, A S

2013-01-01

173

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-09  

E-print Network

All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

A. S. Barabash

2009-08-28

174

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-2013  

E-print Network

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

A. S. Barabash

2013-11-11

175

The Value of Values Clarification: A Reaction to the Critics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arguments are presented in support of values clarification as a viable teaching strategy to counter nine objections to this technique written in a 1980 article by Richard A. Baer, Jr. Arguments focus on values neutrality, religion, definitions, psychotherapy, freedom, subjectivity, privacy, research, and biases. (DC)

Knapp, Clifford E.

1981-01-01

176

Capturing the Value of Transit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that the presence of transit can increase property values and result in valuable development opportunities. In this era of constrained transit funding and widespread demand for new and expanded transi...

2008-01-01

177

Cultural Values of Trees, Woods  

E-print Network

Tabbush #12;ocultural benefit and benefits provided by trees woodlands and forests were considered. Cultural values are taken into account the nature of the woodland and our cultural relationship with it. The physical nature of woodlands

178

Average (RECOMMENDED) Half-Life Values for Two Neutrino Double Beta Decay  

E-print Network

All existing "positive" results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using procedure recommended by Particle Data Group weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{150}$Nd and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te and $^{130}$Te are proposed. We recommend to use these results as most precise and reliable values for half-lives at this moment.

A. S. Barabash

2002-03-01

179

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three years into the most extensive biological inventory ever attempted, scientists working on the Census of Marine Life (CoML) have already found over 200,000 marine species -- just a fraction of what they expect to find at the end of this 10-year project. The CoML Web site "is designed to provide quick and easy access the all elements of the CoML and basic information about each element;" including field project overviews and reports, timely news articles, and other resources. Readers will also find the recently released "Baseline Report of the Census of Marine Life 2003" and a draft plan outlining the next 7 years. The site also includes fantastic photos of newly described species, QuickTime movies from the field, and other cool features.

180

Comment on "Precise half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay"  

E-print Network

The results by A.S. Barabash [Phys. Rev. {\\bf C 81}, 035501 (2010)] are shown to be incomplete. Tellurium data sets were reanalyzed using the best practices of ENSDF evaluations. Present analysis indicates much higher value for the 2$\

B. Pritychenko

2010-05-13

181

The Amenity Value of Wetlands  

E-print Network

Wetlands provide recreation and cultural values including scenic views, aesthetics, open-spaces, and leisure opportunities to surrounding residents. This study applies a hedonic approach to estimate the impact of wetland amenities on nearby single...

Gao, Shan

2010-07-14

182

Bilastine and quality of life.  

PubMed

The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators. PMID:22185046

Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

2011-01-01

183

Tree of Life Workshop Report  

NSF Publications Database

... Evolution of Development meets Tree Of Life What are the most exciting questions in the Evolution of ... Singer Evolution of Development meets Tree of Life What happens when the Evolution of Developmental ...

184

Monetary Values for Air Pollution Risk of Death: A Contingent Valuation Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we extend the individual dynamic model of life-time resource allocation to assess the monetary value given to the increase in survival probabilities of every member of a household induced by improved air quality. We then interpret this monetary value as a flow of Value of Life Years Lost (VOLY), and estimate the corresponding Value of a Prevented

Olivier Chanel; Stephane Luchini

2008-01-01

185

Analysis of value creation and value capture in microfluidics market  

E-print Network

Advances in microfluidics in the last two decade have created a tremendous technological value which is shaping genomics; drug discovery; proteomics; and point-of-care diagnostics. The positive impact has resulted in faster ...

Yadav, Shailendra

2010-01-01

186

Capacity Value of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

2011-05-04

187

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

188

Defining the value of spine care.  

PubMed

The increased cost and frequency of spine-related procedures, expanding indications, and regional variation in care has led to a shift toward delivery of value-based spine care. In this model, payers show preference for interventions and treatments with proven value and incentivize providers who use such interventions and demonstrate value in their practices. Thus, spine care providers must understand how to determine the value of interventions and treatments. Determining value (ie, cost and quality of care, measured over time) can be challenging in the setting of spine care. Data collection and reporting are complicated by variation in diagnostic coding and surgical techniques. Typically, outcomes in spine care are based on subjective patient-reported measures that are influenced by concomitant orthopaedic, medical, and psychological disease. Health utility is a preferable measure of quality that can be converted into quality-adjusted life years and used in cost-effectiveness analysis. Although no standard currently exists, estimates of cost should include both direct and indirect costs of care over an adequate time horizon. PMID:23818029

Rihn, Jeffrey A; Currier, Bradford L; Phillips, Frank M; Glassman, Steven D; Albert, Todd J

2013-07-01

189

Half Life of {sup 127}Te  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the half life of the beta-unstable nucleus {sup 127}Te was studied using neutron-irradiated samples of {sup 126}Te. The gamma activity of each of the irradiated samples was followed for 3-5 consecutive half lives. The results were analysed in two different ways, and the resulting half-life was 9.295(5)h, which is compatible with the tabulated value of 9.35(7)h, with much lower uncertainty.

Batista, Wagner F.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Zahn, Guilherme S. [Centro do Reator de Pesquisas (CRPq)-Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Av. Linneu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP, 05507-000 (Brazil)

2009-06-03

190

The Value of Certainty (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ? Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ? Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ? Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ? Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ? Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ? Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ? Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ? Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ? Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ? Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms of the entropy which is calculated by creating a set of discrete bins for the value and then using error estimates to assign probabilities, pi, to each bin. The entropy, H, is simply H = ?i pi log2(1/pi) The value of a new set of observations is the information gain, I, which is I = Hprior - Hposterior The probability distributions that appear in this calculation depend on rigorous evaluation of errors in the observations. While direct estimates of the monetary value of data that could be used in budget prioritizations may not capture the value of data to the scientific community, it appears that the information gain may be a useful start in providing a `common currency' for evaluating projects that serve very different communities. In addition, from the standpoint of governmental accounting, it appears reasonable to assume that much of the expense for scientific data become sunk costs shortly after operations begin and that the real, long-term value is created by the effort scientists expend in creating the software that interprets the data and in the effort expended in calibration and validation. These efforts are the ones that directly contribute to the information gain that provides the value of these data.

Barkstrom, B. R.

2009-12-01

191

Quality of life issues in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), has been defined as “peoples’ subjective evaluation of the influences of their current\\u000a health status... on their ability to achieve and maintain a level of overall functioning that allows them to pursue valued\\u000a life goals and that is reflected in general wellbeing” [1, 2]. Psoriasis is a chronic disease with physical, psychosocial, and economic implications

Amanda B. Sergay; Matthew Silvan; Jeffrey M. Weinberg

192

End of Life: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

2012-01-01

193

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-09  

SciTech Connect

All existing 'positive' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo-{sup 100}Ru(0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd-{sup 150}Sm(0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-11-09

194

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013  

SciTech Connect

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-12-30

195

The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital  

Microsoft Academic Search

The services of ecological systems and the natural capital stocks that produce them are critical to the functioning of the Earth's life-support system. They contribute to human welfare, both directly and indirectly, and therefore represent part of the total economic value of the planet. We have estimated the current economic value of 17 ecosystem services for 16 biomes, based on

Robert Costanza; Ralph D'Arge; Rudolf de Groot; Stephen Farber; Monica Grasso; Bruce Hannon; Karin Limburg; Shahid Naeem; Robert V. O'Neill; Jose Paruelo; Robert G. Raskin; Paul Sutton; Marjan van den Belt

1997-01-01

196

Economic Values of Danube Floodplains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danube floodplains are shared by several countries and provide a complex ecosystem with various habitats or biotopes. Three of them have been selected, forests, grasslands and wetlands, which produce services of value to society. Examples of the ecosystem's services are water purification, biodiversity, flood control, wind protection and food supply. In order to make appropriate estimates of these services,

Ing-Marie Gren; Klaus-Henning Groth; Magnus Sylvén

1995-01-01

197

Reliability of Value Orientation Scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data originating from an interregional project concerned with patterns of living of dis advantaged families were examined with two purposes: 1) to estimate internal reliability of value orientation scales as a basis for further analysis, and 2) to consider differences in the selection of scale items for single states or for all states included in the study. Scales for four

Francille M. Firebaugh; C. R. Weaver; Richard D. Warren

1975-01-01

198

The beginning of human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of human life is seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religions. Embryonic and fetal life are a continuum, within which are time sequences and points—birth of a newborn, viability, neuromaturation, implantation, and conception—that may be declared as the beginning of human life. For each of these there are ethical and legal implications and considerations. Abortion laws

Fritz K. Beller; Gail P. Zlatnik

1995-01-01

199

Triumph of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

2011-11-14

200

Sexual Values of 783 Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sexual values of absolutism (abstinence until marriage), relativism (sexual decisions made in reference to the nature of the relationship), and hedonism ("if it feels good, do it") were assessed in a convenience sample of 783 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university. Results revealed that relativism (62.1%) was the predominate…

Richey, Emily; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

2009-01-01

201

Life Products of Stars  

E-print Network

We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

2006-06-27

202

26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...but gratuitously transferred all rights in the policy in contemplation...the gross estate of the value of rights in an insurance policy on the...the decedent, or the value of rights in a combination annuity contract and life...

2010-04-01

203

The value of percutaneous cholangiography  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

1973-01-01

204

Forecasting the Value of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

Basarab, Dave

2011-01-01

205

NET ECONOMIC VALUES OF RECREATIONISTS  

E-print Network

Methodology for Estimating Total Benefits 90 91 93 93 94 95 102 123 126 #12;Frsser Basin Recreation Values activities * become data in a benefit-cost analysis of a public policy decision, such as a land use planning an activity highlights the flow of money between activities. If there are fewer sport fishing experiences

206

The Epistemic Value of Curiosity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

2008-01-01

207

Astrophysics of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

2005-01-01

208

Astrophysics of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. A voyage from dark clouds to the early Earth P. Ehrenfreund, S. B. Charnley and O. Botta; 2. Galactic environment of the Sun and stars: interstellar and interplanetary material P. C. Frisch, H. R. Muller, G. P. Zank and C. Lopate; 3. Transits R. L. Gilliland; 4. Planet migration E. W. Thommes and J. J. Lissauer; 5. Organic synthesis in space S. A. Sandford; 6. The Vegetation Red Edge Spectroscopic Feature as a surface biomarker S. Seager and E. B. Ford; 7. Search for extra-solar planets through gravitational microlensing K. C. Sahu; 8. The galactic habitable zone G. Gonzalez; 9. Cosmology and life M. Livio.

Livio, Mario; Reid, I. Neill; Sparks, William B.

2011-03-01

209

Lifing of Engine Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

2005-01-01

210

The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

2013-01-01

211

The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

Hung, Marianne Andrews

212

Estimating Fatigue Life of Bridge Components Using Measured Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design fatigue life of a bridge component is based on the stress spectrum the component experiences and the fatigue durability. Changes in traffic patterns, volume, and any degradation of structural components can influence the fatigue life of the bridge. A fatigue life evaluation reflecting the actual conditions has value to bridge owners. Procedures are outlined in the AASHTO Guide

Sreenivas Alampalli

2006-01-01

213

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

214

The Value of a Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of botanical, community, and other gardens in preserving biodiversity and in contributing to sustainable communities. It introduces several concepts drawn from system dynamics, including feedback loops, behavior-over-time graphsand more! It includes a PowerPoint presentation, Feedback Loops in Flower Gardening,of 29 slides that will guide teachers and students through activities that generate feedback loops.

M.E. Krasny, P. Newton, and L. Tompkins (Cornell University;)

2004-11-05

215

Lecture 23: History of Metazoan Life Early metazoan life  

E-print Network

Lecture 23: History of Metazoan Life · Early metazoan life ­ Fossils · Metazoan macroevolution ­ Endosymbiont hypothesis Multicellular life: origins · Metazoans · Earliest fossils: ­ Ediacaran: 565 mya ­ Sponges, jellyfish, comb jellies ­ Radial or no symmetry ­ Diploblasts: ecto- and endoderm Metazoan

216

Game of Life Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

217

Tests for homogeneity of extreme value scale parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often assumed in situations in which life data from Weibull or extreme-value distributions are involved that data in different samples come from extreme-value distributions with the same scale parameter (equivalently, Weibull distributions with the same shape parameter). This paper proposes a number of tests for homogeneity for extreme-value scale parameters, based on a number of commonly used estimators

Jerald F Lawless; Nancy R Mann

1976-01-01

218

Preparing for the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking ... will face it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how ...

219

Origins and Evolution of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

2011-01-01

220

Vision and quality-of-life.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of visual acuity loss to quality of life. DESIGN: Three hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of 20/40 or greater in at least 1 eye were interviewed in a standardized fashion using a modified VF-14, questionnaire. Utility values were also obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual function score on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as well as with utility values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods. RESULTS: Decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off method of utility evaluation. The standard gamble method of utility evaluation was not as directly correlated with vision as the time trade-off method. Age, level of education, gender, race, length of time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic comorbidities did not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual loss in the better eye. The level of reduced vision in the better eye, rather than the specific disease process causing reduced vision, was related to mean utility values. The average person with 20/40 vision in the better seeing eye was willing to trade 2 of every 10 years of life in return for perfect vision (utility value of 0.8), while the average person with counting fingers vision in the better eye was willing to trade approximately 5 of every 10 remaining years of life (utility value of 0.52) in return for perfect vision. CONCLUSIONS: The time trade-off method of utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing quality of life associated with visual loss. Time trade-off utility values decrease in direct conjunction with decreasing vision in the better-seeing eye. Unlike the modified VF-14 test and its counterparts, utility values allow the quality of life associated with visual loss to be more readily compared to the quality of life associated with other health (disease) states. This information can be employed for cost-effective analyses that objectively compare evidence-based medicine, patient-based preferences and sound econometric principles across all specialties in health care. PMID:10703139

Brown, G C

1999-01-01

221

Effect of Gender on the Value Perception of the Young: A Case Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article evaluates the young's perception of the values with consideration of the gender factor. The study covered a total of 240 young, consisting of 100 girls and 140 boys continuing high school education in Ankara. The values of young were assessed with scales such as "terminal values", "instrumental values" and "values making life

Ozmete, Emine

2007-01-01

222

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

223

Values and the quantum conception of man  

SciTech Connect

Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

Stapp, H.P.

1995-06-01

224

[Prognostic value of ventricular arrhythmias].  

PubMed

In patients with heart failure ventricular arrhythmias correlate with the functional class and thus they are a marker of heart disease severity. An "independent" prognostic value of ventricular arrhythmias is generally accepted in post-infarction patients, but it is controversial in the presence of other heart diseases. According to the results of the MADIT and MUSTT studies the prognostic significance can be improved in post-infarction patients with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia during an electrophysiologic study aimed to evaluate the inducibility of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias with programmed electrical stimulation: in the "non-inducible" patients the prognosis is better than in "inducible" patients. Thus, we suggest to perform an electrophysiological evaluation in post-infarction patients and in patients with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. PMID:11838350

Vergara, G

2001-12-01

225

The Amenity Value of Wetlands.  

E-print Network

??Wetlands provide recreation and cultural values including scenic views, aesthetics, open-spaces, and leisure opportunities to surrounding residents. This study applies a hedonic approach to estimate… (more)

Gao, Shan

2010-01-01

226

Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Run the classic game of life, learning about probabilities, chaos and simulation. This activity allows the user to run a randomly generated world or test out various patterns. This is a very powerful activity with a wide range of options. It runs in a separate window.

227

Life Cycle of Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

1999-01-01

228

The Ethics of Life Expectancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some ethical dilemmas in health care, such as over the use of age as a criterion of patient selection, appeal to the notion of life expectancy. However, some features of this concept have not been discussed. Here I look in turn at two aspects: one positive — our expectation of further life — and the other negative — the loss

Robin Small

2002-01-01

229

Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer. Reference values are employed to quantify a subject’s muscle force. It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were; first to confirm the reliability of the utilization of hand-held dynamometers for isometric strength measurement; second to determine reference values for a population of Dutch workers; third to compare these values with those of a USA population. Methods 462 Healthy working subjects (259 male, 203 female) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 60 years with a mean (sd) of 41 (11) years. Muscle force values from elbow flexion and extension, knee flexion and extension, and shoulder abduction were measured with the break method using a MicroFet 2 hand-held dynamometer. Reliability was analyzed by calculating ICC’s and limits of agreement. Muscle force expressed in Newton, means, and confidence intervals were determined for males and females in age groups ranging from twenty to sixty years old. Regression equations and explained variances were calculated from weight, height, age, and gender. The mean values and 95% CI were compared to the results from other studies. Results Reliability was good; the ICC ranged between 0.83 to 0.94. The explained variance ranged from 0.25 to 0.51. Comparison of data for the Dutch population mean muscle force values with those from the USA revealed important differences between muscle force reference values for the American and Dutch populations. Conclusions Muscle force measurements demonstrate a sound reliability. Reference values and regressions equations are made available for the Dutch population. Comparison with other studies indicates that reference values differ between countries. PMID:24568140

2014-01-01

230

Life Cycle of a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

Reeske, Mike

2000-01-01

231

Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

2009-01-01

232

Principles of Life Principles of Life  

E-print Network

Cloning 2) The Polymerase Chain Reaction 3) Gene Sequencing and Genome Projects 4) RNA Inhibition of Gene Function 10) Stem Cells and Animal Cloning The Past and Future in Molecular Genetics 11) Yeast and Cell Biology 12) Drosophila and Developmental Biology 13) Vertebrates as Human Models 14) Complex

Takahashi, Ryo

233

The evolution of complex life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

Billingham, J.

1985-01-01

234

Kinesthetic Life Cycle of Stars  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a kinesthetic approach to learning about the life cycle of stars. Using a simplified two-layer model for stellar structure, learners recreate kinesthetically the birth, life, and death of low- and high-mass stars. Examples of how this activity has been used in several settings outside school time provide additional resources for extending student learning about this topic.

Erika L. Reinfeld; Mark A. Hartman

2008-01-01

235

Measuring quality of life in oculoplastic patients  

PubMed Central

AIM To investigate if there is any published evidence of impaired quality of life in conditions which are corrected by oculoplastic surgery and whether there is proven benefit in the quality of life such procedures. METHODS We searched a number of databases to determine the level of evidence available for common conditions amenable to oculoplastic surgery. Search terms concentrated on quality of life measures rather than anatomical correction of deformities. RESULTS The level of evidence available for different conditions was very variable. Certain conditions had extensive research documenting reduction in quality of life, with some evidence for improvement after surgery. Some other common conditions had little or no evidence supporting of reduction in quality of life to support the need for surgery. CONCLUSION The evidence is sparse for quality of life improvement after some of our most commonly performed procedures. Many of these procedures are now being identified by primary care trusts (PCTs) as of “low clinical value”, and are no longer being routinely commissioned in certain parts of the UK. There is a need to address this lack of evidence to determine whether oculoplastic surgery should continue to be commissioned by PCTs. PMID:24634879

Ridyard, Edward; Inkster, Clare

2014-01-01

236

Wild Beasts of Still Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

Lott, Debra

2007-01-01

237

Effects of Fraternity Membership on Interpersonal Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined interpersonal values of fraternity pledges and members, and independents, using the Survey of Interpersonal Values. Students who joined a fraternity came to value independence less and to value leadership more than did nonmembers and, as a group, attained more homogeneous values regarding benevolence and independence. (Author/KS)

Hughes, Michael J.; Winston, Roger B., Jr.

1987-01-01

238

Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

Tierney, William G.

2010-01-01

239

Evolution of Rotifer Life Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared to most other multicellular animals, rotifers are all relatively small, short-lived and fast-reproducing organisms. However among and within different rotifer species there is a large variation in life history patterns. This review accounts for such variation in rotifers, with a strong focus on monogonont rotifers. As the life cycle of monogonont rotifers involves both asexual and sexual reproduction,

Claus-Peter Stelzer

2005-01-01

240

Half-life of Radiocarbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFTER full discussion of the new determinations1-3 of the half-life of carbon-14, the Fifth Radiocarbon Dating Conference, meeting at Cambridge (see p. 943 of this issue of Nature), adopted the following resolution:

H. Godwin

1962-01-01

241

The essence of life purpose.  

PubMed

Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings. PMID:19300082

Hodges, Pamela J

2009-01-01

242

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE STUDENT LIFE  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF MAINE STUDENT LIFE CAMPUS RECREATION RELEASE AND ASSUMPTION OF RISK *** PLEASE PRINT:______________________________________________________), of : (________________________________________________________________________), Street Address City State Zip (Email: ______________________________________), (Phone force and effect. I declare that I completely understand and have fully informed myself of the terms

Thomas, Andrew

243

Determinants of work ability and its predictive value for disability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Maintaining the ability of workers to cope with physical and psychosocial demands at work becomes increasingly important in prolonging working life. Aims To analyse the effects of work-related factors and individual characteristics on work ability and to determine the predictive value of work ability on receiving a work-related disability pension. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted among 850 construction

S. M. Alavinia; Boer de A. G. E. M; Duivenbooden van J. C; M. H. W. Frings-Dresen; A. Burdorf

2009-01-01

244

Transformation of vegetable waste into value added products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste can contain many reusable substances of high value. Depending on there being an adequate technology this residual matter can be converted into commercial products either as raw material for secondary processes, as operating supplies or as ingredients of new products. Numerous valuable substances in food production are suitable for separation and recycling at the end of their life cycle,

Günther Laufenberg; Benno Kunz; Marianne Nystroem

2003-01-01

245

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

complexity #12;Plate Tectonics · Likely operating for last ~3.2 billion years #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE;#12;Plate Tectonics #12;Plate Tectonics #12;Plate Tectonics #12;Plate Tectonics #12;Extinction History #12

Shirley, Yancy

246

The cost of ‘best value’ construction  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major objectives of facility owners is to get the ‘best value’ in construction, renovation or maintenance of facilities. Owners are reluctant to pay more for best value if they do not understand what the value is. Research now proposes that the use of best value procurement can actually reduce the first costs of delivering the construction. The

Dean Kashiwagi; John Savicky

2003-01-01

247

The Home Life of Sir David Brewster  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. The birthplace; 2. The child; 3. The companions; 4. The student; 5. Settling in life; 6. Notes of life from 1810 to 1814; 7. Notes of life from 1814 to 1824; 8. Miss Edgeworth - Junius; 9. Notes of life from 1824 to 1830; 10. Notes of life from 1830 to 1836; 11. Notes of life from 1836 to 1844; 12. Notes of life from 1844 to 1850; 13. Notes of life from 1850 to 1851; 14. Notes of life from 1852 to 1853; 15. Notes of life from 1854 to 1855; 16. Notes of life from 1855 to 1860; 17. Characteristics; 18. Religious history; 19. Notes of life from 1860 to 1864; 20. Notes of life from 1864 to 1867; 21. The end; Appendix.

Gordon, Margaret Maria

2010-06-01

248

Water, a host of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

2012-04-01

249

Quality of life in vitiligo patients.  

PubMed

Quality of life is defined by the World Health Organization as "individuals' perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." Often overlooked in the past, it is nowadays considered, in a more holistic view of medicine, a decisive factor to understand the impact of diseases and improve the quality of medical care. Such evaluation is particularly relevant for dermatological diseases, because visibility of the lesions can significantly affect self-esteem and social relationships. Vitiligo represents an emblematic case: often disfiguring and located in visible areas, confused in the past (and, in many world regions, even in the present) with leprosy, often perceived by physicians as a harmless, purely cosmetic problem, it significantly decreases the quality of life of affected persons. After a brief overview on definition, usefulness and methods for the assessment of quality of life, the authors examine the peculiarities of its relationship with skin diseases, particularly vitiligo. The state of the art of knowledge and research in this field is presented, together with data showing usefulness and positive results of a multidisciplinary approach, which adequately keeps into account perceived quality of life, on patient's satisfaction, adherence to treatment protocols and, ultimately, better outcome of treatments. In this context, an important role can be played by support communities, groups of patients and dedicated associations and societies, connected through modern communication networks like the Internet. PMID:23237035

Teovska Mitrevska, Natasa; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Guarneri, Fabrizio

2012-01-01

250

Life on Titan: Theorem of existance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic

O. Potashko

2004-01-01

251

A Rooted Net of Life  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

Williams, David

252

End-of-Life Decisions  

MedlinePLUS

... circumstances. End-of-Life Decisions What is an advance directive? “Advance directive” is a general term that describes ... use of medical treatments. Why bother with an advance directive if I want my family to make the ...

253

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

254

Future of the Life Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life course and life course policy have become a focus of attention and inquiry as a consequence of occidental modernization.\\u000a Modern society is characterized by high degrees of complexity, differentiation, and functional specialization, resulting in\\u000a individualized lives, as well as by the continuing rationalization of societal institutions. Individuals became liberated\\u000a and at the same time disconnected from religion, tradition,

Ansgar Weymann

255

Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

2012-01-01

256

Duration of Life of Woodlice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME little time ago I published a note on the duration of life of certain species of woodlice1 which had been studied by Major Stanley S. Flower and me., and it was there recorded that Major Flower had kept a specimen of Oniscus asellus Linn, (born in captivity) for approximately 4 years 8 months and 28 days or possibly 4

Walteb E. Collinge

1945-01-01

257

Re-examining the costs and value ratios of owning and occupying buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average ratios, over the whole life of the assets, of construction cost to facility management cost to the cost of operating buildings to value added by that operation, for buildings of a given function, are potentially useful. They provide a benchmark or norm for those making key decisions about getting best whole-life value for money from a proposed new building,

Graham Ive

2006-01-01

258

Half-life of {sup 66}Ga  

SciTech Connect

We measured the half-life of {sup 66}Ga by observing positrons from the {beta}{sup +} branch to the ground state of {sup 66}Zn with a superconducting Wu-type beta spectrometer. Our result is t{sub 1/2}=9.304(8)hours, which is the highest-precision measurement to date and disagrees with the Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS) value by over 6{sigma}.

Severin, G. W.; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.; George, E. A. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 (United States)

2010-12-15

259

A year in the life of eLife  

PubMed Central

Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year. PMID:24137550

Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M

2013-01-01

260

Slave Morality and the Revaluation of Values  

E-print Network

accessible van, she also was instrumental in finding an incredible surgeon who was able to perform a life changing and desperately needed neck operation. Thank you Dr Riew of Barnes Jewish Hospital – you changed my life. A special thanks to all... and contrast slave morality with various senses of the term “morality” – specifically ‘the morality of mores/custom’ and the ‘morality of intention’. I will then consider two additional kinds of morality, beginning with what Nietzsche describes as ‘higher...

Dopf, Aaron Andrew

2011-07-09

261

The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger  

PubMed Central

Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maq??id, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.

2010-01-01

262

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Alumni Organization With a special presentation. Agricultural Research and Extension Center With updates from: Alan Grant, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life

Buehrer, R. Michael

263

Quality of Life of Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a descriptive analysis of various features of the quality of life (QoL) of the caregivers in different pathological conditions. Definitions of the concept of QoL, caregiver goals and burdens, caregiver stress and coping with factors that could contribute to or impact the QoL in caregivers are discussed both through a review of literature and an analysis of

Janna M. Glozman

2004-01-01

264

The algorithmic origins of life.  

PubMed

Although it has been notoriously difficult to pin down precisely what is it that makes life so distinctive and remarkable, there is general agreement that its informational aspect is one key property, perhaps the key property. The unique informational narrative of living systems suggests that life may be characterized by context-dependent causal influences, and, in particular, that top-down (or downward) causation-where higher levels influence and constrain the dynamics of lower levels in organizational hierarchies-may be a major contributor to the hierarchal structure of living systems. Here, we propose that the emergence of life may correspond to a physical transition associated with a shift in the causal structure, where information gains direct and context-dependent causal efficacy over the matter in which it is instantiated. Such a transition may be akin to more traditional physical transitions (e.g. thermodynamic phase transitions), with the crucial distinction that determining which phase (non-life or life) a given system is in requires dynamical information and therefore can only be inferred by identifying causal architecture. We discuss some novel research directions based on this hypothesis, including potential measures of such a transition that may be amenable to laboratory study, and how the proposed mechanism corresponds to the onset of the unique mode of (algorithmic) information processing characteristic of living systems. PMID:23235265

Walker, Sara Imari; Davies, Paul C W

2013-02-01

265

On the value locality of store instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value locality, a recently discovered program attribute that describes the likelihood of the recurrence of previ- ously-seen program values, has been studied enthusias- tically in the recent published literature. Much of the energy has focused on refining the initial efforts at pre- dicting load instruction outcomes, with the balance of the effort examining the value locality of either all reg-

Kevin M. Lepak; Mikko H. Lipasti

2000-01-01

266

On the value locality of store instructions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value locality, a recently discovered program attribute that describes the likelihood of the recurrence of previously-seen program values, has been studied enthusiastically in the recent published literature. Much of the energy has focused on refining the initial efforts at predicting load instruction outcomes, with the balance of the effort examining the value locality of either all register-writing instructions, or a

Kevin M. Lepak; Mikko H. Lipasti

2000-01-01

267

The value of privacy Marc van Lieshout  

E-print Network

of privacy 10 #12;March 14, 2014 Marc van Lieshout The value of privacy 11 UDID GPS location Age Gender UDIDThe value of privacy Marc van Lieshout Informatics, University of Nijmegen, 14 March 2014 #12 and Technology Organisation March 14, 2014 Marc van Lieshout The value of privacy 1 #12;2 March 14, 2014 Marc van

Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

268

Game of Life JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. The Game of Life JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2013-09-05

269

Life in an Unjust Community: A Hollywood View of High School Moral Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the film "Mean girls" (2004) as a window on popular notions of the moral life of American high schools, which straddles Kohlberg's Stage 2 and 3. The film presents loyalty to peer group cliques as a key value, even as it offers an individualist, relativist critique of that loyalty. Gossip is the main transgression in this…

Resnick, David

2008-01-01

270

A New Form of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article introduces the discovery of a new extreme-loving microorganism, Spirochaeta americana, in California's exotic Mono Lake. It compares the geology of Mono Lake to the Gusev Crater on Mars and discusses the implications for finding organisms in extreme environments on Earth when speculating about life on other planets. It also offers a description of tufa formation and explains why the discovery of tufa on Mars would be indicative of microbial life. The resource includes a downloadable audio file of the author reading the article and links to more information.

Phillips, Tony; Science @ NASA

271

Quality of life: a reappraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – With this reappraisal, the purpose of this paper is to present a reflexion on and discussion of the concept of quality of life (QL) with the intention of delimiting its meaning and application within the scope of the research project entitled “Costs and benefits of urban dispersion on a local scale”. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The concept of QL contains

Maria Cristina Sousa Gomes; Maria Luís Rocha Pinto; Gabriela Gomes dos Santos

2010-01-01

272

CRITICAL VALUES OF SLOWLY GROWING MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS  

E-print Network

CRITICAL VALUES OF SLOWLY GROWING MEROMORPHIC FUNCTIONS J.K. LANGLEY Abstract. Let f of the minimum spherical distance between the critical values of f. The extremal exam- ples arise from elliptic functions. 1. Introduction For a function f transcendental and meromorphic in the plane, the critical values

Langley, Jim K.

273

The Poet as Creator of Social Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

Sanchez, Sonia

1985-01-01

274

The Value of Medical and Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing Obesity  

PubMed Central

This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small while the net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H.

2012-01-01

275

The value of medical and pharmaceutical interventions for reducing obesity.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small. The net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H

2012-07-01

276

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

277

Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts  

PubMed Central

A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept oflife course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept oflife course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences oflife course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

2012-01-01

278

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.  

PubMed

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

2010-01-01

279

Values and Sociometric Choices of Incarcerated Juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some effects of the time incarcerated on the values and sociometric choices of 107 young inmates at a federal correctional institution were assessed. The longer an inmate was incarcerated, the less were his values like those that the prison staff attributed to an ideal inmate. Values showing decreasing acceptance over time by the inmates were religiousness, honesty, achievement, and kindness,

Jacob E. Hautaluoma; William A. Scott

1973-01-01

280

The Dynamics of Value Orientations: An Analysis of the Results of an Empirical Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines a value system as a universal, prolonged, consistent structure of priorities that defines an individual's life plan. Reports on a study of individual values among 3,154 Russian adults in 3 major cities. Identifies four generalizations based on the data about social values and social change in Russia. (CFR)

Kosova, L. B.

1995-01-01

281

The Automaticity of Social Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these

John A. Bargh; Erin L. Williams

2006-01-01

282

Reward value of food pictures / 1 Pictures of Food Have Reward Value that Varies  

E-print Network

Reward value of food pictures / 1 Pictures of Food Have Reward Value that Varies According RUNNING HEAD: Reward value of food pictures #12;Reward value of food pictures / 2 Abstract A stimulus pictures of food can be rewards for human subjects, with reward value operationalized as the physical

Chabris, Christopher F.

283

The Value of Young Trustees.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the concept of "college student trusteeship" is opposed, the idea of having qualified young people as full voting members of governing boards is strongly supported. The real qualification required is the confidence and consent of their jurisdiction and not the fact of being a student. (MSE)

Mossman, Bradley J.

1980-01-01

284

The value of planned death  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a theoretical model of evaluating the economic costs and benefits of physician assisted suicide (euthanasia). The contemplation of euthanasia is modeled akin to the valuation of a real option. Our modeling of the decision shows that euthanasia is optimal when certain conditions are satisfied. The findings in this paper suggest that if more money is

Leo Chan; Donald Lien

2010-01-01

285

The body as site of pleasure and surplus value  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Value and the Body track.\\u000aNatural sciences and epistemologies are narrations about nature and knowledge, especially about the knowledge of nature and the nature of knowledge. In these narrations we are also told about the nature and meaning of social relations. Biology as the science of life, most prominently, tells about the function of

Waltraud Ernst

2010-01-01

286

The Value of Sustainability Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article offers the perspectives of a veteran in the field of sustainability. The author shares the steps in the development, evolution, and management of sustainability and sustainable practices at a leading flooring manufacturer. The author leverages over 20 years of experience in industry to discuss the necessary skills and mindsets to…

Bradfield, Steven L.

2009-01-01

287

The Value of Continuing Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Higher education--and continuing education as one arm of that enterprise--is not just an economic engine; it contributes directly and in a multifaceted fashion to the common good. It generates and makes accessible a great deal of the knowledge that drives the economy; it helps develop an understanding of the society and the world for millions of

Schejbal, David; Wilson, David

2008-01-01

288

Estimation of Missing Values by Predicted Scores.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The predicted scores produced by regression with (1) single best predictor, (2) two best predictors, (3) all predictors with observed values, and (4) all predictors with or without observed values were compared with variable means as estimates of missing values. The study was conducted in a simulation mode on nx8 data matrices using various levels…

Kaiser, Javaid; Tracy, Dick B.

289

History of Life Through Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.

290

The Systematic Unity of Value  

E-print Network

total of avail­ able shoes, and that qua everyone one goes on repeating the same process indefinitely. Each added term of the series seems to complicate the old, but in reality only makes explicit what is already there. Only such ends as can... the realm of reality. Hartmann has further logical excitements connected with his doctrine of ought-to-beness, excitements that will not recommend him to modal logicians. In an ought, he maintains, we have a case of a must, a necessity which, by a...

Findlay, J.N.

1968-01-01

291

Game of life on phyllosilicates: Gliders, oscillators and still life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines - silicon nodes and oxygen nodes - which mimics structure of the phyllosilicate. A node takes states 0 and 1. Each node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon) or six (oxygen) neighbours. Phyllosilicate automata exhibit localisations attributed to Conway's Game of Life: gliders, oscillators, still lifes, and a glider gun. Configurations and behaviour of typical localisations, and interactions between the localisations are illustrated.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2013-10-01

292

Early life predictors of old-age life expectancy.  

PubMed

The laboratory of Richard Miller and numerous heroic collaborators are in the process of testing a variety of life span predictors on more than 1000 mice. In their most recent publication, Harper et al. show that early-adulthood measures of T cell subsets, body weight, and thyroxine can be effectively combined to provide a highly significant predictor of life expectancy. Each measure appears to be an index of largely separate parameters that affect the course of aging. This article summarizes the results, discusses implications, mentions caveats, and suggests future studies. PMID:15152103

Rikke, Brad A

2004-05-19

293

Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

Knauth, Paul

2000-01-01

294

The Fertilizing Value of Greensand.  

E-print Network

,0789 ,1059 .-. .0924 .0930 .I012 ,0953 .0965 JJlVUlp I ,3898 0273 l~CUvcII'II 77.9 6 4 ,0321 .0218 ,0273 ,0341 .0181 .0041 7.3 4 . 6 6.1 1 .5, 4.0 ........................ 0.8 Table 5.-Details of second crop of kafir on soil... ,0789 ,1059 .-. .0924 .0930 .I012 ,0953 .0965 JJlVUlp I ,3898 0273 l~CUvcII'II 77.9 6 4 ,0321 .0218 ,0273 ,0341 .0181 .0041 7.3 4 . 6 6.1 1 .5, 4.0 ........................ 0.8 Table 5.-Details of second crop of kafir on soil...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1931-01-01

295

The Value of Healthy Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The article explores why healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife: supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treating waste and runoff, protecting coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation, and nurturing a balance of the food web

Robert Christian (East Carolina University;)

2009-03-15

296

The Value of Imperfect Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay illustrates a technique for reducing the risks of capital investment decisions involving considerable sums for advanced technologies by considering its application to a problem that arises frequently in selection of automated library systems. Incomplete information, using available information, selecting a system, and consultants are…

Malinconico, S. Michael

1985-01-01

297

The Value of Physical Activity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

298

The Early History of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly

E. G. Nisbet; C. M. R. Fowler

2003-01-01

299

What Is Quality of Life?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Is the concept of "quality of life" potentially an important one for public policy analysis, or must it remain forever vague and controversial, resisting clear definition and scientific measurement? Everyday usage of the phrase is examined as well as its relation to other terms like "happiness" and "welfare." It is concluded that one reason for…

Jamieson, Dale; Sneed, Joseph D.

300

The Value of Work Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and…

Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

1999-01-01

301

The Values of Negative Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates introducing high school literature classes by analyzing the serious flaws in an important work such as Edgar Alan Poe's poem, "The Raven," in order to increase student involvement in evaluating literature, strengthen student trust of the teacher's judgment, and motivate students for positive criticism. (MM)

Bier, Jesse

1983-01-01

302

The Quality of Life in Japan  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

2009-01-01

303

Quality of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF LIVING DONATION There is growing public awareness of living donor transplantation as increasing numbers of potential donors respond to the organ shortage. When considering the donation of an ...

304

The Tree of Life Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

Milbrath, Sherry

2009-01-01

305

LIFE AT THE OF BRADFORD  

E-print Network

LIFE AT THE UNIVERSITY OF BRADFORD www.bradford.ac.uk/applicants Development, Politics and Peace. Many of our academics have a global profile, and undertake regular media interviews, as well, give guest lectures, and we run an international peace education programme for schools and young people

Aickelin, Uwe

306

Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All cells, organs and tissues of a living organism are built of molecules. Some of them are small, made from only a few atoms. There is, however, a special class of molecules that make up and play critical roles in living cells. These molecules can consist of many thousands to millions of atoms. They are referred to as macromolecules (or large biomolecules).

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

307

The Life of Liberty Project - Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the The Life of Liberty Project , this page is part of a larger effort to educate students on the values and lifestyles of the 1700s as compared to today. This page will demonstrate how education was and now is... What was good then? What is good today? Does today\\'s method really provide a life education or something else? Have you ever wondered what school was like in 1700? Keep wondering, because nobody knows, right? Wrong. There are quite a few different systems of education that existed before our current system that is in the brick and mortar around the country. Let\\'s take a brief tour of the history ...

Liberty

2005-11-23

308

Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

2008-01-01

309

The Community of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), delivered this address before the Annual Meeting of The Humane Society of the United States, Newport, Rhode Island, October, 1971. Reviewing the philosophy and activities of the NPCA, he discloses how the wildlife preservation movement of the NPCA needs the help of

Smith, Anthony Wayne

310

Information: currency of life?  

PubMed Central

In biology, the exception is mostly the rule, and the rule is mostly the exception. However, recent results indicate that known universal concepts in biology such as the genetic code or the utilization of ATP as a source of energy may be complemented by a large class of principles based on Shannon’s concept of information. The present position paper discusses various promising pathways toward the formulation of such generic informational principles and their relevance for the realm of biology. PMID:20357888

Polani, Daniel

2009-01-01

311

Conceiving of Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Chapter I am going to trace back some developments in mutual relations between culture, on one side, and scientific and technological advances, on the other side. To my mind, these observations could help us to understand some aspects of current debates on goals, possibilities and limitations of extensive use of biological and medical sciences for the sake of

Boris Yudin

312

Constructor Theory of Life  

E-print Network

Neo-Darwinian evolution theory explains how organisms with their appearance of purposive design came into existence without being designed. The centrepiece of the explanation is a physical object, the gene, and the processes it undergoes: mainly, replication and natural selection. The compatibility of that theory with the laws of physics has been challenged, by claims that self-reproduction of living cells, essential to gene replication, is incompatible with quantum theory. Wigner, notably, argued that it would require design-bearing laws of physics. Here I show that self-reproduction is compatible with no-design laws of physics, in particular with quantum theory, by expressing self-reproduction, replication and the appearance of design clearly within physics, using the recently proposed constructor theory. I also show that aside from sufficient resources such as time and energy, the only requirement on the laws of physics for evolution to be possible is that they permit digital information.

Marletto, Chiara

2014-01-01

313

Constructor Theory of Life  

E-print Network

Neo-Darwinian evolution theory explains how organisms with their appearance of purposive design came into existence without being designed. The centrepiece of the explanation is a physical object, the gene, and the processes it undergoes: mainly, replication and natural selection. The compatibility of that theory with the laws of physics has been challenged, by claims that self-reproduction of living cells, essential to gene replication, is incompatible with quantum theory. Wigner, notably, argued that it would require design-bearing laws of physics. Here I show that self-reproduction is compatible with no-design laws of physics, in particular with quantum theory, by expressing self-reproduction, replication and the appearance of design clearly within physics, using the recently proposed constructor theory. I also show that aside from sufficient resources such as time and energy, the only requirement on the laws of physics for evolution to be possible is that they permit digital information.

Chiara Marletto

2014-07-01

314

VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*  

PubMed Central

Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings. PMID:20052402

House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

2009-01-01

315

Signs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This computer activity has students use data to locate the planet Jupiter and determine if there is a nearby planet with an atmosphere habitable for humans. Data includes mass, surface temperature, composition of atmosphere, and number of satellites.

316

Game of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does over-fishing mean? What are the effects of over-fishing on fish stocks? Through the game in this lesson, students will understand the effects of over-fishing on the sustainability of fish stocks and, thus, the ability to meet the human demand for seafood.

317

The Curve of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE relationship between the duration of adolescence and potential longevity in different species of mammals has repeatedly been the subject of speculation. M. P. Flourens, in his work on ``Human Longevity,'' made the ratio between the two periods as 1 to 5; Buffon had previously concluded that it was as 1 to 7. In neither case were the data sufficiently

W. Ainslie Hollis

1899-01-01

318

Impact frustration of the origin of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr.

Maher, Kevin A.; Stevenson, David J.

1988-02-01

319

Impact frustration of the origin of life.  

PubMed

One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr. PMID:11536595

Maher, K A; Stevenson, D J

1988-02-18

320

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

321

A Life Between Reflections of  

E-print Network

, cultural, artistic role Social reflection National narrative #12;German National Cinema Weimar cinemaA Life Between Reflections of Immigrant Culture in Modern German Cinema By Katrina Ingraham #12;What is national cinema? Size, influence, and output subject to fluctuation Social, political

New Hampshire, University of

322

THE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE  

E-print Network

- ment, clothing and textiles, early childhood education, family and consumer science education, familyTHE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 FAMILY CONNECTIONS CO-PLAY: THE LATEST VIDEO economics education, clothing and textiles, interior design, or family and consumer sciences (FACS

Martinez, Tony R.

323

The Rhythm of College Life  

E-print Network

The Rhythm of College Life Issues that affect students #12;SEPTEMBER Common Issues · Fitting study groups and get tutoring Tips #12;DECEMBER Conversation Starters What are you doing to stay well priority deadline Tips #12;JANUARY Conversation Starters What are you doing differently with your studying

324

The Rhythm of College Life  

E-print Network

The Rhythm of College Life Issues that affect students #12;Summer � Common Issues � Questions leaving high school friends � Tips � Encourage your student to ask questions if he or she doesn study groups and get tutoring Tips #12;DECEMBER Conversation Starters What are you doing to stay well

325

Life at the of Bradford  

E-print Network

Life at the University of Bradford www.bradford.ac.uk/applicants Development, Politics and Peace, and undertake regular media interviews, as well as advising governments, and international and non education programme for schools and young people in the UK. Our economics students are highly successful

Aickelin, Uwe

326

Web of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a general program of health education in schools based on the theory that children exposed to this program can, as they grow and change, respond to their bodies, function in a group, select a wide variety of appropriate foods, accept medical and dental care, and modify hazardous situations. (JD)

Miller, Judith R.

1976-01-01

327

Extinctions of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1988-01-01

328

Continuity of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on classification of organisms, reproduction, cell structure and function includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. The activities impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

329

CONTESTING THE VALUE OF THE SHARED VALUE Andrew Crane  

E-print Network

, Porter and Kramer began working with the global food multinational Nestlé through their consultancy FSG explicitly to address the task of regaining trust in business in the current age of crisis. `The capitalist and productivity growth in the global economy' and `reshape capitalism and its relationship to society

Sheldon, Nathan D.

330

Water of life.  

PubMed

The Social Research Centre at the American University in Cairo, Egypt, trained 85 health promoters to teach women and children in the villages of Babil and Kafr Shanawan, Egypt, about households hygiene and water sanitation. Households instructed by health promoters had higher knowledge levels and practiced better behavior in areas of water storage, food preparation, latrine maintenance, and handwashing than those not receiving instruction. Researchers realized further improvement would not be possible without improving the village environment, so they also examined the water sanitation situation in the villages. In Babil, they noted that a standpipe needed to be repaired and a garbage collection system was needed. In Kafr Shanawan, the major problem was a high water table (1 m below the surface), but its other problems matched those of Babil. PVC handpumps were installed in Kafr Shanawan, resulting in increased access to potable water. Villagers wanted to learn how to maintain and repair the pumps. A women's group in Babil learned how to fix the standpipe. Administrative problems forestalled the garbage collection system after 3 months, however. The leading obstacles of improved sanitary conditions were a lack of communication between levels of government as well as between these levels and villages and unmanageable bureaucratic procedures. Villagers systematic doubt about the village of regional government agencies ever responding to villagers request for assistance resulted in apathy. Many villagers believed the government and not the villagers themselves was responsible for village sanitation, thereby becoming a major obstacle to community participation. Nevertheless, the villages did form committees on environmental issues. This health education model lays the groundwork for a partnership between decision makers, administrators, and villagers. PMID:12286444

Harris, C

1993-04-01

331

Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webpage for every organism on earth is the goal of this site, which was initially funded in 2007 by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation. To "learn how to navigate EOL, search for content, customize your experience, and explore pages..." visitors can start with the tab "Using the Site" at the top of the page. Here, there is a video tour on general "Navigation" of the site and instructions on how specifically to use the "Species Pages". Users can check out the FAQs section under the same tab for more help. Visitors can select the "Language" tab at the top of the page to view the site in English, Spanish, Russian, Ukranian, German, or French. In the "About EOL" tab on the far upper right hand side of the page, visitors can check out the "Content Partners" link about halfway down the menu. There are over two dozen partners and links to their websites listed, including the Nearctic Spider Database, Mushroom Observer, FishBase, and AntWeb.

2009-06-25

332

Fiber: Bulk of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Parents and grandparents called it bulk or roughage, but today it is called fiber. It gives individuals almost no energy or calories, but fiber - generally cell walls and\\/ or polysaccharides of plant foods not digested nor absorbed by the human gastrointestinal tract - has an important impact on bodies. It helps maintain good health and helps protect from

Patricia Rayas

333

Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.  

PubMed

Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys. PMID:24931555

Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

2014-07-01

334

Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve\\u000a their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced\\u000a clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire\\u000a a social status akin to that

Andrew Edgar

2011-01-01

335

Empathy and values as predictors of care development.  

PubMed

This study investigates values and affective empathy as predictors for care-based moral development. Fifty-three students from a university of applied sciences were interviewed with Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview at the beginning of their studies and two years later. Value priorities were measured by Schwartz et al.'s Portrait Value Questionnaire, empathy variables by Davis' Interpersonal Reactivity Index, and feelings of sympathy were rated using a real-life moral conflict. The results showed that students in care-oriented fields progressed in care reasoning. Real-life sympathy and the value of self-direction positively predicted development in care reasoning, whereas personal distress was a negative predictor. The results indicate that care-based moral development is more closely connected with affective empathy than personal values. Individuals who feel empathy for others, and who prefer independent thinking and action, achieve the greatest gains in care development. In conclusion, educators should encourage students' empathy and moral reasoning in authentic moral conflicts. PMID:22882636

Juujärvi, Soile; Myyry, Liisa; Pesso, Kaija

2012-10-01

336

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

337

Spatial allocation of forest recreation value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-market valuation methods and geographic information systems are useful planning and management tools for public land managers. Recent attention has been given to investigation and demonstration of methods for combining these tools to provide spatially-explicit representations of non-market value. Most of these efforts have focused on spatial allocation of ecosystem service values based on land cover types, but recreation value

Kenneth A. Baerenklau; Armando González-Cabán; Catrina Paez; Edgar Chavez

2010-01-01

338

General Values as Related to Clothing Values of Mexican-American Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a broader study designed to determine the culturalfactors that influence the clothing and appearance of Mexican-American women, the relationship between general values and clothing values and the hierarchy of each value type was explored. Using standard scales, it was found that a relationship existed between the general values and the clothing values of the subjects. A unique

Karen Kaigler-Walker; Mary K. Ericksen

1989-01-01

339

The social value of clinical research  

PubMed Central

Background International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature and is used in numerous ways in the research ethics literature. Because social value justifies involving human participants, especially in early human trials, this is problematic. Discussion Our analysis and interpretation of the concept social value has led to three proposals. First, as no direct benefits are expected for the research participants in first-in-human trials, we believe it is better to discuss a risk- value assessment instead of a risk - benefit assessment. This will also make explicit the necessity to have a clear and common use for the concept social value. Second, to avoid confusion we propose to limit the concept social value to the intervention tested. It is the expected improvement the intervention can bring to the wellbeing of (future) patients or society that is referred to when we speak about social value. For the sole purpose of gaining knowledge, we should not expose humans to potential harm; the ultimate justification of involving humans in research lies in the anticipated social value of the intervention. Third, at the moment only the validity of the clinical research proposal is a prerequisite for research to take place. We recommend making the anticipated social value a prerequisite as well. Summary In this paper we analyze the use of the concept social value in research ethics. Despite its unavoidable ambiguity, we aim to find a best use of the concept, subject to its role in justifying involving humans in first-in-human research. PMID:25189994

2014-01-01

340

Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2011-06-01

341

The Dawn of Animal Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Miller Museum Online Exhibit, the Dawn of Animal Life, is provided by the Miller Museum of Geology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Patrons can explore the evolution of life from three billion to about 500 million years ago by clicking on the various links, which include the formation of the earth, eukaryotic cells, the oldest known animal fossils, the ediacarian fauna, the mistaken point fossil assemblage, and the world's oldest complex animal fossils found in Newfoundland called Charnia. The site offers non-technical descriptions of where the fossils were found, what their significance is, and a host of very interesting photographs of the fossils themselves. Although the fossils presented are limited to certain locations, the site does a good job of explaining how they help researchers learn about the past around the globe.

342

Life Cycle of a Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show follows a snowflake through its life in a glacier. The path of the ice crystal is traced from its incorporation in the zone of accumulation, through the zone of ablation to its final departure, whether being calved as an iceberg or melting or sublimated. There is also information on the speed of the glacier and the difference between a cold and a warm glacier.

343

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

344

DNA values of four primitive chordates  

Microsoft Academic Search

DNA values lower than the lowest value of the vertebrates were found for a urochordate and a cephalochordate. On the assumption that the genomes of surviving primitive chordata reflect the status of the genomes possessed by ancient organisms from which vertebrates eventually evolved, it is suggested that vertebrates started from an organism with a very small amount of DNA. Two

Niels B. Atkin; Susumu Ohno

1967-01-01

345

Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

Bagnell, Rhea

2012-01-01

346

Life histories of Mediterranean pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The life history of Spanish pines and their relation to fire as the main disturbance factor in their ecosystems was analysed.\\u000a The primary ecological attributes studied were the canopy seed bank (onset of cone production, percentage and persistence\\u000a of serotinous cones), seed and cone morphology, sprouting and bark thickness. Four ecological groups were separated using\\u000a multivariate cluster analysis and their

Raul Tapias; José Climent; Jose A. Pardos; Luis Gil

2004-01-01

347

Life Cycle of a Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The information on this site indicates that the life cycle of a glacier is more eventful than it appears. The site allows students to follow the journey of a single snowflake as it takes a ride through a glacier, a process that can take as much as 30,000 years to complete. It can be viewed as an interactive slide show or a single page of text and illustrations.

348

Narrativity Phenomenology Quality of life  

E-print Network

Ó The Author(s) 2010. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com Abstract Evaluation of quality of life, psychic and bodily well-being is becoming increasingly important in oncology aftercare. This type of assessment is mainly carried out by medical psychologists. In this paper I will seek to show that body experience valuation has, besides its psychological usefulness, a normative and practical dimension. Body experience evaluation aims at establishing the way a person experiences and appreciates his or her physical appearance, intactness and competence. This valuation constitutes one’s ‘body image’. While, first, interpreting the meaning of body image and, second, indicating the limitations of current psychological body image assessment, I argue that the normative aspect of body image is related to the experience of bodily wholeness or bodily integrity. Since this experience is contextualized by a person’s life story, evaluation should also focus on narrative aspects. I finally suggest that the interpretation of body experience is not only valuable to assess a person’s quality of life after treatment, but that it can also be useful in counseling prior to interventions, since it can support patients in making decisions about interventions that will change their bodies. To apply this type of evaluation to oncology practice, a rich and tailored vocabulary of body experiences has to be developed.

unknown authors

2010-01-01

349

Half-Life of $^{14}$O  

E-print Network

We have measured the half-life of $^{14}$O, a superallowed $(0^{+} \\to 0^{+})$ $\\beta$ decay isotope. The $^{14}$O was produced by the $^{12}$C($^{3}$He,n)$^{14}$O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ion beam of $^{14}$O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil. The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. We find $t_{1/2} = 70.696\\pm 0.052$ s. This result is $1.5\\sigma$ higher than an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees more closely with the most recent previous measurement.

J. T. Burke; P. A. Vetter; S. J. Freedman; B. K. Fujikawa; W. T. Winter

2006-01-20

350

The Value of Pets in Children's Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature focusing on six aspects of pet-person relationships that are most relevant to the growing child. Areas include love, attachment, and comfort; sensorimotor and nonverbal learning; responsibility, nurturance, and competence; learning about the life cycle; therapeutic benefits; and nurturing humaness, ecological awareness, and…

Blue, Gladys F.

1986-01-01

351

Variables of which values are a function  

PubMed Central

The ordinary-language concept of values has a complex history in psychology and in science generally. The traditional fact-value distinction commonly found in traditional scientific perspectives has been challenged by the varieties of philosophical pragmatism, which have similarities to Skinner's radical behaviorism. Skinner's challenge to the fact-value distinction maintained that the phenomena of both “facts” and “values” are a matter of contingencies of environment-behavior interaction, and both phenomena may be observed when a scientist does research or makes recommendations in applied settings based on that research. Some of the processes and variables relevant to an analysis of values as behavioral phenomena are described, and examples of both nonverbal and verbal contingencies are considered, along with implications for the values of an individual and a culture. If the various issues of methodology can be addressed successfully, then behavior analysis will be in the position to move beyond descriptive studies of values, such as those found in humanistic psychology, by providing analyses of the variables of which values are a function. PMID:22478445

Leigland, Sam

2005-01-01

352

Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life".  

PubMed

Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

Durzan, Don J

2009-01-01

353

Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"  

PubMed Central

Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

Durzan, Don J

2009-01-01

354

Feeding value of pastures for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of fresh pasture grazed in situ is determined by animal performance or productivity and could be relatively easily established for growing and lactating horses. Despite this, there is a lack of published information on the relative feeding value of different pastures and forages grazed by horses in New Zealand and the world. In addition, for adult breeding

SO Hoskin; EK Gee

2004-01-01

355

The differential mean value of divided differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the differential mean value of divided differences as the interval shrinks to zero by presenting an asymptotic expansion. The coefficients are given by a recurrence formula. For a wide class of analytic functions the differential mean value can be represented by a convergent sum. Our results generalize two recent theorems by Powers,

Ulrich Abel; Mircea Ivan

2007-01-01

356

The Management of Open Value Creation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our study we strive to develop a framework for the management of open value creation adoption. We conducted eighteen in-depth interviews with IS (information systems) executives and consultants responsible for open value creation projects. We combine the results of our software-supported qualitative analysis with insights from a broad range of existing related literature to develop a concise framework. The

Daniel Schlagwein; Detlef Schoder

2011-01-01

357

The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

2010-01-01

358

Estimating the value of victory: English football  

Microsoft Academic Search

Professional English football combines publicly traded ownership shares with an active and observable wagering market. This article utilizes the information from these markets, presenting a model that may be used to estimate the impact of matches on club values. Such information is potentially useful as clubs assess the values of players and coaches based on their anticipated contributions to team

Kent A. Hickman; Stuart M. Cooper; Sam Agyei-Ampomah

2008-01-01

359

Establishment of an experience value model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Previous research is mainly devoted to value connotations obtained from the physical environment, rather than the effect on experience value from the perspective of customers' self-efficacies and involvement. This paper attempts to combine multivariate statistical analysis and nonlinear fuzzy neural network model for data analysis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Convenience sampling was adopted to investigate the employees from dozens of

Wen-Bao Lin

2010-01-01

360

Values as Predictors of Global Consciousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the relationships between human values and the psychological construct of world-mindedness. Fifty-one college students and 58 high school students in a town in the Pacific Northwest completed the Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992, 94) and the Cross-cultural World-mindedness Questionnaire (Der-Karabetian, 1992). A stepwise…

Mayton, Daniel M., II; Lerandeau, Elizabeth A.

361

The Value of Personal and Professional Accountability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The current emphasis on accountability, standards, and assessment is missing one important dimension--connection to a sense of values and beliefs. In California, standards are stifling creativity and flexibility; standard-setting is too politicized; test scores are eclipsing democratic values; and cash rewards won't necessarily improve student…

Brown, Jim

2000-01-01

362

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

E-print Network

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 sequestration and between 1 and 49 percent for forest based carbon sequestration. Value adjustments 18 19 20 21 22 BRUCE A. MCCARL, BRIAN C. MURRAY, AND UWE A. SCHNEIDER Abstract Carbon sequestered via

McCarl, Bruce A.

363

Leisure Education and the Quality of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purpose of the conference was to develop a general awareness of leisure education as a process for the enrichment of the quality of life. Conference objectives were: (1) to develop an awareness of the relationship of education for leisure and the quality of life; (2) to examine the needs of people at various stages of the life cycle…

Mundy, Jean, Ed.; Cannon, Frances C., Ed.

364

Serpentinite and the dawn of life  

PubMed Central

Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO2 atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO2 dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ? 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9–11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO2 in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily C.

2011-01-01

365

Serpentinite and the dawn of life.  

PubMed

Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO(2) atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO(2) dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ? 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9-11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO(2) in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

Sleep, Norman H; Bird, Dennis K; Pope, Emily C

2011-10-27

366

Online value creation in small service businesses: the importance of experience valence and personal values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceived value is of great interest in current marketing research. However, in the area of Internet as a shopping channel of small businesses, there has been little analysis of customer perceived value and its determinants. This paper examines two little analysed aspects of value creation, experience valence and personal values. The analysis of data from a survey of tourism service

M. Angeles Iniesta-Bonillo; Raquel Sánchez-Fernandez; Amparo Cervera-Taulet

2012-01-01

367

Exobiology and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

1976-01-01

368

Managing the co-creation of value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Central to service-dominant (S-D) logic is the proposition that the customer becomes a co-creator of value. This emphasizes\\u000a the development of customer–supplier relationships through interaction and dialog. However, research to date suggests relatively\\u000a little is known about how customers engage in the co-creation of value. In this article, the authors: explore the nature of\\u000a value co-creation in the context of

Adrian F. Payne; Kaj Storbacka; Pennie Frow

2008-01-01

369

Comparative values of advanced space solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

Slifer, L. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

370

The mathematical logic of life.  

PubMed

Protein synthesis can be likened to a particular coded information storage, transmission and execution system. Noise, error or mutations are the essential phenomena to which a living organism is subjected. Genetic coding aims at preserving the integrity of a structure under aggression from the surroundings. It can be shown that the different amino acids translated in the proteins, except the particular case of SER, obey a logical code for optimization of resistance to mutation effects. The study of the structure of this code allows a better comprehension of the logic of life. PMID:6379559

Cullmann, G; Labouygues, J M

1984-01-01

371

Toward a Holistic Psychology of Valuing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Kohlberg's moral development theory and the necessity of a holistic theory. Describes Dabrowski's theory of cognitive disintegration. Implies that this theory could become a holistic theory and penetrate the sources of values objectivity. (Author/BH)

Hague, William J.

1988-01-01

372

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

373

Enhance End-of-Life Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... taken the lead in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. ...

374

Life table of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).  

PubMed

The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies. PMID:22679850

Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

2012-05-01

375

Optimistic biases in observational learning of value  

PubMed Central

Action-outcome contingencies can be learnt either by active trial-and-error, or vicariously, by observing the outcomes of actions performed by others. The extant literature is ambiguous as to which of these modes of learning is more effective, as controlled comparisons of operant and observational learning are rare. Here, we contrasted human operant and observational value learning, assessing implicit and explicit measures of learning from positive and negative reinforcement. Compared to direct operant learning, we show observational learning is associated with an optimistic over-valuation of low-value options, a pattern apparent both in participants’ choice preferences and their explicit post-hoc estimates of value. Learning of higher value options showed no such bias. We suggest that such a bias can be explained as a tendency for optimistic underestimation of the chance of experiencing negative events, an optimism repressed when information is gathered through direct operant learning. PMID:21354558

Nicolle, A.; Symmonds, M.; Dolan, R.J.

2011-01-01

376

The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*  

PubMed Central

A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

Edwards, Ryan D.

2012-01-01

377

A Consideratlon of Life Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a record of Special Lecture at the awarding ceremony of the 22nd “Niwa Prize”. Lecturer describes the mechanism in biology, taking a biology as an information system. For instance, when we make a protain by genes, every substance like hormones and nezymes, which were made by genes, has information. The system of biology moves by the fact that an gene dose not move itself, but substances with information go around in the body. From the viewpoint of life sciences, lecturer proposes the necessity to reconsider information as a linkage of heart and substance.

Nakamura, Keiko

378

The new lingo of added value.  

PubMed

In the vast kit of tools used by corporate America to measure success, one has vaulted from the desks of CFOs to the cover of Fortune. Economic value added, better known as EVA, has become the tool of choice to assess shareholder value in publicly owned companies. Despite its Wall Street roots, advocates say EVA can also be applied to the traditionally not-for-profit health care industry, especially in an age of brutal competition for scarce capital. PMID:9041801

Appleby, C

1997-02-01

379

Calculation of Hugoniot Values from Atomic Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A relatively simple equation is presented for use in calculating the Hugoniot values of any condensed element from its atomic weight, atomic radius, and density. Calculations from the equation are compared with data for many elements, and a discussion of ...

F. E. Walker, F. G. Walker, J. B. Walker

1986-01-01

380

Efficient Estimation of the Standardized Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We derive an estimator of the standardized value which, under the standard assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, is more efficient than the established (asymptotically efficient) estimator and discuss its gains for small samples. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

Longford, Nicholas T.

2009-01-01

381

Quality of Life in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Bipolar disorder is a common mood disorder associated with significant disability and impairment in quality of life in adults. Little research has examined the impact of the disorder on quality of life in children and adolescents. The current study examines the quality of life in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder compared with other physical and psychiatric illnesses. METHODS.This study

Andrew J. Freeman; Eric A. Youngstrom; Erin Michalak; Rebecca Siegel; Oren I. Meyers; Robert L. Findling

2009-01-01

382

Life Satisfaction of the Elderly American Indian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines generally high life satisfaction of 58 elderly reservation American Indians and its relationship to selected internal and external environmental factors. Suggests that internal environmental variables may be useful indicators of life satisfaction and that subjective measures of life satisfaction may be more predictive of mental health…

Johnson, Freddie L.; And Others

1984-01-01

383

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

384

The Origin of Life Darwin (1871)  

E-print Network

system with many bodies constrained by stability requirements. #12;Robustness of Life - Ranges RothchildThe Origin of Life Darwin (1871): "... in some warm little pond with all sorts of ammonia, or absorbed, which would not have been the case before living creatures were formed." #12;The Origin of Life 0

Goldschmidt, Christina

385

Calorific value of wastewater plant sludges  

SciTech Connect

Calorific values of wastewater plant sludges are best determined using an oxygen bomb calorimeter, an apparatus which is not readily available in many plants. Using a variety of sludges from thirteen municipal wastewater treatment plants in southeastern Wisconsin, an excellent correlation is established between the calorific value and chemical oxygen demand of the sludges. A well-tested recommended procedure for conducting the chemical oxygen demand of wet sludges and semi-dry cakes is also presented. (Refs. 4).

Zanoni, A.E.; Mueller, D.L.

1982-02-01

386

VALUES AND VALUING [Adapted from Carl Mitcham, ed., Encyclopedia of Science, Technology, and  

E-print Network

1 VALUES AND VALUING [Adapted from Carl Mitcham, ed., Encyclopedia of Science, Technology. Values can be negative as well as positive, in which case they are commonly termed "disvalues and technology. The intension of the term, however, is more difficult to indicate. The concept of value, its

Nissenbaum, Helen

387

The Social Values of Rural Schoolteachers under the Conditions of the Market Economy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the social values of rural schoolteachers under the conditions of the market economy in the countryside. It presents a comparative sociopedagogical analysis of the evolution of value orientations and life attitudes of rural schoolteachers during the years of the radical social and political reforms in Russia through the…

Sillaste, G. G.

2005-01-01

388

26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2011-04-01

389

Obesity, longevity, quality of life  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that optimization of murine immunological reactivity in tissue culture required a sulfhydryl compound; the most effective being 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me). Since these reports, 2-Me was found beneficial for both growth/function of other cell-types in vitro, including those of other species, and when fed orally, it impeded and/or reversed some in situ physiological changes associated with aging. More recently, thiol-containing compounds possessing oxidation-reduction potentials weaker than 2-Me were found to impart beneficial effects for many other, including human, diseases. Based on these effects, the research herein addressed the question: What consequences might dietary 2-Me impart on health and disease of mice other than those associated with aging? The main parameters monitored over the lifetime of individual animals exposed to dietary 10?3 M 2-Me in their drinking water were: quality of life (obesity and development of recumbent, emaciated and/or cachectic health, longevity, and appearance of tumors. Instead of anticipated toxic attributes, the following unique benefits were found: mean survival of a moderately-lived strain (A/J) was increased 40.8%, high-fat-diet obesity was curtailed in C57BL/10 mice, and a goal of aging intervention protocols, namely preventing loss of quality of life during aging (recumbent, emaciated and/or cachectic) was achieved. Various mechanisms are discussed as they pertain to these findings. PMID:21178502

2010-01-01

390

The Intrinsic Value of Campus Maintenance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how an emphasis on student recruitment, combined with deferred maintenance backlogs and maintenance budget cuts, suggest that further study needs to be done on the intrinsic value of campus maintenance. (EV)

Yeatts, G. Dewey

2003-01-01

391

Strategy and the art of reinventing value.  

PubMed

In "From Value Chain to Value Constellation: Designing Interactive Strategy" (July-August 1993), Richard Normann and Rafael Ramírez argue that successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, business partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value in new forms and by new players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings become more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the reconfiguration and integration of its compentencies and customers. Normann and Ramírez provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational pratices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national organization have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10129057

van der Heijden, K; Maccoby, M; Hama, N; Lundquist, J T; Collis, D J; Zeithaml, C; Martin, J E; Carroll, V P; Lurie, R

1993-01-01

392

The value of goodwill in medical practice.  

PubMed

Accountants measure goodwill as the amount paid to acquire a medical practice over and above the current value of its net tangible assets. Patient lists, a well-respected practice, an ideal location, and other factors are expected to result in greater than normal earning power. In this article, the author discusses the hidden value of goodwill and its important in medical acquisitions and other business transactions. PMID:10153515

Lazarus, A

1995-11-01

393

Impact of onychomycosis on quality of life.  

PubMed

The author reviews the current knowledge of the impact of onychomycosis on quality of life. Like other visible disorders of the integumentary system, onychomycosis affects many aspects of life, including physical functioning, interpersonal interactions, and emotional state. After examining the nature of quality of life and the study instruments used to measure it, the author reviews several studies that have examined the relationship between onychomycosis and quality of life. The author concludes that onychomycosis is a significant medical problem that has a great impact on patients' lives and should therefore be treated as definitively as possible. PMID:9397655

Drake, L A

1997-11-01

394

Illuminating the life of GPCRs  

PubMed Central

The investigation of biological systems highly depends on the possibilities that allow scientists to visualize and quantify biomolecules and their related activities in real-time and non-invasively. G-protein coupled receptors represent a family of very dynamic and highly regulated transmembrane proteins that are involved in various important physiological processes. Since their localization is not confined to the cell surface they have been a very attractive "moving target" and the understanding of their intracellular pathways as well as the identified protein-protein-interactions has had implications for therapeutic interventions. Recent and ongoing advances in both the establishment of a variety of labeling methods and the improvement of measuring and analyzing instrumentation, have made fluorescence techniques to an indispensable tool for GPCR imaging. The illumination of their complex life cycle, which includes receptor biosynthesis, membrane targeting, ligand binding, signaling, internalization, recycling and degradation, will provide new insights into the relationship between spatial receptor distribution and function. This review covers the existing technologies to track GPCRs in living cells. Fluorescent ligands, antibodies, auto-fluorescent proteins as well as the evolving technologies for chemical labeling with peptide- and protein-tags are described and their major applications concerning the GPCR life cycle are presented. PMID:19602276

Bohme, Ilka; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

2009-01-01

395

The Secret Life of Scientists  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The website that accompanies PBS's NOVA television series is called NOVA Science Now, and it offers many fun and engaging ways to better understand science and scientists. The Secret Life of Scientists is a web-exclusive series from NOVA which helps the public understand how and why scientists study what they do as well as "what happens when the lab coats come off." Sixteen scientists are currently highlighted on the site, and visitors can visit each scientist's videos and blog posts, as well as ask a question of any of the scientists. Scrolling over the pictures of each of the scientists reveals the scientific area they work in, as well as what they do in their secret life. One of the scientists is Adrienne Block, an African-American geologist who has spent time in the Antarctic and playing the bassoon is "her secret", while Geologist Alexandra Bowman "secret" is performing Native American dance. Overall, the site is an interesting and entertaining look into the lives of scientists.

2010-06-21

396

Strong Families, Tidy Houses, and Children's Values in Adult Life: Are "Chaotic", "Crowded" and "Unstable" Homes Really so Bad?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chaotic home systems have been linked with children's adverse psychological and academic outcomes. But, as they represent a departure from the suburban ideal of space, order, and family cohesiveness and stability, they should also be linked with low support for survival values. Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)…

Flouri, Eirini

2009-01-01

397

Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease  

PubMed Central

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374

Vickers, Mark H.

2014-01-01

398

Effects of value-communication style and similarity of values on counselor evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared the nature of client reactions to an explicit as opposed to an implicit counselor communication of values and examined the effects of S–counselor value similarity on S's perceptions of and confidence in the counselor. 120 female undergraduates listened to a 15-min, audiotaped counseling interview in which the counselor was either explicit or implicit about her values and expressed either

Kathleen N. Lewis; W. Bruce Walsh

1980-01-01

399

Haematological values of Nigerian goats and sheep.  

PubMed

Haematological parameters were determined in healthy Nigerian breeds of goats and sheep. Most values in the Nigerian goats were similar to those reported for temperate breeds of goats although the haemoglobin concentrations and the MCHC were lower. The haematocrit, haemoglobin concentrations and red cell counts of the West African Dwarf sheep were lower while the MCV were higher than those reported for sheep in the temperate climate. RBC values decreased with age in both Nigerian goats and sheep. Although sex pregnancy appeared to have little or no influence on the erythrocytic values, pregnant ewes had higher haematocrit and haemoglobin values. The low erythrocytic values were attributed to a low but constant parasitic burden which affected the flocks studied. Total leucocyte counts were considerably higher in the Nigerian goats and sheep than those reported for temperate breeds of animals. Young goats had higher total leucocyte counts while pregnant goats had reduced leucocyte counts. The leucocytic values were not affected by age and sex. Pregnant ewes also had higher leucocyte counts than non-pregnant ewes and rams. PMID:968949

Oduye, O O

1976-08-01

400

Fingerprints of Life CD and Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher resource on astrobiology and life in extreme environments contains classroom activities, presentation-ready slideshows with scripts and many other resources. It shows how NASA research on microbial life on Earth helps identify possible signs of life on Martian meteorites.

2004-01-01

401

Life Story of an Art Therapist of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this narrative, the author relates her experiences as an art therapist of color, and describes the impact of cultural beliefs and values on her life from childhood, through education, and into the workplace. She contends that incidents of conflicts between cultures in the community, in education, and in the workplace reflect the continuing need…

Boston, Charlotte G.

2005-01-01

402

The land value impacts of wetland restoration.  

PubMed

U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels <0.5 mi from EEP restoration sites have significantly lower sale prices, while 3) parcels >0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels <0.5 mi from EEP sites exhibit lower values, and sites 0.5-0.75 mi away exhibit increased values. Our work points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. PMID:23792789

Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

2013-09-30

403

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2013-04-01

404

26 CFR 25.2512-5T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2011-04-01

405

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2012-04-01

406

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2014-04-01

407

Elimination of helicoid silhouette double value  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silhouette method is one of the main methods for measuring flank angle of a helicoid But some methodology errors exist in this method two different results can be obtained theoretically at the same place of the spiral surface if exchanging the mounted direction of checked lead screw or rotating it through 1800 around its axis. This phenomenon is the double-value property of measurement results. In this paper the cause for the phenomenon and the relationship between the error and the parameters of helicoid are described. The double-value property of measurement results can be eliminated if measuring flank angle of helicoid by means of an optical system with an inclinable reticle The theory main properties and experimental results concerning the flank angle of lead screw by the new optical system are presented. I. HELICOID SILHOUETTE DOUBLE-VALUE Helicoid is a very important camber and a component of the lead screw worm tools and gauges. The silhouette method is one of the main methods for measuring helicoid but the doublevalue phenomenon exists in this method. A group of experiment results is given in Table. 1. It can be seen that the quantity of the double-value errors is too big to satisfy the requirement of measurement accuracy for mo s t lead screws ''lab. 1. Helicoid silhouette double value Measurement of axial flank angle UMM 200 by using traditional silhouette method part PWF30

Wang, Shikai; Liang, Hong

1993-09-01

408

Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

White, Ronald (editor); Leonard, Joel (editor)

1991-01-01

409

Origin of Life and Definition of Life, from Buffon to Oparin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

Tirard, Stéphane

2010-04-01

410

Origin of life and definition of life, from Buffon to Oparin.  

PubMed

Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life. PMID:20177784

Tirard, Stéphane

2010-04-01

411

End-of-life decisions: Christian perspectives.  

PubMed

While legal rights to make medical treatment decisions at the end of one's life have been recognized by the courts, particular religious traditions put axiological and metaphysical meat on the bare bones of legal rights. Mere legal rights do not capture the full reality, meaning and importance of death. End-of-life decisions reflect not only the meaning we find in dying, but also the meaning we have found in living. The Christian religions bring particular understandings of the vision of life as a gift from God, human responsibility for stewardship of that life, the wholeness of the person, and the importance of the dying process in preparing spiritually for life beyond earthly life, to bear on end-of-life decisions. PMID:11655316

Stempsey, William E

1997-12-01

412

Capacity Value of Wind Power - Summary  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for generation system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to generation system aequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America, along with some new analysis, are highlighted with a discussion of relevant issues also given.

O'Malley, M.; Milligan, M.; Holttinen, H.; Dent, C.; Keane, A.

2010-01-01

413

Death: A Part of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This two-part curriculum unit includes 20 slides depicting Days of the Dead in Mexico and the United States. The unit is designed to help middle school students compare customs and practices associated with death throughout the world in a way that promotes understanding of the values and needs that produce and are reinforced by death rituals and…

Otero, George G.; Harris, Zoanne

414

Leptin regulates the reward value of nutrient  

PubMed Central

We developed an assay for quantifying the reward value of nutrient and used it to analyze the effects of metabolic state and leptin. In this assay, mice chose between two sippers, one of which dispensed water and was coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the other of which dispensed natural or artificial sweeteners. This assay measured the reward value of sweeteners relative to lick-induced optogenetic activation of DA neurons. Mice preferred optogenetic stimulation of DA neurons to sucralose, but not to sucrose. However, the mice preferred sucralose plus optogenetic stimulation versus sucrose. We found that food restriction increased the value of sucrose relative to sucralose plus optogenetic stimulation, and that leptin decreased it. Our data suggest that leptin suppresses the ability of sucrose to drive taste-independent DA neuronal activation and provide new insights into the mechanism of leptin's effects on food intake. PMID:22081158

Domingos, Ana I; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Voss, Henning U; Ren, Xueying; Gradinaru, Viviana; Zang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; de Araujo, Ivan E; Friedman, Jeffrey

2014-01-01

415

Science, Policy, and the Transparency of Values  

PubMed Central

Background: Opposing groups of scientists have recently engaged in a heated dispute over a preliminary European Commission (EC) report on its regulatory policy for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition to the scientific issues at stake, a central question has been how scientists can maintain their objectivity when informing policy makers. Objectives: Drawing from current ethical, conceptual, and empirical studies of objectivity and conflicts of interest in scientific research, we propose guiding principles for communicating scientific findings in a manner that promotes objectivity, public trust, and policy relevance. Discussion: Both conceptual and empirical studies of scientific reasoning have shown that it is unrealistic to prevent policy-relevant scientific research from being influenced by value judgments. Conceptually, the current dispute over the EC report illustrates how scientists are forced to make value judgments about appropriate standards of evidence when informing public policy. Empirical studies provide further evidence that scientists are unavoidably influenced by a variety of potentially subconscious financial, social, political, and personal interests and values. Conclusions: When scientific evidence is inconclusive and major regulatory decisions are at stake, it is unrealistic to think that values can be excluded from scientific reasoning. Thus, efforts to suppress or hide interests or values may actually damage scientific objectivity and public trust, whereas a willingness to bring implicit interests and values into the open may be the best path to promoting good science and policy. Citation: Elliott KC, Resnik DB. 2014. Science, policy, and the transparency of values. Environ Health Perspect 122:647–650;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408107 PMID:24667564

Resnik, David B.

2014-01-01

416

IQ and the values of nations.  

PubMed

The origin of values and preferences is an unresolved theoretical question in behavioural and social sciences. The Savanna-IQ Interaction Hypothesis, derived from the Savanna Principle and a theory of the evolution of general intelligence, suggests that more intelligent individuals may be more likely to acquire and espouse evolutionarily novel values and preferences (such as liberalism and atheism and, for men, sexual exclusivity) than less intelligent individuals, but that general intelligence may have no effect on the acquisition and espousal of evolutionarily familiar values. Macro-level analyses show that nations with higher average intelligence are more liberal (have greater highest marginal individual tax rate and, as a result, lower income inequality), less religious (a smaller proportion of the population believes in God or considers themselves religious) and more monogamous. The average intelligence of a population appears to be the strongest predictor of its level of liberalism, atheism and monogamy. PMID:19302729

Kanazawa, Satoshi

2009-07-01

417

Reconstructing Ancient Forms of Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the past three months has occurred in two areas, reconstruction of ancestral proteins and improved understanding of chemical features that are likely to be universal in generic matter regardless of its genesis. Ancestral ribonucleases have been reconstructed, and an example has been developed that shows how physiological function can be assigned to in vitro behaviors observed in biological systems. Sequence data have been collected to permit the reconstruction of src homology 2 domains that underwent radiative divergence at the time of the radiative divergence of chordates. New studies have been completed that show how genetic matter (or its remnants) might be detected on Mars (or other non-terrean locations.) Last, the first in vitro selection experiments have been completed using a nucleoside library carrying positively charged functionality, illustrating the importance of non-standard nucleotides to those attempting to obtain evidence for an "RNA world" as an early episode of life on earth.

Benner, Steven A.

1998-01-01

418

The Tree of Life's Macromolecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students start with images of living organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. They "zoom" into cells and tissues to discover that they are made of different macromolecules. Students observe that these macromolecules are polymers. They zoom into polymers to find that some are made from almost identical monomers, while others, such as proteins, are made from a set of different monomers. They discover that all monomers making up biological macromolecules are composed of just a few types of chemical elements: C, H, O, N, P and S. Students will be able to:Identify typical molecular building blocks (monomers) that form biological macromolecules; determine the types of atoms that make up most biopolymers; reason about the uniformity and diversity at the atomic level of life's molecular building blocks.

Project, Molecular L.

419

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture  

E-print Network

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture Gregory Graff, Ryan Mortenson, Rebecca Goldbach, Dawn of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agricultural Sciences, and the Office of Engagement Colorado the Colorado Department of Agriculture and the Colorado State University Office of Engagement. The authors

Stephens, Graeme L.

420

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture  

E-print Network

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture Gregory Graff, Ryan Mortenson, Rebecca Goldbach, Dawn of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agricultural Sciences, and the Office of Engagement Colorado by support from the Colorado Department of Agriculture and the Colorado State University Office of Engagement

421

The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

2006-01-01

422

Exploring the Value of the Whole  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on the relationship between parts and the whole. These relationships were developed earlier and require the students to consider the size or value of the same fraction when different "wholes" are compared (i.e., the value of x is relative to the whole; x of a small pie is not equivalent to x of a large pie). This lesson promotes problem solving and reasoning as the students compare similar fractions with different "wholes." Students develop communication skills as they work in pairs and share their understanding about the relationship between the value of a fraction and the whole. (from NCTM Illuminations) This is the last lesson of a five lesson unit.

Illuminations

2012-02-05

423

Factor Structure of Quality of Life: The Lehman Interview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study of 67 chronically mentally ill outpatients examined subjective Quality of Life Scores from A. Lehman's Quality of Life Interview. Results suggest a model of life satisfaction in which instrumental and affiliative needs comprise significant portions of life satisfaction. Implications for other quality of life and life satisfaction…

Goodman, Marianne; Hull, James W.; Terkelsen, Kenneth G.; Smith, Thomas E.; Anthony, Donna

1997-01-01

424

Building the blueprint of life.  

SciTech Connect

With recent breakthroughs in experimental microbiology making it possible to synthesize and implant an entire genome to create a living cell, the challenge of constructing a working blueprint for the first truly minimal synthetic organism is more important than ever. Here we review the significant progress made in the design and creation of a minimal organism. We discuss how comparative genomes, gene essentiality data, naturally small genomes, and metabolic modeling are all being applied to produce a catalogue of the biological functions essential for life. We compare the minimal gene sets from three published sources with functions identified in 13 existing gene essentiality datasets. We examine how genome-scale metabolic models have been applied to design a minimal metabolism for growth in simple and complex media. Additionally, we survey the progress of efforts to construct a minimal organism, either through implementation of combinatorial deletions in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli or through the synthesis and implantation of synthetic genomes.

Henry, C. S.; Overbeek, R.; Stevens, R. L.; Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes

2010-07-01

425

The prevalence and economic value of doubling up.  

PubMed

"Doubling up" (living with relatives or nonkin) is a common source of support for low-income families, yet no study to date has estimated its economic value relative to other types of public and private support. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine the prevalence and economic value of doubling up among families with young children living in large American cities. We find that doubling up is a very important part of the private safety net in the first few years of a child's life, with nearly 50 % of mothers reporting at least one instance of doubling up by the time their child is 9 years old. The estimated rental savings from doubling up is significant and comparable in magnitude to other public and private transfers. PMID:25165015

Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin; McLanahan, Sara S

2014-10-01

426

[Biological and nutritional value of food products].  

PubMed

The paper deals with a detailed analysis into the methods of study and of the validity of terminology adopted in denoting the usefulness of food products, proceeding from their chemical composition. The author proposes to distinctly subdivide the notions of the alimentary, biological and energy producing values, but unite them under a general term reflecting the totality of the useful qualities of the products that covers the estimation therein of a broad range of nutrients, which should be referred to as "nutritional value". The terms of biological and energy producing values are special designations. The first of them reflects the quality of proteinic components in the product which have to do both with the digestability of the protein and with the degree to which its amino acids compositions is balanced. Then it should be borne in mind that the indices of biological value may undergo substantial changes, both under the effect of rigid methods of technological treatment, that brings about a change in the structure of the protein molecules proper, and consequent upon their interaction with other nutrients, as well as during their long-term storage. An important advantage that offers the determination of the biological value indices is an analytical segregation from among numerous biological properties the ones which are related to the features specific for the structure precisely of the proteinic constituents of the food. The determination of this index allows it to differentiate the useful qualities of the protein from a great number of other factors that can significantly change the assimilation of the products by the organism, including the presence therein of extraneous substances. The term energy-producing value of the products characterizes the part of the energy that can be liberated from the nutrients in the course of biological oxidation and used in securing physiological functions of the organism. As a basis for expressing the alimentary (nutritional) value of the products a method of the integral score, reflecting the degree to which the chemical composition of the study product corresponds to the formula of balanced nutrition worked outhe author is suggested. The energy variant of the integral score presents definate advantages, for with it the author estimates the percentage of satisfied requirements of an adult person in nutrients with the consumption of products in an amount that corresponds to a definate portion of energy, 300 kcal, for example (which comprises roughly 10 per cent of an average diurnal requirement in energy). The energy variant of the score makes it possible to determine the "degree of completness" of the product's calories with essentian nutritional factors. PMID:1154700

Pokrovski?, A A

1975-01-01

427

Compression of Complex-Valued SAR Imagery  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic Aperture Radars are coherent imaging systems that produce complex-valued images of the ground. Because modern systems can generate large amounts of data, there is substantial interest in applying image compression techniques to these products. In this paper, we examine the properties of complex-valued SAR images relevant to the task of data compression. We advocate the use of transform-based compression methods but employ radically different quantization strategies than those commonly used for incoherent optical images. The theory, methodology, and examples are presented.

Eichel P.; Ives, R.W.

1999-03-03

428

Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

2007-01-01

429

Proper Values of Matrices and Some Applications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a short study of proper values of two-by-two matrices with real entries. Gives examples of symmetric matrices and applications to systems of linear equations of perpendicular lines intersecting at the origin and central conics rotated about the origin to eliminate the xy term from its equation. (MDH)

Amir-Moez, Ali R.

1992-01-01

430

The expectation value of the field operator  

E-print Network

Much of the mathematical development of quantum field theory has been in support of determining the S-matrix in order to calculate scattering cross sections. However there is also an interest in determining how expectation values of field operators evolve in time from an initial state. In this paper I will examine some aspects of this problem.

Dan Solomon

2014-07-14

431

Notion of p-value Parametric Approximations  

E-print Network

Power of a test ROC and AUC Example with GWAS G. NUEL Significance of an Observation in Post with GWAS G. NUEL Significance of an Observation in Post-Genomics #12;Notion of p-value Parametric Approximations Gumbel Approximations 3 Power Power of a test ROC and AUC Example with GWAS G. NUEL Significance

Nuel, Gregory

432

The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides…

Hanushek, Eric A.

2011-01-01

433

The Use and Value of Scholarly Journals.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes results of 13,591 readership survey responses of scientists and reviews of hundreds of other readership studies reported in a recent book. Highlights include scientific scholarly journal readership defined; the usefulness and value of scholarly journals; information seeking patterns; and implications for the future. (Contains 6…

Tenopir, Carol; King, Donald W.

2000-01-01

434

What Determines the Value of Corporate Votes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the determinants of the value rights in U.S. corporations. Results support the hypothesis that the price of a vote is determined by the expected additional payment vote holders will receive for their votes in case of a control contest. The size of this differential payment is a function of the probability that a vote is pivotal in

Luigi Zingales

1995-01-01

435

[Quality of life and hemodialysis].  

PubMed

The periodic study of Quality of Life ( QoL) in chronic uremic patients on hemodialysis, is a tool aimed to adapt the approach to the patient, according to the evolving needs. The study sample consisted of 35 subjects (M 65.7% and 34.2 % F), aged 18-84 years (57+16,3) and with an average dialytic age of 6.5 years (+5.3). The tool used was the Multidimensional Inventory for Patient on Hemodialysis (IPPE) which provides a survey for the patients consisting of 24 items to evaluate their degree of agreement/disagreement on a 4-point Lickert scale (false, partially false, partially true, true). The analysis showed that: with respect to the family relationships, criticality was 12.6 %, about the relationship with their body it was 15,8 %, regarding the need to drink it was 22.2%, about the daily life 20.6% and about the perception of their disease it was 7.9 %. Compared to the Index of Global Psychophysical Distress (IPPE), in the sample considered the 67,6% of the patients did not present any problem, the 32.3 % presented a quite critical discomfort and nobody presented any acute critical discomfort. Statistical analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the IPPE and dialysis age (r = - 0.473, p = 0.005). Although this is a preliminary result of an in-depth understanding of the underlying processes, it may help to identify the factors that, over time, contribute to the patient adaptation to the dialysis treatment, in order to facilitate this process in people who start hemodialysis. PMID:25098463

De Pascalis, Antonio; Baglivo, Elena; Viva, Tanya; Maniglia, Raffaele; Buongiorno, Erasmo

2014-01-01

436

Two Essays on the Value of Cash  

E-print Network

Faulkender and Wang (2006) find that the marginal value of cash holdings varies with a firm’s cash levels, leverage, the method of payout, and the degree of financial constraints the firm faces. Dittmar and Mahrt-Smith (2007) find that poorly governed...’ cash holdings. Using a sample of more than 78,000 firm-year observations from 1987 to 2011 and following the approach in Faulkender and Wang (2006) and Dittmar and Mahrt- Smith (2007), we find that the marginal value to shareholders...

Tippens, Timothy

2012-10-19

437

RSu integral of interval-valued functions and fuzzy-valued functions redefined  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we prove that the RSu integral of constant interval-valued functions does not exist according to the definition of [6], and we give a generalized definition of RSu integral of interval-valued functions and fuzzy-valued functions and the integrability of constant interval-valued functions in the sense of new definition. The generalized RSu integral keeps the properties of [6] and

Wu Cong

1996-01-01

438

An Examination of the Role of Values in Working-Class Students' Career Decision-Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature suggests that members of the working class value informal ("hot") information rather than formal ("cold") information. They are also said to lack a future orientation; have a fatalistic (and pessimistic) attitude to life; and have low aspirations. These values should influence the way students from working-class backgrounds approach…

Greenbank, Paul

2009-01-01

439

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

440

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

2007-09-21

441

Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

2011-01-01

442

The Benefits of Reflecting on and Discussing Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The benefits of understanding and pursuing one's purposes in life are well documented. However, few studies have addressed potential interventions for enhancing purpose. This article presents the results of an empirical investigation testing whether reflecting on and discussing one's core values, life goals, and purposes in life has benefits for…

Bundick, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

443

Table 1. Definitions and experimental values of parameters Symbol Definition Value Range  

E-print Network

Table 1. Definitions and experimental values of parameters Symbol Definition Value Range (Experimental) Value* TI Time of the end of residual growth 10 h 10 TR Delay in A LR 's entry into death phase after the onset of starvation 60-80 h 70 DR Death rate of A LR in the absence of ade after time

Shou, Wenying

444

Capacity Value of Wind Power - Summary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for generation system adequacy is the capacity value of generation.

M. OMalley; M. Milligan; H. Holttinen; C. Dent; A. Keane

2010-01-01

445

"Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

Viadero, Debra

2009-01-01

446

The Value of Repetition in Articulation Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Exact analysis of an experiment involving children from the ages of 4 to 12 learning three new articulations revealed that most of the articulation learning took place on the second attempt with relatively moderate improvement in subsequent trials, thus placing the value of repetition in articulation learning in question. (FB)

Locke, John L.

1970-01-01

447

Predictive value of Electroglottography in voice disorders.  

PubMed

A prospective study of 62 consecutive cases of voice disorders in which an attempt has been made to define the predicictive value of electrography in voice disorders. The overall predictability is 69.3% with a high sensitivity for mass lesions and mobality disorders of vocal cord. PMID:23119825

Ahluwalia, H; Prakash, B

2001-10-01

448

Tolerating failures of continuous-valued sensors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures onto one that can is presented. Issues addressed include modifying specifications in order to accommodate uncertainty in sensor values and averaging sensor values in a fault tolerant manner. In addition, a hierarchy of sensor failure models is identified, and both the attainable accuracy and the run-time complexity of sensor averaging with respect to this hierarchy is discussed.

Marzullo, Keith

1990-01-01

449

Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ?-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2? uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2? uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2? uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age <800 ka can clearly be resolved from the isotopic composition of a sample in secular equilibrium, assuming closed system behavior. Using these techniques, we analyzed a Sanbao Cave (Hubei, China) stalagmite that formed between 510 and 640 ka ago. As the half-life values were determined independent of the Sanbao Cave ages, the observed co-variation between stalagmite ?18O and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation is consistent with accurate ages and half-life values.

Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.

2013-06-01

450

Measuring the Value Added of Management: A Knowledge Value Added Approach.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

That management adds value to organizations is one of the unquestioned truisms of business, government, military, and any other multi- member organization. The question left largely unanswered is, 'How much value does management add to an organization' Th...

T. J. Housel, V. Kanevsky

2007-01-01

451

Buddhist-inspired meditation increases the value of calm.  

PubMed

Most studies of meditation have focused on "actual affect" (how people actually feel). We predict that meditation may even more significantly alter "ideal affect" (how people ideally want to feel). As predicted, meditators ideally wanted to feel calm more and excited less than nonmeditators, but the groups did not differ in their actual experience of calm or excited states (Study 1). We ruled out self-selection and nonspecific effects by randomly assigning participants to meditation classes, an improvisational theater class, or a no class control (Study 2). After eight weeks, meditators valued calm more but did not differ in their actual experience of calm compared with the other groups. There were no differences in ideal or actual excitement, suggesting that meditation selectively increases the value placed on calm. These findings were not due to expectancy effects (Study 3). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding how meditation alters affective life. PMID:23356567

Koopmann-Holm, Birgit; Sze, Jocelyn; Ochs, Camaron; Tsai, Jeanne L

2013-06-01

452

Extreme value analysis of Fiji's wind records  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of extreme value analysis techniques are utilised to predict basic design gust wind speeds for Fiji, which lies in a tropical cyclone prone region. The study shows that a number of modern methods tend to highly under-predict extreme wind speeds in regions of Fiji severely affected by tropical cyclones, although their skills improve in less severely affected regions.

S P Rattan; R N Sharma

2005-01-01

453

Value of Ear Endoscopy in Cholesteatoma Surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ear endoscopy in cholesteatoma surgery and to demonstrate its consequence in improving surgical outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 92 ears with acquired cholesteatoma (primary or secondary) were operated on. In this prospective study, 82 cases were operated on by using canal wall up (CWU) technique, and

M. Badr-el-Dine

2002-01-01

454

Values in the Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

Wees, W. R.

1980-01-01

455

Values and female entrepreneurship  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the extent to which different types of values influence a woman's decision to become an entrepreneur. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper constructs a two-stage model to capture the entrepreneurial decision. In the first stage, life values affect the decision to enter the workforce. In the second stage, work values impact the

Katherine Terrell; Michael Troilo

2010-01-01

456

Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction. Part 1; Comparison of Bearing Life Theories  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four rolling-element bearing life theories were chosen for analysis and compared for a simple roller-race geometry model. The life theories were those of Weibull; Lundberg and Palmgren; Ioannides and Harris; and Zaretsky. The analysis without a fatigue limit of Ioannides and Harris is identical to the Lundberg and Palmgren analysis, and the Weibull analysis is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. The resultant predicted life a each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. The least variation in predicted life with Weibull slope comes with the Zaretsky equation. Except for a Weibull slope of 1.11, at which the Weibull equation predicts the highest lives, the highest lives are predicted for the Zaretsky equation. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both the Lundherg-Palmgren and Ioannides-Harris (where tau(sub u) = 0) equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMA/ISO standard. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field. The assumption of as shear stress fatigue limit tau(sub u) results in Hertz stress-life exponents greater than are experimentally verifiable.

Poplawski, Joseph V.; Peters, Steven M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

2001-01-01

457

Teaching Dystopias: The Value of Religious Questioning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that a true general education should encourage the exploration of religious questions. Describes the author's use of works showing dystopian societies based on existing values, such as Huxley's "Brave New World," to encourage students to rethink their assumptions and develop openness toward the questions that religions address. (22…

Seabury, Marcia Bundy

1995-01-01

458

The Educational Value of Nasreddin Hodja's Anecdotes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The anecdotes of Nasreddin Hodja, who lived in Anatolia in the 13th century, have always attracted people due to the humour they contain, but this discussion also focuses on exploring the educational value of the anecdotes. According to teachers who contributed to this study, the anecdotes stimulate students' interest in language work, create a…

Asilioglu, Bayram

2008-01-01

459

Exploration of Values: Israeli Teachers' Professional Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The main purpose of this study was to explore Israeli teachers' professional ethics and values using the Facet Theory (Guttman in Psychmetrika 33:469-506, 1968). Since Israel does not have a teachers' code of ethics, such exploration can be a basis for constructing one. The study is mainly exploratory, and the main hypotheses that guided the study…

Fisher, Yael

2013-01-01

460

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

E-print Network

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION BRUCE A. MCCARL, BRIAN C. MURRAY, AND UWE A. SCHNEIDER A. Abstract Carbon sequestration via forests and agricultural soils saturates over time to sequestration because of (1) an ecosystems limited ability to take up carbon which we will call saturation

McCarl, Bruce A.

461

Inquiry-Based Learning: Personalisation or the Rehabilitation of Human Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article I argue that the concept of personalisation is simply rhetorical unless it facilitates theory and practice which takes seriously and engages with the value of the human person. The idea of human value is a fundamental theme in social and cultural life and the motor behind many psychological and social processes. Traditionally,…

Steed, Chris

2009-01-01

462

Focusing on Values in Information Systems Development: A Critical Review of Three Methodological Frameworks  

E-print Network

in life". People may find many things important, and what they value may influence their decisions when Frameworks Fahri Yetim University of Siegen, Information Systems and New Media, Hölderlinstr. 3, 57076 Siegen of other social 'goods' such as equity, peace, conservation of natural resources, etc. Often design values

463

The Role of Values and Value Activation in Determining Behavioural Reactions towards Policy Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the role of values in behavioural reactions to environmental policy measures. Respondents were 118 undergraduate students. The first study was aimed at testing a new measure of value activation. Ostensibly participating in a study concerning semantic memory, participants were presented with a list of value words to remember. They were then asked to fill in an impression

Andreas Nilsson; Anders Biel; Niklas Karlsson

464

The Economic Value of Climate Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. We present illustrative results comparing the proposed CLARREO advance in satellite absolute calibration for climate change records to an existing system for detecting decadal temperature change and cloud feedback (i.e. climate sensitivity uncertainty). While CLARREO is used as an example, the value should be considered as relevant to an improved climate observing system, since societal decisions are unlikely to be based on one or a few observations. The VOI is found to depend on the required confidence level, the trigger value at which we would abandon the BAU emissions path, the path to which we switch, and the date at which the new system is launched. The VOI of CLARREO in this decision context is the surfeit of NPV of averted damages, relative to the existing system. Over all it is in the order of tens of trillions of US dollars. Among the noteworthy conclusions are (1) switching to either the DICE optimal or Stern emissions paths makes only a modest difference in the VOI of CLARREO, (2) raising the trigger value from 0.2C to 0.3C/decade, increases the VOI of CLARREO, while increasing the total NPV of climate damages, and (3) the choice of discount rate affects the VOI by a factor ~ 5. The results conclude that the economic value of advanced climate observing systems is dramatically larger than their cost, and argues for the continual enhancement of the SCC assessment process.

Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

2012-12-01

465

Evaluation of standard life assessment procedures and life extension methodologies for fracture-critical components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endeavors to maximize the safe service lives of aeroengine components have led to a variety of life assessment methodologies. The following are reviewed in the paper: Life-to-first-crack, Databank Lifing, Damage Tolerance and Damage Mechanism based procedures. Their service implementation involves a variety of aspects of which the following are briefly discussed: stress analysis, defects and component life extension methods. Building

A. D Boyd-Lee; G. F Harrison; M. B Henderson

2001-01-01

466

Signs of Life on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some images, but were absent in the other or altered their shape. What sources of energy, in principle, could be used by life in the high temperature oxigenless atmosphere? The objects found are large enough, they are not micro-organisms. It is most natural to assume that, like on Earth, Venusian fauna is heterotrophic, and the source of its life is hypothetical autotrophic flora. There is enough light for flora's photosynthesis. Since the critical temperature of water on Venus is about 320°C and the temperature at the surface is about 460°C, the metabolism of organisms on Venus (if any) should be built without water, on the basis of some other liquid medium. Based on data analyzed it has been suggested that because of the limited energy capacity of the Venusian fauna, the temporal characteristics of their physical actions can be much longer than that of the Earth.

Ksanfomality, L.

2012-04-01

467

Challenges and opportunities: communication near the end of life.  

PubMed

While the nurse works on developing communication skills with the dying patient and his or her family, the goal should be to build an understanding of the patient and family's needs and goals. The principles and value of good communication near the end of life are reviewed. Practical approaches and suggestions for medical-surgical nurses to improve communication are provided. PMID:19051974

Gauthier, Donna M

2008-10-01

468

The Evolution of Transfers and Life Histories  

PubMed Central

Much of life history theory analyzes life histories of independent, isolated individuals, who grow, forage, reproduce, and die. However, in many species social interactions such as food sharing are a key part of the life history strategy, altering the energetic budget constraint. Transfers and sharing raise reproductive success and also alter the fitness impact of other aspects of the life history. We discuss a variety of traits and behaviors for which transfers are important, synthesizing results from a number of earlier papers. Topics include the U-shaped mortality curve, post reproductive survival, causes of early life mortality decline, why intergenerational transfers evolve and co-evolve with longevity, time preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual differences in transfers, menopause, demographic advantages of social sharing, and consequences of social sharing for life history evolution. PMID:22750486

Cyrus, C. Y.

2012-01-01

469

Using Artificial Life to Assess the Typicality of Terrestrial Life: Implications for Human Mission Planetary Protection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The extent to which extraterrestrial life questions can be addressed, in the absence of an actual example, rests in some measure on the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of life in general since we will likely have to draw heavily, if not completely, from terrestrial life research. One example of a practical question involving extraterrestrial life that arises in preparing for a human mission to another planet such as Mars, is trying to assess and minimize the possible adverse effects of the presence of humans on possible indigenous extraterrestrial life-forms. This paper will present some key planetary protection challenges for a human Mars mission and then focus on one possible approach for assessing the extent to which terrestrial life is representative of biological phenomena in general, informing perhaps, the level of confidence we might have in applying terrestrial research - to extraterrestrial life issues. The approach involves appealing to the relatively new field of Artificial Life (A-Life) to: (1) use what might be the most basic minimal set of life-defining characteristics in (2) a large number of open-ended Artificial Life simulations to generate a "life possibility space" (3) the products of which can be examined for their plausibility within the context of relevant constraining knowledge, so that (4) the remaining possibility space can be examined for its variability relative to terrestrial life, where low variability might suggest that terrestrial life is representative of life in general, and high variability would indicate otherwise.

Lupisella, Mark; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

470

Analysis of design control values for TEP  

SciTech Connect

The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) Performance Requirements Report (USITER-13201-TD0005-R00), date May 29, 2007 defined feed sources for TEP quantities and approximate flow rate of gases from these individual sources. In addition, the report identified the approximate periods of time (during Burn and Dwell, 'Silent Shift', etc.) that these gases would be transferred to TEP. This report did not take into account the detailed, time dependent, sequencing options for receiving gases from these feed sources. Sequencing is critical in defining the actual design basis values (flow rates, etc.) for TEP. This report analyzes the time dependent sequencing of feed flows to TEP and defines the ,design basis values. This analysis is based on the values presented in the TEP Performance Requirements Report (TEP PRR), and indicates that the ITER Burn and Dwell, Silent Shift Following 16 hours of Burn and Dwell, Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC), and Silent Shift following 100 hours of GDC scenarios are the limiting scenarios from which the design basis values will be defined.

Carlson, Bryan J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01

471

The Value Shift of the Russian Greens  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green movement in the USSR\\/Russia has existed for more than forty years. During this period, seven groups have been shaped and consolidated within the movement (the conservationists, the alternativists, the traditionalists, the civil initiatives, the ecopoliticians, the ecopatriots, and the ecotechnocrats). The aim of this article is to consider the value shift each group underwent during the decade 1992–2001

Oleg Yanitsky

2005-01-01

472

The Cognitive Value of College Women's Friendships.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The cognitive nature, power, and educational value of college women's friendships were studied. As a means for dissolving the boundaries between the academic and intellectual, and as a place where autonomy and interdependence are in dynamic exercise, female friendships can provide a model for peer-assisted learning in higher education. Data were…

Martinez Aleman, Ana M.

473

Values Enquiry in the Teaching of Geography.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the content-based approach and the form-based approach to values education in order to determine the more effective approach for Hong Kong geography instructors to adopt. Finds that the form-based approach is more popular among educators because it eliminates the danger of indoctrination. An exemplar unit, "Apartheid in South Africa," is…

Lam, Chi-Chung

1988-01-01

474

CENSORSHIP AND THE VALUES OF FICTION.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GENERAL STATEMENTS ABOUT THE MORAL VALUE OF LITERATURE HAVE PROVED TO BE UNSUCCESSFUL IN DISSUADING POTENTIAL CENSORS. MORE EFFECTIVE ARE ARGUMENTS WHICH CONVINCE THE PERSON WHO ATTEMPTS TO CENSOR LITERATURE THAT HE IS VIOLATING HIS OWN SOCIAL, POLITICAL, OR MORAL STANDARDS. HOWEVER, THESE, ALSO, ARE FREQUENTLY TOO GENERAL TO BE CONVINCING.…

BOOTH, WAYNE C.

475

In Search of the Next Value Proposition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although it is pretty easy to find colleagues who will express fatigue or frustration about the constant need for libraries to prove their value proposition, there is also an upside to the exercise of crafting a message that justifies librarians' mission. The catch is that however good their crafted message may be, they must forget about ever…

Huwe, Terence K.

2012-01-01

476

The Value of Color in Newspaper Design.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the ways in which color halftones can be used in campus newspapers to attract attention to ads, headlines, and editorial copy. Explains how to change the hue, value, and saturation of a color and the effects the changes should achieve. (AYC)

Bohle, Robert

1987-01-01

477

Weakness analysis of singular value based watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Singular value (SV)-based image watermarking has recently been gaining attention. The advantage of this watermarking approach is its robustness to distortion attacks. In this paper, we mathematically prove that SV-based watermarking algorithms are robust against distortion attacks as long as the attacks are not severe. The same mathematical proof, however, also confirms that such watermarking schemes are unfortunately susceptible to

Xiong Changzhen; Guo Fenhong; Li Zhengxi

2009-01-01

478

Automation of constrained-value business forms  

SciTech Connect

Expert systems can improve many business tasks. However, the nature of a constrained-value business form can result in a rule base that contains circular reasoning, unsuitable for expert system implementation. A methodology is presented for restructuring such a rule base for compatibility with a backward-chaining expert system.