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Sample records for value of life

  1. Are estimates of the value of a statistical life exaggerated?

    PubMed

    Doucouliagos, Chris; Stanley, T D; Giles, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of the value of a statistical life (VSL) is critical to the evaluation of many health and safety initiatives. To date, the large and rigorous VSL research literature has not explicitly accommodated publication selectivity bias (i.e., the reduced probability that insignificant or negative VSL values are reported). This study demonstrates that doing so is essential. For studies that employ hedonic wage equations to estimate VSL, correction for selection bias reduces the average value of a statistical life by 70-80%. Our meta-regression analysis also identifies several sources for the wide heterogeneity found among reported VSL estimates. PMID:22079490

  2. The Transformation of the Value of Life: Dispossession as Torture.

    PubMed

    Abadía-Barrero, César E

    2015-01-01

    Workers at the oldest maternity hospital in Colombia experienced the privatization of health care and the flexibilization of their labor. Drawing on their experience, I illustrate how neoliberalism transforms the value of life. This transformation occurs first in terms of its moral worth: the worth of life changes over time, as people and public hospitals are stigmatized as the 'living memory' of the old. Second, the hospital buildings, the land on which they sit, and the roles of workers within the hospital are all transformed. Both similarities and differences emerge between a type of systemic or chronic violence that is inherent to the capitalist system and modern practices of torture. Examining how capitalist forces transform the value of life opens up new fields of inquiry to study links between critical political economy and subjectivity. PMID:26131618

  3. What Is the Value of Life? … and Other Socratic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuny, Casey

    2014-01-01

    Casey Cuny was frustrated with the lack of depth in his high school English students' writing. He'd heard about Socratic seminars but was reluctant to try them until he saw them in action. He decided to conduct Socratic seminars with his students centered on the question, What is the value of life? In past years, student papers on this…

  4. What Determines the Value of Life? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrozek, Janusz R.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2002-01-01

    A large literature has developed in which labor market contracts are used to estimate the value of a statistical life (VSL). Reported estimates of the VSL vary substantially, from less than $100,000 to more than $25 million. This research uses meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the VSL literature. Results from existing studies are pooled to…

  5. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

  6. The Value of Analog Research in the Search for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    All we know about life and our understanding of its distribution throughout the Universe is based on our understanding of how life originated and evolved, and how it has persisted here on Earth. As we have refined our list of requirements for earth-like organisms and explored the limits of our biosphere, a variety of possible extraterrestrial habitats that could support life have emerged. Although our access to other potentially habitable worlds is limited, we continue to increase our understanding of the environmental conditions on bodies in our solar system which can inform our search for appropriate analogue sites. There is no perfect analogue for other planetary habitable environments on Earth. Earth is a planet with plate tectonics, a hydrological cycle, a thick atmosphere and stronger gravity than most candidate systems. Moreover, present day Earth is a verdant, interconnected system resulting from billions of years of biosphere evolution. Such differences pose a challenge to analogue research and in particular limit the interpretation of the environment under study in important ways. Earth's extreme environments have been proposed as analogues of planetary environments. A common error is to assume if an environment is extreme or it is cold and dry it will make an excellent analogue site. The value of an analogue site is measured by a good assessment of the relevance of a site with rigorous attention to its Earth-based limitations is necessary and it will have different impacts depending on the question under study. Additionally, modern and ancient systems on earth can also be investigated in order to target a future search for as yet undetected terrestrial features and processes that preserve or indicate signs of past life. Despite any limitations, analogue research is essential and field research at these terrestrial sites represents a growing aspect of planetary science. Those relevant to the search for life are supported by NASA's Planetary Science, Technology through Analog Research (PSTAR).

  7. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  8. Pathways From Religion to Advance Care Planning: Beliefs About Control Over Length of Life and End-of-Life Values

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the extent to which religious affiliation and self-identified religious importance affect advance care planning (ACP) via beliefs about control over life length and end-of-life values. Design and Methods: Three hundred and five adults aged 55 and older from diverse racial and socioeconomic groups seeking outpatient care in New Jersey were surveyed. Measures included discussion of end-of-life preferences; living will (LW) completion; durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC) appointment; religious affiliation; importance of religion; and beliefs about who/what controls life length, end-of-life values, health status, and sociodemographics. Results: Of the sample, 68.9% had an informal discussion and 46.2% both discussed their preferences and did formal ACP (LW and/or DPAHC). Conservative Protestants and those placing great importance on religion/spirituality had a lower likelihood of ACP. These associations were largely accounted for by beliefs about God’s controlling life length and values for using all available treatments. Implications: Beliefs and values about control account for relationships between religiosity and ACP. Beliefs and some values differ by religious affiliation. As such, congregations may be one nonclinical setting in which ACP discussions could be held, as individuals with similar attitudes toward the end of life could discuss their treatment preferences with those who share their views. PMID:23161430

  9. The enduring value of Gánti's chemoton model and life criteria: Heuristic pursuit of exact theoretical biology.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, James

    2015-09-21

    Gánti's chemoton model of the minimal chemical organization of living systems and life criteria for the living state and a living world are characterized. It is argued that these are better interpreted as part of a heuristic pursuit of an exact theoretical biology than as a "definition of life." Several problems with efforts to define life are discussed. Clarifying the proper use of Gánti's ideas to serve constructive engineering idealizations helps to show their enduring value. PMID:25997793

  10. The Value of a Statistical Life Henrik Andersson

    E-print Network

    the evaluation of different policies, which in turn, enables policy makers to allocate resources more efficiently involved in the process (e.g. the public). Many of the benefits and costs induced by policies within . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.1 Public provision of safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

  11. The Game of Life: College Sports and Educational Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, James L.; Bowen, William G.

    Drawing on historical research, data on alumni giving, information on budgetary spending on college athletics, and a database of 90,000 students from 30 selective colleges and universities in the 1950s, 1970, and 1990s, this book demonstrates how athletics influences the class composition and campus ethos of selective schools. The chapters are:…

  12. Publication selection and the income elasticity of the value of a statistical life.

    PubMed

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T D; Viscusi, W Kip

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) establish the price government agencies use to value fatality risks. Transferring these valuations to other populations often utilizes the income elasticity of the VSL, which typically draw on estimates from meta-analyses. Using a data set consisting of 101 estimates of the income elasticity of VSL from 14 previously reported meta-analyses, we find that after accounting for potential publication bias the income elasticity of value of a statistical life is clearly and robustly inelastic, with a value of approximately 0.25-0.63. There is also clear evidence of the importance of controlling for levels of risk, differential publication selection bias, and the greater income sensitivity of VSL from stated preference surveys. PMID:24300998

  13. On being a person through time: the value of life extension and the ethics of aging intervention 

    E-print Network

    Horrobin, Steven

    2008-01-01

    In context of the possibility of aging interventions leading to significant or radical extensions in human lifespan, this thesis seeks primarily to address the question of the value of life’s continuance to persons, as ...

  14. Nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods. Samples of foreshank and short loin subprimals were excised from chilled carcasses (n = 20) of beef steers that were individually finished (120 days) on either supranutritional seleni...

  15. Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki Ayers; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined patients' and surrogates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement project, a…

  16. Value-Able Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she made a major improvement to her fifth-grade lesson plan by providing a hands-on Internet experience before students worked on their own oil pastel still life. It was a success with beautiful finished products and highly motivated, engaged students. Details of this lesson are described in this article.

  17. Use of life table statistics and degree-day values to predict the invasion success of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera

    E-print Network

    Hoddle, Mark S.

    Use of life table statistics and degree-day values to predict the invasion success of Gonatocerus April 2006 Abstract Life table statistics and degree-day requirements for Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault were estimated across different climatic regions in California, using life table and degree- day models

  18. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

  19. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. Methods We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE) at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. Results QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. Conclusions The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers of differences in health-state values across populations. This will enhance the usefulness of health-expectancy measures. PMID:21699675

  20. Cultural values, life experiences, and wisdom.

    PubMed

    Le, Thao N

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and self-centeredness. Positive experiences may also facilitate wisdom by fostering integration and coherence. However, cultural values, particularly conservation and openness, may moderate these experiences for older adults. In a sample of middle-aged to older community dwelling European American adults (n = 97), results suggested that experiencing a macrosocial event as a negative experience, and spiritual/existential as a positive experience, interacted with conservation value to predict transcendent wisdom. Among Vietnamese American adults (n = 102), macrosocial event alone was negatively related to transcendent wisdom. These results suggest that not endorsing conservation value as one grows older and experiences different life events is beneficial for wisdom. PMID:18507330

  1. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  2. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  3. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  4. Life-Satisfaction, Values and Goal Achievement: The Case of Planned versus by Chance Searches on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casas, Ferran; Gonzalez, Monica; Figuer, Cristina; Coenders, Germa

    2004-01-01

    The relation between life domains satisfaction and overall life satisfaction, values, internal/external perceived control and the option of planning or by chance searching information on the Internet has been explored in a sample of Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 16 (N=968). Age and sex differences have been examined. Results clearly confirm a…

  5. Expert elicitation of the value per statistical life in an air pollution context.

    PubMed

    Roman, Henry A; Hammitt, James K; Walsh, Tyra L; Stieb, David M

    2012-12-01

    The monetized value of avoided premature mortality typically dominates the calculated benefits of air pollution regulations; therefore, characterization of the uncertainty surrounding these estimates is key to good policymaking. Formal expert judgment elicitation methods are one means of characterizing this uncertainty. They have been applied to characterize uncertainty in the mortality concentration-response function, but have yet to be used to characterize uncertainty in the economic values placed on avoided mortality. We report the findings of a pilot expert judgment study for Health Canada designed to elicit quantitative probabilistic judgments of uncertainties in Value-per-Statistical-Life (VSL) estimates for use in an air pollution context. The two-stage elicitation addressed uncertainties in both a base case VSL for a reduction in mortality risk from traumatic accidents and in benefits transfer-related adjustments to the base case for an air quality application (e.g., adjustments for age, income, and health status). Results for each expert were integrated to develop example quantitative probabilistic uncertainty distributions for VSL that could be incorporated into air quality models. PMID:22571466

  6. Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

  7. Quantifying the Economic Value and Quality of Life Impact of Earlier Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Brown, Shawn T.; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? Methods We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Results Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2–1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634–17,794 influenza cases, $0.6–$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1–$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35–64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2–1.6) averted 11,366–1660 influenza cases, $0.6–$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3–$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42–8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Conclusion Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings. PMID:25590676

  8. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  9. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  10. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore »collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  11. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  12. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, ?-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  13. The value of life and accident costing: a willingness-to-pay study amongst motorcyclists in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fauzi, Mohd Y; Nor Ghani, Mohd N; Radin Umar, Radin S; Ahmad Hariza, Hashim

    2004-01-01

    Motorcyclists constitute a large proportion of total road casualties in Asian countries Unfortunately, studies conducted for the purpose of evaluating the cost of traffic crashes, and cost-benefit analyses of safety interventions, are almost nonexistent in these countries. The loss-of-output approach to valuing life has been used for many years, yet this method has also long been criticised as it results in significant resource misallocation. This study attempts to overcome this problem by estimating the value of a statistical life among motorcyclists using the willingness-to-pay method that is commonly used in developed countries. The study recommends adopting a value of MYR1.1 million (almost five times the previous estimate) per statistical life for public policy analysis involving motorcycle safety. PMID:15702934

  14. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  15. Exploring Work Values: Helping Students Articulate Their Good (Work) Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…

  16. The Value of Public Transportation for Improving the Quality of Life for the Rural Elderly 

    E-print Network

    Israel, Alicia Ann

    2012-07-16

    community is no longer able to drive, issues that come with living in a rural area may be exacerbated, and the individual may experience a decrease in their quality of life. Although individuals may be able to use public transportation most existing options...

  17. How to Shape Children's Value Attitudes toward the Rural Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur'ianova, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The crisis of rural life in Russia involves a declining and aging population, emigration of rural young people to urban areas, lack of employment, and farms in urgent need of modernization. Programs in rural schools can be used more deliberately to encourage young people to remain in the village and to equip them to be agents of rural…

  18. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    PubMed Central

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

  19. [The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].

    PubMed

    López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

  20. EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

  1. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. PMID:25261610

  2. Life Skills Based in Nation Building Character Value Tauhidullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapandi, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the values Tauhidullah as a base in the training process of life skills can be developed in the community to build the character of the nation, by describing and simultaneously evaluate the education and training system that we've experienced. The paper argues that builds the character of the nation through education…

  3. Human Values and the Market: The Case of Life Insurance and Death in 19th-Century America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Viviana A.

    1978-01-01

    Explores the development of life insurance programs in the United States during the nineteenth century and traces social attitudes about life insurance from rejection to acceptance. Historical data indicate that life insurance emerged in the late nineteenth century as a form of ritual with which to face death. (Author/DB)

  4. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  5. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  6. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  7. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

  8. Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes. Student attitudes of the use of IT are measured in a structural equation model derived from an instrument based on the principles of undergraduate practice of Chickering and Ehrmann (1996). Institutional and background data are included. By…

  9. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute' criterion) was calculated as 0.75 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CMC = e(0.8403 ? ln(hardness)-3.572) where the 'ln hardness' is the natural logarithm of the water hardness. Likewise, the criterion continuous concentration (CCC, or 'chronic' criterion) was calculated as 0.37 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CCC = (e(0.6247 ? ln(hardness)-3.384)) ? (1.101672 - ((ln hardness) ? 0.041838))). Using data that were independent of those used to derive the criteria, the criteria concentrations were evaluated to estimate whether adverse effects were expected to the biological integrity of natural waters or to selected species listed as threatened or endangered. One species was identified that would not be fully protected by the derived CCC, the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Exposure to CCC conditions likely would lead to population decreases in Hyalella azteca, the food web consequences of which probably would be slight if macroinvertebrate communities were otherwise diverse. Some data also suggested adverse behavioral changes are possible in fish following long-term exposures to low levels of cadmium, particularly in char (genus Salvelinus). Although ambiguous, these data indicate a need to periodically review the literature on behavioral changes in fish following metals exposure as more information becomes available. Most data reviewed indicated that criteria conditions were unlikely to contribute to overt adverse effects to either biological integrity or listed species. If elevated cadmium concentrations that approach the chronic criterion values occur in ambient waters, careful biological monitoring of invertebrate and fish assemblages would be prudent to validate the prediction that the assemblages would not be adversely affected by cadmium at criterion concentrations.

  10. Laughter as Immanent Life-Affirmation: Reconsidering the Educational Value of Laughter through a Bakhtinian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    In this article I try to conceive a new approach towards laughter in the context of formal schooling. I focus on laughter in so far as it is a bodily response during which we are entirely delivered to uncontrollable, spasmodic reactions. To see the educational relevance of this particular kind of laughter, as well as to understand why laughter is…

  11. Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA’s Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

  12. Research Group: Environmental Economics and Natural Resources February, 2009 The Value of a Statistical Life

    E-print Network

    the evaluation of different policies, which in turn, enables policy makers to allocate resources more efficiently involved in the process (e.g. the public). Many of the benefits and costs induced by policies within . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2.1 Public provision of safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

  13. Health-related quality of life measured by the UW-QoL--reference values from a general dental practice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S N; O'donnell, J P; Williams-Hewitt, S; Christensen, J C; Lowe, D

    2006-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain age and sex-specific reference values for the University of Washington head and neck cancer questionnaire version 4 (UW-QoLv4) and to compare this with patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cross-sectional reference data was collected from 372 patients in six local general dental practices, 349 of whom presented for routine appointments. Quota sampling was used to collect data for similar numbers of patients by gender by four age bands (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 yr). The longitudinal sample consisted of 450 consecutive patients undergoing primary surgery for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma presenting to the Regional Maxillofacial Unit Liverpool, between the years 1995 and 2002. At baseline the key differences were anxiety, pain, swallowing, chewing, and mood. At 1yr there were big differences in all domains with deterioration in the oral cancer group. The difference was least notable in pain, shoulder, mood and anxiety. Reference data from a non-cancer population is very important when considering UW-QoL domains as an outcome parameter in clinical trials and also when discussing health-related quality of life outcomes with patients and their families. PMID:16263326

  14. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  15. The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1996. Students Voice Their Opinions On: Learning about Values and Principles in School. Part III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This report, the third in a series of four, reflects MetLife's continued efforts to bring insight and understanding to current issues in education that affect the nation's public schools. The survey sought student information on topics related to values and principles of right and wrong from the perspective of public school students in middle and…

  16. The development of memory efficiency and value-directed remembering across the life span: a cross-sectional study of memory and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Galván, Adriana; Balota, David A; McCabe, David P

    2011-11-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A selectivity task was used in which participants were asked to study and recall items worth different point values in order to maximize their point score. This procedure allowed for measures of memory quantity/capacity (number of words recalled) and memory efficiency/selectivity (the recall of high-value items relative to low-value items). Age-related differences were found for memory capacity, as young adults recalled more words than the other groups. However, in terms of selectivity, younger and older adults were more selective than adolescents and children. The dissociation between these measures across the life span illustrates important age-related differences in terms of memory capacity and the ability to selectively remember high-value information. PMID:21942664

  17. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

  18. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  19. Pain and difficulties performing valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrand, Inger; Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the difficulties with performing valued life activities in relation to pain intensity in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 737 persons with RA (73 % women) from three rheumatology units in Sweden responded to a questionnaire measuring performance of 33 valued life activities and self-rated pain. The relationships between performance of valued life activities (VLAs) and pain (measured by visual analogue scale (VAS)) were analysed based on gender. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with the total VLA score as dependent variable. Women reported more pain and difficulties in performing valued life activities than men. Across genders, 85 % reported at least one valued life activity affected by RA. Significantly more women than men encountered difficulties in performing some activities such as cooking, gardening and meeting new people. Women reported higher pain intensity (35 mm) than men (31 mm). Almost all 33 difficulty ratings for valued life activities were higher among persons with high pain (>40 mm) than persons with lower pain. Difficulty ratings for valued life activities correlated positively with pain in persons with lower pain, but not among those with high pain. The results highlight the importance of addressing pain, especially among women with RA, as they reported pain to impact on their valued life activities. Interestingly, this was evident also in women with lower levels of pain. PMID:25618175

  20. Selective Reproduction: Social and Temporal Imaginaries for Negotiating the Value of Life in Human and Animal Neonates.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Mette N

    2015-06-01

    This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as models for the premature infants in research experiments within neonatology. While the comparison is unusual, the article argues that there are parallels across the decision-making processes that shape the lives and deaths of infants and pigs alike. Collectivities or the lack thereof as well as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge. PMID:25359420

  1. The value of the qualitative method for adaptation of a disease-specific quality of life assessment instrument: the case of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Tammaru, Marika; Strömpl, Judit; Maimets, Kadri; Hanson, Ele

    2004-01-01

    Background Due to differences in current socio-economical situation and historically shaped values, different societies have their own concepts of high-quality life. This diversity of concepts interferes with quality of life (Qol) research in health sciences. Before deciding to apply a Qol assessment tool designed in and for another society, a researcher should answer the question: how will this instrument work under the specific circumstances of my research. Our study represents an example of the utilization of qualitative research methods to investigate the appropriateness of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQol) for the assessment of Qol in Estonian patients. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of Tartu University Hospital and these were analyzed using the principles of the grounded theory. Results We described the significance of the questionnaire's items for our patients and also identified topics that were important for the Qol of Estonian RA patients, but that were not assessed by the RAQol. We concluded that the RAQol can be successfully adapted for Estonia; the aspects of Qol not captured by the questionnaire but revealed during our study should be taken into account in future research. Conclusions Our results show that qualitative research can successfully be used for pre-adaptation assessment of a Qol instrument's appropriateness. PMID:15579209

  2. Grass pollen allergy in children and adolescents-symptoms, health related quality of life and the value of pollen prognosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction An association between pollen count (Poaceae) and symptoms is well known, but to a lesser degree the importance of priming and lag effects. Also, threshold levels for changes in symptom severity need to be validated. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between pollen counts, symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQL), and to validate thresholds levels, useful in public pollen warnings. Material and methods Children aged 7–18 with grass pollen allergy filled out a symptom diary during the pollen season for nose, eyes and lung symptoms, as well as a HRQL questionnaire every week. Pollen counts were monitored using a volumetric spore trap. Results 89 (91%) of the included 98 children completed the study. There was a clear association between pollen count, symptom severity and HRQL during the whole pollen season, but no difference in this respect between early and late pollen season. There was a lag effect of 1–3 days after pollen exposure except for lung symptoms. We found only two threshold levels, at 30 and 80 pollen grains/m3 for the total symptom score, not three as is used today. The nose and eyes reacted to low doses, but for the lung symptoms, symptom strength did hardly change until 50 pollen grains/m3. Conclusion Grass pollen has an effect on symptoms and HRQL, lasting up to 5 days after exposure. Symptoms from the lungs appear to have higher threshold levels than the eyes and the nose. Overall symptom severity does not appear to change during the course of season. Threshold levels need to be revised. We suggest a traffic light model for public pollen warnings directed to children, where green signifies “no problem”, yellow signifies “can be problems, especially if you are highly sensitive” and red signifies “alert – take action”. PMID:23799882

  3. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. PMID:19686005

  4. Relationships between Parents' and Children's Salient Values for Future and Children's Overall Life Satisfaction: A Comparison across Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coenders, Germa; Casas, Ferran; Figuer, Cristina; Gonzalez, Monica

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model is set forth relating (a) overall life satisfaction of children to children's values and (b) children's values to parents' values. Using confirmatory factor analysis models three dimensions of values (materialistic values, capacities and knowledge values and interpersonal relationship values) consistently emerged in 5…

  5. Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity. PMID:24010852

  6. 76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...b) * * * (2) Computation of depreciation factor. If the valuation of the remainder...publication includes tables for computing depreciation adjustment factors. See Sec. 1...publication includes tables for computing depreciation adjustment factors. See Sec....

  7. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

  8. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  9. (Keynote addressfor ACM SIGCAS Conference: Computers and the Quality of Life -Sept 1990) Human Values and the Future of Technotogy

    E-print Network

    Shneiderman, Ben

    defenseinitiative ("star wars plan"), heart transplants, high-definition television, recombinant DNA, birth control, etc. arepowerful testimony that social forces are at work to shapethe future of technology. In fact

  10. 76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...: Background On May 7, 2009, the IRS published in the Federal Register (74 FR 21438 and 74 FR 21519) final and..., and remainder or reversionary interests. These regulations will affect the valuation of inter vivos... under the current regulations: Cross Reference to Regulation Sections Interest Valuation period...

  11. Highly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric; Duprez, Marie-Eve; Lox, Frédéric; Thomas, Diane; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Crine, Michel; Toye, Dominique; Rooke, Joanna; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-06-15

    An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate-SiO2-polycation) shell: (Na-alginate-SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core-shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1 year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications. PMID:25721859

  12. Muscles of mice deficient in -sarcoglycan maintain large masses and near control force values throughout the life span

    E-print Network

    Campbell, Kevin P.

    potential for elucidating the pathogenesis of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD 2D) as well the phenotypic accuracy of the Sgca-null mouse as a model of LGMD 2D has not been fully established not observed at any age in LGMD 2D patients. muscular dystrophy; limb muscles; contractility; aging ALPHA

  13. A Sociocultural Analysis of the Educational Situation in the Megalopolis. Part I: Sociocultural Orientations: Life Values, Attitudes, and Motives (Continued).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Pisarskii, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents the concluding section of a thorough analysis of a massive survey done in Moscow (Russia) in 1991. The survey covered a wide range of topics including; attitudes towards education, teachers' job satisfaction, criminal tendencies among young people, and others. Preceding sections appear in an earlier issue. (MJP)

  14. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  15. A Sociological Analysis of the Educational Situation in the Megalopolis. Part I: Sociocultural Orientations: Life Values, Attitudes, and Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Pisarskii, P. S.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a thorough analysis of a massive survey done in Moscow in 1991. The survey covered a wide range of topics, including attitudes towards education, teachers' job satisfaction, and criminal tendencies among young people. The survey differentiates between occupational and social groups. (MJP)

  16. Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Špalj, Stjepan; Peri?, Davorka; Mlacovi? Zrinski, Magda; Bulj, Martina; Plan?ak, Darije

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine the predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Croatian soldiers. Methods The sample consisted of 402 consecutive soldiers aged 21 to 54 years classified into the following groups according to dental readiness: Class 1 – not requiring dental treatment (N?=?54), Class 2 – unlikely to need emergency treatment within 12 months (N?=?205), and Class 3 – very likely to need treatment within 12 months (N?=?143). OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile and psychological dimensions by the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dental Anxiety Scale. Results Multivariate analysis showed that Class 3 soldiers had higher frequency of psychological discomfort, psychological disability, and physical pain and handicap than Class 1 soldiers (P?=?0.019). Multiple linear regression showed that longer military experience, higher level of dental anxiety, and dental unreadiness were significant predictors of lower OHRQoL (P?of the single psychological symptomatic dimensions was a significant predictor of OHRQoL. Conclusion Although this study found a moderate association between OHRQoL and clinical, military, demographic, and psychological variables, the significant predictors could be used as a basis for further research of clinical and psychosocial factors of OHRQoL. PMID:23100208

  17. What Does "Value" Evoke for Children? A Detection Study as to Transferring Values to Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun Keskin, Sevgi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out because of the importance of values education in recent years. The studies have shown their effects on the curriculum of 2005. In many classes it is aimed to provide individuals with the gains kneaded with appropriate values. Social Studies are one of them. However, no satisfactory studies as to whether the…

  18. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition, via food, is a necessity of human life. Humans must obtain the appropriate types of nutrients from the diet, in varying amounts throughout the lifecycle, to adequately sustain life. Food provides energy, essential macro- and micronutrients required for growth, tissue maintenance and the r...

  19. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  20. Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

    This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of the human…

  1. The Discriminant Value of Phase-Dependent Local Dynamic Stability of Daily Life Walking in Older Adult Community-Dwelling Fallers and Nonfallers

    PubMed Central

    Ihlen, Espen A. F.; Weiss, Aner; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares phase-dependent measures of local dynamic stability of daily life walking with 35 conventional gait features in their ability to discriminate between community-dwelling older fallers and nonfallers. The study reanalyzes 3D-acceleration data of 3-day daily life activity from 39 older people who reported less than 2 falls during one year and 31 who reported two or more falls. Phase-dependent local dynamic stability was defined for initial perturbation at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the step cycle. A partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare the discriminant abilities of phase-dependent local dynamic stability with the discriminant abilities of 35 conventional gait features. The phase-dependent local dynamic stability ? at 0% and 60% of the step cycle discriminated well between fallers and nonfallers (AUC = 0.83) and was significantly larger (p < 0.01) for the nonfallers. Furthermore, phase-dependent ? discriminated as well between fallers and nonfallers as all other gait features combined. The present result suggests that phase-dependent measures of local dynamic stability of daily life walking might be of importance for further development in early fall risk screening tools. PMID:26491669

  2. [Orthodontics and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Bos, A; Prahl, C

    2011-04-01

    The impact of oral health on quality of life among orthodontic patients was assessed using the Child Oral Health Impact Profile. Responses of parents and children to questions about the quality of life of the child were very similar, suggesting that the parents were quite well able to assess the oral health-related quality of life of their children. Girls experienced more adverse effects on their quality of life due to oral health problems as compared to boys. Subscales of the Child Oral Health Impact Profile appeared to have little predictive value with respect to the general feeling of healthiness among orthodontic patients. PMID:21585072

  3. Precise half-life values for two-neutrino double-beta decay

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2010-03-15

    All existing positive results on two-neutrino double-beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo-{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd-{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}), and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed, and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for the half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  4. Values, Life-long Education and an Aging Canadian Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Douglas; And Others

    This compilation's 11 chapters provide selected and revised papers from an interdisciplinary seminar to examine lifelong education with regard to an aging and changing population and changes in value emphases. Chapter 1 introduces the topic by addressing aging populations, lifelong education, economic decisions and planning, social implications,…

  5. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning about Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of

  6. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(?)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(?).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated but not analyzed by other researchers. The second difference is that the traffic-risk context affects VSL negatively in developing countries and positively in high-income countries. The research quantifies uncertainty in the transfer function using parameters of the non-absolute distribution of relative transfer errors. The low- and middle-income function is unbiased, with a median relative transfer error of -.05 (95% CI: -.15 to .03), a 25th percentile error of -.22 (95% CI: -.29 to -.19), and a 75th percentile error of .20 (95% CI: .14 to .30). The quantified uncertainty characteristics support evidence-based approaches to sensitivity analysis and probabilistic risk analysis of economic performance measures for road-safety investments. PMID:24952315

  7. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  8. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  9. The Prudential Value of Education for Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A popular justification of education for autonomy is that autonomy possession has intrinsic prudential value. Communitarians have argued, however, that although autonomy may be a core element of a well-lived life in liberal societies, it cannot claim such a prudential pedigree in traditional societies in which the conception of a good life is…

  10. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Burgos, J; Cujic, M; Fesenko, S; Kryshev, A; Pachal, N; Real, A; Su, B S; Tagami, K; Vives I Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S; Wells, C; Wood, M D

    2015-12-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed. PMID:26378959

  11. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  12. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life. PMID:25415254

  13. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  14. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  15. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Anthony D.; Knutson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span. PMID:20501485

  16. Value of Information spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  17. The Economic Value of Resilient Coastal Communities

    E-print Network

    2 The Economic Value of Resilient Coastal Communities LAST REVISED 3/18/2013 NOAA activities support science, service, and stewardship that protect life, health, and property and create economic value, income, and jobs. Across the agency, we have begun collecting data on the economic importance

  18. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life

  19. NET ECONOMIC VALUES OF RECREATIONISTS

    E-print Network

    #12;NET ECONOMIC VALUES OF RECREATIONISTS FOR OUTDOOR EXPERIENCES IN THE FRASER RIVER BASIN Crane of Economic Values 2.1 Water Resource Economic Values 2.2 Net Economic Values of Recreationists 2.3 Estimating Net Economic Value 2.4 Estimation Problems Review of Net Economic Value Estimates 3.1 Summary

  20. Creating Value with Long Term R&D: The life science industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloman, Darlene J. S.

    2008-03-01

    Agilent Laboratories looks to the future to identify, invest and enable technologies and applications that will nurture the world’s people, environment and economies, and help ensure Agilent’s continuing leadership. Following a brief introduction to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Laboratories, Solomon will discuss how innovation and long-term R&D are transcending traditional boundaries. Focusing on the life sciences industry, she will discuss current trends in R&D and the importance of measurement in advancing the industry. She will describe some of the challenges that are disrupting the pharmaceutical industry where significant and sustained investment in R&D has not translated into large numbers of block-buster therapeutics. Much of this gap results from the profound complexity of biological systems. New discoveries quickly generate new questions, which in turn drive more research and necessitate new business models. Solomon will highlight examples of Agilent’s long-range R&D in life sciences, emphasizing the importance of physics. She’ll conclude with the importance of creating sustainable value with R&D.

  1. The value of bioelectrical impedance analysis and phase angle in the evaluation of malnutrition and quality of life in cancer patients-a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, O; Yoon, S L; Williams, J J

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and especially its derived parameter phase angle have been widely used in different populations. The variability of BIA measures has often been cited as a major limitation for its clinical use in evaluating nutritional status and overall health of patients. Cancer patients often present with malnourishment and cachexia, which complicate the course of treatment and affect outcomes. PubMed, CINAHL, EBSCO and Cochrane Library have been searched for relevant publications in English for BIA in cancer patients. Out of 197 total results, 27 original research articles related to BIA measures in cancer patients were included in this review. Studies indicate that the use of BIA and phase angle measures can benefit in the clinical management of cancer patients in multiple ways: in the prevention; diagnosis; prognosis; and outcomes related to treatments that affect nutritional and overall health status. Phase angle and fat-free mass measures were most commonly evaluated and correlated with nutritional status and survival rate. One limitation of BIA measures is the high interpatient variability which requires careful interpretation of results in the context of the individual patient rather than comparison with population data. The BIA and phase angle provide practitioners for the evaluation of nutritional and overall health status in cancer patients with a convenient and non-invasive technique and should be encouraged. PMID:26220573

  2. The economic value of stream restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Alan; Rosenberger, Randy; Fletcher, Jerald

    2005-02-01

    The economic value of restoring Deckers Creek in Monongalia and Preston counties of West Virginia was determined from mail, Internet, and personal contact surveys. Multiattribute, choice experiments were conducted and nested logit models were estimated to derive the economic values of full restoration for three attributes of this creek: aquatic life, swimming, and scenic quality. Their relative economic values were that aquatic life > scenic quality ~ swimming. These economic values imply that respondents had the highest value for aquatic life when fully restoring Deckers Creek to a sustainable fishery rather than a ``put and take'' fishery that cannot sustain fish populations. The welfare improvement estimates for full restoration of all three attributes ranged between $12 and $16 per month per household. Potential stream users (anglers) had the largest welfare gain from restoration, while nonangler respondents had the lowest. When these estimates were aggregated up to the entire watershed population, the benefit from restoration of Deckers Creek was estimated to be about $1.9 million annually. This benefit does not account for any economic values from partial stream restoration. On the basis of log likelihood tests of the nested logit models, two subsamples of the survey population (the general population and stream users) were found to be from the same population. Thus restoration choices by stream users may be representative of the watershed population, although the sample size of stream users was small in this research.

  3. The economic value of stream restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Alan; Rosenberger, Randy; Fletcher, Jerald

    2005-02-01

    The economic value of restoring Deckers Creek in Monongalia and Preston counties of West Virginia was determined from mail, Internet, and personal contact surveys. Multiattribute, choice experiments were conducted and nested logit models were estimated to derive the economic values of full restoration for three attributes of this creek: aquatic life, swimming, and scenic quality. Their relative economic values were that aquatic life > scenic quality ? swimming. These economic values imply that respondents had the highest value for aquatic life when fully restoring Deckers Creek to a sustainable fishery rather than a "put and take" fishery that cannot sustain fish populations. The welfare improvement estimates for full restoration of all three attributes ranged between 12 and 16 per month per household. Potential stream users (anglers) had the largest welfare gain from restoration, while nonangler respondents had the lowest. When these estimates were aggregated up to the entire watershed population, the benefit from restoration of Deckers Creek was estimated to be about $1.9 million annually. This benefit does not account for any economic values from partial stream restoration. On the basis of log likelihood tests of the nested logit models, two subsamples of the survey population (the general population and stream users) were found to be from the same population. Thus restoration choices by stream users may be representative of the watershed population, although the sample size of stream users was small in this research.

  4. [The value of time in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Barone, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    In medicine time is one of the main dimensions used in order to assess the efficacy of a cure. In oncology we measure either the advantage obtained with a treatment or the clinical course of a cancer as time intervals or survival benefit. In the last years we can describe life expectancy in many solid tumors following therapy, not only in terms of median survival, but also in terms of 3-5 years survival. Additional life time, that given by novel drugs, is now a real experience in some solid tumors allowing a reflection on its value and meaning in the personal perception of patients as well in an absolute perspective. The concept of time deformation in physics suggests a metaphorical similarity with rediscovery of the authentic sense of life in an increasing number of patients affected by cancer who experience a significant life prolongation. PMID:26228856

  5. The Value of Megan Oakleaf

    E-print Network

    Oakleaf, Megan

    The Value of Academic Libraries Megan Oakleaf Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe Value of Academic Libraries Library Assessment & Record Keeping Documented Impact Oakleaf, Megan. Are They Learning? Are We? Learning

  6. The value of values Birmingham's got talent

    E-print Network

    Kourtzi, Zoe

    ;2 OLD JOE I feel very proud to be an alumna from Birmingham after reading this issue of Old Joe. I didn-of-the-art new library, which will be the finest built in any British university this century; and a brand, please contact us to request a plain text version. The views and opinions expressed in Old Joe

  7. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  8. Every sign of life

    E-print Network

    Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

  9. First Day of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect The First Day of Life KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Childbirth > ... Continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  10. On the Value of Second Life for Students' Engagement in Blended and Online Courses: A Comparative Study from the Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellas, Nikolaos; Kazanidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds (VWs) are the most well-known candidate platforms in Higher education. Despite the growing number of notable studies that have presented VWs as valuable platforms for the e-Education, there is still a paucity of a comparative study in order to be determined the degree of the students'…

  11. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  12. A systematic literature review to compare quality of life in psoriasis with other chronic diseases using EQ-5D-derived utility values

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Holmen; Erntoft, Sandra; Vinding, Gabrielle R; Jemec, Gregor BE

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated dermatological disease associated with substantial economic, clinical, and humanistic burden. Objective The aim of this study was to understand the disutility of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using mean baseline EuroQoL five dimensions (EQ-5D) index scores reported in the published literature, and to compare this to patients with other chronic diseases. Methods Two systematic literature searches were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches were conducted in ten databases including Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The first search (December 2013) used search terms psoria* AND (EQ5D OR EQ OR EUROQoL). Only publications of original research, which reported baseline EQ-5D scores for mild/moderate/severe psoriasis, were included. The second search (March 2014) used the terms (systematic review) AND (EQ5D OR EQ 5D OR EuroQoL). Titles were screened by two independent reviewers. Four independent reviewers reviewed titles and full-length papers. EQ-5D scores for psoriasis patients were qualitatively compared with scores from patients with other chronic diseases identified through the literature search. Results Of 133 publications on psoriasis, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The mean EQ-5D index scores for psoriasis (all severities) ranged from 0.52 (standard deviation: 0.39) to 0.9 (standard deviation: 0.1). Of the 48 results from the second search, six met the inclusion criteria. The reported EQ-5D lower limit for other diseases ranged from 0.20 (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) to 0.66 (liver diseases). The highest EQ-5D estimates for other diseases ranged from 0.79 (liver diseases) to 0.93 (cancer patients). Both lower and upper EQ-5D estimates in psoriasis patients were within the range of those reported for other chronic diseases. Conclusion Comparative studies of morbidity are relevant in health care studies and patient advocacy. This systematic review demonstrates that the ranges of disutility among psoriasis patients are within the ranges of other chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, end-stage renal diseases, liver diseases, cancer, and visual disorders). PMID:26185476

  13. The fundamental values of nurses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Wro?ska, Irena; Maria?iski, Janusz

    2002-01-01

    Polish society has found itself at a very important point in its history. The transformation from a traditional to a postmodern pluralistic society involves changes in many spheres of social life. These trends give rise to the question of which way the younger generation of Polish nurses will be going. The main objective of this research was to elucidate the opinions of nurses on life and health as basic values, and on their ethical and religious background regarding their nursing care. The study made use of a questionnaire for collection and interpretation of the data. Although this article shows some lack of consistency, and even contradictions, it is possible to conclude that life and health are cherished with affection by the great majority of nurses as positive factors of human existence. PMID:16010901

  14. The Value of Emissions Trading

    E-print Network

    Webster, Mort David.

    This paper estimates the value of international emissions trading, focusing attention on a here-to-fore neglected component: its value as a hedge against uncertainty. Much analysis has been done of the Kyoto Protocol and ...

  15. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  16. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  17. Values of American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayne, Jon B.; Houston, Samuel R.

    1981-01-01

    This study was a reexamination of the norms developed on American college students for the Polyphasic Values Inventory, and a longitudinal study of value change among students 10 years later. A change of values was detected. Greater institutional differences were noted in the original study. (Author/GK)

  18. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

  19. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  20. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2011-06-22

    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values. PMID:21697380

  1. Life Satisfaction of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torgoff, Irving; And Others

    The feelings and perceptions of adolescents, apart from objective indices, warrent attention from those who are concerned with adolescent development and psychological stress. There is a need for a reliable baseline measure of adolescent subjective well-being, as manifested by self-reports of life satisfaction, to which future measurements can be…

  2. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  3. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  4. The Value of Mentorship.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lawrence M

    2015-10-01

    The recent Young Physicians needs assessment survey identified mentorship as the single greatest need for this demographic, which includes physicians under 40 years of age or in their first 8 years of practice after completion of training. Much has been written in textbooks and other journals about mentorship, and as young physicians are certainly not alone in this need, mentorship has become a key focus of future Academy endeavors. Serving as Chair of the Young Physicians Section over the past year has afforded me the opportunity to interact with a variety of dynamic and engaging leaders in our Academy, and herein I provide a synopsis of what these experiences have taught me as well as provide some of the most important pearls that I have picked up along the way. PMID:26318156

  5. The Value of Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trundley, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses her research into the development of counting in pre-school children. Her research involved a small-scale case study with a personal flavour--the children in the study were her twin daughters (called Emily and Alice for the purpose of the research). Observations of their mathematical development began at 18…

  6. The Value of Singularities

    E-print Network

    Gary T. Horowitz; Robert Myers

    1995-05-30

    We point out that spacetime singularities play a useful role in gravitational theories by eliminating unphysical solutions. In particular, we argue that any modification of general relativity which is completely nonsingular cannot have a stable ground state. This argument applies both to classical extensions of general relativity, and to candidate quantum theories of gravity.

  7. [Nutritional value of beef].

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-01

    Beef has specific nutritional qualities relative to other meats. In humans, a balanced diet, based on a ten-day period, requires intake of several nutrient classes, including iron (in the form of heme, for its high bioavailability), zinc and selenium, vitamin B12, B vitamins (especially B2 (PP) and B6), and biologically useful proteins. The lipid profile of beef depends largely on the cut. It is also influenced by the fatty acid profile of the animalfeed, andby the race andage of the animal. Adequate meat intake is recommended for all individuals, and especially those most at risk of malnutrition, such as adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, the elderly, and those individuals with a high level sports activity. PMID:22844741

  8. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  9. The Value of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of positive interpersonal relationships in developing an effective leadership style. It provides recommendations for developing effective relations with subordinates, vendors and suppliers, and bosses. Advice for dealing with low self-esteem concludes the article. (GR)

  10. Marx's "Phenomenology" Of Value

    E-print Network

    Main, Edward

    Karl Marx, "Private Property and Labor," The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844, ed. Dirk J. Struik (New York: International Publishers, 1964), p. 130. BIbld. 9 Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, Vol. II, {New York: P.F. Collier and Son... stream_size 33046 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Auslegung.V04.N01.064-077.pdf.txt stream_source_info Auslegung.V04.N01.064-077.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 MARX...

  11. The Value of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation in the United States is a means to assure and improve higher education quality, assisting institutions and programs using a set of standards developed by peers. An institution or program that has successfully completed an accreditation review has in place the needed instructional, student support and other services to assist students…

  12. The Value of Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Video connects sight and sound, creating a composite experience greater than either alone. More than any other single technology, video is the most powerful way to communicate with others--and an ideal medium for sharing with others the vital learning occurring in music classrooms. In this article, the author leads readers through the process of

  13. The Value of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Warren

    2013-01-01

    How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)…

  14. The Value of Virginity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hymen reconstruction surgery is a simple procedure to repair a woman's hymen, requested by women who, for religious and cultural reasons, believe they must appear to have an intact hymen on their wedding night. Debates surrounding possible ethical justification for the procedure are complex and heated. These articles from the Harvard Ethics Consortium present and explore the case of a young woman who asked a young female physician on call for a referral for the procedure. PMID:26132062

  15. Bilastine and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators. PMID:22185046

  16. The medicalization of life

    PubMed Central

    Illich, Ivan

    1975-01-01

    Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

  17. Comprehensive carbon footprint analysis of the value chains

    E-print Network

    , carbon sequestration) VTT: expertise in sustainability assessment (life cycle analysis, carbon footprint.4.2010 Carbon footprint Amount of green house gases produced along product's life cycle · Includes fossilComprehensive carbon footprint analysis of the value chains of forest industry SHOK Summit 20

  18. The Moral Value of Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergoffen, Debra B.

    1980-01-01

    This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)

  19. Direct measurement of the half-life of (223)Ra.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Ferreira, K M; Fenwick, A J; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-05-01

    Radioactive decay half-life measurements of (223)Ra, a member of the (235)U naturally occurring radioactive decay series, have been performed of a radiochemically pure solution with an ionisation chamber. The radioactive decay of (223)Ra was followed for 50 days, approximately 4.4 half-lives. The deduced half-life of (223)Ra was found to be 11.4358 (28) days, supporting the other published direct measurements. A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. A new evaluation of the published half-life values was performed, indicating significant variation across the existing published values, suggesting that further measurements of the half-life of (223)Ra are required. A new evaluated half-life has been calculated using a power moderated weighted mean of selected experimental values, with a new value of the recommended half-life for (223)Ra of 11.4354 (17) days. PMID:25699667

  20. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  1. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  2. Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH

    E-print Network

    Shirley, Yancy

    Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

  3. "My life as it is has value": narrating schizophrenia in later years.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lydia P

    2014-10-01

    I used thematic narrative analysis, informed by the developmental life course perspective, to formulate a line of semistructured questioning for interviews with 6 older adults who experienced ongoing symptoms of schizophrenia. From the 31 resulting interviews and 38 observation points, I developed life history narratives that yielded findings across four shared core themes. In this article I present my findings on the theme of narrative insight into schizophrenia in later years. Whereas only 2 of the participants had clinical insight into their mental illness, all had developed personal stories about their lives with schizophrenia. I discuss the significance of the shared narrative profile and the importance of using narrative insight to develop more effective clinical practices and to focus future research with older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:25186771

  4. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  5. Bayesian Interpretation of Weak Values

    E-print Network

    Akio Hosoya

    2015-09-24

    The real part of the weak value is identified as the conditional Bayes probability through the quantum analog of the Bayes relation. We present an explicit protocol to get the the weak values in a simple Mach-Zehnder interferometer model and derive the formulae for the weak values in terms of the experimental data consisting of the positions and momenta of detected photons on the basis of the quantum Bayes relation. The formula gives a way of tomography of the initial state almost without disturbing it in the weak coupling limit.

  6. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  7. The misquantification of probative value.

    PubMed

    Kaye, D H; Koehler, Jonathan J

    2003-12-01

    D. Davis and W. C. Follette (2002) purport to show that when "the base rate" for a crime is low, the probative value of "characteristics known to be strongly associated with the crime ... will be virtually nil." Their analysis rests on the choice of an arbitrary and inopposite measure of the probative value of evidence. When a more suitable metric is used (e.g., a likelihood ratio), it becomes clear that evidence they would dismiss as devoid of probative value is relevant and diagnostic. PMID:14724962

  8. Communicating the Value of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2014-07-01

    The quality of life Americans enjoy today and the United States's ability to compete in the global economy have many of their roots in the country's long history of leadership in scientific research and discovery. Federally supported basic research has led to innovations such as GPS, earthquake hazard mapping, and hundreds of technological spinoffs from the space program, including heart monitors and material that protects us from fire.

  9. How do people determine "what counts"? What is the relationship between economic, moral, and aesthetic understandings of value? What are the effects of numbers and quantitative calculations on economic life and social interactions? Twenty years

    E-print Network

    , and aesthetic understandings of value? What are the effects of numbers and quantitative calculations on economic translation 2005), Viviana Zelizer proposed a seminal analysis of the social and cultural features of money

  10. LATENT LIFE OF ARTERIES.

    PubMed

    Carrel, A

    1910-07-23

    When a segment of artery, killed by heat, formalin or glycerin is transplanted, it undergoes a rapid degeneration. Its muscle fibers disappear while the tissue of the host reacts by building a new wall of connective tissue. When the transplanted vessel has been preserved in a condition of latent life, no degeneration of the wall occurs, or the wall undergoes only partial degeneration. The muscle fibers can keep their normal appearance, even for a long time after the operation. It is, therefore, demonstrated that arteries can be preserved outside of the body in a condition of unmanifested actual life. The best method of preservation consists of placing the vessels, immersed in vaselin, in an ice box, the temperature of which is slightly above the freezing point. From a surgical standpoint, the transplantation of preserved vessels can be used with some safety. When the arteries were kept in defibrinated blood or vaselin and in cold storage, the proportion of positive results was 75 and 80 per cent., and this can probably be increased. PMID:19867337

  11. The Amenity Value of Wetlands 

    E-print Network

    Gao, Shan

    2010-07-14

    Wetlands provide recreation and cultural values including scenic views, aesthetics, open-spaces, and leisure opportunities to surrounding residents. This study applies a hedonic approach to estimate the impact of wetland ...

  12. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043

  13. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  14. The Intrinsic Value of Nature and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.; Helton, Nicole D.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental, humane and character educators try to foster a belief in the intrinsic value of nature and a respect for non-human life among students. Marangudakis argues that Christianity advocates anthropocentrism and opposes belief in the intrinsic value of nature. If Marangudakis is correct, then a goal of many environmental and humane…

  15. The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

  16. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  17. Analysis of value creation and value capture in microfluidics market

    E-print Network

    Yadav, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microfluidics in the last two decade have created a tremendous technological value which is shaping genomics; drug discovery; proteomics; and point-of-care diagnostics. The positive impact has resulted in faster ...

  18. Game of Life Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  19. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  20. The Value of Environmental Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargrove, Eugene C.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the views of environmentalists toward the study of environmental ethics. Addresses the problem that environmental ethics literature is difficult to read and argues that certain opinions about the value of the study of environmental ethics are rooted in misconceptions. (TW)

  1. The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Marianne Andrews

    The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

  2. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Bruce; Chapin, Robert E.; Cote, Ila; Graziano, Joseph H.; Janesick, Amanda; Lane, Robert; Lillycrop, Karen; Myatt, Leslie; States, J. Christopher; Thayer, Kristina A.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Rogers, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events. Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from early-life exposures in order to identify in utero and postnatal indicators of later-life diseases, develop an agenda for future research, and consider the risk assessment implications of this emerging knowledge. Methods: This review was developed based on our participation in a National Research Council workshop titled “Use of in Utero and Postnatal Indicators to Predict Health Outcomes Later in Life: State of the Science and Research Recommendations.” We used a case study approach to highlight the later-life consequences of early-life malnutrition and arsenic exposure. Discussion: The environmental sensitivity of the epigenome is viewed as an adaptive mechanism by which the developing organism adjusts its metabolic and homeostatic systems to suit the anticipated extrauterine environment. Inappropriate adaptation may produce a mismatch resulting in subsequent increased susceptibility to disease. A nutritional mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environments, or early-life obesogen exposure, may explain at least some of the recent rapid increases in the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Early-life arsenic exposure is also associated with later-life diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Conclusions: With mounting evidence connecting early-life exposures and later-life disease, new strategies are needed to incorporate this emerging knowledge into health protective practices. PMID:22672778

  3. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2015-02-10

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  4. Effect of Gender on the Value Perception of the Young: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmete, Emine

    2007-01-01

    This article evaluates the young's perception of the values with consideration of the gender factor. The study covered a total of 240 young, consisting of 100 girls and 140 boys continuing high school education in Ankara. The values of young were assessed with scales such as "terminal values", "instrumental values" and "values making life

  5. Graduates: Perceptions of MBA Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Maynard T.; Oatsvall, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    MBA worth--who decides? Much of the current assessment comes from market driven and/or institutional perspectives. This research examines responses from Meredith College MBA graduates to determine their perceptions of the worth and value of their MBA experience.

  6. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  7. Quality of life in dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Goreshi, Renato; Chock, Monika; Foering, Kristen; Feng, Rui; Okawa, Joyce; Rose, Matt; Fiorentino, David; Werth, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Background Quality of life (QoL) for patients with inflammatory skin disease can be significant, but has been evaluated in just one study in dermatomyositis (DM). Objective To examine the relationship between the Cutaneous Disease and Activity Severity Index (CDASI), a DM-specific cutaneous severity instrument, and various QoL study instruments and to determine the impact of DM on QoL. Methods Skin-specific QoL instruments, the Skindex and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and global medical QoL instruments, the SF-36 and the HAQ-DI, were used. Pruritus was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a 0–10 scale in DM and CLE populations, respectively. Results There was a significant correlation between the CDASI and all skin-specific QoL scores (lowest p=0.0377). Using the SF-36, DM was found to have significantly worse QoL scores than the general population with the exception of bodily pain (all subscore p values <0.01). Furthermore, DM had a significantly lower vitality score, representing energy level, compared to CLE, HTN, diabetes, and recent MI scores (lowest p=0.003). There was a significantly lower mental health score, representing overall mood, to all compared diseases except CLE and clinical depression (p values < 0.01 when significant). We found that DM produces more pruritus than CLE (p < 0.0001). Limitations A larger patient population needs to be studied to further assess QoL in DM patients. Conclusion We conclude that DM has a large impact on QoL, even when compared to other diseases, and that DM skin disease activity correlates with a poorer QoL. PMID:21722989

  8. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  9. The Epistemic Value of Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

  10. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  11. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  12. Decision making concerning life-sustaining treatment in paediatric nephrology: professionals' experiences and values

    PubMed Central

    Fauriel, Isabelle; Moutel, Grégoire; Duchange, Nathalie; Montuclard, Luc; Moutard, Marie-Laure; Cochat, Pierre; Hervé, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Background In a previous paper, we studied decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment (LST) taken between 1995 and 2001 in 31 French-speaking paediatric nephrology centres. Files were available for 18 of the 31 centres. A grid was used to analyse the criteria on which decisions were based, and the results were enriched by an analysis of interviews with the doctors in at these centres (31 interviews with doctors from the 18 centres). The goal was to describe in detail and to specify the criteria on which decisions to withhold or withdraw LST were based, extracted from the files. The second paper deals exclusively with the interviews with doctors and analyses their lifetime’s experience and perception Methods We carried out semi-directed interviews with nephrologists from all the paediatric nephrology centres in France and the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and Belgium. Results We interviewed 46 paediatric nephrologists. Most were aware that decisions relating to LST are necessary and based on the assessment of the child’s quality of life. According to them, decisions are not based on scientific criteria, but on the capacity to accept handicap, the family’s past experiences and the doctor’s own projections. They report that their task is particularly difficult when their action may contribute to death (withdrawal of treatment, acceleration of the process). They feel that their duty is to help the families in the acceptation of the doctors’ decision rather than to encourage their participation in the decision-making process. Conclusions This paper shows that paediatric nephrologists differ in their opinions, mostly due to their own ethical convictions. This observation highlights the need to establish common rules taking into account the views held by doctors. This is the only way to establish an ethical code shared by professionals. PMID:16204280

  13. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  14. The origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

  15. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  16. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  17. The Meaning of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2012-01-01

    This address reports the findings of a survey of higher education colleagues on the degree of happiness associated with personal definitions of "meaning of life" and "purpose in life." Using a unique sliding scale, the survey draws items from the Oxford Happiness Project among other sources and began with all ASHE members (N = 1,904) with a final…

  18. Accuracy limitations of chronaxie values.

    PubMed

    Geddes, Leslie A

    2004-01-01

    The strength-duration curve is a plot of the threshold current (I) versus pulse duration (d) required to stimulate excitable tissue. On this curve are two points: 1) rheobase (b) and 2) chronaxie (c). Rheobase is the threshold current for an infinitely long-duration stimulus. Chronaxie, the excitability constant, is the duration of a pulse of current of twice rheobasic strength. The mathematical expression for the strength-duration curve is I = b(1 + c/d). Although there are many published values for chronaxie for various excitable tissues, the range of variability for a given tissue type is quite large. This paper identifies five factors that can affect the accuracy of chronaxie measurement and shows that the most reliable values can be obtained with a rectangular pulse delivered from a constant-current source. PMID:14723507

  19. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  20. Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

  1. About various definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Luisi, P L

    1998-10-01

    The old question of a definition of minimal life is taken up again at the aim of providing a forum for an updated discussion. Briefly discussed are the reasons why such an attempt has previously encountered scepticism, and why such an attempt should be renewed at this stage of the inquiry on the origin of life. Then some of the definitions of life presently used are cited and briefly discussed, starting with the definition adopted by NASA as a general working definition. It is shown that this is too limited if one wishes to provide a broad encompassing definition, and some extensions of it are presented and discussed. Finally it is shown how the different definitions of life reflect the main schools of thought that presently dominate the field on the origin of life. PMID:9742731

  2. The evolution of complex life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

  3. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  4. [The quality of life in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization defines quality of life as individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. Quality of life (QoL) is a concept, which reflects multiple as well subjective as objective dimensions. In patients with schizophrenia, quality of life has been negatively correlated with depressive and anxiety symptoms (results seem more unconvincing concerning positive symptoms and cognitive deficits); the remission of positive and negative symptoms has been associated with a better quality of life, but the persistence of depressive symptoms decreases quality of life even when patients were or not in remission; second generation antipsychotics significantly increase more quality of life than first generation antipsychotics; and psychotherapies (rehabilitation, case management...) improve quality of life. Several general and disease-specific QoL scales have been developed and successfully tested in patients with schizophrenia. The most appropriate disease-specific scale is the Quality of Life Scale (Heinrichs et al., 1984) since it takes patients' cognitive deficits into account and because it allows to subtly measuring the patients' subjective feeling during a hetero-evaluation. The Quality of Life Scale is a 21-item scale based on a semi-structured interview, which is comprised of four subscales: interpersonal relations, instrumental role functioning, intra-psychic foundations, and use of common objects and activities. It has been designed initially to assess deficit symptoms in schizophrenia. It is a simple and quite short tool, which is intended for the use as an outcome criterion, a measure of change and an indicator of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Convincing metrological qualities have been described: content, construct and nomological validities; inter-raters and test-retest fidelities; it is sensitive to change and to treatments and negatively correlated with symptoms (PANSS) and with clinical state (CGI). Two of the recent major antipsychotic efficacy trials, CATIE and CUtLASS, both adopted the Quality of Life Scale as a measure of quality of life. PMID:26341538

  5. Savulescu's objections to the future of value argument

    E-print Network

    Marquis, Don

    2005-02-01

    .bmj.comDownloaded from claims the argument implies it would be wrong to deprive a sperm and an unfertilised ovum (hereafter a UFO) of a future of value. He also claims it would be wrong to deprive any arbitrarily chosen human cell of a future of value by not cloning it.... If Savulescu is correct, then, because of these implausible implications, the future of value argument must be rejected. Consider first the sperm and UFO objection. The future of value of which I would be deprived by being killed is the valuable life of a later...

  6. The Evolution of Complex Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, John

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  7. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  8. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  9. Values and the quantum conception of man

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  10. Learning the value of VE

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, R.B.

    1989-03-03

    Describing lessons learned from Value Engineers (VE) studies at a government-funded research laboratory reveals how project managers were encouraged to use VE and how their projects benefited from the VE savings. The five major lessons were: An officer of ''free'' VE is a low-risk incentive to encourage the use of VE; More costs savings can be identified by VE studies than cost reviews or design reviews; Large projects can benefit from repeat VE studies; VE teams can identify surprising savings when allowed to challenge all design criteria; VE programs can be costs effective even though return on investment may vary among projects. 6 tabs.

  11. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  12. Half-life of /sup 218/Po

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.G.; Soloshenkov, P.S.

    1986-10-01

    The decay of Po 218 is accompanied by the emission of 6.00-MeV alpha particles. The most suitable method for studying it is the alphaspectrometric method. To generate radon, the source for RaA, the authors used a preparation of Ra 226 with a high degree of purity. Targets were prepared for measuring the half-life on a radon setup. Approximately 30 sec after holding in a radon atmosphere the target was placed with the polonium deposited on it into a vacuum chamber. It was noted that the intensity of the peak at 6.70 MeV decreases at the same rate as the decay of Po 218, and the ratio of the intensities of their peaks was equal to 0.037 +/- 0.007%. The spectra (alpha was analyzed on an LP-4900 analyzer. The values of the half-life that were obtained are in good agreement with the values obtained previously.

  13. Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

    The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

  14. Water, a host of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

    2012-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

  15. Value and Structure: The Seamless Web of Literary Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleiner, Elaine L.

    The perception of literary value is a function of the reader's interpretation of literary structures in relation to other creative works in that reader's repertoire and of the "deep structure" of literary imagination within the individual unconscious. This critical model suggests, therefore, that unique experiences with literature and with life

  16. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  17. A Rooted Net of Life

    E-print Network

    Williams, David

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

  18. Origin of Life prebiotic before life

    E-print Network

    Houde, Peter

    of rocks igneous ­ from molten magma metamorphic ­ from deformed sedimentary rocks sedimentary ­ the type survived extraterrestrial conditions on US space flights #12;Geology - the study of earth and rocks types of rock that often preserves fossils stratigraphy ­ the study of sedimentary layers superposition

  19. Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263

  20. Protocells: At the Interface of Life and Non-Life

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wentao; Feng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules), is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one “correct” structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme), and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form—“protocells”. At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called “pseudo-protocells”. Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles) may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to “true-protocells”. The emergence of a “chromosome” (with genes linked together)—thus avoiding “gene-loss” during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such “unitary-protocells”, containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone—in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, “gaining” more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life. PMID:25809963

  1. The Influence of Peer Culture on College Student Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jon C.

    Common problems of establishing independence, making friends, and mastering a new environment draw college students together and create a strong social cohesion which has considerable influence on students' attitudes and values. In many institutions the peer culture is estranged from the academic life of the campus. If student affairs…

  2. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  3. Teaching Time Value of Money Using an Excel Retirement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Fernando; Mulig, Liz; Rhame, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The time value of money (TVM) is required knowledge for all business students. It is traditionally taught in finance and accounting classes for use in various applications in the business curriculum. These concepts are also very useful in real life situations such as calculating the amount to save for retirement. This paper details a retirement…

  4. The Biological Value of Protein.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel R; Soeters, Peter B

    2015-11-01

    The biological value of a protein extends beyond its amino-acid composition and digestibility, and can be influenced by additional factors in a tissue-specific manner. In healthy individuals, the slow appearance of dietary amino acids in the portal vein and subsequently in the systemic circulation in response to bolus protein ingestion improves nitrogen retention and decreases urea production. This is promoted by slow absorption when only protein is ingested (e.g. casein). When a full meal is ingested, whey achieves slightly better nitrogen retention than soy or casein, which is very likely achieved by its high content of essential amino acids (especially leucine). Elderly people exhibit 'anabolic resistance' implying that more protein is required to reach maximal rates of muscle protein synthesis compared to young individuals. Protein utilization in inflammatory or traumatic conditions increases substantially in the splanchnic tissues containing most of the immune system, and in wounds and growing tissues. This happens especially in the elderly, which often suffer from chronic inflammatory activity due to disease, physical inactivity and/or the aging process itself. Consequently, the proportion of protein absorbed in the gut and utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreases in these situations. This compromises dietary-protein-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and ultimately results in increased requirements of protein (?1.2 g/kg body weight/day) to limit gradual muscle loss with age. To optimally preserve muscle mass, physical exercise is required. Exercise has both direct effects on muscle mass and health, and indirect effects by increasing the utilization of dietary protein (especially whey) to enhance rates of muscle protein synthesis. PMID:26545252

  5. Reference Values of Surface Tension of Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalová, Jana; Mareš, Radim

    2015-07-01

    There are large discrepancies among the values of the surface tension of water reported in the literature. Existing experimental data have been carefully selected for the surface tension at and , and the average and standard deviations of the measured values have been calculated. Values slightly different from recommended values have been found in other papers. The objective was to obtain the most reliable data for the surface tension of water at the reference temperatures.

  6. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  7. The algorithmic origins of life

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Sara Imari; Davies, Paul C. W.

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been notoriously difficult to pin down precisely what is it that makes life so distinctive and remarkable, there is general agreement that its informational aspect is one key property, perhaps the key property. The unique informational narrative of living systems suggests that life may be characterized by context-dependent causal influences, and, in particular, that top-down (or downward) causation—where higher levels influence and constrain the dynamics of lower levels in organizational hierarchies—may be a major contributor to the hierarchal structure of living systems. Here, we propose that the emergence of life may correspond to a physical transition associated with a shift in the causal structure, where information gains direct and context-dependent causal efficacy over the matter in which it is instantiated. Such a transition may be akin to more traditional physical transitions (e.g. thermodynamic phase transitions), with the crucial distinction that determining which phase (non-life or life) a given system is in requires dynamical information and therefore can only be inferred by identifying causal architecture. We discuss some novel research directions based on this hypothesis, including potential measures of such a transition that may be amenable to laboratory study, and how the proposed mechanism corresponds to the onset of the unique mode of (algorithmic) information processing characteristic of living systems. PMID:23235265

  8. Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veisson, Marika

    2009-01-01

    R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

  9. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

  10. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

  11. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  12. Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

  13. Livestock, ethics, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Hodges, J

    2003-11-01

    Agricultural and animal scientists need to embrace a new vision beyond the single-minded existing pursuit of biological efficiency. The public in the West is no longer concerned solely with cheap food. Other paramount issues define quality of life, including: health and safety of foods; nutritional value; traditional, regional, locally produced, and organic foods; animal welfare; sustainable farming, environment, and rural resources. The paper provides examples of how the credibility of animal scientists has been lost due to some recent unethical behavior. Research, teaching and application of agricultural and animal science, especially of biotechnology, need to be reshaped into a new "Quality of Life Agricultural Era" to replace the "Era of Intensification." This new era will need fresh assumptions, beliefs and leadership to match the emerging social agenda of the 21st century. Animal scientists have a special role in implementing this new plausibility structure. PMID:14601893

  14. Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauth, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

  15. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  16. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500?Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500?Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500?Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  17. Maximizing the value of a breast center.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mickey; Chang, Dan

    2010-08-01

    This article focuses on the value and benefit of a Breast Center to an organization by identifying the best ways to maximize their contribution in order to create and sustain a financially viable, clinically respected and community-oriented Breast Center. The goal of the Breast Center is to ultimately benefit the community and the hospital's Comprehensive Cancer Program as a whole. The value propositions are divided into three areas that have positive impacts to the program and hospital, collectively. These value propositions are: 1. Financial Value e identified values of the Breast Center that contribute to the bottom line - or Return on Investment (ROI) - of the Cancer Program. 2. Clinical Quality Values - identified values of the Breast Center that improve the quality of care and outcomes of the patients. 3. Intangibles Values - identified values of the Breast Center that connect to the community and women that is invaluable to the Cancer Program. PMID:20400310

  18. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  19. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  20. An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedau, Mark A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  1. Early life predictors of old-age life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Rikke, Brad A

    2004-05-19

    The laboratory of Richard Miller and numerous heroic collaborators are in the process of testing a variety of life span predictors on more than 1000 mice. In their most recent publication, Harper et al. show that early-adulthood measures of T cell subsets, body weight, and thyroxine can be effectively combined to provide a highly significant predictor of life expectancy. Each measure appears to be an index of largely separate parameters that affect the course of aging. This article summarizes the results, discusses implications, mentions caveats, and suggests future studies. PMID:15152103

  2. Game of life on phyllosilicates: Gliders, oscillators and still life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    A phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines - silicon nodes and oxygen nodes - which mimics structure of the phyllosilicate. A node takes states 0 and 1. Each node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon) or six (oxygen) neighbours. Phyllosilicate automata exhibit localisations attributed to Conway's Game of Life: gliders, oscillators, still lifes, and a glider gun. Configurations and behaviour of typical localisations, and interactions between the localisations are illustrated.

  3. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  4. Teaching The Web of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meichtry, Yvonne J.

    2005-01-01

    This series of activities, which integrates science and social studies, is designed to involve students in experimental learning experiences conducted in an outdoor setting. Throughout the lesson, which is based on a model of instruction called Flow Learning [TM], students (a) simulate the Web of Life, (b) use different senses and scientific…

  5. Impact frustration of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Maher, K A; Stevenson, D J

    1988-02-18

    One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr. PMID:11536595

  6. Quality of life in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiana; Almeida, Isabel; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disease associated with disability and reduced quality of life. There is no effective treatment or cure to SSc, so it is important improve global health of these patients and reduce morbidity and mortality associated with SSc. It was made a literature review about quality of life in patients with SSc, regarding the several factors that should be considered and evaluated when attending to SSc patients. It was also considered the validated scales and questionnaires used to measure outcomes in patients with SSc. We concluded that it is important to have an interdisciplinary approach to SSc patients considering the patient's cognitive representations of the disease and what they value most like mobility and hand function, pain, fatigue, sleep, depression and body image. PMID:26212726

  7. A Clinical Support System Based on Quality of Life Estimation.

    PubMed

    Faria, Brígida Mónica; Gonçalves, Joaquim; Reis, Luis Paulo; Rocha, Álvaro

    2015-10-01

    Quality of life is a concept influenced by social, economic, psychological, spiritual or medical state factors. More specifically, the perceived quality of an individual's daily life is an assessment of their well-being or lack of it. In this context, information technologies may help on the management of services for healthcare of chronic patients such as estimating the patient quality of life and helping the medical staff to take appropriate measures to increase each patient quality of life. This paper describes a Quality of Life estimation system developed using information technologies and the application of data mining algorithms to access the information of clinical data of patients with cancer from Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck services of an oncology institution. The system was evaluated with a sample composed of 3013 patients. The results achieved show that there are variables that may be significant predictors for the Quality of Life of the patient: years of smoking (p value 0.049) and size of the tumor (p value?of the quality of life the best accuracy was obtained by applying the John Platt's sequential minimal optimization algorithm for training a support vector classifier. In conclusion data mining techniques allow having access to patients additional information helping the physicians to be able to know the quality of life and produce a well-informed clinical decision. PMID:26277614

  8. The value of medical and pharmaceutical interventions for reducing obesity.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H

    2012-07-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small. The net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

  9. Precise measurement of the half-life of ?¹Cu.

    PubMed

    Cvetinovi?, Aleksandra; Likar, Andrej; Lipoglavšek, Matej; Miheli?, Andrej; Petrovi?, Toni; Vesi?, Jelena; Vodenik, Branko

    2015-10-01

    The decay characteristics of (61)Cu allow for a precise determination of its half-life. In order to search for a possible influence of the chemical environment on the decay rate, the half-life of (61)Cu in nickel and nickel-oxide was measured with high precision. The results show a small difference in the half-life that can be explained by the differences in electron density at the site of the nucleus. A discussion about the validity of the adopted value of the total angular momentum of the 656 keV state in (61)Ni is presented. PMID:26164148

  10. Nature and value of knowledge : epistemic environmentalism 

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Shane Gavin

    2013-11-27

    My thesis examines the nature and value of knowledge and normative implications of its value. With this in mind I examine Greco’s account of knowledge in detail and consider whether it convinces. I argue against the ...

  11. The Tree of Life Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  12. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  13. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  14. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10?? in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

  15. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  16. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  17. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  18. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  19. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  20. The Labor Values of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khlopova, T. V.; Ozernikova, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the labor values of young people. The problem of the transformation of labor values occupies a special place in the transition economy of Russia. In this article, the authors look at labor values as an element of the motivation mechanism. Furthermore, the authors examine the the term "motivation" in its content sense and…

  1. [Quality of a life of military seamen of Northern fleet].

    PubMed

    Mosiagin, I G; Sakharov, O S; Gubernitskaia, S V

    2010-05-01

    Research of quality of a life of military seamen with use of the Russian-speaking version of the general questionnaire of health "Medical Outcomes Study-Short Forms" (SF-36) is conducted. 600 military men at the age from 18 till 55 years are surveyed. Military seamen have highly appreciated the quality of a life. Absolute values of indicators of quality of a life on all scales 70 points that is considered, how very high there are more. The physical component of health is estimated by military men above, than psychological. Values of indicators of quality of a life on all scales of questionnaire SF-36 at men were above, than at women, with preservation of the general tendency more an appreciation of a physical component of health. Military men on an appeal have estimated the quality of a life above, than military men under the contract. Essential distinctions in an estimation of quality of a life in group of military men under the contract it is not revealed. PMID:20698329

  2. Energy values of nine Populus clones

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compared are calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  3. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. CA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so mater...

  4. Periodic decomposition of integer valued Gyula Karolyi

    E-print Network

    Károlyi, Gyula

    Periodic decomposition of integer valued functions Gyula K´arolyi , Tam´as Keleti , G´eza K prove that the existence of a real valued periodic decomposition of a Z Z function implies the existence of an integer valued periodic decomposition with the same periods. This result depends

  5. The Community of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), delivered this address before the Annual Meeting of The Humane Society of the United States, Newport, Rhode Island, October, 1971. Reviewing the philosophy and activities of the NPCA, he discloses how the wildlife preservation movement of the NPCA needs the help of

  6. Perturbation expansions of complex-valued travel time along real-valued reference rays

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Perturbation expansions of complex-valued travel time along real-valued reference rays Martin of the complex­valued travel time (complex­valued action function). The solution of the complex­valued Hamilton­ Jacobi equation for complex­valued travel time by Hamilton's equations of rays would require complex

  7. The Promise of Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Little has been written in the career development literature about quality of life, even though this concept is implied in all counselor interventions. In this article, the author suggests that the broad and subjective nature of quality of life, rather than a liability, is its very strength. Quality of life is presented as an important holistic…

  8. Constructor theory of life.

    PubMed

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-03-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  9. Constructor theory of life

    PubMed Central

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  10. A Philosopher's View of Values and Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golightly, Cornelius L.

    1971-01-01

    Counseling tends to ignore the analytic contributions of professional philosophy for understanding the nature of value and value theory. Counseling will be a better art when counselors are as concerned with what philosophy says about values as they are with the contributions of the social sciences. (Author)

  11. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  12. The Poet as Creator of Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sonia

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

  13. The Molecules of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

  14. Reward value of food pictures / 1 Pictures of Food Have Reward Value that Varies

    E-print Network

    Chabris, Christopher F.

    Reward value of food pictures / 1 Pictures of Food Have Reward Value that Varies According RUNNING HEAD: Reward value of food pictures #12;Reward value of food pictures / 2 Abstract A stimulus pictures of food can be rewards for human subjects, with reward value operationalized as the physical

  15. The cradle of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Tarter, Jill C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The emerging field of bioastronomy is beginning to address one of the oldest questions in science and philosophy: Are we alone? By virtue of its sheer sensitivity, high frequency coverage, and long baselines, the SKA will play a pivotal role in bioastronomical studies. It will be a unique instrument with the capability to image proto-planetary disks in nearby star-forming regions and monitor the evolution of structures within those disks ("movies of planetary formation"). It will also be able to assess the extent to which interstellar molecules are incorporated into proto-planetary disks. It will also be able to reach qualitatively new levels of sensitivity in the search for intelligence elsewhere in the Galaxy, including for the first time the realistic possibility of detecting unintentional emissions or "leakage" (such as from TV transmitters) from nearby stars.

  16. Extinctions of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

  17. Quality of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the risk of infection. Maintaining a Healthy Relationship Interpersonal relationships can be challenged by the issues that ... make some new traditions such as renting a movie every Friday night. Spending quality time together is ...

  18. The Structures of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

  19. The Structures of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, explains how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. This publication contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on…

  20. VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*

    PubMed Central

    House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings. PMID:20052402

  1. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  2. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  3. The Secret Life of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Alan; Abramson, Louis

    2015-04-01

    We have learned much about galaxy evolution since z = 2, and something to even higher redshifts. How can it be that we know so little about! the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies? Although great progress has been made accumulating huge samples with only rudimentary properties, progress in galaxy evolution means connecting what we've learned to detailed measurements of the life-histories of specific - not just representative - systems.

  4. The microscopist of modern life.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, J Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This is an essay in the history of observation of the natural and social worlds. It explores how nineteenth-century Paris became a field and object of scientific observation and how the everyday lives, and even the health, of scientists living in the city and leaving the city for the "country" modeled observations and theoretical interpretation. The story concerns the first important work in the research school of Louis Pasteur to focus on a human and urban disease, diphtheria, rather than animal and rural ones. An urban field practice emerged from characteristically Parisian forms and literary fictions of street life and public space, leisure, spectacle, and crowds. Some of these, such as transcience, were (and still are) viewed as not only characteristic of "modern life," but also the source of new practices and sensibilities in painting and literature. Microbiological studies elsewhere --such as in New York and Hamburg--were based on very different urban structures, patterns of everyday life, national cultures, and aspects of modernity. PMID:12964593

  5. Towards the bibliography of life

    PubMed Central

    King, David; Morse, David R.; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole. The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them. PMID:22207811

  6. History of constant life diagrams

    SciTech Connect

    Sendeckyj, G.P.

    1997-12-31

    A historical review of the early development of constant life diagrams (variously referred to as Goodman, Smith, Haigh, etc. diagrams) is presented. It is shown that neither Gerber nor Goodman published the first constant life diagram. Goodman never drew what is now called the Goodman diagram and the so-called Goodman law was in general engineering use before Goodman`s book first appeared. Johnson derived an equation that is equivalent to the so-called Goodman law, published it two years before Goodman`s book appeared, and pointed out that it was consistent with an equation in common engineering use. The first books on fatigue of metals introduced citation inaccuracies, which were propagated by subsequent authors. 40 refs., 5 figs.

  7. The Final Stages of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D.

    2014-04-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars end their lives as white dwarf stars. These stars and their environs have a deep personal significance for humanity: this is the expected fate of our own sun. Once a star becomes a white dwarf, its remaining evolution is best described as an exponential cooling. In the final throws of post-main sequence mass-loss the former stellar core becomes a white dwarf, emerging phoenix-like from amongst the ashes. Some planets may survive and others may form as a sort of second generation from the cast-off material. Life may survive or may be reborn on any planets that remain; life may also arise on newly formed planets. The prospects will depend in a significant way on the timescales of the central white dwarf star's cooling evolution and how its radiation shapes the environment. We will discuss white dwarf evolutionary timescales with an eye towards the potential habitability of planets, both new and old. We will consider the uncertainties in these timescales from both an empirical and a theoretical perspective. We will critique the existing evidence for planets and summarize what we have learned so far through direct imaging and stellar pulsations. We will close with the very bright prospects for the future of planets and life in the final stages.

  8. Serpentinite and the dawn of life

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO2 atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO2 dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ? 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9–11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO2 in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

  9. Leisure Education and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundy, Jean, Ed.; Cannon, Frances C., Ed.

    The primary purpose of the conference was to develop a general awareness of leisure education as a process for the enrichment of the quality of life. Conference objectives were: (1) to develop an awareness of the relationship of education for leisure and the quality of life; (2) to examine the needs of people at various stages of the life cycle…

  10. "Living theatre, theatre of life".

    PubMed

    Wenzel, E

    1987-09-01

    Young people love to play theatre--in one way or another. They like to play with behaviours, costumes, words, communication patterns, etc.; they like to disguise themselves, to create certain spheres and scenes of drama and tragedy, excitement and extacy, satire and irony, morals and decadence. Due to the particular uncertainties of the adolescent passage, youth oscillates between taking life both, too seriously and easy. Searching for identity and integration, they tend to experiment with styles of behaviour and culturally defined patterns of lifestyles conductive to well-being. Sometimes, life is perceived as pure entertainment, and sometimes as pure drama. It's living theatre and theatre of life. On the one hand it is "acting out", on the other hand it is playing precisely defined roles. And, in-between, it is always the question: Who am I? They tend to slip into roles in order to check out whether they are willing to accept their implications with regard to the priorities they have set so far. PMID:3679228

  11. Exobiology and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

  12. Preparing for the End of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... care focus on comfort and quality of life. Hospice Care Click for more information One of the ... end-of-life care is provided is through hospice. Hospice, as defined by the Center for Medicare ...

  13. Enhance End-of-Life Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. Photo: Corbis When ...

  14. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  15. The Fertilizing Value of Greensand. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    are essentially grains of hydrous silicate of iron and potassium (glauconite) mixed with more or less silica. In some deposits, the iron has been oxidized to brown oxide of iron, but the deposit is usually af a greenish color. Occurrence in Texas... supplied some potash. Slreen (13) compared greensand with nitrate of potash on wheat in pot experiments. The wheat grown on sand with the addition of 0.78 per cent of greensand (1.044 gms. K) secured 0.0125 grams of potassium from the greensand or about...

  16. Effects of coal oxidation on calorific value

    SciTech Connect

    Uenal, S.; Yalcin, Z.G.; Piskin, S.

    1999-04-01

    A brief investigation of the effects of oxidation on the calorific values of three Turkish lignite samples has been made. The lignite samples have been vacuum dried and oxidized in pure oxygen at 35, 45, and 55 C at 100 kPa for 10 days. The calorific values of the oxidized and unoxidized samples have been measured. A relation has been observed between the extent of oxidation and decrease in calorific value. Various possibilities of modeling the relation have been explored.

  17. [Food value of cichorium intybus].

    PubMed

    Luzina, E V

    2013-01-01

    Cichorium intybus is an herbaceous perennial, known as a coffee substitute. It possesses a wide range of healing characteristics particularly due to inulin, one of its components. Inulin is a natural polysaccharide, a polyfructosane containing 27-35 fructose residues in furanose form and glucose residue. When inulin is in the alimentary tract it passes to the stomach and the small intestine unchangeable. In large intestine inulin is fermented by bifidobacteria and then converted in to a great number of short-chain fatty acids. Due to the process it stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria population and reduces that of pathogenic microorganisms. The increase of pool of healthy intestinalflora normalizes the passage of fieces masses through the intestine, improves immunologic status, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The paper presents experimental and clinic studies confirming bifidogenic, immunogenic, anticancerous, hepatoprotective characteristics of inulin and cichorium intybus. PMID:24000703

  18. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...recommend classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting or...

  19. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...recommend classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting or...

  20. The Value of Field Experiments

    E-print Network

    Li, Jimmy Q.

    The feasibility of using field experiments to optimize marketing decisions remains relatively unstudied. We investigate category pricing decisions that require estimating a large matrix of cross-product demand elasticities ...

  1. Black Colleges: Something of Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Albert N.

    1989-01-01

    In the early stages of higher education desegregation, there was a disproportionate shifting of black students to historically white institutions. Today, it is estimated that about 82% of all black students in colleges and universities are enrolled in traditionally white institutions. As desegregation proceeded, the conviction grew that it was to…

  2. The Practical Value of Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Alaska (UA) serves the diverse peoples of Alaska through three separately accredited universities and their community campuses. The system's three universities at Fairbanks (UAF), Anchorage (UAA), and Juneau (UAS) differ greatly. Within each of these universities, the faculty developed honors programs that fit the context and…

  3. The value of shared services.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Beverly B

    2011-07-01

    A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions PMID:21789944

  4. Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

    2014-07-01

    Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys. PMID:24931555

  5. Family Quality of Life: A Qualitative Inquiry

    E-print Network

    Poston, Denise J.; Turnbull, Ann P.; Park, Jiyeon; Mannan, Hasheem; Marquis, Janet; Wang, Mian

    2003-01-01

    TIPS www.beachcenter.org RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS Family Quality of Life Poston, D., Turnbull, A., Park, J., Mannan, H., Marquis, J., & Wang, M. (2003). Family quality of life: A qualitative Inquiry. Mental Retardation, 41(3), 313-328. BOTTOM... LINE In this qualitative inquiry, the authors investigated the conceptualization of family quality of life. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 187 participants. Ten domains of family quality of life resulted from...

  6. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be met on the 6.7…

  7. The Economic Value of Teeth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

  8. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  9. The work value of information

    E-print Network

    Oscar C. O. Dahlsten; Renato Renner; Elisabeth Rieper; Vlatko Vedral

    2009-08-04

    We present quantitative relations between work and information that are valid both for finite sized and internally correlated systems as well in the thermodynamical limit. We suggest work extraction should be viewed as a game where the amount of work an agent can extract depends on how well it can guess the micro-state of the system. In general it depends both on the agent's knowledge and risk-tolerance, because the agent can bet on facts that are not certain and thereby risk failure of the work extraction. We derive strikingly simple expressions for the extractable work in the extreme cases of effectively zero- and arbitrary risk tolerance respectively, thereby enveloping all cases. Our derivation makes a connection between heat engines and the smooth entropy approach. The latter has recently extended Shannon theory to encompass finite sized and internally correlated bit strings, and our analysis points the way to an analogous extension of statistical mechanics.

  10. THE FORMATION OF LIFE Robert L. Kurucz

    E-print Network

    Kurucz, Robert L.

    THE FORMATION OF LIFE Robert L. Kurucz Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics November 7, 2000 Revised October 15, 2008; November 20, 2011 #12;THE FORMATION OF LIFE Robert L. Kurucz Harvard-Smithsonian

  11. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

  12. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BIOFUEL SUGARCANE PRODUCED

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BIOFUEL SUGARCANE PRODUCED IN MINERAL SOILS IN FLORIDA 1/11/2013 Technical Report Prepared by: Jose-Luis Izursa #12;LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BIOFUEL SUGARCANE PRODUCED IN MINERAL

  13. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BIOFUEL SUGARCANE

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BIOFUEL SUGARCANE PRODUCED IN ORGANIC SOILS IN FLORIDA 1/15/2013 Technical Report Prepared by: Jose-Luis Izursa #12;LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF BIOFUEL SUGARCANE PRODUCED IN ORGANIC

  14. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  15. Value of a privileged background 

    E-print Network

    Watts, Michael James

    2013-07-03

    This thesis considers how informational imperfections may give rise to advantages for those born to relatively rich parents. The first chapter focuses on the separation of some societies into different classes. Within ...

  16. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  17. The Value of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and…

  18. The Value of Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with the author's personal experience within The National Association for Music Education (MENC) and stresses the importance of professional organizations by addressing issues that have a consequential benefit to both students and teachers. Additionally, issues are addressed that seem problematic for some individuals within…

  19. Therapists Value of Interprofessional Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    The work of occupational (OT), physical (PT), and recreational therapists (RT), as well as speech- language pathologists (SLP), is interrelated and requires effective teamwork and collaboration to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. Literature shows that health care professionals are ill prepared to work in an interprofessional manner due…

  20. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887

  1. From Culture to Cost The hidden value of the urban canopy for human well being

    E-print Network

    Brown, Sally

    S From Culture to Cost The hidden value of the urban canopy for human well being Vivek Shandas tree of life Yggdrasill ­ Norse tree connecting all of life Jubokko ­ lives on human blood Zaqqum ­ tree from hellJimenju ­ human head tree Nariphon ­ the tree of sensual seduction #12;What Happened

  2. The social value of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature and is used in numerous ways in the research ethics literature. Because social value justifies involving human participants, especially in early human trials, this is problematic. Discussion Our analysis and interpretation of the concept social value has led to three proposals. First, as no direct benefits are expected for the research participants in first-in-human trials, we believe it is better to discuss a risk- value assessment instead of a risk - benefit assessment. This will also make explicit the necessity to have a clear and common use for the concept social value. Second, to avoid confusion we propose to limit the concept social value to the intervention tested. It is the expected improvement the intervention can bring to the wellbeing of (future) patients or society that is referred to when we speak about social value. For the sole purpose of gaining knowledge, we should not expose humans to potential harm; the ultimate justification of involving humans in research lies in the anticipated social value of the intervention. Third, at the moment only the validity of the clinical research proposal is a prerequisite for research to take place. We recommend making the anticipated social value a prerequisite as well. Summary In this paper we analyze the use of the concept social value in research ethics. Despite its unavoidable ambiguity, we aim to find a best use of the concept, subject to its role in justifying involving humans in first-in-human research. PMID:25189994

  3. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  4. Measurement of the 225Ac half-life.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Marouli, M; Suliman, G; Dikmen, H; Van Ammel, R; Jobbágy, V; Dirican, A; Stroh, H; Paepen, J; Bruchertseifer, F; Apostolidis, C; Morgenstern, A

    2012-11-01

    The (225)Ac half-life was determined by measuring the activity of (225)Ac sources as a function of time, using various detection techniques: ?-particle counting with a planar silicon detector at a defined small solid angle and in a nearly-2? geometry, 4??+? counting with a windowless CsI sandwich spectrometer and with a pressurised proportional counter, gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector and with a NaI(Tl) well detector. Depending on the technique, the decay was followed for 59-141 d, which is about 6-14 times the (225)Ac half-life. The six measurement results were in good mutual agreement and their mean value is T(1/2)((225)Ac)=9.920 (3)d. This half-life value is more precise and better documented than the currently recommended value of 10.0 d, based on two old measurements lacking uncertainty evaluations. PMID:22940415

  5. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  6. The Geometry of Qubit Weak Values

    E-print Network

    J. M. Farinholt; A. Ghazarians; J. E. Troupe

    2015-12-15

    The concept of a \\emph{weak value} of a quantum observable was developed in the late 1980s by Aharonov and colleagues to characterize the value of an observable for a quantum system in the time interval between two projective measurements. Curiously, these values often lie outside the eigenspectrum of the observable, and can even be complex-valued. Nevertheless, the weak value of a quantum observable has been shown to be a valuable resource in quantum metrology, and has received recent attention in foundational aspects of quantum mechanics. This paper is driven by a desire to more fully understand the underlying mathematical structure of weak values. In order to do this, we allow an observable to be \\emph{any} Hermitian operator, and use the pre- and post-selected states to develop well-defined linear maps between the Hermitian operators and their corresponding weak values. We may then use the inherent Euclidean structure on Hermitian space to geometrically decompose a weak value of an observable. In the case in which the quantum systems are qubits, we provide a full geometric characterization of weak values.

  7. Life Story of an Art Therapist of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boston, Charlotte G.

    2005-01-01

    In this narrative, the author relates her experiences as an art therapist of color, and describes the impact of cultural beliefs and values on her life from childhood, through education, and into the workplace. She contends that incidents of conflicts between cultures in the community, in education, and in the workplace reflect the continuing need…

  8. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  9. Life history of Coelomomyces psorophorae.

    PubMed Central

    Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A

    1975-01-01

    The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. Images PMID:235761

  10. The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values

  11. Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosmayer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Clinical Endoscopy Does cancer risk affect health-related quality of life in patients

    E-print Network

    Hastie, Trevor

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Clinical Endoscopy Does cancer risk affect health-related quality of life. Goldstein, MD, MS Stanford and Palo Alto, California, USA Background: Health-related quality of life-state utility values, quality of life in reflux and dyspepsia (QOLRAD), and Medical Outcomes Survey short form

  13. Division of Student Life & Enrollment Office of Enrollment Management

    E-print Network

    Harms, Kyle E.

    including real estate (not your $_____________ home). The net worth of your businesses, and/or investment that are related to the investments Investments: include real estate, trust funds, UGMA and UTMA accounts, money, the value of life insurance, or retirement plans (pension funds, annuities, non-education IRA's, Keogh plans

  14. The Role of Values-Consistent Behavior in Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Michelson, Susan E.; Lee, Jonathan K.; Orsillo, Susan M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Background Theory and research suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with diminished quality of life and restriction in valued action. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of values-consistent behavior (valued action) in understanding the impairment in quality of life in GAD. Method Treatment-seeking clients with a principal diagnosis of GAD (n=30) were compared with demographically matched non-anxious controls (n=30) using self-report measures. Results Participants with GAD reported significantly less valued action compared with controls, and within the GAD group, diminished valued action was not fully explained by depression comorbidity. Valued action was significantly correlated with measures of experiential avoidance, distress about emotions, and quality of life. Further, consistent with a theoretical model of GAD, restrictions in valued action contributed unique variance to diminished quality of life over and above the contributions of gender, GAD severity, experiential avoidance, distress about emotions, and depression comorbidity. Finally, an acceptance-based behavioral therapy significantly improved self-reports of valued action for GAD clients with 40% achieving clinically significant change in this domain. Conclusion The findings provide preliminary support for the relevance of valued action in understanding the functional impairment associated with GAD, and the beneficial effects of an acceptance-based behavior therapy in increasing valued action. PMID:21308890

  15. Cancer Patient Preferences for Quality and Length of Life

    PubMed Central

    Meropol, Neal J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Buzaglo, Joanne S.; Benson, Al B.; Cegala, Donald J.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    Background Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of this study is to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL, and explore associations with communication preferences. Methods Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey prior to the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences and cancer-related distress. Results Seven hundred forty three advanced cancer patients were enrolled. Among 459 advanced cancer patients, fifty-five percent of patients equally valued QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (p < 0.001). QOL preference was associated with older age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.003), and higher education (p = 0.062). Patients who preferred LOL over QOL desired a more supportive and less pessimistic communication style from their oncologists. Conclusions These data indicate that a values preference for length vs. quality of life may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients. PMID:18988231

  16. Quality of life in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Lara Noronha; Brito, Ulisses; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a study whose main aim is the measurement of the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of patients with asthma and the presentation of a first draft of normative values as measured by the SF-6D for asthma patients. In addition, we investigate how far non-disease-specific HRQoL measures can distinguish groups in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. The Portuguese versions of the EQ-5D, SF-6D, AQLQ(S) and ACQ were administered using personal interviews to a representative sample of the Portuguese population with asthma. Most of the individuals did not report significant problems in the dimensions used, with the exception of the physical functioning, where individuals reported moderate limitations. The mean utility value was 0.86. Male gender, young, single, individuals with high educational attainment level, employed, individuals with high income and those residing in urban areas reported higher utility levels. As expected, those who were in a severe stadium of the disease reported lower mean utility levels than those who were in a less severe stadium of the disease. Normative values for the SF-6D were computed for patients with asthma by gender, age, marital status, educational attainment level, employment status, area of residence and average monthly net income. The preference-based measures used in this study distinguish patient groups with asthma in terms of socio- demographic groups. The normative values can be used in economic evaluation and clinical studies as they incorporate patients' preferences and translate the value attributed to patients' health state. PMID:20054507

  17. The Tides People (Tlingit Indians of Southeast Alaska). A Narrative Account of Tlingit Culture and Values Written by a Tlingit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peck, Cyrus E., Sr.

    Written by a Tlingit for purposes of affirming Tlingit life style, values, and laws, this narrative account of the Alaskan Tlingit culture and values presents illustrations of the cultural values and value systems manifest in Tlingit language, art forms, music, ceremonies, and rituals. Designed to be instructional, the chapters of this document…

  18. The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.; Rosen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that youth are society's future; individuals need to prepare and nurture them if they desire that future to be bright and productive. Yet, with the spotlight currently on slow economic growth and high unemployment across the U.S., there has been little focus on the plight of youth as they transition from school to adult life. But…

  19. The Value of Pets in Children's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blue, Gladys F.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews literature focusing on six aspects of pet-person relationships that are most relevant to the growing child. Areas include love, attachment, and comfort; sensorimotor and nonverbal learning; responsibility, nurturance, and competence; learning about the life cycle; therapeutic benefits; and nurturing humaness, ecological awareness, and…

  20. Importance of life cycle assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, J.S.

    1994-06-16

    The paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. LCA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so material recovery is most efficient and markets can be better predicted. The waste professional can better monitor the involvement of the consumer in waste management by using LCA and looking upstream at how the consumer actually reacts to products and packaging. LCA can also help the waste professional better understand the waste stream.

  1. Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios

    E-print Network

    Keller, Arturo A.

    1 Life Cycle Assessment of Three Water Scenarios: Importation, Reclamation, and Desalination Erin and Environmental Engineering Arizona State University #12;Life Cycle Assessment · Described by International · Data analyzed and categorized · Find impacts on planet and humans #12;Life Cycle Assessment Extraction

  2. The Benefits of Reflecting on and Discussing Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundick, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of understanding and pursuing one's purposes in life are well documented. However, few studies have addressed potential interventions for enhancing purpose. This article presents the results of an empirical investigation testing whether reflecting on and discussing one's core values, life goals, and purposes in life has benefits for…

  3. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  4. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    E-print Network

    Cockell, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in studies of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided) and planets with life, where the concentration of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pi...

  5. Folklore: A Tapestry of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Linda C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of introducing folklore into the curriculum to help students learn about their sense of place in the community. Describes various pertinent Web sites, including the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress, the American Folklore Society, and the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. (LRW)

  6. THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 sequestration and between 1 and 49 percent for forest based carbon sequestration. Value adjustments mitigating the impacts of climate change are causing governments and industries to consider the merits

  7. Valuing the Implementation of Financial Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberlee; Durband, Dorothy Bagwell

    2008-01-01

    Placing a monetary value on education is a complex task. A more difficult task is to determine at what monetary level individuals will support educational improvements. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate the value of the implementation of financial literacy education in Texas public schools. A Web-based survey was administered to…

  8. A Rooted Net of Life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko. PMID:21936906

  9. Illuminating the life of GPCRs

    PubMed Central

    Böhme, Ilka; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G

    2009-01-01

    The investigation of biological systems highly depends on the possibilities that allow scientists to visualize and quantify biomolecules and their related activities in real-time and non-invasively. G-protein coupled receptors represent a family of very dynamic and highly regulated transmembrane proteins that are involved in various important physiological processes. Since their localization is not confined to the cell surface they have been a very attractive "moving target" and the understanding of their intracellular pathways as well as the identified protein-protein-interactions has had implications for therapeutic interventions. Recent and ongoing advances in both the establishment of a variety of labeling methods and the improvement of measuring and analyzing instrumentation, have made fluorescence techniques to an indispensable tool for GPCR imaging. The illumination of their complex life cycle, which includes receptor biosynthesis, membrane targeting, ligand binding, signaling, internalization, recycling and degradation, will provide new insights into the relationship between spatial receptor distribution and function. This review covers the existing technologies to track GPCRs in living cells. Fluorescent ligands, antibodies, auto-fluorescent proteins as well as the evolving technologies for chemical labeling with peptide- and protein-tags are described and their major applications concerning the GPCR life cycle are presented. PMID:19602276

  10. Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

    2007-01-01

    Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

  11. Language, Affect and the Symbolization of Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hague, William J.

    Traditional philosophy and psychology have given greater attention to the cognitive than to the affective side of the human person. A more holistic approach shifts the emphasis to feeling as a guide to value objectivity. Values are apprehended and symbolized before a judgment is made as to their worthwhileness. The symbolizing process, that is,…

  12. Value Clarification in the Social Studies: Six Formats of the Values Sheet. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, J. Doyle; And Others

    One of the major goals of the social studies is to help students gain and refine skills in the area of value clarification. Value sheets, carefully planned activities designed to elicit value clarifying patterns of language from students, are one way of securing value clarification. Sheets, planned in conjunction with ongoing units of instruction,…

  13. Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald (editor); Leonard, Joel (editor)

    1991-01-01

    Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

  14. Death: A Part of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.; Harris, Zoanne

    This two-part curriculum unit includes 20 slides depicting Days of the Dead in Mexico and the United States. The unit is designed to help middle school students compare customs and practices associated with death throughout the world in a way that promotes understanding of the values and needs that produce and are reinforced by death rituals and…

  15. Nonlinear boundary value problem of magnetic insulation

    E-print Network

    A. V. Sinitsyn

    2000-09-09

    On the basis of generalization of upper and lower solution method to the singular two point boundary value problems, the existence theorem of solutions for the system, which models a process of magnetic insulation in plasma is proved.

  16. Does Individual Secularism Promote Life Satisfaction? The Moderating Role of Societal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Liman Man Wai; Bond, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the link between values and life satisfaction, examining the role of culture in this process. Secularism was found to predict life satisfaction scores at a small but statistically very significant level in persons from all nations participating in all four waves of the World Values Survey. The direction and…

  17. Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poplawski, Joseph V.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Peters, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Four roller profiles used in cylindrical roller bearing design and manufacture were analyzed using both a closed form solution and finite element analysis (FEA) for stress and life. The roller profiles analyzed were flat, tapered end, aerospace, and fully crowned loaded against a flat raceway. Four rolling-element bearing life models were chosen for this analysis and compared. These were those of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, Ioannides and Harris, and Zaretsky. The flat roller profile without edge loading has the longest predicted life. However, edge loading can reduce life by as much as 98 percent. The end tapered profile produced the highest lives but not significantly different than the aerospace profile. The fully crowned profile produces the lowest lives. The resultant predicted life at each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both Lundberg-Palmgren and Iaonnides-Harris equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMAJISO standards. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field.

  18. Theory of nuclear half-life determination by statistical sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverman, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    A remarkable method for measuring half-lives of radioactive nuclei was proposed several years ago that entailed statistical sampling of the source activity. A histogram of half-life estimates, calculated from pairs of activity measurements separated in time, took the unexpected form of a nearly perfect Cauchy distribution, the midpoint of which corresponded very closely to the true value of the half-life. No theoretical justification of the method was given. In this article I derive the exact probability density function (pdf) of the two-point half-life estimates, show how (and under what conditions) a Cauchy distribution emerges from the exact pdf —which, mathematically, shows no resemblance to a Cauchy function— and discuss the utility of the statistical sampling method. The analysis shows that the exact pdf, under the conditions leading to an empirical Cauchy lineshape, is an unbiased estimator of the true half-life.

  19. Death: A Part of Life. An Experimental Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otero, George G.

    This experimental unit on death employs a cross-cultural comparison of death and burial customs to increase student understanding of the values and reasons behind events surrounding the end of the life cycle. Nine activities are presented in which students collect, label, analyze, and generalize about the relationship of death customs to the…

  20. Expected Value and Variance 6.1 Expected Value of Discrete Random Variables

    E-print Network

    Indiana University

    a fair coin three times. Let X denote the number of heads which appear. Then the possible values of XChapter 6 Expected Value and Variance 6.1 Expected Value of Discrete Random Variables When a large for the probability distribution of a numerically-valued random variable. In this and in the next section, we shall

  1. University of Sussex School of Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Sussex, University of

    will equip you with skills that will enable you to go on to a range of careers in science or scientificUniversity of Sussex School of Life Sciences Chemistry www.sussex.ac.uk/lifesci/chemistry #12;2 3 Join Chemistry in the School of Life Sciences Why Chemistry at Sussex The importance of chemists Many

  2. The Rhythm of College Life

    E-print Network

    · Visiting high school friends · Extended holiday break; what it means to your family and your student · Find etiquette What to Expect · Testing of limits, boundaries · Experimentation · Family Weekend · Help your about belonging/values exploration · Roommate conflicts · Disenchantment with school · Finding a job

  3. Reconstructing Ancient Forms of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benner, Steven A.

    1998-01-01

    Progress in the past three months has occurred in two areas, reconstruction of ancestral proteins and improved understanding of chemical features that are likely to be universal in generic matter regardless of its genesis. Ancestral ribonucleases have been reconstructed, and an example has been developed that shows how physiological function can be assigned to in vitro behaviors observed in biological systems. Sequence data have been collected to permit the reconstruction of src homology 2 domains that underwent radiative divergence at the time of the radiative divergence of chordates. New studies have been completed that show how genetic matter (or its remnants) might be detected on Mars (or other non-terrean locations.) Last, the first in vitro selection experiments have been completed using a nucleoside library carrying positively charged functionality, illustrating the importance of non-standard nucleotides to those attempting to obtain evidence for an "RNA world" as an early episode of life on earth.

  4. Values Education: Why the Teaching of Values in Schools Is Necessary, but Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a growing demand by educators, governments, and the community for the teaching of values in public schools has led to the implementation of values education. As acknowledged by the 2010 Living Skills Values Education Program, values education is an essential part of schooling. In the public school system, there have been attempts…

  5. Optimistic biases in observational learning of value

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, A.; Symmonds, M.; Dolan, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Action-outcome contingencies can be learnt either by active trial-and-error, or vicariously, by observing the outcomes of actions performed by others. The extant literature is ambiguous as to which of these modes of learning is more effective, as controlled comparisons of operant and observational learning are rare. Here, we contrasted human operant and observational value learning, assessing implicit and explicit measures of learning from positive and negative reinforcement. Compared to direct operant learning, we show observational learning is associated with an optimistic over-valuation of low-value options, a pattern apparent both in participants’ choice preferences and their explicit post-hoc estimates of value. Learning of higher value options showed no such bias. We suggest that such a bias can be explained as a tendency for optimistic underestimation of the chance of experiencing negative events, an optimism repressed when information is gathered through direct operant learning. PMID:21354558

  6. Optimistic biases in observational learning of value.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, A; Symmonds, M; Dolan, R J

    2011-06-01

    Action-outcome contingencies can be learnt either by active trial-and-error, or vicariously, by observing the outcomes of actions performed by others. The extant literature is ambiguous as to which of these modes of learning is more effective, as controlled comparisons of operant and observational learning are rare. Here, we contrasted human operant and observational value learning, assessing implicit and explicit measures of learning from positive and negative reinforcement. Compared to direct operant learning, we show observational learning is associated with an optimistic over-valuation of low-value options, a pattern apparent both in participants' choice preferences and their explicit post-hoc estimates of value. Learning of higher value options showed no such bias. We suggest that such a bias can be explained as a tendency for optimistic underestimation of the chance of experiencing negative events, an optimism repressed when information is gathered through direct operant learning. PMID:21354558

  7. Value of the energy data base

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.W.; Griffiths, J.M.; Roderer, N.K.; Wiederkehr, R.R.V.

    1982-03-31

    An assessment was made of the Energy Data Base (EDB) of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center (TIC). As the major resource containing access information to the world's energy literature, EDB products and services are used extensively by energy researchers to identify journal articles, technical reports and other items of potential utility in their work. The approach taken to assessing value begins with the measurement of extent of use of the EDB. Apparent value is measured in terms of willingness to pay. Consequential value is measured in terms of effect - for searching, the cost of reading which results; and for reading, the savings which result from the application of the information obtained in reading. Resulting estimates of value reflect value to the searchers, the reader, and the reader's organization or funding source. A survey of the 60,000 scientists and eingineers funded by the DOE shows that annually they read about 7.1 million journal articles and 6.6 million technical reports. A wide range of savings values were reported for one-fourth of all article readings and three-fourths of all report readings. There was an average savings of $590 per reading of all articles; there was an average savings of $1280 for technical reports. The total annual savings attributable to reading by DOE-funded scientists and engineers is estimated to be about $13 billion. An investment of $5.3 billion in the generation of information and about $500 million in processing and using information yields a partial return of about $13 billion. Overall, this partial return on investment is about 2.2 to 1. In determining the value of EDB only those searches and readings directly attributable to it are included in the analysis. The values are $20 million to the searchers, $117 million to the readers and $3.6 billion to DOE.

  8. Building the blueprint of life.

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, C. S.; Overbeek, R.; Stevens, R. L.; Fellowship for Interpretation of Genomes

    2010-07-01

    With recent breakthroughs in experimental microbiology making it possible to synthesize and implant an entire genome to create a living cell, the challenge of constructing a working blueprint for the first truly minimal synthetic organism is more important than ever. Here we review the significant progress made in the design and creation of a minimal organism. We discuss how comparative genomes, gene essentiality data, naturally small genomes, and metabolic modeling are all being applied to produce a catalogue of the biological functions essential for life. We compare the minimal gene sets from three published sources with functions identified in 13 existing gene essentiality datasets. We examine how genome-scale metabolic models have been applied to design a minimal metabolism for growth in simple and complex media. Additionally, we survey the progress of efforts to construct a minimal organism, either through implementation of combinatorial deletions in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli or through the synthesis and implantation of synthetic genomes.

  9. Origins of life systems chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutherland, J.

    2015-10-01

    By reconciling previously conflicting views about the origin of life - in which one or other cellular subsystem emerges first, and then 'invents' the others - a new modus operandi for its study is suggested. Guided by this, a cyanosulfidic protometabolism is uncovered which uses UV light and the stoichiometric reducing power of hydrogen sulfide to convert hydrogen cyanide, and a couple of other prebiotic feedstock molecules which can be derived therefrom, into nucleic acid, peptide and lipid building blocks. Copper plays several key roles in this chemistry, thus, for example, copper(I) catalysed cross coupling and copper(II) driven oxidative crosscoupling reactions generate key feedstock molecules. Geochemical scenarios consistent with this protometabolism are outlined. Finally, the transition of a system from the inanimate to the animate state is considered in the context of there being intermediate stages of partial 'aliveness'.

  10. The value of clinical interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Soares, Gregory M

    2011-05-01

    Interventional radiology (IR) is a vital component of diagnostic imaging (DI). The Society of Interventional Radiology has long held that the practice of IR should be clinical in nature, with dedicated clinical time, space, and infrastructure. The ACR has recognized the necessity of the clinical practice of IR. The cost to DI groups and hospitals of providing clinical IR is substantial. A willingness to invest in the creation or maintenance of a clinical IR service should be based on the value such an investment may provide. The author presents a 2-fold assessment of the value of IR. A review of the intangible value of IR to DI groups and facilities follows the presentation of an algorithm that ascribes a tangible, financial value to the provision of clinical IR services. The author provides an example of this algorithm applied to a mature, clinical IR practice. The author's assertion is that this value is compelling justification to warrant support of clinical IR. Additionally, the author's hope is that the utilization of this algorithm may allow DI groups to determine the financial value of clinical IR in their own settings. PMID:21531307

  11. The Semantic Values of "Ser" and "Estar."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMello, George

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the distinctions that exist among the uses of "ser" and "estar" in Spanish. They are explained with reference to the semantic values present in the three basic functions of these verbs: principal, auxiliary, and attributive. (NCR)

  12. Understanding the value of boutique hotels

    E-print Network

    Wheeler, Daniel F. (Daniel Fairchild)

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, boutique hotels have witnessed a dramatic increase in popularity in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of boutique hotel value and conditions that ...

  13. Efficient Estimation of the Standardized Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2009-01-01

    We derive an estimator of the standardized value which, under the standard assumptions of normality and homoscedasticity, is more efficient than the established (asymptotically efficient) estimator and discuss its gains for small samples. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  14. The Values and Value Stability of Emotionally Handicapped and Normal Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Brian J.

    1988-01-01

    Administered Rokeach Value Survey to measure the value differences and value stability of 148 15- to 18-year-old adolescents. Examined the differences between adolescents who suffered from conduct-disorder, anxiety-withdrawal and those not suffering from a disorder. Results suggest that all three groups of adolescents share values and the…

  15. Potential value of Cs-137 capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Hazelton, R.F.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lezberg, A.J.; Tingey, G.L.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1985-04-01

    We determined the value of Cs-137 compared to Co-60 as a source for the irradiation of fruit (apples and cherries), pork and medical supplies. Cs-137, in the WESF capsule form, had a value of approximately $0.40/Ci as a substitute for Co-60 priced at approximately $1.00/Ci. The comparison was based on the available curies emitted from the surface of each capsule. We developed preliminary designs for fourteen irradiation facilities; seven were based on Co-60 and seven were based on Cs-137. These designs provided the basis for estimating capital and operating costs which, in turn, provided the basis for determining the value of Cs-137 relative to Co-60 in these applications. We evaluated the effect of the size of the irradiation facility on the value of Cs-137. The cost of irradiation is low compared to the value of the product. Irradiation of apples for disinfestation costs $.01 to .02 per pound. Irradiation for trichina-safe pork costs $.02 per pound. Irradiation of medical supplies for sterilization costs $.07 to .12 per pound. The cost of the irradiation source, either Co-60 or Cs-137, contributed only a minor amount to the total cost of irradiation, about 5% for the fruit and hog cases and about 20% for the medical supply cases. We analyzed the sensitivity of the irradiation costs and Cs-137 value to several key assumptions.

  16. Profiled Roller Stress/Fatigue Life Analysis Methodology and Establishment of an Appropriate Stress/Life Exponent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the three dimensional volumetric stress field, surface pressure distribution and actual contact area between a 0.50" square roller with different crown profiles and a flat raceway surface using Finite Element Analysis. The 3-dimensional stress field data was used in conjunction with several bearing fatigue life theories to extract appropriate values for stress-life exponents. Also, results of the FEA runs were used to evaluate the laminated roller model presently used for stress and life prediction.

  17. Alan L. Grant College of Agriculture & Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Alan L. Grant Dean College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Associate Director, VAES Jody Jellison College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Grants Specialist Leslie Mitchell Federal Projects Coordinator of Agriculture & Life Sciences College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station

  18. Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Guerrero, R.

    1995-01-01

    Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?".

  19. What Is the Value of @*#? Deepening Teachers' Understanding of Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Theresa M.; Cady, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a unique number system to facilitate teachers' understanding of the concepts of place value. Teachers' mastery of base-ten may hinder their recognition of the difficulties students have with place value, so the authors created a number system that used five symbols to represent values. Using this system, teachers…

  20. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  1. Interpretation of bootstrap values in phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wiesemüller, Bernhard; Rothe, Hartmut

    2006-06-01

    Bootstrap Analysis is a common tool in cladistics, and consequently many authors tend to believe that it could be close to a test of monophyly. In fact, it is only a procedure to calculate the redundancy of a certain character pattern among taxa. To demonstrate this, we set up a study with questionable data: Four skulls of great apes and humans were digitally photographed, and the pixels' brightness values were simply transformed to a one-zero-matrix, which was then used to calculate a Wagner tree with PHYLIP. As a rule, the higher the resolution of the photos is, the higher are the bootstrap values of supported taxa (and the lower are the bootstrap values of non-supported data). Redundancy of intertaxic information might indeed be an indicator of phylogenetic relationship, but can also be due to other reasons, like functional-adaptive needs in morphology, or semantic needs in a DNA-code. As a result, we tend to believe that high bootstrap values are actually less important than low ones. It is safer, based on a low bootstrap value, to claim that a certain taxon is not well supported by certain data. Therefore, we recommend discussions of low bootstrap values in future publications. PMID:16850767

  2. The value of numbers in economic rewards.

    PubMed

    Kanayet, Frank J; Opfer, John E; Cunningham, William A

    2014-08-01

    Previous work has identified a distributed network of neural systems involved in appraising the value of rewards, such as when winning $100 versus $1. These studies, however, confounded monetary value and the number used to represent it, which leads to the possibility that some elements in the network may be specialized for processing numeric rather than monetary value. To test this hypothesis, we manipulated numeric magnitude and units to construct a range of economic rewards for simple decisions (e.g., 1¢, $1, 100¢, $100). Consistent with previous research in numerical cognition, results showed that blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity in intraparietal sulcus was correlated with changes in numeric magnitude, independent of monetary value, whereas activity in orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with monetary value, independent of numeric magnitude. Finally, region-of-interest analyses revealed that the BOLD response to numeric magnitude, but not monetary value, described a compressive function. Together, these findings highlight the importance of numerical cognition for understanding how the brain processes monetary rewards. PMID:24958687

  3. ROLE OF STRESSFUL LIFE EVENTS IN MANIA

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, A.K.; Agarwal, Savita; Nathawat, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The study investigated the role of stressful life events and family pathology in manic illness-selecting 30 cases of mania from Psychiatric Centre Jaipur and 30 normal controls from paramedical staff of psychiatric hospital. Both manics and normals were matched in terms of age, sex, education, marital status etc. All the subjects were subjected to Paykel's life events questionnaire, and an intensive psychiatric interview. Results revealed the significance of life stresses and family pathology in the genesis of mania. Death of close relative, financial difficulties, death of spouse, disappointment due to defeat in election, turned out to be major life events in contribution of manic pathology. PMID:21965988

  4. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a)...

  6. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. 860.93 Section 860.93 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... Classification § 860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices. (a)...

  9. Approach to End of Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David H.

    2002-01-01

    End of life care is often overlooked in busy day-to-day medical practice. Physicians need to recognize that death is inevitable for many medical conditions despite aggressive treatment. Optimal end of life care begins with an honest discussion of disease progression and prognosis. By coordinating the care with the family and a hospice program, terminally ill patients can achieve relief of pain and other unwanted symptoms, leading to a good quality of life during their remaining days. PMID:22822325

  10. [End of life care in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Rorive, G; Damas, F; Petermans, J

    2014-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy is associated with a good quality of life until a very old age. However, the unavoidable aging process eventually affects the autonomy of the patient and may force the individual to live in a nursing home. The alteration of sensorial functions and the increased number of degenerative diseases may finally induce a physical and psychological burden that might lead to resort to palliative care, end of life sedation, and in some cases, euthanasia. PMID:25065253

  11. [Evaluation of the quality of life].

    PubMed

    Velarde-Jurado, Elizabeth; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the methods and principles for quality of life assessment. The aging of the population and the improved survival of people with acute and chronic conditions have produced several levels of disability requiring long-term treatment and rehabilitation. In 1948 the World Health Organization defined health as not merely the absence of disease but rather a state of complete physical, mental, and social well being. This term evolved from its conceptual definition to the development of scales to measure the quality of life beyond physical status. Thus, quality of life assessment includes areas such as mental health, social support, and life satisfaction. It is recognized that the expectations, vitality, pain, disability, and personal experiences influence the perception of a person's general health. A composite measurement aimed to quantify health according to physical, mental, and social well being simultaneously would likely find people at different points on the three different continua, but in the midranges of the composite. The multidimensionality problems and the level of subjectivity involved in the assessment of the quality of life require valid and reliable instruments. This paper present an inventory of 126 questionnaires aimed to measure the quality of life for several diseases and populations. A better understanding of the methods to assess the quality of life will allow the incorporation of these instruments in the comprehensive assessment of patients, into clinical trials, and for health services research. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. PMID:12216523

  12. Parties, Lads, Friends, Love and Newcastle United: A Study of Young People's Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromnick, Rachel D.; Swallow, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the values of eleven to sixteen year olds (111 girls and 133 boys) in terms of their philosophies of life, fears, and underlying values. Finds that girls focus on relationships with family, friends, and boys; while activities like sports are the main focus for boys. Includes references. (CMK)

  13. Sense of Coherence, Hope and Values among Adolescents under Missile Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore measures of spirituality--sense of coherence (SOC), hope and values--among adolescents living in a violent political area and experiencing missile attacks. The three variables represent attributes of spirituality, such as searching for meaning and purpose in life, hope and feelings about the future, as well as values

  14. 75 FR 1007 - MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... COMMISSION MetLife, Inc. and MetLife Capital Trust V; Notice of Application December 30, 2009. AGENCY.... Summary of Application: MetLife Capital Trust V (the ``Trust'') and MetLife, Inc. (``MetLife'') request an... and pursuant to a Declaration of Trust that MetLife signed as sponsor. As sponsor, MetLife...

  15. Cataract management: effect on patients' quality of life.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, Susan; Seewoodhary, Ramesh

    2015-01-27

    This article summarises the epidemiology of cataract, the normal and altered physiology of the eye's lens, and the causes of and risk factors associated with the condition. It outlines the aims of modern cataract surgery and discusses the main surgical approaches. The effects of 'cataract blindness' on the patient's quality of life are addressed, with particular reference to the negative effect of the onset of depression. The role of the nurse in promoting quality of life is explored with reference to the value of psychosocial theory in the care of and promotion of health to older patients with cataracts. PMID:25605115

  16. Tracking the Record of Early Life

    E-print Network

    Javoux, E.J.; Marshall, Craig P.

    2005-02-01

    and instrumentation are crucial for assessing claims of ancient life on earth, as well as when searching for evidence of extraterrestrial life. Figure 1: Geological time-scale with important geological and biological events in the Precambrian (modified from... architectures) from simple microbial forms. Such data will facilitate the development of suites of biosignatures that may prove applicable in the search for past life on Earth and beyond. Microorganisms have been cycling carbon, sulfur and nitrogen...

  17. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    PubMed

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels <0.5 mi from EEP restoration sites have significantly lower sale prices, while 3) parcels >0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels <0.5 mi from EEP sites exhibit lower values, and sites 0.5-0.75 mi away exhibit increased values. Our work points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. PMID:23792789

  18. [Value of diagnostic localization of insulinoma].

    PubMed

    Böttger, T; Weber, W; Beyer, J; Junginger, T

    1989-09-15

    The value of diagnostic localization of insulinoma The value of diagnostic localization statements are contradictory. Basing on our own patient material (n = 41) the preoperative localization of an insulinoma was correct with sonography in 57.7%, with computed tomography in 21.4%, with computed tomography with bolus injection of contrast medium in 73.3%, with angiography 63.9% and with percutaneous transhepatic portal vein catheterisation with selective test of hormones (PTP) in 76.9%. Intraoperative 38 of 41 insulinomas were palpable and twelve of 16 insulinomas were seen during intraoperative sonography. Although we palpate more than 90% of all insulinomas we support a preoperative diagnostic localization for easier intraoperative palpation. PMID:2554101

  19. End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

    2010-01-01

    A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life

  20. 13.24 Fire and Life Safety Page 1 of 10 Fire and Life Safety

    E-print Network

    Hung, I-Kuai

    13.24 Fire and Life Safety Page 1 of 10 Fire and Life Safety Original Implementation: July 16, 2013, safety guidelines and procedures on the EHSRM website (http://www.sfasu.edu/safety/) and fire and life to establish and enforce policies and procedures that ensure university compliance with fire and life safety

  1. The Shapley value of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Haake, Claus-Jochen; Kashiwada, Akemi; Su, Francis Edward

    2008-04-01

    Every weighted tree corresponds naturally to a cooperative game that we call a tree game; it assigns to each subset of leaves the sum of the weights of the minimal subtree spanned by those leaves. In the context of phylogenetic trees, the leaves are species and this assignment captures the diversity present in the coalition of species considered. We consider the Shapley value of tree games and suggest a biological interpretation. We determine the linear transformation M that shows the dependence of the Shapley value on the edge weights of the tree, and we also compute a null space basis of M. Both depend on the split counts of the tree. Finally, we characterize the Shapley value on tree games by four axioms, a counterpart to Shapley's original theorem on the larger class of cooperative games. We also include a brief discussion of the core of tree games. PMID:17805545

  2. Chromatic Complementary Adaptation (CCA) for the Exploration of Exoplanetary Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasashvili, M. V.; Alexidze, N. G.

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of our research is develop an astrobiological model of possible living processes on exoplanets. Imitations of exoplanetary systems have significant theoretical and practical value. Modeling in astrobiology involves: Selection of exoplanets suitable for the origin of life; Theoretical modeling of exoplanetary environment with polarization-holography methods; Imitation of stellar spectra and experiments with Chromatic Complementary Adaptation; Laboratory modeling of the ecosystem and alien life. The main problem is the integration of investigations both in astrophysics and biotechnology. We have showed for the first time the possibility and expediency of such approach, for the solution of astrobiological problems.

  3. The revival of life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Gilbert V.

    2007-09-01

    Few, if any, major scientific quests have taken such frequent, diametrically opposed changes in prospect and direction as has the search for life on Mars. The erratic courses and their supporting rationales are traced: from Percival Lowell's astonishing pronouncement of intelligent beings on the red planet; to their denouement by Mariner 4; to the strong contraindications of any form of Martian life relayed by Mariners 6 and 7; to the discovery of a different, perhaps once-habitable, Mars revealed by the detailed orbital images, including the first evidence of ancient rivers, taken by Mariner 9; to the still-controversial claim of the detection of microbial life by the 1976 Viking Missions; to NASA's subsequent prohibition against any Mars life detection experiments; to the recently emerged consensus, propelled by findings of Pathfinder, the Mars Exploratory Rovers and the continuing discoveries of life in extreme environments on Earth, that past or extant life on Mars is likely. Against this background, the future Mars missions' experiments bearing on the life issue are reviewed. The case is made that none of these experiments, as currently planned, still subject to the prohibition against direct life detection experiments, can resolve this paramount and fundamental question that bears so heavily on the origin and distribution of life, and our place in the universe.

  4. Pursuit of communal values in an agentic manner: a way to happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Abele, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research studies the association between traits, values, and life satisfaction. While values should influence the direction of an individual’s goals and behavior, his/her traits impact effort-expenditure, efficiency, and persistence in goal-pursuit. We apply the framework of the “Big Two” of agency and communion (Bakan, 1966) for distinguishing the content of values and traits. While agentic content refers to qualities relevant for goal-attainment, such as assertiveness, competence or persistence, communal content refers to qualities relevant for the establishment and maintenance of social relationships, such as being friendly, helpful, or fair. We predict that high scores on communal values and high scores on agentic traits are associated with life satisfaction. We test these predictions in two studies conducted in different countries (Germany and Russia) with different cultural background. The findings support our reasoning: across both countries we find positive associations of communal values and agentic traits with life satisfaction; and individuals high in communal values and high in agentic traits are most satisfied with their lives. In Russia, the association of communal values with life satisfaction is moderated by agentic traits; in Germany, however, there is a main effect of communal values. PMID:25477843

  5. The Life of the Cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolin, Lee

    1999-03-01

    Lee Smolin offers a new theory of the universe that is at once elegant, comprehensive, and radically different from anything proposed before. Smolin posits that a process of self organization like that of biological evolution shapes the universe, as it develops and eventually reproduces through black holes, each of which may result in a new big bang and a new universe. Natural selection may guide the appearance of the laws of physics, favoring those universes which best reproduce. The result would be a cosmology according to which life is a natural consequence of the fundamental principles on which the universe has been built, and a science that would give us a picture of the universe in which, as the author writes, "the occurrence of novelty, indeed the perpetual birth of novelty, can be understood."Smolin is one of the leading cosmologists at work today, and he writes with an expertise and force of argument that will command attention throughout the world of physics. But it is the humanity and sharp clarity of his prose that offers access for the layperson to the mind bending space at the forefront of today's physics.

  6. Leptin regulates the reward value of nutrient

    PubMed Central

    Domingos, Ana I; Vaynshteyn, Jake; Voss, Henning U; Ren, Xueying; Gradinaru, Viviana; Zang, Feng; Deisseroth, Karl; de Araujo, Ivan E; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    We developed an assay for quantifying the reward value of nutrient and used it to analyze the effects of metabolic state and leptin. In this assay, mice chose between two sippers, one of which dispensed water and was coupled to optogenetic activation of dopaminergic (DA) neurons and the other of which dispensed natural or artificial sweeteners. This assay measured the reward value of sweeteners relative to lick-induced optogenetic activation of DA neurons. Mice preferred optogenetic stimulation of DA neurons to sucralose, but not to sucrose. However, the mice preferred sucralose plus optogenetic stimulation versus sucrose. We found that food restriction increased the value of sucrose relative to sucralose plus optogenetic stimulation, and that leptin decreased it. Our data suggest that leptin suppresses the ability of sucrose to drive taste-independent DA neuronal activation and provide new insights into the mechanism of leptin's effects on food intake. PMID:22081158

  7. Noise and Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Seidman, Michael D.; Standring, Robert T.

    2010-01-01

    Noise is defined as an unwanted sound or a combination of sounds that has adverse effects on health. These effects can manifest in the form of physiologic damage or psychological harm through a variety of mechanisms. Chronic noise exposure can cause permanent threshold shifts and loss of hearing in specific frequency ranges. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) is thought to be one of the major causes of preventable hearing loss. Approximately 10 million adults and 5.2 million children in the US are already suffering from irreversible noise induced hearing impairment and thirty million more are exposed to dangerous levels of noise each day. The mechanisms of NIHL have yet to be fully identified, but many studies have enhanced our understanding of this process. The role of oxidative stress in NIHL has been extensively studied. There is compelling data to suggest that this damage may be mitigated through the implementation of several strategies including anti-oxidant, anti-ICAM 1 Ab, and anti JNK intervention. The psychological effects of noise are usually not well characterized and often ignored. However, their effect can be equally devastating and may include hypertension, tachycardia, increased cortisol release and increased physiologic stress. Collectively, these effects can have severe adverse consequences on daily living and globally on economic production. This article will review the physiologic and psychologic consequences of noise and its effect on quality of life. PMID:21139857

  8. The physical nature of life.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Ad J; Gonzalez, Ivan Fernando; McClune, Michael C

    2002-01-01

    Life evolved from the primeval world of physics. Sensory systems inform animals of the natural environment, enabling them to conduct responsively. The discovery of weak, DC bioelectric fields in the vicinity of aquatic organisms and the role they play in guiding sharks and rays to their prey have led to the recognition of fundamental, hitherto less well known, physical aspects of sensory biology. The inferred cybernetic algorithm of electric-field orientation in sharks and rays is highly effective and extremely robust. In orienting to the weak DC electric fields of ocean currents and to the earth's magnetic field, sharks and rays unwittingly practise the motional-electric principles that Einstein had in mind when he introduced the special theory of relativity. At the sense-organ, receptor-membrane, and ion-channel levels, the elasmobranch ampullae of Lorenzini operate on the basis of graded positive feedback driven by negative conductance, supposedly employing voltage-sensitive ion channels as the active, excitable elements. The electric sense of sharks and rays presents an exquisite implementation of the very biophysical principles that also govern the graded, much richer than all-or-none, integrative brain processes of animal and man. PMID:14692484

  9. Improving Health and Quality of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Supplements Managing Activities and Exercise Improving Health and Quality of Life Pediatric Definition and Diagnosis Management and Treatment Factsheets Healthcare Professionals Parents Education Professionals ...

  10. Value of generalized hypergeometric function at unity

    E-print Network

    A. Kazarnovski-Krol

    1995-03-22

    Value of generalized hypergeometric function at a special point is calculated. More precisely, value of certain multiple integral over vanishing cycle (all arguments collapse to unity) is calculated. The answer is expressed in terms of $\\Gamma$-functions. The constant is relevant to the part of $\\rho$ in the Gindikin-Karpelevich formula for c-function of Harish-Chandra. Calculation is an adaptation of classical calculations of Gelfand and Naimark (1950) to the Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions in the case of root system of type $A_{n-1}$.

  11. Science, Policy, and the Transparency of Values

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Opposing groups of scientists have recently engaged in a heated dispute over a preliminary European Commission (EC) report on its regulatory policy for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition to the scientific issues at stake, a central question has been how scientists can maintain their objectivity when informing policy makers. Objectives: Drawing from current ethical, conceptual, and empirical studies of objectivity and conflicts of interest in scientific research, we propose guiding principles for communicating scientific findings in a manner that promotes objectivity, public trust, and policy relevance. Discussion: Both conceptual and empirical studies of scientific reasoning have shown that it is unrealistic to prevent policy-relevant scientific research from being influenced by value judgments. Conceptually, the current dispute over the EC report illustrates how scientists are forced to make value judgments about appropriate standards of evidence when informing public policy. Empirical studies provide further evidence that scientists are unavoidably influenced by a variety of potentially subconscious financial, social, political, and personal interests and values. Conclusions: When scientific evidence is inconclusive and major regulatory decisions are at stake, it is unrealistic to think that values can be excluded from scientific reasoning. Thus, efforts to suppress or hide interests or values may actually damage scientific objectivity and public trust, whereas a willingness to bring implicit interests and values into the open may be the best path to promoting good science and policy. Citation: Elliott KC, Resnik DB. 2014. Science, policy, and the transparency of values. Environ Health Perspect 122:647–650;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408107 PMID:24667564

  12. Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study comparability. Recommendations include testing all life course models within individual studies and the use of multiple measures of socio-economic position and quality of life. Comparable cross-national data would be beneficial to enable investigation of between-country differences. PMID:22873945

  13. The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.

    2000-01-01

    Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.

  14. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  15. Reframing Our Pursuit of Life Balance

    PubMed Central

    Ogden, Rachel R.; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F.

    2015-01-01

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics’ pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  16. The value of medical care for health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M I

    1984-01-01

    A "rediscovery" of the value of prevention in the 1970s has led to the denigration of medical care, which had been occurring also for other reasons--aversion to high technology, demonstrable abuses, spiraling medical costs, etc. The achievements of prevention in conquering infectious diseases had long been recognized, and preventive strategies in the 1970s and 1980s were beginning to show reductions in mortality from the non-communicable chronic diseases as well. Yet the benefits of medical care in extending life expectancy over recent decades have often been overlooked. The quality of life in the later years has also been substantially improved by effective medical care. Most important, access to medical care has definite value in facilitating the prevention of disease and the promotion of health, both in developing and developed countries. It is too often forgotten that prevention embodies a range of activities, merging from general health promotion through specific disease prevention and early case-detection to rehabilitation and prevention of disability. Medical care, in other words, should not be counterposed to prevention, but rather should be integrated with it for the benefit of both health strategies. PMID:6696154

  17. Quality of Life in Macau, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rato, Ricardo; Davey, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report the initial findings of an ongoing, long-term investigation into subjective quality of life in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China. Data were collected via quarterly public surveys (2007 to 2009; n = 8,230), as part of the Macau Quality of Life Report. The main aims of the study were to: (a) ascertain the public's…

  18. Offender Perceptions on the Value of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of a…

  19. The Gender-Differential Impact of Work Values on Prospects in Research Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hüttges, Annett; Fay, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Women are strongly underrepresented at top positions in research, with some research suggesting the postdoctoral career stage is a critical stage for female researchers. Drawing on role congruity theory and social cognitive career theory, we tested the gender-differential impact of work values (extrinsic rewards-oriented work values and work-life

  20. Learning Value at Senior High School Al-Kautsar Lampung for the Formation of Character

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwar, Chairul

    2015-01-01

    Globalization process went very quickly and move brings tremendous impact and implications for life, including educational institutions. Objectively, students in public schools and private are increasingly far deviated from the values of religious and moral values, the brawl between students, pornography and pornographic, played by students, abuse…

  1. I Live In My Own Bubble: The Values Of Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piirto, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Values are commonly thought to be important in the construction of personal and group morality, in personality, and as a basis for living life. The Rokeach Values Survey (RVS) was administered to gifted and talented adolescents in 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. Two groups were compared in this study: Group I, pre-September 11, 2001 (n = 191; M = 64,…

  2. Evalution on nutritive value of Portunus trituberculatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu-Rong, Su; Tai-Wu, Li; Ming-Jin, Ding; Chien, Paul K.

    1997-06-01

    This study on the nutritive indexes (total nitrogen, amino acids, crude fats, inorganic elements, unsaturated fatty acids) of meat, male and female reproductive gland of Portunus trituberculatus showed that their nutritive value is in the order meat>female reproductive gland>male reproductive gland and that they do not raise the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the serum of the animals which eat them but increase the contents of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the animal's blood. These findings implied that people who have high blood lipid and aortic atheroma can safely use them as food. This study showed that P. trituberculatus has high nutritive value.

  3. Migration and Life of Hispanics in Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallenstein, Nancy L.

    This paper presents a historical and cultural overview of the migration and life of Hispanics in Utah and identifies three themes: search for a better life, need for and acquisition of a sense of belonging, and substance of the Hispanic people. Over the past 4 centuries, Hispanics have migrated to Utah from New Mexico, Mexico, and Central and…

  4. The Economic Value of Higher Teacher Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Most analyses of teacher quality end without any assessment of the economic value of altered teacher quality. This paper combines information about teacher effectiveness with the economic impact of higher achievement. It begins with an overview of what is known about the relationship between teacher quality and student achievement. This provides…

  5. Notion of p-value Parametric Approximations

    E-print Network

    Nuel, Gregory

    Power of a test ROC and AUC Example with GWAS G. NUEL Significance of an Observation in Post with GWAS G. NUEL Significance of an Observation in Post-Genomics #12;Notion of p-value Parametric Approximations Gumbel Approximations 3 Power Power of a test ROC and AUC Example with GWAS G. NUEL Significance

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  7. [Ethical problems at the beginning of human life].

    PubMed

    Eid, V

    1993-11-01

    The question of when human life begins can be answered in an elementary way: with the union of egg and sperm cells, because this process is the precondition to the development of human life. This would be a comfortable pronouncement if there were no conflict-laden medical-ethical, penal, and sociopolitical interests associated with the question. The hypothesis that unilaterally answers the question of the beginning of human life based on a clear ethical and legal creed regarding the duty of protection of human life from the beginning in the prenatal phase has been found incorrect. Regarding the moral and ethical aspects of social function in a pluralistic society, meaning, understanding, and values are discussed with respect to experiences and opportunities in life to evaluate the meaning of healthy sexuality and partnership in parallel with work, the economy, the environment, and their bearing on pregnancy conflicts. Another issue is the living world, plausibilities, and ethical as well as moral discourse. Socialization means the introduction into a living environment, without which the human being is unable to communicate or have its identity. This is a cultural and structural reality that has its values affecting conflict of pregnancy. Liberal attitudes, moral consciousness, and the penal code also have a weighty role with solidarity, tolerance, and overcoming conflicts without force entering into the picture. The discussion of the German Parliament about Section 218 of the abortion law extensively dealt with the right to self-determination of women but hardly any talk about the duty to respect the right of potential human being. Regarding the conflicts of pregnancy, the duty to protect human life is a moral stance derived from theological ethics stating the unwavering support of life right from fertilization when the soul enters it. In a Christian view the regulations under Section 218 are tolerable because in a pluralistic society compromises have to be accepted. PMID:8303917

  8. The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2012-01-01

    In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

  9. Geography, and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J.

    After a brief examination of the concept of "quality of life," the paper explores research related to the concept in geography, the environmental education movement, and problems involved in implementing relevant programs. It is suggested that "quality of life" is a shifting concept. At a basic level it is concerned with conditions that make…

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via

    E-print Network

    Gille, Sarah T.

    Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming Revised February 2001 February 2001 · NREL/TP-570-27637 Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government. Neither the United

  11. Nutritional Value of Crude Glycerin for Nonruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent metabolizable energy value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the ISU Swine Nutrition Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight (BW) of 11.0 ±0.5kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal diet combined...

  12. January, 2012 "Expert Elicitation of the Value

    E-print Network

    avoided deaths. A comprehensive characterization of uncertainty in both of these elements is therefore (EE) to improve the characterization of uncertainty about avoided deaths through elicitationK9. January 2012 #12;Abstract The monetized value of avoided premature mortality typically dominates

  13. The Value of Targeted Comic Book Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kay; Danaher, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    A limitation of extensive reading programmes is the time required for progress in vocabulary acquisition. This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of student perceptions of the value of non-compulsory comic books in ESL elementary and upper-intermediate level courses at a tertiary institution. We aimed to develop supplementary materials…

  14. Polish Youth: A Dychotomic World of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodnar, Artur; Zelichowski, Ryszard

    Research results show a skepticism among Polish youth concerning the possibility of implementing the accepted socialist values in political practice and denote a steady erosion of socialism's image. Youth organizations are many and varied, but it appears that most join because of the opportunity to meet friends, not because of political…

  15. BIODIVERSITY Harnessing the biodiversity value of

    E-print Network

    Richner, Heinz

    BIODIVERSITY VIEWPOINT Harnessing the biodiversity value of Central and Eastern European farmland, Poznan, Poland, 8 Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia Sciences and ABSTRACT A large proportion of European biodiversity today depends on habitat provided by low

  16. Heavy metals and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nriagu, J.

    2003-05-01

    The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

  17. Tolerating failures of continuous-valued sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    One aspect of fault tolerance in process control programs is the ability to tolerate sensor failure. A methodology for transforming a process control program that cannot tolerate sensor failures onto one that can is presented. Issues addressed include modifying specifications in order to accommodate uncertainty in sensor values and averaging sensor values in a fault tolerant manner. In addition, a hierarchy of sensor failure models is identified, and both the attainable accuracy and the run-time complexity of sensor averaging with respect to this hierarchy is discussed.

  18. Predictive and Treatment Validity of Life Satisfaction and the Quality of Life Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Michael B.; Clark, Michelle P.; Rouse, Steven V.; Rudd, M. David; Paweleck, Jennifer K.; Greenstone, Andrew; Kopplin, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and positive psychology usefulness of quality of life, well-being, and life satisfaction assessments depends on their ability to predict important outcomes and to detect intervention-related change. These issues were explored in the context of a program of instrument validation for the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) involving 3,927…

  19. Quality of life in shift work syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puca, F M; Perrucci, S; Prudenzano, M P; Savarese, M; Misceo, S; Perilli, S; Palumbo, M; Libro, G; Genco, S

    1996-01-01

    Air Force radar controllers represent an excellent example of night shift workers, as they are obliged to demonstrate perfect alertness during working hours. We set out: a) to assess the quality of life in these shift workers; b) to identify those with shift work syndrome and c) to evaluate the possible effects of triazolam both on their quality of life and sleep. The results reveal an impairment of the quality of life in shift workers, independently of the presence of a circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Quality of life was more severely impaired in subjects with circadian rhythm sleep disorder. Hypnotic therapy brought about an improvement both in the sleep disorder and in the quality of life of subjects affected by shift work syndrome. Selective alertness tests failed to demonstrate any "sedative carry-over" in the treated patients. PMID:9119269

  20. Structural Validity of the Life Regard Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.

    2007-01-01

    Counselors and researchers interested in examining meaning in life often use the Life Regard Index (LRI; J. Battista & R. Almond, 1973). In this study, confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) of several factor models based on J. Battista & R. Almond's work failed to support the structural validity of the LRI. CFA results suggested an influence of

  1. Hydrothermal systems and the emergence of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shock, E. L.

    1994-01-01

    The author reviews current thought about life originating in hyperthermophilic microorganisms. Hyperthermophiles obtain food from chemosynthesis of sulfur and have an RNA nucleotide sequence different from bacteria and eucarya. It is postulated that a hyperthermophile may be the common ancestor of all life. Current research efforts focus on the synthesis of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems.

  2. Theory and Validity of Life Satisfaction Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Ed; Inglehart, Ronald; Tay, Louis

    2013-01-01

    National accounts of subjective well-being are being considered and adopted by nations. In order to be useful for policy deliberations, the measures of life satisfaction must be psychometrically sound. The reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of life satisfaction measures are reviewed. The scales are stable under unchanging conditions,…

  3. The Quality of Life in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sing, Ming

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer of 1,000 respondents shows that Hong Kong people have a great desire for materialistic attainment, and such an emphasis on materialism bodes ill for their quality of life. Negative assessments of the public life sphere, which encompasses the natural environment, the social welfare system, and the democratic system, also detract…

  4. Impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Charan, Ujwala Priya; Peter, C. V. Dincy; Pulimood, Susanne A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is a common disease seen in dermatological practice comprising of a spectrum ranging from mild disease to a severe distressing and chronic course with a negative impact on the quality of life. Aim: To assess the impact of hand eczema severity on quality of life. Materials and Methods: Patients with hand eczema were enrolled in a prospective study. Disease severity was assessed by hand eczema severity index (HECSI) score and quality of life by dermatology life quality index (DLQI) questionnaire. Results: Forty-six patients participated of which 22 (47.8%) were males and 24 (52.2%) females. The commonest age group affected among men and women was 50-59 years (31.8%) and 40-49 years (41.7%) respectively. History of atopy was found in 23.9% and 63% had persistent disease. In 28 (60.9%), the trigger was washing soaps and detergents of which 21 (87.5%) were housewives. Of those employed, 27.7% reported loss of work days. The mean HECSI score was 14.46 (S.D = 20.98) and mean DLQI score was 9.54 (S.D = 5.62). Gender, age, occupation and duration of disease did not significantly affect the quality of life or disease severity. Increased episodes of eczema (>4 episodes/year) showed a statistically significant correlation with DLQI (P value = 0.021). There was no significant correlation between HECSI score and DLQI in this study. Conclusion: Majority of the patients with hand eczema had a significant impairment of their quality of life. The impairment of quality of life in this study was mainly dependent on increased frequency of the eruptions and not on hand eczema severity. PMID:23741665

  5. An Aesthetic Value Scale of the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insua, Ana Maria

    1981-01-01

    An aesthetic value scale of the Rorschach cards was built by the successive interval method. This scale was compared with the ratings obtained by means of the Semantic Differential Scales and was found to successfully differentiate sexes in their judgment of card attractiveness. (Author)

  6. Investigating Pedagogical Value of Wiki Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; North, Alexa; Moreland, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the potential of Wiki technology as a tool for teaching and learning. Wikis are a component of Web 2.0 technology tools that provide collaborative features and active learning opportunities in a web-based environment. This research study sought to empirically determine the pedagogical value of using Wiki…

  7. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  8. Facts of life for adults.

    PubMed

    Paxman, J M

    1991-04-01

    The editorial commentary reflects the desire for openness in providing contraceptive services for adolescents, rather than pretending that the emperor has new clothes. The simile is used to expose the coverup intended by adults who desire adolescent sexual behavior that does not exist. Examples of 4 European countries, (Sweden, Netherlands, France, and England and Wales) who support contraceptive use for teenagers are given. Lessons can be learned from these countries which have a 3 times lower teenage pregnancy rate than the US. In the Netherlands contraceptives are used by 90% of sexually active teenagers. The birth rate of 14/1000 and the abortion rate of 10/1000 is the lowest of the 4 countries. Swedish contraceptive, birth, and abortion rates are similar, but the age of the 1st sexual experience is the earliest. England and Wales has a similar contraception rate but the birth rate is also 45/1000 and the abortion rate is slightly higher. All countries provide teenage contraceptive services free or at low cost as well as sex education. The debate over contraception in other countries links access to sexual activity, when the facts of life are that teenagers become sexually active before contraception. In Sweden to curb abortions, contraception was increased between 1974-1981 with a concomitant decline of 27% in the abortion rate. In the US, it rose 59%. The experience of all 4 countries has been to reduce abortion, but still provide access to abortion services. The formula for successful management of teenage sexuality such as sex education, low cost contraceptive services, and access to early safe abortion services may not meet the needs of the AIDS pandemic. Many questions arise and Europe may provide the answers. PMID:12222218

  9. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  10. Mechanical Simulation of a Half-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, T. T.; Masters, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The exponential function model of radioactive decay and the concept of a half-life are used in nuclear experiments that appear in introductory and intermediate laboratories. In our interactions with students, we have found that students at all levels have significant confusion about both the term exponential and what is meant by a half-life as…

  11. VALUATION FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF

    E-print Network

    Bateman, Ian J.

    VALUATION FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF WASTE MANAGEMENT OPTIONS by Jane C. Powell David Pearce and Inger Brisson CSERGE Working Paper WM 95-07 #12;VALUATION FOR LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF WASTE MANAGEMENT: classification, characterisation and valuation. Classification involves the classification and aggregation

  12. The Quality of Life in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Tan, Soo Jiuan; Kau, Ah Keng

    2009-01-01

    The Asia Barometer Survey of 1,038 respondents shows that most Singaporeans are happy and enjoy life, although they do not feel a correspondingly high level of accomplishment. Good health, a comfortable home, a job, time with family and having enough to eat emerged as key priorities in life. While Singaporeans are most satisfied with their…

  13. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  14. The value of our public trees

    EPA Science Inventory

    An assessment of the value and annual benefits of public trees in the Corvallis Urban Growth Boundary (UGB) was recently conducted by Don Phillips (Research Biologist at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] research lab in Corvallis), along with Connie Burdick (EPA geog...

  15. Identify Qualitative Interaction Through Value of Information

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Susan A.

    variables that are important for adapting or personalizing treatment · Interested in variables that have of information #12;Goal · Identifying variables that are important for adapting or personalizing treatment, and define it as a QI. · We want to test H0 : 1 = 0 vs Ha : 1 > 0. #12;Value of Information (Cont'd) 1 = min

  16. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF POLLOCK FISH SCALES

    E-print Network

    farms have been unsuccessful, and the incineration of scales would be costly. Chemical engineers, but unless tidal flows are strong, pollution may result. Attempts to use ~1e scales as fertilizer on local unsuccessful. In order to determine whether the scales may have value as a source of protein in farm

  17. What is the VALUE of Nature's Infrastructure?

    E-print Network

    Demers, Nora Egan

    Hammond #12;#12;Conservation 70's John Mc Quigg - Economist What is the $ Value of Florida Mangrove Florida Study Lee County ­ H.T. Odum Energetics Modeling #12;#12; Economy of Scale ­ Services "natural lands". #12;Lee County Conservation 2020 On the path to Sustainability by Acquiring Natural Lands

  18. The Economic Value of Climate Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Cooke, R.; Young, D. F.; Mlynczak, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    While demonstrating the economic value of science is challenging, it can be more direct for some Earth observations. For example, suppose a climate science mission can yield decisive information on climate change within a shortened time frame. How much should society be willing to pay for this knowledge today? The US interagency memo on the social cost of carbon (SCC) provides a standard for valuing damages from carbon emissions. We illustrate how value of information (VOI) calculations can be used to monetize the relative value of different climate observations. We follow the SCC, stipulating uncertainty in climate sensitivity, using discount rates of 2.5%, 3% and 5%, and using one of the Integrated Assessment Models sanctioned in SCC (DICE, Nordhaus 2008). We consider three mitigation scenarios: Business as Usual (BAU), a moderate response (DICE Optimal), and a strong response (Stern). To illustrate results, suppose that we would switch from BAU to the Stern emissions path if we learn with 90% confidence that the decadal rate of temperature change reaches or exceeds 0.2 C/decade. Under the SCC assumptions, the year in which this happens, if it happens, depends on uncertain climate sensitivity and on the emissions path. The year in which we become 90% certain also depends on our Earth observations, their accuracy, and their completeness. The resolving power of a climate observing system cannot exceed climate system natural variability. All climate observations add noise to natural variability caused by observing limitations, including calibration errors and space/time sampling uncertainty. The basic concept is that more accurate observations can advance the time for societal decisions. The economic value of the resulting averted damages depends on the discount rate, and the years in which the damages occur. A new climate observation would be economically justified if the net present value (NPV) of the difference in averted damages, relative to the existing systems, exceeds the NPV of the system costs. We present illustrative results comparing the proposed CLARREO advance in satellite absolute calibration for climate change records to an existing system for detecting decadal temperature change and cloud feedback (i.e. climate sensitivity uncertainty). While CLARREO is used as an example, the value should be considered as relevant to an improved climate observing system, since societal decisions are unlikely to be based on one or a few observations. The VOI is found to depend on the required confidence level, the trigger value at which we would abandon the BAU emissions path, the path to which we switch, and the date at which the new system is launched. The VOI of CLARREO in this decision context is the surfeit of NPV of averted damages, relative to the existing system. Over all it is in the order of tens of trillions of US dollars. Among the noteworthy conclusions are (1) switching to either the DICE optimal or Stern emissions paths makes only a modest difference in the VOI of CLARREO, (2) raising the trigger value from 0.2C to 0.3C/decade, increases the VOI of CLARREO, while increasing the total NPV of climate damages, and (3) the choice of discount rate affects the VOI by a factor ~ 5. The results conclude that the economic value of advanced climate observing systems is dramatically larger than their cost, and argues for the continual enhancement of the SCC assessment process.

  19. Factors determining the economic value of groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. Ejaz; Reeson, Andrew; Reinelt, Peter; Brozovi?, Nicholas; Whitten, Stuart

    2012-08-01

    Increasing groundwater extraction threatens aquifer sustainability for future generations. Making the best use of limited groundwater resources requires knowledge of its alternative extractive and non-extractive values, as well as the cost of extraction and the hydrological interlinkages between alternative uses. Groundwater value is driven by a number of factors including its supply and demand and institutional and policy factors. These factors and how they affect value of groundwater are described. Also described are the various components relevant to the economic valuation of groundwater and there is discussion on the potential difficulties in their practical estimation. It is argued that groundwater management is essential when there are large potential spatial and temporal externalities related to groundwater pumping. Maintaining non-extractive and option values is likely to require trade-offs with current extractive uses. Well-informed management will be required to allocate groundwater efficiently between different users such as agriculture, industry and the environment, while also balancing the needs of current and future generations.

  20. Age and the Tenses of Life Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective. People have a special capacity to live simultaneously in both chronological and biographical time. In this article, we examine reports of life satisfaction that span past, present, and future, considering how perceived changes in certain life domains are associated with overall perceived life trajectories. Methods. Analyses use men and women from the Midlife Development in the United States survey. We employ gender-stratified fixed effects regression models to examine the net effect of satisfaction with finances, partnerships/marriage, sex, contribution to others, work, health, and relationship with children on trajectories of overall life satisfaction. Results. Among men, partnership and financial satisfaction had the strongest association with life satisfaction. Women displayed a somewhat broader range of domains related to their trajectories of life satisfaction. Partnership was most important, but their sense of evolving life satisfaction was also tied to their relationship with their children, sexuality, work situation, contribution to others’ welfare, and financial situation. Discussion. We find several notable differences between men and women, but the most telling differences emerge among women themselves across chronological time. For women, partner satisfaction becomes considerably more important across the age groups, whereas sex, contribution to others, and relationships with children all decrease in their importance for overall life satisfaction. PMID:23704205

  1. Analysis of design control values for TEP

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Bryan J

    2008-01-01

    The Tokamak Exhaust Processing (TEP) Performance Requirements Report (USITER-13201-TD0005-R00), date May 29, 2007 defined feed sources for TEP quantities and approximate flow rate of gases from these individual sources. In addition, the report identified the approximate periods of time (during Burn and Dwell, 'Silent Shift', etc.) that these gases would be transferred to TEP. This report did not take into account the detailed, time dependent, sequencing options for receiving gases from these feed sources. Sequencing is critical in defining the actual design basis values (flow rates, etc.) for TEP. This report analyzes the time dependent sequencing of feed flows to TEP and defines the ,design basis values. This analysis is based on the values presented in the TEP Performance Requirements Report (TEP PRR), and indicates that the ITER Burn and Dwell, Silent Shift Following 16 hours of Burn and Dwell, Glow Discharge Cleaning (GDC), and Silent Shift following 100 hours of GDC scenarios are the limiting scenarios from which the design basis values will be defined.

  2. Social Support and Optimism as Predictors of Life Satisfaction of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalcin, Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictive value of optimism, perceived support from family and perceived support from faculty in determining life satisfaction of college students in Turkey. One hundred and thirty three students completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment…

  3. In Search of the Molecules of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ronald L.; Paszczynski, Andrzej; Lang, Qingyong; Cheng, I. Francis; Barnes, Bruce; Anderson, Tony J.; Wells, Richard; Wai, Chien; Corti, Giancarlo; Allenbach, Lisa; Erwin, Daniel P.; Park, Joohye; Assefi, Touraj; Mojarradi, Mohammad

    2001-12-01

    The remote detection of a chemical signature of extraterrestrial life ideally requires a broad and nonEarth-centric definition of life. Thus, our proposed approach to detection is based on fundamental thermodynamic assumptions, and some assumptions of how life might obtain energy from its environment. Life, defined as the ability to self-perpetuate, requires a continual input of energy and information. The energy must be tapped in controlled oxidation-reduction reactions between electron donors and acceptors along an electron transport chain. Therefore, the core chemical components of such electron transport chains should be detectable as a signature of life. On Earth, such core structures are principally molecules resembling the porphyrins, quinones, flavins, and nicotinamides (e.g., photosynthetic or respiratory pigments, redox enzymes, and cytochromes). Similar redox-active molecules, perhaps with different structures, might be associated with extraterrestrial life. To validate an approach based on redox signature, signature chemicals were extracted from soil and analyzed by different methods and equipment that may eventually form an integrated "laboratory on a chip" to be used on other planets or their moons. Its components are a supercritical fluid or solvent extraction module, a separation module, and a detection module with an electrochemical detector and electrospray tandem mass-spectrometer.

  4. The Life Cycle of Everyday Stuff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike; Ireton, Shirley Watt

    Life cycle assessment is an important tool for technology planning as solid waste disposal options dwindle and energy prices continue to increase. This guide investigates the life cycles of products. The activities in this book are suitable for secondary earth science, environmental science, physical science, or integrated science lessons. The…

  5. Evolving the Game of Life Dimitar Kazakov #

    E-print Network

    Kazakov, Dimitar

    for a cellular automaton (CA) such that creatures with life­like properties (stability and dynamic behaviour) of rules for a cellular automaton (CA) with a good potential for producing ``interesting'' life forms, e on a task in which, intuitively, good solutions are few and far apart, we employ two tech­ niques

  6. Evolving the Game of Life Dimitar Kazakov

    E-print Network

    Kazakov, Dimitar

    for a cellular automaton (CA) such that creatures with life-like properties (stability and dynamic behaviour) of rules for a cellular automaton (CA) with a good potential for producing "interesting" life forms, e on a task in which, intuitively, good solutions are few and far apart, we employ two tech- niques

  7. In Search of the Next Value Proposition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huwe, Terence K.

    2012-01-01

    Although it is pretty easy to find colleagues who will express fatigue or frustration about the constant need for libraries to prove their value proposition, there is also an upside to the exercise of crafting a message that justifies librarians' mission. The catch is that however good their crafted message may be, they must forget about ever…

  8. The Value of Color in Newspaper Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohle, Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the ways in which color halftones can be used in campus newspapers to attract attention to ads, headlines, and editorial copy. Explains how to change the hue, value, and saturation of a color and the effects the changes should achieve. (AYC)

  9. The Value of Connectedness in Inclusive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figueroa, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    The author addresses the importance of relationships in order for learning to take place in an inclusive manner. Anecdotes illustrate the value in beginning where the learner is and the unexpected opportunities the journey can lead to when both teacher and learner venture through unchartered paths together.

  10. A Strategy for Origins of Life Research.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Caleb; Virgo, Nathaniel; Cleaves, H James; Aono, Masashi; Aubert-Kato, Nathanael; Aydinoglu, Arsev; Barahona, Ana; Barge, Laura M; Benner, Steven A; Biehl, Martin; Brasser, Ramon; Butch, Christopher J; Chandru, Kuhan; Cronin, Leroy; Danielache, Sebastian; Fischer, Jakob; Hernlund, John; Hut, Piet; Ikegami, Takashi; Kimura, Jun; Kobayashi, Kensei; Mariscal, Carlos; McGlynn, Shawn; Menard, Brice; Packard, Norman; Pascal, Robert; Pereto, Juli; Rajamani, Sudha; Sinapayen, Lana; Smith, Eric; Switzer, Christopher; Takai, Ken; Tian, Feng; Ueno, Yuichiro; Voytek, Mary; Witkowski, Olaf; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2015-12-01

    Contents 1.?Introduction 1.1.?A workshop and this document 1.2.?Framing origins of life science 1.2.1.?What do we mean by the origins of life (OoL)? 1.2.2.?Defining life 1.2.3.?How should we characterize approaches to OoL science? 1.2.4.?One path to life or many? 2.?A Strategy for Origins of Life Research 2.1.?Outcomes-key questions and investigations 2.1.1.?Domain 1: Theory 2.1.2.?Domain 2: Practice 2.1.3.?Domain 3: Process 2.1.4.?Domain 4: Future studies 2.2.?EON Roadmap 2.3.?Relationship to NASA Astrobiology Roadmap and Strategy documents and the European AstRoMap ? Appendix I ? Appendix II ? Supplementary Materials ?References. PMID:26684503

  11. A Strategy for Origins of Life Research

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Caleb; Virgo, Nathaniel; Aono, Masashi; Aubert-Kato, Nathanael; Aydinoglu, Arsev; Barahona, Ana; Barge, Laura M.; Benner, Steven A.; Biehl, Martin; Brasser, Ramon; Butch, Christopher J.; Chandru, Kuhan; Cronin, Leroy; Danielache, Sebastian; Fischer, Jakob; Hernlund, John; Hut, Piet; Ikegami, Takashi; Kimura, Jun; Kobayashi, Kensei; Mariscal, Carlos; McGlynn, Shawn; Menard, Brice; Packard, Norman; Pascal, Robert; Pereto, Juli; Rajamani, Sudha; Sinapayen, Lana; Smith, Eric; Switzer, Christopher; Takai, Ken; Tian, Feng; Ueno, Yuichiro; Voytek, Mary; Witkowski, Olaf; Yabuta, Hikaru

    2015-01-01

    Contents 1.?Introduction 1.1.?A workshop and this document 1.2.?Framing origins of life science 1.2.1.?What do we mean by the origins of life (OoL)? 1.2.2.?Defining life 1.2.3.?How should we characterize approaches to OoL science? 1.2.4.?One path to life or many? 2.?A Strategy for Origins of Life Research 2.1.?Outcomes—key questions and investigations 2.1.1.?Domain 1: Theory 2.1.2.?Domain 2: Practice 2.1.3.?Domain 3: Process 2.1.4.?Domain 4: Future studies 2.2.?EON Roadmap 2.3.?Relationship to NASA Astrobiology Roadmap and Strategy documents and the European AstRoMap ?Appendix I ?Appendix II ?Supplementary Materials ?References PMID:26684503

  12. Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

  13. An Experiment in Structural Analysis of the Value Orientations of the Parents of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Marich, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present article is a continuation of a study of the life values and fears regarding their future on the part of parents of children of older preschool age. The raw material was obtained by questionnaire surveying 941 parents (334 fathers and 607 mothers) whose children were going to kindergarten. In this work the authors attempted to show the…

  14. The value of cardiac genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Jodie; Semsarian, Christopher

    2014-08-01

    Genetic testing is an important and necessary aspect of the management of families with cardiac genetic conditions. Commercial genetic tests are available for most cardiac genetic diseases, and increasing uptake amongst patients has contributed to a vastly improved knowledge of the genetic basis of these diseases. The incredible advances in genetic technologies have translated to faster, more comprehensive, and inexpensive commercial genetic tests and has completely changed the landscape of commercial genetic testing in recent years. While there are enormous challenges, mostly relating to interpretation of variants, the value of a genetic diagnosis should not be underestimated. In almost all cases, the single greatest utility is for the predictive genetic testing of family members. This review will describe the value of cardiac genetic testing in the current climate of rapid genetic advancements. PMID:25066489

  15. Value of Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Taeyoung; Horton, Laura; Emery, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology clinical practice has rapidly increased over the past decade. Ultrasound has enabled rheumatologists to diagnose, prognosticate and monitor disease outcome. Although international standardization remains a concern still, the use of ultrasound in rheumatology is expected to grow further as costs fall and the opportunity to train in the technique improves. We present a review of value of ultrasound, focusing on major applications of ultrasound in rheumatologic diseases. PMID:23580002

  16. The Value Of Enhanced Neo Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2012-10-01

    NEO surveys have now achieved, more or less, the “Spaceguard Goal” of cataloging 90% of NEAs larger than 1 km in diameter, and thereby have reduced the short-term hazard from cosmic impacts by about an order of magnitude, from an actuarial estimate of 1,000 deaths per year (actually about a billion every million years, with very little in between), to about 100 deaths per year, with a shift toward smaller but more frequent events accounting for the remaining risk. It is fair to ask, then, what is the value of a next-generation accelerated survey to “retire” much of the remaining risk. The curve of completion of survey versus size of NEA is remarkably similar for any survey, ground or space based, visible light or thermal IR, so it is possible to integrate risk over all sizes, with a time variable curve of completion to evaluate the actuarial value of speeding up survey completion. I will present my latest estimate of NEA population and completion of surveys. From those I will estimate the “valueof accelerated surveys such as Pan-STARRS, LSST, or space-based surveys, versus continuing with current surveys. My tentative conclusion is that we may have already reached the point in terms of cost-benefit where accelerated surveys are not cost-effective in terms of reducing impact risk. If not yet, we soon will. On the other hand, the surveys, which find and catalog main-belt and other classes of small bodies as well as NEOs, have provided a gold mine of good science. The scientific value of continued or accelerated surveys needs to be emphasized as the impact risk is increasingly “retired.”

  17. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 2012-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section 710.709 Highways...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value...

  18. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section 710.709 Highways...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value...

  19. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section 710.709 Highways...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value...

  20. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 2013-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section 710.709 Highways...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value...

  1. 23 CFR 710.709 - Determination of fair market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 2014-04-01 false Determination of fair market value. 710.709 Section 710.709 Highways...Agreements § 710.709 Determination of fair market value. (a) Fair market value may be determined either on a best value...

  2. New Measurement of the {sup 60}Fe Half-Life

    SciTech Connect

    Rugel, G.; Faestermann, T.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Schumann, D.; Kivel, N.; Guenther-Leopold, I.; Weinreich, R.; Wohlmuther, M.

    2009-08-14

    We have made a new determination of the half-life of the radioactive isotope {sup 60}Fe using high precision measurements of the number of {sup 60}Fe atoms and their activity in a sample containing over 10{sup 15} {sup 60}Fe atoms. Our new value for the half-life of {sup 60}Fe is (2.62+-0.04)x10{sup 6} yr, significantly above the previously reported value of (1.49+-0.27)x10{sup 6} yr. Our new measurement for the lifetime of {sup 60}Fe has significant implications for interpretations of galactic nucleosynthesis, for determinations of formation time scales of solids in the early Solar System, and for the interpretation of live {sup 60}Fe measurements from supernova-ejecta deposits on Earth.

  3. New Measurement of the 60Fe Half-Life.

    PubMed

    Rugel, G; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Poutivtsev, M; Schumann, D; Kivel, N; Günther-Leopold, I; Weinreich, R; Wohlmuther, M

    2009-08-14

    We have made a new determination of the half-life of the radioactive isotope 60Fe using high precision measurements of the number of 60Fe atoms and their activity in a sample containing over 10(15) 60Fe atoms. Our new value for the half-life of 60Fe is (2.62+/-0.04) x 10(6) yr, significantly above the previously reported value of (1.49+/-0.27) x 10(6) yr. Our new measurement for the lifetime of 60Fe has significant implications for interpretations of galactic nucleosynthesis, for determinations of formation time scales of solids in the early Solar System, and for the interpretation of live 60Fe measurements from supernova-ejecta deposits on Earth. PMID:19792637

  4. Proving the Value of Library Collections

    E-print Network

    Currie, Lea; Monroe-Gulick, Amalia

    2013-07-25

    ://docs.lib.purdue.edu/charleston Part of the Library and Information Science Commons An indexed, print copy of the Proceedings is also available for purchase at: http://www.thepress.purdue.edu/series/ charleston. You may also be interested in the new series, Charleston Insights... University Libraries. Please contact epubs@purdue.edu for additional information. Lea Currie and Amalia Monroe-Gulick, "Proving the Value of Library Collections" (2012). Proceedings of the Charleston Library Conference. http://dx.doi.org/10...

  5. The composition and nutritional value of kiwifruit.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Lynley

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the nutrient composition of kiwifruit is central to discussions of the nutritional value and potential health benefits of kiwifruit. Until recently, there were only limited validated data providing extensive compositional information available as reference values for common commercial cultivars. As a genus, Actinidia is diverse in both form and composition; however, there are several notable compounds that, within the context of fruit, are the signature of Actinidia: vitamin C, actinidin, fiber, vitamin E, and for selected cultivars, the persistence of chlorophyll in the mature fruit. Kiwifruit is also known as a nutritionally dense fruit, based on the level of nutrients present. The high amount of vitamin C in kiwifruit is the primary driver of such nutritional scores. Recently, a new approach to estimating the true energy value of kiwifruit has shown that kiwifruit delivers less available energy relative to other foods than is assumed based on traditional measures of food energy content. This, together with the key nutritional elements of kiwifruit, supports its position as a highly nutritious, low-calorie fruit with the potential to deliver a range of health benefits. PMID:23394981

  6. The Relationship Between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers’ cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) Adv Exp Soc Psychol 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values they believed were held by scientists. Schwartz postulated that cultural values could be aggregated into 11 domains (universalism, benevolence, tradition, self-direction, stimulation, hedonism, achievement, power, conformity, spirituality, and security). Paired T-tests indicated significant differences between preservice early childhood teachers’ cultural values from those they believed scientists held on the domains of power, achievement, stimulation, benevolence, conformity, and security. The discussion explores the meaning of these results and provides implications for early childhood science teacher education.

  7. Life Satisfaction and Frequency of Doctor Visits

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eric S.; Park, Nansook; Sun, Jennifer K.; Smith, Jacqui; Peterson, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying positive psychological factors that reduce health care use may lead to innovative efforts that help build a more sustainable and high quality health care system. Prospective studies indicate that life satisfaction is associated with good health behaviors, enhanced health, and longer life, but little information is available about the association between life satisfaction and health care use. We tested whether higher life satisfaction was prospectively associated with fewer doctor visits. We also examined potential interactions between life satisfaction and health behaviors. Methods Participants were 6,379 adults from the Health and Retirement Study, a prospective and nationally representative panel study of American adults over the age of 50. Participants were tracked for four years. We analyzed the data using a generalized linear model with a gamma distribution and log link. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with fewer doctor visits. On a six-point life satisfaction scale, each unit increase in life satisfaction was associated with an 11% decrease in doctor visits—after adjusting for sociodemographic factors (RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.93). The most satisfied respondents (N=1,121; 17.58%) made 44% fewer doctor visits than the least satisfied (N=182; 2.85%). The association between higher life satisfaction and reduced doctor visits remained even after adjusting for baseline health and a wide range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and health-related covariates (RR = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99). Conclusions Higher life satisfaction is associated with fewer doctor visits, which may have important implications for reducing health care costs. PMID:24336427

  8. Towards an Autopoietic Redefinition of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, Luisa; Luisi, Pier Luigi

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we develop the autopoietic approach to the definition of the living developed by Maturana and Varela in the Seventies. Starting from very simple observations concerning the phenomenology of life, we propose a reformulation of the autopoietic original definition of life which integrates some of the contemporary criticism to it. Our definitional proposal, aiming to stimulate the further development of the autopoietic approach, expresses what remains implicit in the definition of the living originally given by Maturana and Varela: life, as self-production, is a process of cognitive coupling with the environment.

  9. Quality of life in irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lea, R; Whorwell, P J

    2001-01-01

    Quality-of-life (QOL) assessment is becoming increasingly important in the evaluation of the impact of disease and the effect of therapy. This is particularly so forirritable bowel syndrome (IBS) where there is often a tendency for a chronic clinical course, but with no associated mortality. Instruments used to study quality of life may be generic or disease specific, and care needs to be taken to ensure that the instrument used has been adequately validated for the purpose intended. Several disease-specific instruments [Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL, IBSQOL) and Functional Digestive Disorders Quality of Life (FDDQL)], in addition to generic measures, are now available for use in IBS. Quality of life in patients with IBS is surprisingly poor, particularly in the population seeking healthcare, where it can be compared with conditions which carry a high mortality, such as ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Pain severity appears to be an important factor in determining quality of life in IBS, although bowel disturbance and psychological difficulties are also likely to be important. There is limited data on the effect of treatment of IBS on quality of life. Improvement has been reported with dietry modification, drug treatments and hypnotherapy. It is likely that, in the future, QOL measures will become increasingly used as secondary end-points in therapeutic trials in IBS. PMID:11456212

  10. Valuation of Life in Old and Very Old Age: The Role of Sociodemographic, Social, and Health Resources for Positive Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopp, Daniela; Rott, Christoph; Oswald, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Valuation of life (VOL) represents a construct capturing active attachment to life put forward by M. P. Lawton (e.g., 1999). As old and very old individuals may differ in terms of endorsement and with respect to what makes a life worth living, the present study investigated whether mean levels and the explanatory value of

  11. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life’ is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the ‘problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty’). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers. PMID:24664917

  12. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers. PMID:24664917

  13. Texas: Quality of Life at the Crossroads 

    E-print Network

    Ronquillo, M.

    2014-01-01

    threats to their quality of life, including a higher prevalence of diseases like Hepatitis A, Salmonellosis, dysentery, cholera, and tuberculosis; a lack of medical services; unemployment rates of 20 to 60 percent; and the use of contracts for deed...

  14. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  15. Survey to determine the value of DYNA

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.W.; Bellshaw, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the value of the DYNA software program to US Industry. The software conducts dynamic finite element analysis tailored specifically to simulating high energy impacts, such as car crashes or aircraft collisions with birds. DYNA is available at nearly zero cost to the public in two-dimensional (DYNA2D) and three-dimensional versions (DYNA3D). DYNA has had a major impact on US industry. Measuring this impact using conventional approaches, such as profitability or revenue size, does not apply to DYNA. A new approach is needed that will capture DYNA`s value to US industry. Our challenge was two fold: (1) to develop a methodology for valuing technology transferred to the public domain; and (2) to apply this methodology to DYNA. We accomplished the evaluation task by using indirect measurements of value. These indicators encompassed three broad categories, answering three key questions: (1) Use of DYNA and ``DYNA-like`` codes: Are companies, academic institutions, government agencies actually using DYNA and codes like it? (2) Savings generated from using these codes: Is the use of DYNA and codes like it creating a positive economic impact (3) Market size of afl ``DYNA-like`` codes: Has a commercial market developed for ``DYNA-like`` codes? This study represents the results of interviews with people identified by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as users of DYNA. Some of the people surveyed for this study do not use DYNA. They rely upon other dynamic finite element analysis codes. We refer to these individuals as users of ``DYNA-like`` codes or ``codes like DYNA.`` Several of the ``DYNA-like`` codes used DYNA as their core. These codes are descendants of DYNA.

  16. Survey to determine the value of DYNA

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, J.W.; Bellshaw, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the value of the DYNA software program to US Industry. The software conducts dynamic finite element analysis tailored specifically to simulating high energy impacts, such as car crashes or aircraft collisions with birds. DYNA is available at nearly zero cost to the public in two-dimensional (DYNA2D) and three-dimensional versions (DYNA3D). DYNA has had a major impact on US industry. Measuring this impact using conventional approaches, such as profitability or revenue size, does not apply to DYNA. A new approach is needed that will capture DYNA's value to US industry. Our challenge was two fold: (1) to develop a methodology for valuing technology transferred to the public domain; and (2) to apply this methodology to DYNA. We accomplished the evaluation task by using indirect measurements of value. These indicators encompassed three broad categories, answering three key questions: (1) Use of DYNA and DYNA-like'' codes: Are companies, academic institutions, government agencies actually using DYNA and codes like it (2) Savings generated from using these codes: Is the use of DYNA and codes like it creating a positive economic impact (3) Market size of afl DYNA-like'' codes: Has a commercial market developed for DYNA-like'' codes This study represents the results of interviews with people identified by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as users of DYNA. Some of the people surveyed for this study do not use DYNA. They rely upon other dynamic finite element analysis codes. We refer to these individuals as users of DYNA-like'' codes or codes like DYNA.'' Several of the DYNA-like'' codes used DYNA as their core. These codes are descendants of DYNA.

  17. Are torque values of preadjusted brackets precise?

    PubMed Central

    STREVA, Alessandra Motta; COTRIM-FERREIRA, Flávio Augusto; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; CARVALHO, Paulo Eduardo Guedes

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to verify the torque precision of metallic brackets with MBT prescription using the canine brackets as the representative sample of six commercial brands. Material and Methods Twenty maxillary and 20 mandibular canine brackets of one of the following commercial brands were selected: 3M Unitek, Abzil, American Orthodontics, TP Orthodontics, Morelli and Ortho Organizers. The torque angle, established by reference points and lines, was measured by an operator using an optical microscope coupled to a computer. The values were compared to those established by the MBT prescription. Results The results showed that for the maxillary canine brackets, only the Morelli torque (-3.33º) presented statistically significant difference from the proposed values (-7º). For the mandibular canines, American Orthodontics (-6.34º) and Ortho Organizers (-6.25º) presented statistically significant differences from the standards (-6º). Comparing the brands, Morelli presented statistically significant differences in comparison with all the other brands for maxillary canine brackets. For the mandibular canine brackets, there was no statistically significant difference between the brands. Conclusions There are significant variations in torque values of some of the brackets assessed, which would clinically compromise the buccolingual positioning of the tooth at the end of orthodontic treatment. PMID:21956587

  18. An Extraordinary Year of My Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rednikov, A. Ye.

    Most of the time, life goes on at a regular pace. This does not mean that nothing interesting happens. It is just regular, normal happy daily life. But there are times when things accelerate and impressions overflow. The periods like this leave a deep impact on one's life. For me, the first year of my postdoc with Manuel, in 1992, at Instituto Pluridisciplinar (IP) of the Universidad Complutense of Madrid (UCM), was definitely one of such occasions. In a word, it was a shock, in a good sense of the word, both scientific and cultural.

  19. Extreme Value Analysis of Heart Beat Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennetta, C.; Conte, S.

    2009-04-01

    We have performed an extreme value analysis of the heart beat fluctuations. We have analyzed 24-h ECG time series: by considering both, the RR intervals and the increments series ?RR. Sub-series, corresponding to 5-h sleeping activity and to 5-h daily activity have been also separately studied. Strong differences are found in the mean return times for high thresholds of healthy and non-healthy patients, during both daily and sleeping activity.

  20. A Census of Past and Present Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, N. Gary

    1990-01-01

    Presented is an accounting of known numbers of major categories of life, from viruses to mammals. The construction of the census is described. Included are living and nonliving species and genera. (CW)

  1. 26 CFR 20.2031-7 - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...The fair market value of a life interest or term of years...be valued is to take effect after a definite number of years or after the death of one individual, the...Table S (for one measuring life), as the case may be....

  2. 26 CFR 20.2031-7 - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...The fair market value of a life interest or term of years...be valued is to take effect after a definite number of years or after the death of one individual, the...Table S (for one measuring life), as the case may be....

  3. 26 CFR 20.2031-7 - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...The fair market value of a life interest or term of years...be valued is to take effect after a definite number of years or after the death of one individual, the...Table S (for one measuring life), as the case may be....

  4. The Half Life of {sup 193}Osbeta-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Oliva, Jefferson W. M.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2010-05-21

    In this work, the half life of the beta{sup -} decay of {sup 193}Os was measured by following the activity of 25 5 mg {sup 192}Os-enriched samples for 20-60 h after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Three different transitions associated with this beta decay were analyzed, and the results were then processed using three different statistical methods; the resulting values were compatible with the tabulated value, with an uncertainty of the same order of magnitude.

  5. Patient-perceived changes in the system of values after cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Greszta, El?bieta; Siemi?ska, Maria J

    2011-03-01

    A cross-sectional study investigated changes in patients' value systems following a diagnosis of cancer. Fifty patients at 1 to 6 months following cancer diagnosis, were asked to compare their current values with their recollection of past values. Using the Rokeach Value Survey we obtained statistically significant results showing that twenty-seven out of thirty-six values changed their importance from the patients' perspective: 16 values significantly increased, while 11 values significantly decreased in importance. Changes with respect to nine values were insignificant. We indentified clusters of values increasing in importance the most: Religious morality (Salvation, Forgiving, Helpful, Clean), Personal orientation (Self-Respect, True Friendship, Happiness), Self-constriction (Self-Controlled, Obedient, Honest), Family security (Family Security, Responsible), and Delayed gratification (Wisdom, Inner Harmony). We also observed that the following value clusters decreased in importance: Immediate gratification (An Exciting Life, Pleasure, A Comfortable Life); Self-expansion (Capable, Ambitious, Broadminded), Competence (A Sense of Accomplishment, Imaginative, Intellectual). The remaining values belonged to clusters that as a group changed slightly or not at all. Practical implications of the study are discussed. PMID:21373853

  6. Family Life Quality and Emotional Quality of Life in Chinese Adolescents with and without Economic Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Lee, T. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Chinese secondary school students (N = 2758) responded to measures of perceived family life quality (parenting quality and parent-child relational quality) and emotional quality of life (hopelessness, mastery, life satisfaction and self-esteem). Parenting quality included different aspects of parental behavioral control (parental knowledge,…

  7. Life in a drop of water

    E-print Network

    Bagby, Sarah Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The last century of biology brought a revolution to our understanding of life at the molecular level; the last decade, a widening re-evaluation of the claim that understanding gained in vitro could reflect the true ...

  8. Diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, M; Matsuzaki, H; Yanagi, Y; Hara, M; Katase, N; Hisatomi, M; Unetsubo, T; Konouchi, H; Nagatsuka, H; Asaumi, J-I

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic value of MRI for odontogenic tumours. Materials and methods: 51 patients with odontogenic tumours were subjected to pre-operative MRI examinations. For tumours with liquid components, i.e. ameloblastomas and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOTs), the signal intensity (SI) uniformity of their cystic components (U?) was calculated and then their U? values were compared. For tumours with solid components that had been examined using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), their CImax (maximum contrast index), Tmax (the time when CImax occurred), CIpeak (CImax?×?0.90), Tpeak (the time when CIpeak occurred) and CI300 (i.e. the CI observed at 300?s after contrast medium injection) values were determined from CI curves. We then classified the odontogenic tumours according to their DCE-MRI parameters. Results: Significant differences between the U? values of the ameloblastomas and KCOT were observed on T1 weighted images, T2 weighted images and short TI inversion recovery images. Depending on their DCE-MRI parameters, we classified the odontogenic tumours into the following five types: Type A, CIpeak?>?2.0 and Tpeak??2.0 and Tmax??2.0 and Tmax?>?600?s; Type E, CI300??600?s. Conclusion: Cystic component SI uniformity was found to be useful for differentiating between ameloblastomas and KCOT. However, the DCE-MRI parameters of odontogenic tumours, except for odontogenic fibromas and odontogenic myxomas, contributed little to their differential diagnosis. PMID:23468124

  9. Maximising the value of existing buildings.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, Graham

    2012-10-01

    Graham McCorkindale, who heads the Health and Wellbeing strand at multi-disciplinary architecture, town planning, interior design, and landscape architecture practice, Keppie Design, examines how architects can best support the NHS at a time of major change by refocusing design skills hitherto focused on creating new healthcare facilities on the need to work within the existing estate--'maximising utilisation and getting best value from any available spend'. PMID:23140004

  10. Detecting nanoscale vibrations as signature of life

    PubMed Central

    Kasas, Sandor; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Benadiba, Carine; Maillard, Caroline; Stupar, Petar; Tournu, Hélène; Dietler, Giovanni; Longo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The existence of life in extreme conditions, in particular in extraterrestrial environments, is certainly one of the most intriguing scientific questions of our time. In this report, we demonstrate the use of an innovative nanoscale motion sensor in life-searching experiments in Earth-bound and interplanetary missions. This technique exploits the sensitivity of nanomechanical oscillators to transduce the small fluctuations that characterize living systems. The intensity of such movements is an indication of the viability of living specimens and conveys information related to their metabolic activity. Here, we show that the nanomotion detector can assess the viability of a vast range of biological specimens and that it could be the perfect complement to conventional chemical life-detection assays. Indeed, by combining chemical and dynamical measurements, we could achieve an unprecedented depth in the characterization of life in extreme and extraterrestrial environments. PMID:25548177

  11. Detecting nanoscale vibrations as signature of life.

    PubMed

    Kasas, Sandor; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Benadiba, Carine; Maillard, Caroline; Stupar, Petar; Tournu, Hélène; Dietler, Giovanni; Longo, Giovanni

    2015-01-13

    The existence of life in extreme conditions, in particular in extraterrestrial environments, is certainly one of the most intriguing scientific questions of our time. In this report, we demonstrate the use of an innovative nanoscale motion sensor in life-searching experiments in Earth-bound and interplanetary missions. This technique exploits the sensitivity of nanomechanical oscillators to transduce the small fluctuations that characterize living systems. The intensity of such movements is an indication of the viability of living specimens and conveys information related to their metabolic activity. Here, we show that the nanomotion detector can assess the viability of a vast range of biological specimens and that it could be the perfect complement to conventional chemical life-detection assays. Indeed, by combining chemical and dynamical measurements, we could achieve an unprecedented depth in the characterization of life in extreme and extraterrestrial environments. PMID:25548177

  12. An exploration of life insurance among the elderly in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Li, R M; Duberstein-Lindberg, L; Lin, H S

    1996-03-01

    The burgeoning of the life insurance industry in Taiwan cannot be attributed solely to a rise in incomes, but also to increasing urbanization and industrialization, aggressive marketing strategies introduced by U.S. life insurance companies, and important changes in values that make it increasingly acceptable to own life insurance. The growing use of life insurance can be considered part of a transition from informal, familial care of the elderly to formal market mechanisms to protect the financial security of loved ones, including a widowed spouse, and as one component of the pattern of intergenerational relations. We use data from the 1991-92 Telephone Followup to the 1989 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan to explore the extent to which familial resources and socioeconomic/demographic characteristics influence the propensity of elderly persons to own life insurance. We also consider motivations for and against the ownership of insurance, and if insurance is currently held, the relationship of the beneficiary to the respondent. We conclude with suggestions for additional data that can help resolve a number of issues raised in this exploratory study. PMID:24389945

  13. A Review of Ideas Concerning Life Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    Since the times of Antiquity the and for a long time the idea of self-origination of life was the dominant one. It reappeared again after microorganisms were discovered (XVII century). The possibility of abiogenesis at microbial level was discussed for more than a century. Pateur demonstrated that spontaneous origination of microorganisms in sterile broth was due to those same microorganisms transported by dust particles. Thus proving that every form of life originates from the parental life form. So the question arises: how did the first microorganisms appear on the Earth. There are three possible versions: 1) accidental origination of a viable form; 2) primal organisms were transported to the Earth from outer space; 3) they were formed on the Earth in the process of prebiotic chemical evolution. We discuss the problems of prebiotic evolution from simple monomers up to living cells. An important item of nowadays conceptions of life origination is the hypothesis of the ancient world of RNA as possible precursor of life on Earth. The discovery in carbonaceous chondrites of traces of bacterial life evidences the existence of life in the Solar System even before the formation of the Earth. The idea of life as brought to the Earth out of Cosmos originated under the impression of self-origination hypothesis downfall. It went through several stages (Helmholtz, W. Thompson, XIX century; Arrhenius, early XX century; Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, second half of XX century) and presently evokes constantly growing interest. The panspermia theory does not solve the problem of origination of life, only moves it onto other planets. According to V.A. Mazur, the probability of accidental formation of RNA molecule is negligible not only on the Earth, but in the whole Universe over all the time span of its existence. But it is practically equal to unit in the domain formed at the inflation stage of the evolution of the Universe. A.D.Panov considered panspermia in the Galaxy at the level of prebiotic evolution products. The quantitative model he has brought forward increases life origination probability by many orders of magnitude in comparison with any isolated planet. In this model the life to originates simultaneously on all the planets with proper conditions on the same molecular basis, one and the same genetic code and the same chirality.

  14. Toward a Developmental Psychology of Sehnsucht (Life Longings): The Optimal (Utopian) Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheibe, Susanne; Freund, Alexandra M.; Baltes, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    The topic of an optimal or utopian life has received much attention across the humanities and the arts but not in psychology. The German concept of Sehnsucht captures individual and collective thoughts and feelings about one's optimal or utopian life. Sehnsucht (life longings; LLs) is defined as an intense desire for alternative states and…

  15. Life Stress, the "Kindling" Hypothesis, and the Recurrence of Depression: Considerations From a Life Stress Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2005-01-01

    Major depression is frequently characterized by recurrent episodes over the life course. First lifetime episodes of depression, however, are typically more strongly associated with major life stress than are successive recurrences. A key theoretical issue involves how the role of major life stress changes from an initial episode over subsequent…

  16. "A La Recherche Du" Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines the stages of inquiry when we seek to formulate quality of life in an era before our own. There arises the question of the extent to which today's formulation of quality of life can be applied to an era far removed from our own. Implicitly, there is the nature of the time interval, T[subscript 1]...T[subscript n], and the…

  17. The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, D.J.; Hoehn, J.P.

    1999-05-01

    Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

  18. Controlled Ecological Life Support System: Use of Higher Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbits, T. W.; Alford, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    Results of two workshops concerning the use of higher plants in Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS) are summarized. Criteria for plant selection were identified from these categories: food production, nutrition, oxygen production and carbon dioxide utilization, water recycling, waste recycling, and other morphological and physiological considerations. Types of plant species suitable for use in CELSS, growing procedures, and research priorities were recommended. Also included are productivity values for selected plant species.

  19. The Added Value Index: A new metric to quantify the added value of regional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamitsu, Masao; Dehaan, Laurel

    2011-06-01

    A metric to quantify the value added by high-resolution models is introduced. It is based on a characteristic spatial distribution of skill rather than the averages of skill values. Normal distribution functions are fit to the model skill distribution of coarse- and fine-resolution models, and a new metric (Added Value Index, AVI) is defined as the area enclosed by the two distribution functions, with information on the way the two curves cross each other. The AVI is computed for a case of downscaling seasonal forecasts and is shown to properly provide a different degree of added value by high-resolution models.

  20. The role of interest in the transmission of social values

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Fabrice; Dukes, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The environment is so rich with information that our cognitive system would be overloaded without a way to evaluate what is relevant for our needs and goals. Appraisal theory has shown how emotions, by “tagging” the environment with differential values, enable the attribution of our attentional resources to what is most relevant in any given circumstances. Most often, however, the different cues triggering the allocation of attention are thought of as purely individualistic, like physiological needs or past encounters with certain stimuli. This approach is perfectly appropriate for objects, organisms or events that, by their intrinsic properties, affect the organism's well being. But for humans, many aspects of the environment are culturally or temporally dependent: a soccer game may be highly relevant to some, but not at all to others. This paper contributes to a better understanding of the processes by which different elements of our social environment acquire value through our socialization process. We recruit different concepts proposed by developmental psychologists to shed some light on this social acquisition of relevance. The notion of “joint attention,” for example, is particularly important to understand how we are sensitive to the other's focus of attention. Similarly, the term “social referencing” has been used to describe the process of taking into account the affective reaction to a given stimuli, in order to direct our behavior. At the core of this process, called “social appraisal” by Manstead, we propose that a specific emotion plays a major role: interest. Someone else's expression of interest, which seems to be detectable from a very early age, is extremely useful in gauging what is worthy of attention among stimuli that are not inherently interesting. The paper highlights how external sources of information (the life experiences of community members) indicate what is relevant, thus giving access to the social values of that group. PMID:23785350