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1

The Family, Values, and Quality of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective indicators were used to measure perceived overall quality of life and the value placed on and satisfaction with life concerns of some rural, white families in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A human ecological systems approach which assumes that human needs are satisfied through use of resources of the natural, human-constructed, and…

Bubolz, Margaret J.

2

Valuing QALYs at the end of life.  

PubMed

The possibility of weighting QALYs differently for different groups of patients has been a source of debate. Most recently, this debate has been extended to the relative value of QALYs at the end of life (EoL). The objective of this study is to provide evidence of societal preferences in relation to this topic. Three cross-sectional surveys were conducted amongst Spanish general population (n = 813). Survey 1 compared increases in life expectancy for EoL patients with health gains from temporary health problems. Survey 2 compared health gains for temporary health problems with quality of life gains at the EoL (palliative care). Survey 3 compared increases in life expectancy with quality of life gains, both for EoL patients. Preferences were elicited using Person Trade-Off (PTO) and Willingness to pay (WTP) techniques presenting two different durations of health benefit (6 and 18 months). Health benefits, measured in QALYs, were held constant in all comparisons. In survey 1 mean WTP was higher for life extending treatments than for temporary health problems and the majority of respondents prioritised life extension over temporary health problems in response to the PTO questions. In survey 2 mean WTP was higher for palliative care than for temporary health problems and 83% prioritized palliative care (for both durations) in the PTO questions. In survey 3 WTP values were higher for palliative care than for life extending treatments and more than 60% prioritized palliative care in the PTO questions. Our results suggest that QALYs gained from EoL treatments have a higher social value than QALYs gained from treatments for temporary health problems. Further, we found that people attach greater weight to improvements in quality of life than to life extension at the end of life. PMID:24820408

Pinto-Prades, Jose-Luis; Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando-Ignacio; Corbacho, Belen; Baker, Rachel

2014-07-01

3

The Value of Life and Health for Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expenditure on health and safety is a substantial part of GDP, but public agencies in many countries, including Australia, have only qualitative views about the value of life and health. Also, despite considerable work by economists on the value of life and health in recent years, some important issues, such as the value of a healthy life-year, remain unresolved. This

Peter Abelson

2003-01-01

4

Changes in the Value of Life, 1940–1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first nationwide value of life estimates for the United States at more than one point in time. Our estimates are for every ten years between 1940 and 1980, a period when declines in fatal accident rates were historically unprecedented. Our estimated elasticity of value of life with respect to per capita GNP is 1.5 to 1.7. We

Dora L. Costa; Matthew E. Kahn

2004-01-01

5

Changes in the Value of Life: 1940-1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the first nation wide value of life estimates for the United States at more than one point in time. Our estimates are for every ten years between 1940 and 1980, a period when declines in fatal accident rates were historically unprecedented. Our estimated elasticity of value of life with respect to per capita GNP is 1.5 to 1.7.

Dora L. Costa; Matthew E. Kahn

2002-01-01

6

Life and value orientations of Turkish university students.  

PubMed

This study investigated the value orientations of optimists and pessimists and the value structures of each group. The Life Orientation Test and the Rokeach Value Survey were administered to 285 university students in Ankara, Turkey. Results indicated that there were differences in the value orientations of optimists and pessimists. The examination of value structures of optimists and pessimists revealed that optimists were likely to give priority to self-expansion, while pessimists tended toward self-restriction. PMID:9583673

Cileli, M; Tezer, E

1998-01-01

7

Are estimates of the value of a statistical life exaggerated?  

PubMed

The magnitude of the value of a statistical life (VSL) is critical to the evaluation of many health and safety initiatives. To date, the large and rigorous VSL research literature has not explicitly accommodated publication selectivity bias (i.e., the reduced probability that insignificant or negative VSL values are reported). This study demonstrates that doing so is essential. For studies that employ hedonic wage equations to estimate VSL, correction for selection bias reduces the average value of a statistical life by 70-80%. Our meta-regression analysis also identifies several sources for the wide heterogeneity found among reported VSL estimates. PMID:22079490

Doucouliagos, Chris; Stanley, T D; Giles, Margaret

2012-01-01

8

Background Risks and the Value of a Statistical Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the effects of background mortality and financial risks on an individual's willingness to pay to reduce his mortality risk (the value of statistical life or VSL). Under reasonable assumptions about risk aversion and prudence with respect to wealth in the event of survival and with respect to bequests in the event of death, background mortality and financial risks

Louis R. Eeckhoudt; James K. Hammitt

2001-01-01

9

On Comparing Alternative Segmentation Schemes: The List of Values (LOV) and Values and Life Styles (VALS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article begins with a partial replication of previous work--a comparison of the Values and Life Styles (VALS) system and the List of Values (LOV). The analysis is then extended to evaluate the role of a set of standard demographic variables with respect to both psychographic segmentation systems. Copyright 1990 by the University of Chicago.

Thomas P. Novak; Bruce MacEvoy

1990-01-01

10

Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life

Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

2010-01-01

11

Paternalistic Altruism and the Value of Statistical Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In applying the willingness-to-pay approach to the assessment of public-sector projects that have potential safety effects, it is clearly important to know whether and how values of statistical life and safety should reflect people's altruistic concern for other people's wellbeing. Thus far this question has been answered only for a very limited number of special cases. The purpose of this

M. W. Jones-lee

1992-01-01

12

Measuring the life-cycle value of enduring systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A goal of systems development is to produce enduringly valuable product systems—i.e., systems that are valuable when delivered to their users and which continue to be attractive to their stakeholders over time. However, quantifying the life-cycle value (LCV) provided by a system has proven elusive. In this paper, we propose an approach to quantifying a system's LCV based on the

Tyson R. Browning; Eric C. Honour

2008-01-01

13

Therapeutic Values Clarification and Values Development for End-of-Life Patients: A Conceptual Model.  

PubMed

The social, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual challenges that may be a major concern for a certain category of end-of-life patients are the focus of a conceptual counseling model. The intervention that was developed as a result of several years of practice is referred to as therapeutic values clarification and values development. This article outlines 4 phases of this intervention. This therapeutic process is illustrated by a case vignette with explanation of the key concepts. This model is suggested for use with end-of-life patients that are self-aware, emotionally and cognitively competent, and have adequate verbal skills. It may be useful as an optional tool for hospice workers, social workers, and clergy who render services to terminally ill patients and their families. PMID:23661769

Edwards, Andrew Wallace

2014-06-01

14

Life Plans and Values of High School Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Theories of career decision-making and occupational choice have not been well-related to the life course of the majority of women. The relationship between career and life planning variables in the areas of education, marriage, parenthood, and work were examined through interviews with urban white, black, and Hispanic eleventh grade students…

Tittle, Carol Kehr

15

Age Differences in College Values and Perceived Quality of College Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated the influence of age, college values, and their interaction on perceived quality of college life. Perceived quality of college life increased linearly with age, unless college values were statistically partialled out. Valuing working conditions was inversely related to perceived quality of college life. The relationship between…

Okun, Morris A.; And Others

1986-01-01

16

Life Values of Library and Information Studies Students and Faculty.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students and faculty in different programs often hold different values that can affect the learning process, especially when students share classes. A values study of students and faculty in library science, teacher librarianship, and information science revealed different terminal and instrumental values for students at different levels and in…

Kirk, Joyce; Poston-Anderson, Barbara

1992-01-01

17

A Model of the Demand for Longevity and the Value of Life Extension  

Microsoft Academic Search

We specify a demand function for longevity, or quantity of life, along with corresponding demand functions for indicators of quality of life and a value-of-health and life extension functions. We show that the demand for health must be derived in conjunction with that for longevity and the related consumption plan, and that all choices depend on initial individual endowments and

Isaac Ehrlich; Hiroyuki Chuma

1990-01-01

18

Life Values, Regular Educators, and Special Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rokeach's Value Survey (1973) was used to assess possible differences in the life values of special education (N=133) and regular (N=128) classroom teachers . Generally, their value systems were not significantly different; however, 18 values (10 defining personal life goals and 8 defining self conduct and others' conduct) differentiated one group…

Gans, Karen Derk

1986-01-01

19

The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

2007-01-01

20

Inclusive Values and the Righteousness of Life: The Foundation of Global Solidarity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many scholars have argued that unity of humankind can be established on the basis of some basic or core human values. Instead of engaging in a comparative empirical research, compiling lists of core values derived from different cultures, discuss their relevance for human fellowship, I examine the simple values of life that during the 1980s united people in Poland and

W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz

2010-01-01

21

Personal spiritual values and quality of life: evidence from Chinese college students.  

PubMed

Values are guiding principles in our life. While some studies found spiritual values to be "healthier," Sagiv and Schwartz (Eur J Soc Psychol 30:177-198, 2000) showed that people holding non-spiritual values were higher on affective well-being. We examined the predictive power of these two types of values with a longitudinal data set collected from Chinese students mainly in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling revealed that spiritual values (as well as family income) positively predicted quality of life a year later. Non-spiritual, self-enhancement values, did not show any association. Results suggest that developing spiritual values may promote well-being through enabling individuals to find meaning and purpose in life. PMID:23460460

Zhang, Kaili Chen; Hui, C Harry; Lam, Jasmine; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Cheung, Shu-Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

2014-08-01

22

The Evidential Value of Near-Death Experiences for Belief in Life After Death  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I explore the issue of what evidential value near-death experiences (NDEs) offer for belief in life after death. I survey the major positions on this issue, ranging from writers who believe that NDEs already offer convincing evidence for life after death, to physicalists who believe that they offer, at best, a very weak case. I argue that

Michael Potts

2002-01-01

23

Derivation of Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Occupational exposures to chemicals have long been recognized as having the potential to adversely affect the lives and health of workers. Acute or short-term exposures to high concentrations of some airborne chemicals have the ability to quickly overwhel...

2013-01-01

24

Flu Shots, Mammograms, and the Value of a Statistical Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In the Netherlands certain groups in the population are oered,preventive health care free of charge, including u shots (65+ population, every year), cervical cancer tests (women 30-60, every ve years), mammograms (women 50+, every two years), and kid- ney checks. We analyze individuals decisions to decline or accept these interventions, using a survey that includes information on actual participation,

Katherine Grace Carman; Peter Kooreman

25

The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.  

PubMed Central

Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems.

Klessig, J

1992-01-01

26

The Influence of Value Orientations and Demographics on Quality-of-Life Perceptions: Evidence from a National Survey of Singaporeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the linkages between value orientations, demographics and the quality of life perceptions for Singaporeans based on a nationwide values and lifestyles study conducted in 2001. The quality of life perception is assessed using cognitive evaluations of satisfaction with life in general (subjective personal well-being) and with…

Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Kau, Ah Keng

2006-01-01

27

The Value of Statistical Life in Road Safety: A Meta-Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accident costs are an important component of the external costs of traffic, a substantial part of which is related to fatal accidents. The evaluation of fatal accident costs crucially depends on the availability of an estimate for the economic value of a statistical life. The aim of the current paper is to present an overview of such estimates contained in

Arianne de Blaeij; Raymond J. G. M. Florax; Piet Rietveld; Erik T. Verhoef

2000-01-01

28

More evidence on smoke detector effectiveness and the value of saving a life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic models of the fire fatality rate give estimates of smoke detector effectiveness. These estimates are much smaller than those generally accepted. Reasonable interpretation of these estimates, combined with the cost of a smoke detector and the risk of a fire death, places the smoke detector-based value of life saving in a range of $ 1.41 to $ 2.487 million

Christopher Garbacz

1991-01-01

29

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining,

Michael Hendryx; Melissa M. Ahern

2009-01-01

30

Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This study examined patients' and surro- gates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement pro- ject, a longitudinal study designed to investigate psychological assumptions underlying

Nikki Ayers Hawkins; Peter H. Ditto; Joseph H. Danks; William D. Smucker

2005-01-01

31

Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This study examined patients' and surrogates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement project, a…

Hawkins, Nikki Ayers; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

2005-01-01

32

The relationship of value orientations, self-control, frequency of school–leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school–leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict frequency and that the latter is negatively related to life-balance. Achievement and well-being value orientations,

Claudia Kuhnle; Manfred Hofer; Britta Kilian

2010-01-01

33

Reference Values for Human Life: An Econometric Analysis of a Contingent Valuation in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In 1993 the Commissariat Général du Plan, the Ministry of Equipment, EDF (the French Utility Company), and the Centre d’Energétique\\u000a of the Ecole des Mines (within a contract from the ExternE Program of the European Commission), decided to finance a contingent\\u000a valuation of the reference value of human life for road accidents. It is the first study using this methodology

Brigitte Desaigues; Ari Rabl

34

Valuing the person's story: use of life story books in a continuing care setting.  

PubMed

There is an increasing focus on promoting person-centred systems across continuing care settings, emphasizing the need to enhance the quality of life of older adults. Life story books (LSB) can provide a holistic view of older adults, promote relationship-centred care and enhance person-centred care. The process of developing LSB involve collecting and recording aspects of a person's life both past and present. The purpose of this study was to engage residents in developing life story books in a nursing home setting and then to explore the narratives and documented life story books with residents and their families. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was utilized for the study. Five residents and three family carers participated. Focus groups were tape recorded and thematically analyzed and a review of the LSB was conducted. The central themes from the data analysis related to the social construction of people's lives, social roles and religious values, relationships and loss, and sense of self. PMID:18982924

Wills, Teresa; Day, Mary Rose

2008-01-01

35

The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

2010-01-01

36

Discount Rate for Health Benefits and the Value of Life in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study contributes to the literature by estimating discount rate for environmental health benefits and value of statistical life of workers in India. The discount rate is imputed from wage-risk trade-offs in which workers decide whether to accept a risky job with higher wages. The estimated real discount rate ranges between 2.7 and 3 percent, which is closer to the

K. R. Shanmugam

2011-01-01

37

The value of a statistical life: a meta-analysis with a mixed effects regression model.  

PubMed

The value of a statistical life (VSL) is a very controversial topic, but one which is essential to the optimization of governmental decisions. We see a great variability in the values obtained from different studies. The source of this variability needs to be understood, in order to offer public decision-makers better guidance in choosing a value and to set clearer guidelines for future research on the topic. This article presents a meta-analysis based on 39 observations obtained from 37 studies (from nine different countries) which all use a hedonic wage method to calculate the VSL. Our meta-analysis is innovative in that it is the first to use the mixed effects regression model [Raudenbush, S.W., 1994. Random effects models. In: Cooper, H., Hedges, L.V. (Eds.), The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Russel Sage Foundation, New York] to analyze studies on the value of a statistical life. We conclude that the variability found in the values studied stems in large part from differences in methodologies. PMID:19100640

Bellavance, François; Dionne, Georges; Lebeau, Martin

2009-03-01

38

Mapping oral health related quality of life to generic health state values  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A summary utility index is useful for deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for cost analyses or disability weights for burden of disease studies. However, many quality of life instruments provide descriptive profiles rather than a single utility index. Transforming quality of life instruments to a utility index could extend the use of quality of life instruments to costs analyses

David S Brennan; A John Spencer

2006-01-01

39

Double impact of sterilizing pathogens: added value of increased life expectancy on pest control effectiveness.  

PubMed

Sterilizing pathogens are commonly assumed not to affect longevity of infected individuals, and if they do then negatively. Examples abound, however, of species in which the absence of reproduction actually increases life expectancy. This happens because by decreasing the energy outlay on reproduction individuals with lowered reproduction can live longer. Alternatively, fertile individuals are more susceptible to predators or parasitoids if the latter can capitalize on mating signals of the former. Here we develop and analyze an SI epidemiological model to explore whether and to what extent does such a life expectancy prolongation due to sterilizing pathogens affect host dynamics. In particular, we are interested in an added value of increased life expectancy on the possibility of successful pest control, that is, the effect of increased lifespan and hence increased potential of the infected individuals to spread the disease on pest control effectiveness. We show that although the parameter range in which we observe an effect of increased lifespan of the sterilized individuals is not large, the effect itself can be significant. In particular, the increase in pest control effectiveness can be very dramatic when disease transmission efficiency is close to birth rate, mortality rate of susceptibles is relatively high (i.e., the species is relatively short-lived), and sterilization efficiency is relatively high. Our results thus characterize pathogens that are promising candidates for an effective pest control and that might possibly be engineered if not occurring naturally. PMID:21710138

Berec, Lud?k; Maxin, Daniel

2012-06-01

40

Mentors in Life and at School: Impact on Undergraduate Protege Perceptions of University Mission and Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

University undergraduates (84 women, 80 men: M age=19.1 years old) reported school mission and value perceptions, life and/or school mentor relationships, and social desirability tendencies. No significant social desirability effect was obtained. Proteges with mentors at school and in life (n=52) reported greater cognitive and informational…

Ferrari, Joseph R.

2004-01-01

41

What is the value and role of academic medicine in the life of its university?  

PubMed

National and global events are rapidly and irrevocably driving transformation in both academia and health care. One result is an increase in the pace of institutional restructuring, consolidations, and mergers, including the melding of academic medical centers (AMCs; i.e., medical schools and their clinical enterprises) with nonmedical universities. Georgia Regents University (GRU) resulted from one such recent consolidation, and the experience at the institution has highlighted the need to answer the question "What is the value and role of academic medicine and an AMC in the life and transformation of its university?" In attempting to answer this question, the author first contrasts the cultural features of academic medicine and nonmedical faculty and leaders, as observed from the GRU experience, which might be useful for leaders of other institutions of higher education. His analysis suggests that academic medicine is currently significantly insulated from the larger university, and that this segregation or siloing represents a lost opportunity for both the AMC and the university at large. The author's experience suggests that fostering greater synergy between the university and its AMC adds significant value, and that such synergy better ensures the ability of those universities with an AMC to undertake and meet future transformative challenges. Strategies should be proactively developed both to enhance academic medicine leaders' engagement with, exposure to, and education regarding the operations and challenges of higher education and the broader university, and, likewise, to increase nonmedical faculty's understanding of and experience with the value and unique challenges of academic medicine. PMID:24362397

Azziz, Ricardo

2014-02-01

42

Dementia and its influence on quality of life and what it means to be valued: Family members' perceptions.  

PubMed

This pragmatic, exploratory qualitative study, as part of a larger funded research project, sought to explore families' perspectives on what it means to value a person with dementia and how this value might influence the quality of life of people with dementia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 family members who used one long-term care service provider in Australia. Families described the factors influencing a positive quality of life for the person with dementia as being related to the environment and, in particular, to the resident's room, supportive staff and individualised care that valued the person's life experience. Family also reported a negative impact on quality of life when staff and the care facility neglected to provide an individualised approach. This study highlights the importance of demonstrating the value of the person with dementia, the family role and partnerships of care. PMID:24339065

Moyle, Wendy; Murfield, Jenny; Venturto, Lorraine; Griffiths, Susan; Grimbeek, Peter; McAllister, Margaret; Marshall, Jenni

2014-05-01

43

Every life has equal value.  

PubMed

The 2013 Lasker?Bloomberg Public Service Award will be given to Bill and Melinda Gates "for leading an historic transformation in the way we view the globe's most pressing health concerns and improving the lives of millions of the world's most vulnerable." PMID:24034238

Hood, Leroy E; Lazowska, Edward D

2013-09-12

44

Evidence and values: paying for end-of-life drugs in the British NHS.  

PubMed

In January 2009, Britain's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), following a very public debate triggered by its decision, six months earlier, provisionally to rule against the adoption by the National Health Service (NHS) of an expensive drug for advanced renal cancer, introduced a new policy for evaluating pharmaceuticals for patients nearing the end of their lives. NICE's so-called end-of-life (EOL) guidance for its Committees effectively advises them to deviate from the Institute's threshold range and to value the lives of (mostly) dying cancer patients more than the lives of those suffering from other, potentially curable, chronic or acute conditions. This article tells the story of the EOL guidance. Through looking at specific EOL decisions between 2009 and 2011 and the reactions by stakeholders to these decisions and the policy itself, it discusses the triggers for NICE's EOL guidance, the challenges NICE faces in implementing it and the policy's putative implications for the future role of NICE in the NHS, especially in the context of value-based reforms in the pricing and evaluation of pharmaceuticals, currently under consideration. PMID:23079299

Chalkidou, Kalipso

2012-10-01

45

The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.  

PubMed

Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

2013-01-01

46

Valuing health at the end of life: an empirical study of public preferences.  

PubMed

In 2009, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) issued supplementary advice to its Appraisal Committees to be taken into account when appraising life-extending, 'end-of-life' treatments. This indicated that if certain criteria are met, it may be appropriate to recommend the use of such treatments even if they would not normally be considered cost-effective. However, NICE's public consultation revealed concerns that there is little scientific evidence to support such a policy. This study examines whether there is public support for giving higher priority to life-extending, end-of-life treatments than to other types of treatment. In face-to-face interviews, respondents answered six questions asking them to choose which of two hypothetical patients they would prefer to treat, assuming that the health service has enough funds to treat one but not both of them. The various scenarios were designed so as to control for age- and time-related preferences. Fifty members of the general public in England were interviewed in July 2011. We find some evidence of support for giving priority to the patient with shorter remaining life expectancy, but note that a nontrivial minority of respondents expressed the opposite preference. Substantial preference for quality-of-life improvement over life extension was observed. Very few respondents expressed indifference or unwillingness to choose between the patients. Whilst there cannot be described to be a single 'consensus' set of preferences, we conclude that there are ways in which the results suggest that the current NICE policy may be insufficient. PMID:23657476

Shah, Koonal K; Tsuchiya, Aki; Wailoo, Allan J

2014-05-01

47

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15

48

Social and Community Values and the Quality of Teacher Work Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value system of a school is a major factor affecting the teacher's working conditions, but public discourse on educational reform tends to avoid serious discussion of the most deeply embedded values in our educational system. This absence of serious reflection on values limits consideration of alternatives for improving both education and the…

Louis, Karen Seashore

49

Signifiers of the life we value? – considering human development, technologies and Fair Trade from the perspective of the capabilities approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the capabilities approach challenges us to co-design technologies with users in a way that expands the freedom of the user to live the life they themselves value. The aim is to show, with the help of a concrete example, our attempt at applying the capabilities approach to an information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) action

Dorothea Kleine; Ann Light; Maria-José Montero

2012-01-01

50

Life values as predictors of pain, disability and sick leave among Swedish registered nurses: a longitudinal study  

PubMed Central

Background Prospective studies on high-risk populations, such as subgroups of health care staff, are limited, especially prospective studies among staff not on sick-leave. This paper is a report of a longitudinal study conducted to describe and compare the importance and consistency of life domains among registered nurses (RNs) working in a Swedish hospital and evaluate a model based on the consistency of valued life domains for prediction of pain, disability and sick leave. Method Importance and consistency ratings of life values, in 9 domains, were collected during 2003 and 2006 from 196 RNs using the Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ). Logistic regression analyses were used for prediction of pain, disability and sick leave at the three-year follow-up. The predictors family relations, marriage couples/intimate relations, parenting, friends/social life, work, education, leisure time, psychological well-being, and physical self-care were used at baseline. Results RNs rated life values regarding parenting as most important and with the highest consistency both at baseline and at follow-up. No significant differences were found between RNs' ratings of importance and consistency over the three-year period, except for friends/social relations that revealed a significant decrease in importance at follow-up. The explanatory models for pain, disability and sick leave significantly predicted pain and disability at follow-up. The odds of having pain were significantly increased by one consistency rating (psychological well-being), while the odds were significantly decreased by physical self-care. In the model predicting disability, consistency in psychological well-being and education significantly increased the odds of being disabled, while consistency in physical self-care significantly decreased the odds. Conclusion The results suggest that there might be a link between intra-individual factors reflecting different aspects of appraised life values and musculoskeletal pain (MSP).

2011-01-01

51

The Relative Impact of Personality Traits, Meaningful Occupation and Occupational Value on Meaning in Life and Life Satisfaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occupational science has held a peripheral interest in the role personality traits may serve in influencing people's engagement in occupation. Like occupation, personality has been identified as a significant factor in explaining personal well-being within the social sciences. Recent models implicate personality, personal projects or life tasks, and personal narrative as three essential layers for understanding human experience. The present

Aaron M. Eakman; Mona Eklund

2012-01-01

52

[The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].  

PubMed

The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

2014-01-01

53

Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees  

PubMed Central

Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

2011-01-01

54

EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

55

Measuring the value of statistical life: estimating compensating wage differentials among workers in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policy makers confronted with the need to introduce health and safety regulations often wonder how to value the benefits of\\u000a these regulations. One way that a monetary value could be placed on reductions in health risks, including risk of death, is\\u000a through understanding how people are compensated for the different risks they take. While there is an extensive literature\\u000a on

S. Madheswaran

2007-01-01

56

Added value of health-related quality of life measurement in cancer clinical trials: the experience of the NCIC CTG.  

PubMed

Health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) data are often included in Phase III clinical trials. We evaluate and classify the value added to Phase III trials by HRQoL outcomes, through a review of the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group clinical trials experience within various cancer patient populations. HRQoL may add value in a variety of ways, including the provision of data that may contrast with or may support the primary study outcome; or that assess a unique perspective or subgroup, not addressed by the primary outcome. Thus, HRQoL data may change the study's interpretation. Even in situations where HRQoL measurement does not alter the clinical interpretation of a trial, important methodologic advances can be made. A classification of the added value of HRQoL information is provided, which may assist in choosing trials for which measurement of HRQoL outcomes will be beneficial. PMID:20384559

Au, Heather-Jane; Ringash, Jolie; Brundage, Michael; Palmer, Michael; Richardson, Harriet; Meyer, Ralph M

2010-04-01

57

[Value of quality of life evaluation in prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].  

PubMed

Objective:To evaluate the quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by COPD Assessment Test (CAT) and Body Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise Capacity Index (BODE).Methods:One hundred patients with stable COPD admitted in Putuo People's Hospital were recruited in the study. CAT and BODE index were measured for each patient.The deaths and frequency of exacerbations were recorded during 3-year follow-up period,and the correlation between CAT and BODE in evaluating COPD prognosis was analyzed.Results:There were 28, 30, 29 and 13 patients with CAT score of 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively; while there were 31, 29, 28 and 12 cases with BODE scores of 1, 2, 3 and 4. CAT scores were well correlated with BODE evaluation in terms of overall score and scores of 4 items (r= -0.237, -0.772, 0.789, -0.767, 0.888, respectively, Ps<0.05). COPD exacerbation incidence and mortality increased with the increasing CAT levels. The rank sum test showed that there were no significant differences between CAT and BODE index in the frequency of acute exacerbation(P<0.05); and in the death toll, the difference was not significant(1 group ?2=0.919, 2 group ?2=0.001, 3 group ?2=0.177,4 group ?2=0.322, Ps>0.05). Conclusion:CAT is relevant to BODE in evaluating incidence of exacerbation and mortality for patients with COPD and CAT is more easily to be applied. PMID:24782379

Gu, Jing-Hua; Qiu, Yi-Jun; Lu, Yi-Hua; Xu, Xu-Dong; Xu, Zhi-Hao

2014-03-01

58

Life after the screen: making sense of many P-values.  

PubMed

A multiple analytic approach may be useful for analyzing complex traits since different methods extract both similar and distinct, but complementary pieces of information from genome screen data on extended pedigrees. We examined the usefulness of combining p-values both across methods and across adjacent markers, taking into account the observed correlation structure among these p-values. To this end, we employed the recently proposed truncated product method [Zaykin et al., Genet Epidemiol, in press]. It appears that this approach is helpful for visualizing priority regions for follow-up analysis and reducing the number of false-positive linkage signals. PMID:11793734

Schmidt, S; Shao, Y; Hauser, E R; Slifer, S H; Martin, E R; Scott, W K; Speer, M C; Pericak-Vance, M A

2001-01-01

59

Matters of the Heart: Bringing the Values to Life at Eastman Kodak Company.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the rationale and implementation of the Eastman Kodak Company's "Fundamentals for Kodak Renewal" employee program. Using adventure activities, employees move through awareness, agreement, and alignment stages to integrate the company's basic values of respect for the dignity of the individual, uncompromising integrity, trust,…

Tette, Rick; Murray, Mark

1997-01-01

60

Q value and half-life of double-electron capture in 184Os  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

184Os has been excluded as a promising candidate for the search of neutrinoless double-electron capture. High-precision mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP result in a marginal resonant enhancement with ?=-8.89(58) keV excess energy to the 1322.152(22) keV 0+ excited state in 184W. State-of-the-art energy density functional calculations are applied for the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements to the excited states predicting a strong suppression due to the large deformation of mother and daughter states. The half-life of the transition exceeds T1/2(184Os)?1.3×1029 yr for an effective neutrino mass of 1 eV.

Smorra, C.; Rodríguez, T. R.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Langanke, K.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Zubova, N. A.

2012-10-01

61

Health-related quality of life in Colombia: reference values of the EORTC QLQ-C30.  

PubMed

There are normative data of the quality of life (QoL) questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 (the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire) for several European countries and Korea, but not for Latin America. The aim of this study was to provide these normative values for the general population in Colombia and to assess differences in terms of age and sex. For that reason, a sample of 1500 representatively selected individuals of the Colombian population completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 form. Results showed that mean scores of the Colombian population are similar to those obtained in European countries; whereas the mean values from a Korean study were lower (worse QoL). Age and sex differences were found in several scales and symptom items. Linear regression analyses were calculated to help quantify the influence of age and gender on QoL. Men reported better functioning and less symptoms than women on all scales, and older individuals reported worse global scores in terms of functioning and lower QoL than younger ones. In sum, the normative values presented can be used to assess QoL scores of Latin American cancer patients and to compare groups of patients with unequal age and sex distributions. PMID:22966808

Finck, C; Barradas, S; Singer, S; Zenger, M; Hinz, A

2012-11-01

62

The derivation and application of a risk related value of the spend for saving a statistical life.  

PubMed

The concept of a risk related value of the spend for saving a statistical life (VSSSL) is advanced for use in cost-benefit studies across the power generation sector, and the nuclear industry in particular. For illustrative purposes, a best estimate VSSSL is set based on HSE guidance at 2 M pounds. Above a risk of 10(-3) y(-1) it is assumed that the VSSSL may approach this maximum sustainable value. As the risk reduces so does the VSSSL. At a risk level of 10(-6) y(-1) a VSSSL of 0.5 M pounds is applied. For risks below 10(-9) y(-1) the value of further risk reduction approaches zero, although a nominal VSSSL of 10 k pounds is applied as a pragmatic way forward in this study. The implications of adopting this concept as an aid to decision making in determining the spend on radiological dose reduction measures are illustrated through a worked example with a banded approach to estimating collective dose. PMID:15080548

Jackson, D; Stone, D; Butler, G G; McGlynn, G

2004-03-01

63

Relationships between Psychosocial-Spiritual Well-Being and End-of-Life Preferences and Values in African-American Dialysis Patients  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the study was to examine whether psychosocial and spiritual well-being is associated with African-American dialysis patients' end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of potential outcomes of life sustaining treatment. Fifty-one African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and interview with measures of symptom distress, health-related quality of life, psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and preferences and values related to life sustaining treatment choices. The subjects were stratified by end-of-life treatment preferences and by acceptance of life sustaining treatment outcomes and compared for psychosocial and spiritual well-being as well as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Individuals who desired continued use of life sustaining treatment in terminal illness or advanced dementia had significantly lower spiritual well-being (p = .012). Individuals who valued four potential outcomes of life sustaining treatment as unacceptable showed a more positive, adaptive well-being score in the spiritual dimension compared to the group who valued at least one outcome as acceptable (p = .028). Religious involvement and importance of spirituality were not associated with end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of treatment outcomes. African Americans with ESRD expressed varied levels of psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and this characteristic was associated with life sustaining treatment preferences. In future research, the assessment of spirituality should not be limited to its intensity or degree but extended to other dimensions.

Hanson, Laura C.

2010-01-01

64

The Young People of Tula: Value Orientations and the Realities of Everyday Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2005, the Laboratory of Sociological Research of the municipal office of the social service Shans Center for Social and Psychological Assistance for Young People carried out a sociological survey titled "Current Problems of Today's Young Person," for the purpose of studying the most urgent problems affecting the social development of Tula's…

Samsonova, E. A.; Efimova, E. Iu.

2008-01-01

65

76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...including a statement of the date of birth for each measuring life, the...including a statement of the date of birth for each measuring life, the...of gifts made after July 31, 1969. * * * * * (e) Effective...to gifts made after July 31, 1969. In addition, the rule...

2011-08-10

66

The adaptive value of functional and life-history traits across fertility treatments in an annual plant  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Plant functional traits are assumed to be adaptive. As selection acts on individuals and not on traits, interpreting the adaptive value of a trait not may be straightforward. For example, productive leaves are associated with fertile environments. However, it is not clear if productive leaves confer an advantage in these habitats, or if they are an advantage as part of a suite of coordinated traits. Methods Genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in high and low nutrient treatments and low, neutral and high pH treatments. Nutrient availability is reduced in acidic or basic soils relative to neutral pH soils. pH treatments were used to alter the availability of resources rather than the amount of resources. Key Results Leaf function (specific leaf area, SLA) and life history (size at reproduction, age at reproduction) were variable across genotypes and were plastic. High nutrient availability induced higher SLA and larger size at reproduction. Genotypes that reproduced at large size in high nutrient conditions at neutral pH had the greatest fruit production. SLA was only indirectly related to fruit production through a causal relationship with rosette size; in high nutrient conditions, plants with high SLA were large at reproduction and had higher fruit production. In high nutrient and high pH treatments, plants were large at reproduction, but large size at reproduction was associated with low fecundity. This suggests that large size is adaptive under high nutrient availability. Conclusions Interpreting the adaptive value of functional traits will sometimes only be possible when these traits are considered as a suite of correlated and coordinated traits. Leaf functional traits may be important in defining adaptive strategies in A. thaliana but only through how they affect plant life history. Finally, manipulating soil pH can be a valuable tool in assessing adaptive plasticity on nutrient gradients.

Bonser, Stephen P.; Ladd, Brenton; Monro, Keyne; Hall, Matthew D.; Forster, Michael A.

2010-01-01

67

The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

Razumnikova, O. M.

2005-01-01

68

The predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms for quality of life: a longitudinal study of physically injured victims of non-domestic violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about longitudinal associations between post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and quality of life (QoL) after exposure to violence. The aims of the current study were to examine quality of life (QoL) and the predictive value of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) for QoL in victims of non-domestic violence over a period of 12 months. METHODS: A single-group (n

Venke A Johansen; Astrid K Wahl; Dag Erik Eilertsen; Lars Weisaeth; Berit R Hanestad

2007-01-01

69

Any Added Value? Co-Constructing Life Stories of and with People with Intellectual Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite considerable achievement in inclusive research, people with intellectual disabilities have been largely excluded from the critical area of data analysis and theory development. Next to the undoubted complexity of these tasks, this can partly be attributed to higher demands of representativeness that are used to judge the validity of…

Koenig, Oliver

2012-01-01

70

The Value of LifeAn Argument for the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminologists have generally attacked capital punishment and have argued for its abolition. They contend (1) that there is no evidence showing the superior general deterrent effectiveness of the death penalty, (2) that the death penalty has been applied discriminatorily in the past, (3) that innocent persons may be executed, (4) that the public does not want a constitutionally acceptable form

Marlene W. Lehtinen

1977-01-01

71

Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute' criterion) was calculated as 0.75 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CMC = e(0.8403 ? ln(hardness)-3.572) where the 'ln hardness' is the natural logarithm of the water hardness. Likewise, the criterion continuous concentration (CCC, or 'chronic' criterion) was calculated as 0.37 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CCC = (e(0.6247 ? ln(hardness)-3.384)) ? (1.101672 - ((ln hardness) ? 0.041838))). Using data that were independent of those used to derive the criteria, the criteria concentrations were evaluated to estimate whether adverse effects were expected to the biological integrity of natural waters or to selected species listed as threatened or endangered. One species was identified that would not be fully protected by the derived CCC, the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Exposure to CCC conditions likely would lead to population decreases in Hyalella azteca, the food web consequences of which probably would be slight if macroinvertebrate communities were otherwise diverse. Some data also suggested adverse behavioral changes are possible in fish following long-term exposures to low levels of cadmium, particularly in char (genus Salvelinus). Although ambiguous, these data indicate a need to periodically review the literature on behavioral changes in fish following metals exposure as more information becomes available. Most data reviewed indicated that criteria conditions were unlikely to contribute to overt adverse effects to either biological integrity or listed species. If elevated cadmium concentrations that approach the chronic criterion values occur in ambient waters, careful biological monitoring of invertebrate and fish assemblages would be prudent to validate the prediction that the assemblages would not be adversely affected by cadmium at criterion concentrations.

Mebane, Christopher A.

2006-01-01

72

Quality of life in oncology practice: Prognostic value of EORTC QLQ-C30 scores in patients with advanced malignancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life (QL) scores may be used to assess the impact of disease and treatment, and to predict survival of cancer patients in prospective clinical trials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic association of QL scores among patients with advanced malignancies in routine practice. Adult patients with advanced malignancy from 12 institutions in 10 countries

A. Coates; F. Porzsolt; D. Osoba

1997-01-01

73

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...remainder interests, given the age of the life tenant and an established rate of return published by the Secretary in the Federal Register. We may periodically review and revise the percent rate of return to be used to determine the share...

2011-04-01

74

Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value  

PubMed Central

Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality.

Klatt, Bjorn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-01-01

75

Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of these values with quality of life using M. Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values scale. M.Rokeach distinguished terminal values (such as world peace, wisdom, and happiness), which are preferred end-states of existence, and instrumental values (such as responsibility and cooperation), which are preferred modes of conduct. Methods We performed a representative anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of nurses working in regional hospitals of Lithuania. The nurses who participated in the study were distributed into four work cohorts: the Veterans, the Baby Boomers, the Generation Xers, and the Generation Nexters. The majority of the nurses belonged to the Baby Boomers and the Generation Xers cohorts. Since in Lithuania, like in the whole Europe, the representatives of the Baby Boomers generation are predominating among working people, we selected this cohort (N = 387) for the analysis. The survey data was processed using the SPSS statistical software package Results The main values in life were family security, tranquility, and a sense of accomplishment. However, such values as true friendship, equality, and pleasurable and leisured life were seen as rather insignificant. The most important instrumental values were honesty, skillfulness, and responsibility. Our study showed a statistically significant (albeit weak) correlation between the QOL and terminal values such as the sense of accomplishment, tranquility, equality, and pleasure, as well as the instrumental value – obedience. We detected a statistically significant relationship between good QOL and satisfaction with oneself, relationships with the surrounding people, and friends' support. Conclusion The findings of our study showed that, although Lithuania was under a totalitarian regime for 50 years, both the terminal and the instrumental values of the Baby Boomers generation are very similar to those of the same generation in other countries.

Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Jakusovaite, Irayda

2007-01-01

76

Emotional distress and health-related quality of life in patients on hemodialysis: the clinical value of COOP-WONCA charts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A significant percentage of patients on hemo- dialysis (HD) present with affective disorders such as anxiety and\\/or depression. The purpose of this study was to explore adaptive mixed affective disorders of patients on HD and to a- nalyze the clinical value of a brief health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) instrument, the COOP-WONCA charts, in our popula- tion of HD patient. Methods:

María Dolores Arenas; Fernando Álvarez-Ude; Abilio Reig-Ferrer; Juan Pablo Zito; María Teresa Gil; María Antonia Carretón

77

CALORIFIC VALUES IN THE PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POTENTIAL ENERGY, MODE OF LIFE AND THE EVOLUTION OF ENTOPARASITISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the calorific values (kcal\\/g) of seventeen species of animals from six phyla has shown that they have a skewed distribution with a modal fre quency at or near the lower range limit (Slobodkin and Richman, 1%1 ) . This was regarded as support for the hypothesis that natural selection generally favors production of the maximum number of

P. CALOW; J. B. JENNINGS

78

Grass pollen allergy in children and adolescents-symptoms, health related quality of life and the value of pollen prognosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction An association between pollen count (Poaceae) and symptoms is well known, but to a lesser degree the importance of priming and lag effects. Also, threshold levels for changes in symptom severity need to be validated. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between pollen counts, symptoms and health related quality of life (HRQL), and to validate thresholds levels, useful in public pollen warnings. Material and methods Children aged 7–18 with grass pollen allergy filled out a symptom diary during the pollen season for nose, eyes and lung symptoms, as well as a HRQL questionnaire every week. Pollen counts were monitored using a volumetric spore trap. Results 89 (91%) of the included 98 children completed the study. There was a clear association between pollen count, symptom severity and HRQL during the whole pollen season, but no difference in this respect between early and late pollen season. There was a lag effect of 1–3 days after pollen exposure except for lung symptoms. We found only two threshold levels, at 30 and 80 pollen grains/m3 for the total symptom score, not three as is used today. The nose and eyes reacted to low doses, but for the lung symptoms, symptom strength did hardly change until 50 pollen grains/m3. Conclusion Grass pollen has an effect on symptoms and HRQL, lasting up to 5 days after exposure. Symptoms from the lungs appear to have higher threshold levels than the eyes and the nose. Overall symptom severity does not appear to change during the course of season. Threshold levels need to be revised. We suggest a traffic light model for public pollen warnings directed to children, where green signifies “no problem”, yellow signifies “can be problems, especially if you are highly sensitive” and red signifies “alert – take action”.

2013-01-01

79

Transepidermal water loss in newborns within the first 24 hours of life: baseline values and comparison with adults.  

PubMed

The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is important for evaluating the integrity of the barrier function of the stratum corneum. Normal TEWL values in healthy adults and in children ages 2 and older are well known, but few studies have been performed in infants and neonates. TEWL in healthy neonates younger than 24 hours old was assessed and compared with that of an adult study population. We also studied possible correlations between this parameter, gestational age, and mode of delivery. A prospective study was conducted in healthy newborns. The areas tested were the volar forearm and the popliteal fossa. Ninety-nine healthy newborns were enrolled and 33 healthy adults were analyzed as controls. Statistically significant differences were noted between newborns and adults in TEWL (p < 0.01). Newborns had a much higher mean TEWL than adults. Differences in the morphology and physiology between newborn and mature skin can explain the higher TEWL in newborns. Higher TEWL could also be due to the sudden functional adaptation of the skin immediately after delivery, when the newborn transits from a liquid to the dry, gaseous extrauterine environment. Functional evaluation of the neonatal skin barrier is important mainly because maintaining skin integrity facilitates cutaneous adaptation. PMID:24383609

Raone, Beatrice; Raboni, Roberta; Rizzo, Nicola; Simonazzi, Giuliana; Patrizi, Annalisa

2014-01-01

80

Problems associated with the use of immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values for estimating the hazard of accidental chemical releases.  

PubMed

The possibility of accidental industrial chemical releases has generated considerable recent attention. One area requiring research for emergency planning is the development of safe exposure concentrations for the public in the event of an inadvertent release. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established a list of extremely hazardous substances and suggested that the toxicity ranking for 92 hazardous materials could be based on the "immediately dangerous to life or health" (IDLH) values developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Eighty-four compounds with IDLH values for which published toxicologic data were available were reviewed to assess the appropriateness of applying such values to accidental release situations. When compared with 30-min animal median lethal concentrations (LC50s), 18 of the IDLHs reviewed were in the same range as lethal levels for animals. For 45 compounds the IDLH values were comparable to concentrations producing severe toxic effects (specifically, unconsciousness, incapacitation, or intolerable irritation). Where available, emergency planning guidelines for the military were compared to IDLHs, and in all 31 cases, the IDLHs exceeded the military exposure guidelines. Twenty compounds also were found to pose a potential cancer risk according to common regulatory guidelines, even under the assumption of a single, 30-min exposure at the IDLH concentration. In addition, the high degree of variability (four orders of magnitude) in the relationship of IDLH values to outcomes of lethality or severe toxicity suggests that the use of IDLH values as emergency planning guidelines for accidental releases is questionable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2688389

Alexeeff, G V; Lipsett, M J; Kizer, K W

1989-11-01

81

Toxicity Data for Establishing 'Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health' (IDLH) Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Rats and guinea pigs (ten of each) were individually exposed to 30 minute inhalation tests using industrial chemicals to develop Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health (IDLH) values. The no effect (NE) level concentration was defined as that concentratio...

N. H. Price S. D. Allen A. U. Daniels W. G. Yates

1978-01-01

82

The assessment of health-related quality of life in relation to the body mass index value in the urban population of Belgrade  

PubMed Central

Background The association between excess body weight, impairment of health and different co-morbidities is well recognized; however, little is known on how excess body weight may affect the quality of life in the general population. Our study investigates the relationship between perceived health-related quality of life (HRQL) and body mass index (BMI) in the urban population of Belgrade. Methods The research was conducted during 2005 on a sample of 5,000 subjects, with a response of 63.38%. The study sample was randomly selected and included men and women over 18 years of age, who resided at the same address over a period of 10 years. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and nutritional status was categorized using the WHO classification. HRQL was measured using the SF-36 generic score. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare HRQL between subjects with normal weight and those with different BMI values; we monitored subject characteristics and potential co-morbidity. Results The prevalence of overweight males and females was 46.6% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 7.5% in males and 8.5% in females. All aspects of health, except mental, were impaired in males who were obese. The physical and mental wellbeing of overweight males was not significantly affected; all score values were similar to those in subjects with normal weight. By contrast, obese and overweight females had lower HRQL in all aspects of physical functioning, as well as in vitality, social functioning and role-emotional. Conclusion The results of our study show that, in the urban population of Belgrade, increased BMI has a much greater impact on physical rather than on mental health, irrespective of subject gender; the effects were particularly pronounced in obese individuals.

Vasiljevic, Nadja; Ralevic, Sonja; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola; Maksimovic, Milos; Milosevic, Gorica Sbutega; Tomic, Jelena

2008-01-01

83

The assessment of health-related quality of life in relation to the body mass index value in the urban population of Belgrade  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between excess body weight, impairment of health and different co-morbidities is well recognized; however, little is known on how excess body weight may affect the quality of life in the general population. Our study investigates the relationship between perceived health-related quality of life (HRQL) and body mass index (BMI) in the urban population of Belgrade. METHODS: The

Nadja Vasiljevic; Sonja Ralevic; Jelena Marinkovic; Nikola Kocev; Milos Maksimovic; Gorica Sbutega Milosevic; Jelena Tomic

2008-01-01

84

The necessity of mission integration. A system develops processes to weave values into the life of the organization.  

PubMed

Essential to the future vitality and viability of a mission-driven organization is the integration of the mission into the organization's programs, policies, practices, and accountability. Holy Cross Health System (HCHS), South Bend, IN, launched an intensive educational effort with managers, staff members, and trustees to reinforce the basic belief that mission permeates all departments. Using the mission statements principles of fidelity, excellence, empowerment, and stewardship, HCHS leaders initiated a systemwide mission assessment and development effort. During assessment, each facilities' ad hoc team addressed and responded to the organization's mission standards on the basis of availability of personnel, size, facility, and particular circumstances. The assessment process called for interdisciplinary, institutional review teams to explore all aspects of mission activity. This process enabled HCHS to launch a systemwide educational effort about the importance and necessity of mission integration. HCHS then used the mission statement elements fidelity, excellence, empowerment, and stewardship to define new relationships of accountability. PMID:10121476

Vandenberg, P; Grant, M K

1992-10-01

85

Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

2008-01-01

86

Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.  

PubMed

Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity. PMID:24010852

Boldt, Joachim

2013-10-01

87

247 Health-Related Quality of Life and Prognostic Value of Acoustic Rhinometry in Patients With Perennial Allergic Rhinitis Treated with Fix Combination of Montelukast Plus Desloratadine  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine prognostic value of acoustic rhinometry in patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) treated with montelukast in fix combination with desloratidine and to assess effectiveness of this medication on health-related quality of life (HRQL). Study design A randomized, double-blind, prospective and multicentric clinical study. Setting Tertiary university hospitals. Methods Patients 20 years of age and older with PAR were assessed over 3 months of treatment with fix combination of montelukast 10 mg plus desloratidine 5 mg once daily (n = 40). Comparative acoustic rhinometric evaluation was used to compare nasal changes in before and after treatments. For evaluation of HRQL between before and after treatments at the first and third months, the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) was used. Results Nasal symptoms and findings including itching, sneezing, discharge, congestion and edema and color change of turbinates have been decreased after treatment. In acoustic rhinometry, minimum cross-sectional area (MCA) measurements and volume results were statistically higher than in before treatment (P < 0.001). Correlation was found that between the volume results and nasal discharged and/or congestion in right nasal passages. In left nasal passages, statistical relation was described between the MCA measurements and itching and/or change of turbinate color (P < 0.05). There was a larger decrease in the overall RQLQ score for the group using montelukast plus desloratidine compared with the pre-treatment scores (P < 0.001). The difference between scores at baseline versus the end of the first and third months for all domains was statically significant (P < 0.001). The treatment difference in change from first month to the end of the third month was statically significant, in favor of the third month, for eye, nose, and non- nose/eye symptoms, sleep, practical problems, emotions and activities that have been limited by nose or eye symptoms, and for overall score. Conclusions Significant reductions in signs and symptoms of PAR with montelukast plus desloratadine treatment were accompanied by improved disease-specific QOL measures. Montelukast in combination with desloratidine provides improvements in acoustic rhinometric values including volume and MCA in patients with PAR. Acoustic rhinometry should be use in diagnostic and prognostic process in patients with PAR.

Cingi, Cemal; Oghan, Fatih; Eskiizmir, Gorkem; Yaz, Aytekin; Ural, Ahmet; Erdogmus, Nagehan

2012-01-01

88

Value orientations and action conflicts in students’ everyday life: An interview study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assumption that today’s German students are able to successfully combine synthesis achievement values and well-being values\\u000a appears to be overly optimistic when regarded from the perspective of motivational psychology. The results of a qualitative-quantitative\\u000a interview study with 25 students indicate that achievement and well-being values may come into conflict in everyday life.\\u000a Incentives for achievement and well-being rarely co-occur

Sebastian Schmid; Manfred Hofer; Franziska Dietz; Heinz Reinders; Stefan Fries

2005-01-01

89

Design to Life Cycle by Value-Oriented Life Cycle Costing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial products basically have to satisfy the customers’ wants and needs as a basic input as well as technical and ecological\\u000a requirements while providing maximum economic benefit throughout the life cycle. In the early stages of design and development\\u000a all these requirements have to be considered in terms of their long-term impacts on the entire product life cycle. The approach

Danina Janz; Engelbert Westkämper

90

Reproductive value in a complex life cycle: heat tolerance of the pitcher-plant mosquito, Wyeomyia smithii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because mortality accumulates with age, Fisher proposed that the strength of selection acting on survival should increase from birth up to the age of first reproduction. Hamilton later theorized that the strength of selection acting on survival should not change from birth to age at first reproduction. As organisms in nature do not live in uniform environments but, rather, experience

P. A. ZANI; L. W. COHNSTAEDT; D. CORBIN; W. E. BRADSHAW; C. M. HOLZAPFEL

2004-01-01

91

Value of Travel Time.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Record includes 6 papers covering important areas of travel time value analysis, such as travel time value theory, conceptual problems in travel time value, methods of deriving travel time values, review of empirical travel time value studies, applica...

R. Gronau

1976-01-01

92

Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Croatian soldiers. Methods The sample consisted of 402 consecutive soldiers aged 21 to 54 years classified into the following groups according to dental readiness: Class 1 – not requiring dental treatment (N?=?54), Class 2 – unlikely to need emergency treatment within 12 months (N?=?205), and Class 3 – very likely to need treatment within 12 months (N?=?143). OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile and psychological dimensions by the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dental Anxiety Scale. Results Multivariate analysis showed that Class 3 soldiers had higher frequency of psychological discomfort, psychological disability, and physical pain and handicap than Class 1 soldiers (P?=?0.019). Multiple linear regression showed that longer military experience, higher level of dental anxiety, and dental unreadiness were significant predictors of lower OHRQoL (P?of the single psychological symptomatic dimensions was a significant predictor of OHRQoL. Conclusion Although this study found a moderate association between OHRQoL and clinical, military, demographic, and psychological variables, the significant predictors could be used as a basis for further research of clinical and psychosocial factors of OHRQoL.

Spalj, Stjepan; Peric, Davorka; Mlacovic Zrinski, Magda; Bulj, Martina; Plancak, Darije

2012-01-01

93

Universal values of Canadian astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

2012-11-01

94

SATISFACTION WITH LIFE DOMAINS AND SALIENT VALUES FOR FUTURE: DATA FROM CHILDREN AND THEIR PARENTS IN FIVE DIFFERENT COUNTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the frame of a cross-cultural project directed to explore how New Information and Communica- tion Technologies (NICTs) affect the life of the adolescents, a study of the relationship between life satisfaction domains and salient values for future, as well as their relation with overall life satisfaction is presented. In order to explore to what extend the different country results

Ferran Casas; Cristina Figuer; Mònica González; Germà Coenders

95

Use of life table statistics and degree-day values to predict the invasion success of Gonatocerus ashmeadi (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), an egg parasitoid of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life table statistics and degree-day requirements for Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, a parasitoid of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata (Say), were used to estimate the number of expected parasitoid generations in California (USA). Between two to 51 and one to 37 generations per year were estimated across different climatic regions in California, using life table and degree-day models, respectively. Temperature-based values

Leigh J. Pilkington; Mark S. Hoddle

2006-01-01

96

The value of an outdoor powered wheelchair with regard to the quality of life of persons with stroke: a follow-up study.  

PubMed

Evaluating the use of a powered wheelchair is of importance because of the increasing number of people with disabilities who are provided with one. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of persons with stroke using an outdoor powered wheelchair and to evaluate the impact of the wheelchair on quality of life. A further aim is to compare the impact on quality of life in respect to age, gender, different disability characteristics, and living conditions. The 32 participants with stroke were recruited consecutively from three county council areas in Sweden. A follow-up design was applied including the EuroQol-5D questionnaires at baseline before the persons were prescribed an outdoor powered wheelchair, and after the participants had used the wheelchair for 3 to 5 months, data were collected by means of the EuroQol-5D and the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The results indicated an improved quality of life with respect to the items competence, independence, capability, quality of life, well-being, happiness, and self-esteem on the PIADS. The usual activity dimension on the EuroQol-5D showed a significant improvement after wheelchair use. The group who drove the powered wheelchair at least once a day in the summer showed a more positive score on the total PIADS and its Competence subscale than persons who drove less. Furthermore, the group with higher rankings of the importance of the powered wheelchair scored higher on psychosocial impact than did the group with lower rankings. The conclusion is that the powered wheelchair mostly has a positive impact on the quality of life of users with stroke. Service providers should be alert, however, to the possible negative impact of a powered wheelchair on quality of life and support the user. PMID:17937056

Pettersson, Ingvor; Ahlström, Gerd; Törnquist, Kristina

2007-01-01

97

The Value of an Outdoor Powered Wheelchair With Regard to the Quality of Life of Persons With Stroke: A Follow-Up Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluating the use of a powered wheelchair is of importance because of the increasing number of people with disabilities who are provided with one. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics of persons with stroke using an outdoor powered wheelchair and to evaluate the impact of the wheelchair on quality of life. A further aim is to compare

Ingvor Pettersson; Gerd Ahlström; Kristina Törnquist

2007-01-01

98

What drives the persistence of presenteeism as a managerial value in hotels?: Observations noted during an Irish work-life balance research project  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research project on work-life balance and Irish hotel managers by McLaughlin and Cullen (Managers and work-life balance: a case of Irish hospitality industry, Irish Management Institute, Dublin) noted high levels of presenteeism amongst focus group participants. This paper analyses the qualitative data obtained during this project with a view to identifying drivers of this finding and discusses possible consequences

John Cullen; Andrew McLaughlin

2006-01-01

99

P02.02. Quality Improvement Study Suggesting the Value of Point-of-Care Documentation of Quality of Life Vital Signs in an Academic Integrative Health Center  

PubMed Central

Focus Area: Supporting Behavioral Change Rigorous quality improvement and outcome reporting within interdisciplinary academic integrative health centers (IHCs) is a realm requiring significant focus in an era of skyrocketing healthcare costs, especially in management of complex chronic illness. In one southeastern US academic IHC seeing primarily (>80%) patients with chronic pain, treatment modalities include yoga, physical therapy (PT), cognitive-based therapy (CBT), acupuncture, and group therapy. A random sample of returning patients at this IHC completed a paper survey querying the following: treatment length and modalities used as a patient at this IHC; current pain, fatigue, and anxiety levels (0–10); change in pain, fatigue, anxiety, and quality of life (?5, “much worse,” to 5, “much better”) since first visit to this IHC. Seventy-seven responses were collected. Mean and median scores were calculated for current pain (m=3.9, SD=2.6, M=4), fatigue (m=4.7, SD=3.0, M=4), anxiety (m=3.5, SD=2.7, M=3), as well as changes in QOL (m=2.8, SD=1.7, M=3), pain (m=2.4, SD=1.9, M=3), anxiety (m=2.4, SD=1.7, M=3), and fatigue (m=1.8, SD=1.7, M=3). Increasing time following treatment was associated with improved QOL (P=.045, r=0.232) as was an increasing number of services utilized (P=.021, r=0.263). Associated with these QOL changes were improved pain (P<.01, r=0.561), fatigue (P<.01, r=0.604), and anxiety (P<0.01, r=0.495) while more severe current pain (P=.002, r=?.347) and fatigue (P=.015, r=?0.277) upon survey completion inversely predicted QOL change. A two-tailed t-test revealed that patients finding PT useful reported improved QOL (P=.008), anxiety (P=.008), fatigue (P=.006), and pain (P=.003) compared to those not. Patients reporting acupuncture useful enjoyed lower anxiety (P=.016) and improved pain (P=.037) while those finding yoga useful reported improved anxiety (P=.005). Together, these data suggest the potential value of implementing a more robust, EMR-based, and consistent evaluation of different treatment modalities and QOL improvement housed within this interdisciplinary academic IHC for quality improvement of personalized, internally coordinated care.

Lynn, Misti; Mikhail, Eriny; Bogle, Richard; Elam, Roy

2013-01-01

100

Prognostic value of the six-minute walk test in end-stage renal disease life expectancy: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The six-minute walk test has been widely used to evaluate functional capacity and predict mortality in several populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the six-minute walk test for the life expectancy of end-stage renal disease patients. METHODS: Patients over 18 years old who underwent hemodialysis for at least six months were included. Patients with hemodynamic instability, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical incapacity and acute myocardial stroke in the preceding three months were excluded. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (54% males; 36±11 years old) were followed for 144 months. The distance walked in the six-minute walk test was a survival predictor for end-stage renal disease patients. In the multivariate analysis, for each 100 meters walked with a 100-meter increment, the hazard ratio was 0.53, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37-0.74. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked in the six-minute walk test and peak oxygen consumption (r?=?0.508). In the multivariate analysis, each year of dialysis treatment represented a 10% increase in death probability; in the severity index analysis, each point on the scale represented an 11% increase in the death risk. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that survival increased approximately 5% for every 100 meters walked in the six-minute walk test, demonstrating that the test is a viable option for evaluating the functional capacity in patients with end-stage renal disease.

de Moraes Kohl, Leandro; Signori, Luis Ulisses; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Silva, Antonio Marcos Vargas; Moreira, Paulo Ricardo; Dipp, Thiago; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Lukrafka, Janice Luisa; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Mea

2012-01-01

101

Precise half-life values for two-neutrino double-beta decay  

SciTech Connect

All existing positive results on two-neutrino double-beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo-{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd-{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}), and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed, and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te, and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for the half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, RU-117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-03-15

102

Life values and mental health: A longitudinal study comparing chronically ill women to women without chronic disease.  

PubMed

We tested the hypothesis that among women who are chronically ill, a re-ordering of life values maintains mental health. A community-based prospective longitudinal study was conducted in which data were obtained from 601 women in 1986, when the women were with mean age 42 and again in 2003, when the women were with mean age 58. There was a significant change in life values as women aged with more change among women with chronic disease (n = 476) than those without chronic disease (n = 125). Increased valuation of intrinsic life values (health and love) and decreased valuation of extrinsic life values (power, fame and attractiveness) were associated with subsequent better mental health for women with chronic disease, but not for those without chronic disease. PMID:20205001

Chen, Henian; Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia

2009-04-01

103

The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning about Biodiversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of…

Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

2012-01-01

104

Value of a statistical life in road safety: A benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.  

PubMed

We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(?)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(?).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated but not analyzed by other researchers. The second difference is that the traffic-risk context affects VSL negatively in developing countries and positively in high-income countries. The research quantifies uncertainty in the transfer function using parameters of the non-absolute distribution of relative transfer errors. The low- and middle-income function is unbiased, with a median relative transfer error of -.05 (95% CI: -.15 to .03), a 25th percentile error of -.22 (95% CI: -.29 to -.19), and a 75th percentile error of .20 (95% CI: .14 to .30). The quantified uncertainty characteristics support evidence-based approaches to sensitivity analysis and probabilistic risk analysis of economic performance measures for road-safety investments. PMID:24952315

Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

2014-10-01

105

Impact of Different Partition Values on Prevalences of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Concentric Geometry in a Large Hypertensive Population The LIFE Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and concentric remodeling have been defined by using a variety of indexation methods and partition values (PVs) for LV mass and relative wall thickness (RWT). The effects of these methods on the distribution of LV geometric patterns in hypertensive subjects remain unclear. Echocardiograms were obtained in 941 patients with stage I to III hypertension and LV

Kristian Wachtell; Jonathan N. Bella; Philip R. Liebson; Eva Gerdts; Bjorn Dahlof; Tapio Aalto; Mary J. Roman; Vasilios Papademetriou; Hans Ibsen; Jens Rokkedal; Richard B. Devereux

2010-01-01

106

European reference values for the quality of life questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30: Results of a German investigation and a summarizing analysis of six European general population normative studies.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. The aims of this study are to present the results of a new general population normative study of the quality of life questionnaire EORTC QLQ-C30 and to give European reference values averaged across six studies. Methods. The empirical study was based on a representative sample of the German adult population (N = 2448). The subjects were asked to fill in several questionnaires, one of them being the EORTC QLQ-C30. Results. EORTC QLQ-C30 mean scores of this sample indicated slightly better quality of life (QoL) than in previous European studies. QoL decreased with age, but there were only small gender differences. The mean scores were compared with the age and gender adjusted scores of five other European normative studies from Sweden, the Netherlands, Norway, and Germany (N between 1731 and 4910). Finally, the data of these five studies and the new study were combined to arrive at averaged European normative values for the scales and the symptom items of the questionnaire. Conclusion. The reference values of the scales pooled across six European studies (N = 16 151) can be used as general population references for QoL scores of cancer patients. PMID:24456505

Hinz, Andreas; Singer, Susanne; Brähler, Elmar

2014-07-01

107

Quality of life indicators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is considered to be a function of biophysical, environmental and social conditions. No system of quality of life indicators has been developed as yet, however some progress has been made lately to this end. Methods appropriate for designing quality ot life indexes are suggested in this paper. Such indexes could be used to evaluate different quality of

John C. Papageorgiou

1976-01-01

108

Are physicians' estimations of future events value-impregnated? Cross-sectional study of double intentions when providing treatment that shortens a dying patient's life.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to corroborate or undermine a previously presented conjecture that physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions. We used questionnaire based cross-sectional design and described a situation where an imminently dying patient was provided with alleviating drugs which also shortened life and, additionally, were intended to do so. We asked what would happen to physicians' own trust if they took the action described, and also what the physician estimated would happen to the general publics' trust in health services. Decrease of trust was used as surrogate for an undesirable action. The results are presented as proportions with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI). Statistical analysis was based on inter-rater agreement (Weighted Kappa)-test as well as ? (2) test and Odds Ratio with 95 % CI. We found a moderate inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.552) between what would happen with the physicians' own trust in healthcare and their estimations of what would happen with the general population's trust. We identified a significant difference between being pro et contra the treatment with double intentions and the estimation of the general population's trust (?(2) = 72, df = 2 and p < 0.001). Focusing on either decreasing or increasing own trust and being pro or contra the action we identified a strong association [OR 79 (CI 25-253)]. Although the inter-rater agreement in the present study was somewhat weaker compared to a study about the explicit use of the term 'physicians assisted suicide' we found that our hypothesis-physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions-was corroborated. This might have implications in research as well as in clinical decision-making. We suggest that Merton's ideal of disinterestedness should be highlighted. PMID:24449290

Rydvall, Anders; Juth, Niklas; Sandlund, Mikael; Lynøe, Niels

2014-08-01

109

Question of Life, A.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses a definition of life and general conditions necessary to sustain life. Viewers are introduced to the possible past history of Mars as well as its present surface topography and its capacity to support life as we know it. Emphasizes the viking li...

1994-01-01

110

Cultural and moral values surrounding care and (in)dependence in late life: reflections from India in an era of global modernity.  

PubMed

In India, many are participating in a shift from the intergenerational family as the central site of aging and elder care, to an increasing reliance on individual selves, the state, and private institutions. Over recent years, the nation has witnessed a proliferation of old age homes and a new industry of aging-focused institutions offering social, emotional, and practical support for older persons living alone. This article examines Indians' perspectives on elder care and the significant changes underway in their nation and world. Qualitative ethnographic fieldwork was conducted primarily in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) among older persons, their families, and community members, with a focus on old age homes. Beliefs and practices surrounding competing models of elder care--such as in the family or in old age homes--speak not only to elder care per se, but also to broader cultural-moral visions of the relationship among persons, families, and states, and the nature and aims of the human life course. PMID:16544869

Lamb, Sarah

2005-01-01

111

The value of information.  

PubMed

The value of information is only indirectly a function of its objective characteristics. Of greater importance is its potential to add value to what its users can do. The dramatic recent reductions in the costs of distributing information have made protection against unwanted information more valuable than finding wanted information. This makes active information management a much prized skill. Suggestions are offered for reducing the costs of information search and for framing the search question at the correct level of specificity. PMID:14977383

Chambers, David W

2003-01-01

112

Comparing the effectiveness of acceptance-based behavior therapy and applied relaxation on acceptance of internal experiences, engagement in valued actions and quality of life in generalized anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) was developed based on the theory that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is maintained through a reactive and fused relationship with internal experiences and a tendency toward experiential avoidance and behavioral restriction. ABBT specifically targets these elements. Here, we aimed to compare ABBT to the applied relaxation (AR), which is the most utilized psychological therapy for GAD. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial study. The sample included 18 GAD patients who were referred by an expert psychiatrist to Psychosomatic Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were assigned into two groups (ABBT and AR group). Both groups received routine drug therapies by psychiatrists. The ABBT and AR were applied in 12 weekly sessions. The instruments used in the study included Valued Living Questionnaire, Action, and Acceptance Questionnaire, and Short-Form Health Survey-12 revised Version (SF-12V2). The data were analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results: No significant differences were found between ABBT and AR groups in their acceptance of internal experiences, engagement in meaningful activities and quality of life (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The current study compared ABBT to the most utilized psychological therapy for GAD; i.e., AR. ABBT and AR have similar efficacy on acceptance of internal experiences, valued actions and quality of life.

Zargar, Fatemeh; Farid, Ali Asghar Asgharnejad; Atef-Vahid, Mohammad-Kazem; Afshar, Hamid; Omidi, Abdollah

2013-01-01

113

Value of Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

1976-01-01

114

Value of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a framework for measuring the value of information from three perspectives--the reader of information, the organization or funder, and society--which is based on use studies of the Energy Data Base by Department of Energy researchers. (CLB)

Carroll, Bonnie C.; King, Donald W.

1985-01-01

115

The value of content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes the main points of the articles included in this issue of Business Information Review. Gerry McGovern and Rob Norton discuss the value of content in the context of the information needed to help them make decisions and their reliance on their professional or social network. They conclude that, while acknowledging that experience, instinct and good networking will always be

Gerry McGovern; Rob Norton

2001-01-01

116

The Quality of Life in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

Park, Chong-Min

2009-01-01

117

The Value of Health and Longevity  

Microsoft Academic Search

We develop a framework for valuing improvements in health and apply it to past and prospective reductions in mortality in the United States. We calculate social values of (i) increased longevity over the twentieth century, (ii) progress against various diseases after 1970, and (iii) potential future progress against major diseases. Cumulative gains in life expectancy after 1900 were worth over

Kevin M. Murphy; Robert H. Topel

2006-01-01

118

The value of anecdote.  

PubMed

Anecdote is defined as "a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident" and are not often deemed scientifically valuable (www.merriam-webster.com). Anecdotes can be analyzed, however, and those observations can become the initiation of important and groundbreaking work. In this article, we describe aecdotes of several cases which by themselves had seemingly little value. The value was added later, when these concepts were extrapolated to important projects, which expanded into series of experiences, which were reproducible and able to be analyzed and judged as valuable devices and/or methods. The authors recognize that some of the images are old and not of great quality but the information provided is as complete as possible and reliable. PMID:24468424

Parodi, Juan C; Parodi, Federico E

2014-04-01

119

Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

120

The predictability of data values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The predictability of data values is studied at a fundamental level. Two basic predictor models are defined: Computational predictors perform an operation on previous values to yield predicted next values. Examples we study are stride value prediction (which adds a delta to a previous value) and last value prediction (which performs the trivial identity operation on the previous value); Context

Yiannakis Sazeides; James E. Smith

1997-01-01

121

Life values and mental health: A longitudinal study comparing chronically ill women to women without chronic disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested the hypothesis that among women who are chronically ill, a re-ordering of life values maintains mental health. A community-based prospective longitudinal study was conducted in which data were obtained from 601 women in 1986, when the women were with mean age 42 and again in 2003, when the women were with mean age 58. There was a significant

Henian Chen; Stephanie Kasen; Patricia Cohen

2009-01-01

122

The structure of value.  

PubMed

Keys to success in developing the right framework for delivering greater value in an era of reform include the following: Have a compelling vision. In evaluating potential partnerships, carefully consider the extent to which the organizations' cultures are aligned. Ensure that initiatives stay on course. Develop sustainable energy among leaders and staff through early wins. Measure patient, physician, and employee satisfaction before and after initiatives are implemented and respond accordingly. PMID:24511778

Daly, Rich

2014-01-01

123

The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of…

Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

124

Early HIV treatment led to life expectancy gains valued at $80 billion for people infected in 1996-2009.  

PubMed

In late 2009 US guidelines for HIV treatment were revised to recommend the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) earlier in the course of the disease. We analyzed the life expectancy gains of people infected with HIV between the introduction of cART in 1996 and the 2009 guideline revisions. Compared to people who initiated cART late (defined as having a CD4 cell count of less than 350 per cubic millimeter of blood), those who initiated treatment early (with a CD4 count of 350-500) could expect to live 6.1 years longer, and the earliest initiators (with a CD4 count of more than 500) could expect an extra 9.0 years of life. The total value of life expectancy gains to the early and earliest initiators of treatment was $80 billion, with each life-year valued at $150,000. The value of the survival gains was more than double the increase in drug manufacturers' revenues from early cART initiation. Our results clarify the economic implications of adherence to treatment guidelines. PMID:24590933

Romley, John A; Juday, Timothy; Solomon, Matthew D; Seekins, Daniel; Brookmeyer, Ronald; Goldman, Dana P

2014-03-01

125

Creating Work-Life Balance: A Model of Pluralism across Life Domains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a theoretical framework that explains how life complexity and dynamism affect work-life balance. The authors explain the moderating effects of munificence and accessibility of resources in one’s life as well as the personality differences and individual value systems on the relationship between life complexity\\/dynamism and work-life balance. The analysis leads to implications for future research and practice.

Karen J. Crooker; Faye L. Smith; Filiz Tabak

2002-01-01

126

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census of Marine Life is an initiative to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life in the oceans in the past, present, and future. Materials available at the census site include news articles, press releases, and other media resources such as images and video. There is an overview of the project, information on partners and sponsors, and searchable databases of publications and participants. The educational materials page features illustrated articles on marine life discoveries, the use of research techniques and technology, and links to education and outreach programs of related organizations.

127

Diversity of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students perform library research on an assigned marine animal, create a formatted poster of their topic, and share with their classmates what they've learned in a poster session, conducted in the way of poster sessions at science conferences. Afterward, students complete a written assignment where they are asked to reflect on their experience as a participant in a community of science students, their focused learning on their own marine animal, their larger learning about the diversity of marine life from their poster session participation, and what it implies about the intrinsic value of the ocean realm, and the need for conservation. The outcomes for this assignment are aligned with course-specific outcomes articulated in the Minnesota Transfer Curriculum. They are: Synthesize central concepts from assigned readings of scientific literature in written assignments. Discuss/compare characteristics of diverse environments in the context of ocean science. Interpret data generated by oceanographic techniques, and present written and oral summaries of their findings. Explain the basic structure and function of the ocean realm, the impact of humans on it, and the impact of the ocean realm on humans.

Kobilka, David

128

End-of-Life  

MedlinePLUS

... to provide greater comfort, assist in symptom and pain management, and ease the burden of an illness. Patients ... end-of-life care, create new interventions for pain and symptom management, identify effective, accessible treatments, and develop new health ...

129

End of Life Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

130

Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Values. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is intended to define the development of the valuing process and contains ideas for classroom teachers. It is not a conventional curriculum guide but is recommended for use with the guide on drug education (SP 007 318). It contains the following…

Chapel Hill City Schools, NC.

131

Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Discusses the general characteristics of life as we know it. Uses a number of examples to show how life has adapted to earth conditions and certain life forms can withstand environmental shocks. Describes the conditions on Mars with the question raised as...

1994-01-01

132

End of Life Decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although end-of-life decision making is critical for good oncology care, physicians often do not initiate discussions until\\u000a the last days of life and do not use good communication skills and evidence-based techniques. Research on deficits in decision\\u000a making has found that patients often misunderstand information the first time it is provided or may not be ready to hear bad\\u000a news,

Sydney Morss Dy

133

The moral status of extraterrestrial life.  

PubMed

If we eventually discover extraterrestrial life, do we have any moral obligations for how to treat the life-forms we find; does it matter whether they are intelligent, sentient, or just microbial-and does it matter that they are extraterrestrial? In this paper, I examine these questions by looking at two of the basic questions in moral philosophy: What does it take to be a moral object? and What has value of what kind? I will start with the first of these questions by looking at the most important attempts to answer this question on our own planet and by asking whether and how they could be applied to extraterrestrial life. The results range from a very strong protection of all extraterrestrial life and all extraterrestrial environments, whether inhabited or not, to total exclusion of extraterrestrial life. Subsequently, I also examine whether extraterrestrial life that lacks moral status can have value to human or alien life with moral status, and if that could generate any obligations for how to treat extraterrestrial life. Based on this analysis, I conclude that extraterrestrial life-forms can have both instrumental value and end value to moral objects, which has strong implications for how to treat them. PMID:23013271

Persson, Erik

2012-10-01

134

Measuring the Quality of Navy Life.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Behavior of Navy personnel with regard to a reenlistment decision is a function of perceptions of Navy life modified by each individual's comparison to alternatives in civilian life and by the importance of that variable in their hierarchy of values. The ...

R. J. Orend R. N. Gaines K. W. Stroad M. J. Michaels

1978-01-01

135

[Conditional reimbursement: a tool to reduce uncertainty relating the value of medicines and reinforce their continuous evaluation in real-life].  

PubMed

In order to alleviate the inherent uncertainty that comes with the market access and public funding of new health products, a conditional reimbursement mechanism is proposed. The latter is circumscribed by recommendations regarding its implementation in limited cases in order to allow for a fair access of patients to therapeutic innovations, within economic conditions both optimum and reviewable. PMID:24075702

Bail, J-N

2013-09-01

136

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

137

Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

2012-01-01

138

The Evaluation Profession in Pursuit of Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six values useful for judging the ethical problems in program evaluation are: (1) distributive justice; (2) truth seeking; (3) human dignity; (4) sharing; (5) concern for the quality of life, and (6) client loyalty. This is a comment on TM 503 780. (Author/CTM)

Sheinfeld, Sherri Nita

1978-01-01

139

The Resurrection of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The question of life was progressively put aside in the second half of the 20th century with the rise of molecular biology, but has recently re-emerged. Many scientists and philosophers consider that there is no place for this question within biology; that the distinction between living and non-living is arbitrary; and that progress in synthetic biology will finally put this question out of people’s minds. I will argue that there is something wrong with the arguments supporting these statements. There are no reasons to exclude the question “What is life?” from biology. But the nature of the question has dramatically changed recently. Instead of being a search for the principles of life, the answer is now sought in the description of the historical process that has coupled the now well-established characteristics of organisms.

Morange, Michel

2010-04-01

140

Service Life of Respirator Cartridges for Formaldehyde.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To date there is no NIOSH-approved air-purifying respirator which will effectively remove formaldehyde gas. Because of formaldehyde's high vapor pressure, service life values calculated using the adsorption isotherm and Wheeler equations indicate that org...

G. O. Nelson G. J. Carlson J. S. Johnson

1981-01-01

141

Life Cycles of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

142

The Economic Value of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews commonly accepted notions of information value from the perspective of a computer scientist and suggests the importance of using an economic commodity value approach as the most meaningful way to establish information value. Information value as use, as traffic, and as commodity are considered. (Contains 24 references.) (LRW)

Bellin, David

1993-01-01

143

Value Orientations and Action Conflicts in Students' Everyday Life: An Interview Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The assumption that today's German students are able to successfully combine synthesis achievement values and well-being values appears to be overly optimistic when regarded from the perspective of motivational psychology. The results of a qualitative-quantitative interview study with 25 students indicate that achievement and well-being values may…

Schmid, Sebastian; Hofer, Manfred; Dietz, Franziska; Reinders, Heinz; Fries, Stefan

2005-01-01

144

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

Program, The W.

145

The encyclopedia of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative biology, crossing the digital divide, has begun a still largely unheralded revolution: the exploration and analysis of biodiversity at a vastly accelerated pace. Its momentum will return systematics from its long sojourn at the margin and back into the mainstream of science. Its principal achievement will be a single-portal electronic encyclopedia of life.

Edward O. Wilson

2003-01-01

146

Game of Life Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. Ejs Game of Life model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_ms_explicit_GameOfLife.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2009-01-15

147

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

148

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

149

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Resources, Wisconsin D.

2012-05-12

150

Are Values Out of Style?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author explores the meaning of values, how they are derived, what educators can do to help in transmitting them, the roles that helping persons can take (classification and implementation of choices), and characteristics appropriate to value educators. (CJ)

Schindler-Rainman, Eva

1970-01-01

151

Understanding the Value of IT.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Understanding the value of information technology (IT) on campus is important, as technology projects now approach buildings as the largest investments a campus can make. Four major challenges, identified at a recent conference, inhibit the discussion of IT value. (SLD)

Goldstein, Phil; Katz, Richard N.; Olson, Mark

2003-01-01

152

The Half-Life of Actinouranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values of the half-life of actinouranium are obtained from data on a Morogoro pitchblende and a uraninite from Great Bear Lake, analyzed by von Grosse and Marble, respectively. Computations were made with two extreme values, 0.03 and 0.04, for the actinium \\

Arthur E. Ruark

1934-01-01

153

Capacity Value of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

2012-11-10

154

Value of Interior Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of U.S. Army personnel depends heavily on the design of the facilities they work in. Interior aspects such as floor layout, workstation configuration, etc. can affect worker productivity, comfort, safety, and health. Inadequately designe...

D. C. Heinen S. N. Demirjian T. A. Pardon B. F. Adeoey J. R. Anderson

1994-01-01

155

The Value of Two  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses her research into the development of counting in pre-school children. Her research involved a small-scale case study with a personal flavour--the children in the study were her twin daughters (called Emily and Alice for the purpose of the research). Observations of their mathematical development began at 18…

Trundley, Ruth

2008-01-01

156

A vocation of value.  

PubMed

What are the qualities needed to be a nurse? Hard working? Good sense of humour? A lovely smile? Oodles of common sense? These are the desirable attributes of nursing portrayed often by the popular press, even by nurses themselves. PMID:24779824

Leary, Alison

2014-04-30

157

The Value of Limitations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

David Horner, a recent president of North Park College and Theological Seminary has suggested that, in light of the tension between the demands of free inquiry and the need for religious inculcation, Christian colleges have two options: either redefine academic freedom or limit it and be up front and principled about it. In this article, the…

Hardy, Lee

2006-01-01

158

The value of CPFR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The last several year has witnessed an explosion of interest in business collaboration. This paper looks at the latest form: collaborative planning forecasting and replenishment (CPFR). It looks at the possible benefits of business collaboration based on several pilot projects and pro-forma analysis and describes in some detail a case study, focusing on the mechanics of the CPFR process and

Yossi Sheffi

159

Bilastine and quality of life.  

PubMed

The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators. PMID:22185046

Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

2011-01-01

160

Calorific Values of Microcrustacea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat content of copepods and other microcrustaceans and two species of algae in calories per gram varied from 4427 for immature crayfish to 5643 for the female Diaptomus siciloides. The algae, cladoceran, anostracan, conchostracan, and immature crayfish were all below 5000, whereas all the copepods were above 5300 (overline{x} 5467); thus copepods may contribute more energy to the food

Gabriel W. Comita; David W. Schindler

1963-01-01

161

The Value of Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department explores the role of the wetlands in our environment, including providing habitats for wildlife, acting as natural water filters, and playing a part in the greater water cycle.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

162

Life Cycle of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We will learn the basic cycle of a butterfly's life, starting with an egg and ending as a butterfly. Choose one of the following web pages to visit and learn about the life cycle of a butterfly: This link shows real pictures- Butterfly Life Cycle -OR- This link shows cartoon pictures- Life Cycle (clip art images) Now that you have knowledge about the butterfly, Test what you have learned with this fun life cycle activity! Life Cycle Activity When caterpillars change to butterflies, this is ...

Integratingtechlauryn

2012-02-07

163

The Value of Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)…

Hynes, Warren

2013-01-01

164

The Value of Video  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video connects sight and sound, creating a composite experience greater than either alone. More than any other single technology, video is the most powerful way to communicate with others--and an ideal medium for sharing with others the vital learning occurring in music classrooms. In this article, the author leads readers through the process of…

Thompson, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

165

End-of-Life Decisions  

MedlinePLUS

... their end-of-life choices. Is it considered suicide to refuse artificial nutrition and hydration? No. When ... hydration, it is not considered an act of suicide. A person at the end of life is ...

166

Generating value(s): Psychological value hierarchies reflect context-dependent sensitivity of the reward system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values are motivational constructs that determine what is important to us and which goals we choose to pursue. Cross-cultural research suggests that the structure of the human value system is universal, but people and cultures differ in terms of relative value priorities. Differences in psychological value hierarchies can be parsimoniously described using the orthogonal dimensions self-interest and openness to change.

Tobias Brosch; Géraldine Coppin; Klaus R. Scherer; Sophie Schwartz; David Sander

2011-01-01

167

The Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the whole process of the plant life cycle? 1) You will need to open the Flow Chart. Flow Chart 2) Be sure to print out your own Flow Chart so you can record your information. 3) Look at the chart of the Life Cycle and print out your own copy. Chart showing the steps of the life cycle 4) Record each step of the Plant Life Cycle in your Flow Chart starting ...

Kingsford, Ms.

2010-11-04

168

Values of adolescent drug abusers.  

PubMed

Values of adolescent drug abusers are measured with the Rokeach Value Survey and compared with the values of the parents and peers of drug abusers. Relatively few significant differences are found between groups, and there is a marked level of concordance between pairs of groups: .86 to .96. There is, however, a relatively low level of agreement within groups (.16 to .36), and the suggestion is made that focusing on the differences between value systems of users and their significant others may be of limited programmatic utility. PMID:6826259

Brook, R C; Whitehead, P C

1983-01-01

169

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

170

Values as lived experience: evolving value sensitive design in support of value discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Value Sensitive Design (VSD) methodology provides a comprehensive framework for advancing a value-centered researchand designagenda. AlthoughVSDprovideshelpful ways of thinking about and designing value-centered com- putational systems, we argue that the specific mechanics of VSD create thorny tensions with respect to value sensitivity. In particular, we examine limitations due to value classifica- tions, inadequateguidanceon empiricaltools for design, and the ways

Christopher A. Le Dantec; Erika Shehan Poole; Susan P. Wyche

2009-01-01

171

Half-life measurement of 124Sb.  

PubMed

The half-life of (124)Sb was determined experimentally by following the decay of a source from a radiopure solution with a Centronic IG12 ionisation chamber. Thousands of measurements were performed over a period of 358 days, i.e. about six half-life periods. However, the data analysis was restricted to the first 221 days, in order to limit the dominant uncertainty component associated with the hypothetical possibility of a systematic error on background subtraction. The resulting value for the (124)Sb half-life, 60.212 (11) days, is found to be in very good agreement with published values, but carries a lower uncertainty. Major uncertainty contributions pertain to possible systematic errors in background correction, long-term changes in source-detector geometry and medium- and long-term instability of the instrument. Additional measurements were performed with a high-purity germanium detector to confirm the above value. PMID:20044262

Paepen, J; Altzitzoglou, T; Van Ammel, R; Sibbens, G; Pommé, S

2010-01-01

172

Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?  

PubMed

We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

Skeggs, Bev

2014-03-01

173

A Child's World of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children need to share their personal lives with other persons in a relationship of mutual respect and responsiveness; i.e., in a relationship of love. Children are an end, not a means, people to be valued for their own sakes. Adults must help children to know who they are and who they can become. Values contribute to the fulfillment of a person's…

Mulcahy, Mary

174

The Value of Sequential Information.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In decision analysis it is normal to consider the value of information to be a constant against which the cost of information is compared. However, when it is possible to buy information sequentially, the value of information is not a constant. Rather, it...

A. C. Miller

1974-01-01

175

Values Identified in Different Groups of Air Force Nurses.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Transition is a process of change that occurs throughout a person's lifetime in self-identity, life activities, and occupational choice and development. Fundamental personal values are reflected in the choices and decisions made in every aspect of our liv...

1999-01-01

176

The semiotics of religious space in Second Life®  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scholarly research on the religious dimension of Second Life® can be conducted with reference to several elements: ties between the religious dimension of Second Life and that of the “First Life” (an approach privileged by the sociology and the psychology of religion); the transcendent value inherent in the creation of an alternative reality (an approach favored by the philosophy of

Massimo Leone

2011-01-01

177

Legal Implications of Values Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Americans traditionally have looked to the public schools to play a role in transmitting society's values to students, and on various occasions the U.S. Supreme Court has emphasized the role of the nation's schools in inculcating basic values. For many years Maine has had a statute mandating the teaching of virtue and morality and another that…

Shaw, Brian C.; Cummings, Daniel L.

178

Half-life measurement of 55Fe.  

PubMed

The half-life of 55Fe was determined experimentally and compared with literature values. A solid 55Fe source was prepared by electrodeposition and repeatedly measured in an X-ray detector at a constant, low solid angle. In total, more than six hundred measurements were performed over a period of ten months, corresponding to one third of the half-life. The experimental method and the corresponding uncertainty budget are presented. The result of 1005.2+/-1.4 days is slightly higher than the current recommended values. PMID:16580219

Van Ammel, R; Pommé, S; Sibbens, G

2006-01-01

179

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

180

The Values and Value Systems of Educational Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This speech reports on a study of 62 educational administrators that supplies empirical evidence in support of the contention that there are significantly different profiles associated with different occupational-career groups. Utilizing the Rokeach Value Survey Form D, the authors surveyed and compared the value configurations of 12 distinct…

Sikula, Andrew F.; Sikula, John P.

181

POV: Steam of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

182

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-09  

SciTech Connect

All existing 'positive' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo-{sup 100}Ru(0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd-{sup 150}Sm(0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te, {sup 130}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-11-09

183

Values of The Cultural Revolution  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines Chinese press editorials and testimonials from members of the People's Liberation Army in an attempt to determine the meaning of Mao Tse Tung's vision of a new socialist man and the societal value transformation process. (MH)

Wang, James C. F.

1977-01-01

184

The Life of Mammals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Life of Mammals is a new 10-part BBC Nature series hosted by David Attenborough. This "biggest ever wildlife series devoted to mammals" has a suitably enormous companion Web site, which offers more interactive, multimedia features than you can imagine. Video previews, quizzes and challenges, Web cams, in-depth articles, recommended books -- the list goes on. Mammalian social behavior, body shape, intelligence, diet, and habitat comprise the main themes of this Web site, presented with so much dazzle as to cast aside any doubt that we as mammals find ourselves endlessly fascinating. Particularly engaging are the Web cams, including one for Margot the mouse and her new brood (born January 12, 2003).

2001-01-01

185

Values Supporting Quality Family Life: An Exploratory Descriptive Study. Report HF/MF-33.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph describes an investigation into the family values of colored and white cultural groups in South Africa. Experts in social work and marriage counseling were first surveyed, followed by in-depth interviews in groups with varying combinations of culture, language, social class and age differences. Detailed findings are presented on…

Viljoen, Sylvia; Steyn, Anna F.

186

Quality of life philosophy I. Quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life.  

PubMed

In the Danish Quality of Life Survey, we asked 10,000 people about their quality of life with the validated SEQOL questionnaire with more than 300 questions on their quality of life. How did they feel? How content were they with their lives? How happy were they? Did they feel their needs were fulfilled? And many more questions. We asked the questions we believed to be important for their quality of life (QOL). The results were quite surprising and forced us to recontemplate the following philosophical questions: What is quality of life, happiness, and meaning in life? What is a human being? Do we need a new biology? Is the brain the seat of consciousness? How do we seize the meaning of life and by doing so, will we become well again? What are the key concepts of quality of life? The meaning of life is connectedness and development. It is about realizing every opportunity and potential in one"s existence. The opportunities must be found and acknowledged. What do you find when you find yourself deep down? You find your real self and your purpose in life. You realize that you are already a part of a larger totality. Antonovsky called it "coherence". Maslow called it "transcendence". Frankl called it "meaning of life". We call it simply "being". To test if these philosophical questions are actually relevant for medicine, we looked at the consequences for patients being taught the quality of life philosophy. Quite surprisingly we learned from our pilot studies with "quality of life as medicine" that just by assimilating the basic concepts of the quality of life philosophy presented in this series of papers, patients felt better and saw their lives as more meaningful. The improvement of the patient"s personal philosophy of life seems to be the essence of holistic medicine, helping the patient to assume more responsibility for his or her own existence. PMID:14646011

Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

2003-12-01

187

Alerting of Laboratory Critical Values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Critical value is defined as a result suggesting that the patient is in danger unless appropriate action is taken immediately. We designed an automated reporting system of critical values and evaluated its performance. Fifteen critical values were defined and 2-4 doctors were assigned to receive short message service (SMS).Laboratory results in LIS and EMR were called back to the DIA server. The rule engine named U-brain in the CDSS server was run in real-time and decision if the laboratory data was critical was made. The CDSS system for alerting of laboratory critical values was fast and stable without additional burden to the entire EMR system. Continuous communication with clinicians and feedback of clinical performance are mandatory for the refinement and development of user-friendly CDSS contents. Appropriate clinical parameters are necessary for demonstration of the usefulness of the system.

Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Paik, Hyeon Young; Lee, Chi Woo; Bang, Su Mi; Hong, Joon Seok; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, In-Sook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Yoon

188

Camp Teaches Life Lessons: A Director's Commentary on Camp's Lasting Educational Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At camp, children learn values and skills that are seldom included in school curricula. The community-based environment of camps is conducive to learning self-assurance, community respect, and healthy competition, and to understanding diversity. Exposure to Nature promotes an infectious enthusiasm for the wilderness and for learning outdoor…

Gucker, Peter L.

2001-01-01

189

Economic Value of Urban Landscapes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Tosupport decision-makingsin landscape management and related policies, an objective methodology for evaluating urban landscapes is necessary. In particular, it is anticipated to show the economic,value of urban landscapes so that the social benefits of regulations on landscapes can be verified. This paper developed a three-step framework for assessing the economic value of urban landscapes, i.e. conducting standardized landscape survey,

Xiaolu Gao; Yasushi Asami

190

Comparison of three methods for estimating complete life tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A question of interest in the demographic and actuarial fields is the estimation of the complete sets of qx values when the data are given in age groups. When the complete life tables are not available, estimating it from abridged life tables is necessary. Three methods such as King's Osculatory Interpolation, Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation and Heligman-Pollard Model are compared using data on abridged life tables for Malaysian population. Each of these methods considered was applied on the abridged data sets to estimate the complete sets of qx values. Then, the estimated complete sets of qx values were used to produce the estimated abridged ones by each of the three methods. The results were then compared with the actual values published in the abridged life tables. Among the three methods, the Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation method produces the best estimates of complete life tables from five-year abridged life tables.

Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

2013-04-01

191

Diversity of Life Possible  

NASA Video Gallery

Planets are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustaining atmosphere. The orbit affects the surface temperature and...

192

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2007-08-09

193

The evolution of late life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late life is a distinct phase of life characterized by a cessation in the deterioration of survivorship and fecundity characteristic of normal aging. Several theories have been proposed to explain non-aging at late ages, specifically with regards to late-life mortality-rate plateaus. All such theories must be compatible with formal evolutionary theory and experimental findings. Here, we develop a critique of

Casandra L. Rauser; Laurence D. Mueller; Michael R. Rose

2006-01-01

194

Significant predictive values for the life expectancy in patients with spinal metastasis following surgical treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Spinal metastasis is a common manifestation of bony metastasis, but for surgeons involved in the treatment of individual patients,\\u000a it is not easy to choose optimal treatments. Various scoring systems have been designed to predict survival periods and to\\u000a select optimal treatments, but prognosis is still unpredictable. Objectives are to evaluate the efficiency of the predictive\\u000a value of preoperative Tokuhashi

In-Soo Oh; Sang-Il Kim; Kee-Yong Ha

195

Vision and quality-of-life.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of visual acuity loss to quality of life. DESIGN: Three hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of 20/40 or greater in at least 1 eye were interviewed in a standardized fashion using a modified VF-14, questionnaire. Utility values were also obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual function score on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as well as with utility values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods. RESULTS: Decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off method of utility evaluation. The standard gamble method of utility evaluation was not as directly correlated with vision as the time trade-off method. Age, level of education, gender, race, length of time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic comorbidities did not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual loss in the better eye. The level of reduced vision in the better eye, rather than the specific disease process causing reduced vision, was related to mean utility values. The average person with 20/40 vision in the better seeing eye was willing to trade 2 of every 10 years of life in return for perfect vision (utility value of 0.8), while the average person with counting fingers vision in the better eye was willing to trade approximately 5 of every 10 remaining years of life (utility value of 0.52) in return for perfect vision. CONCLUSIONS: The time trade-off method of utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing quality of life associated with visual loss. Time trade-off utility values decrease in direct conjunction with decreasing vision in the better-seeing eye. Unlike the modified VF-14 test and its counterparts, utility values allow the quality of life associated with visual loss to be more readily compared to the quality of life associated with other health (disease) states. This information can be employed for cost-effective analyses that objectively compare evidence-based medicine, patient-based preferences and sound econometric principles across all specialties in health care.

Brown, G C

1999-01-01

196

26 CFR 20.2031-7A - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...market value of annuities, life estates...(2) Transitional rule.(i) If the...market value of annuities, life estates, terms of years...(2) Transitional rule.(i) If a decedent...market value of annuities, life estates, terms for...

2013-04-01

197

The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

Hung, Marianne Andrews

198

Capacity Value of Wind Power  

SciTech Connect

Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

2011-05-04

199

Life prediction of pressure vessel nozzles  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the material yields local stress and strain behaviour changes, especially if there is a notch, determination of the local strain value can be difficult. Therefore it is not easy to predict the life of mechanical components in the low-cycle region. In the present work pressure vessels are considered and fatigue tests carried out. The most stressed zones, which are

M. Giglio; L. Vergani

1995-01-01

200

The Value of Certainty (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ? Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ? Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ? Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ? Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ? Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ? Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ? Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ? Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ? Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ? Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms of the entropy which is calculated by creating a set of discrete bins for the value and then using error estimates to assign probabilities, pi, to each bin. The entropy, H, is simply H = ?i pi log2(1/pi) The value of a new set of observations is the information gain, I, which is I = Hprior - Hposterior The probability distributions that appear in this calculation depend on rigorous evaluation of errors in the observations. While direct estimates of the monetary value of data that could be used in budget prioritizations may not capture the value of data to the scientific community, it appears that the information gain may be a useful start in providing a `common currency' for evaluating projects that serve very different communities. In addition, from the standpoint of governmental accounting, it appears reasonable to assume that much of the expense for scientific data become sunk costs shortly after operations begin and that the real, long-term value is created by the effort scientists expend in creating the software that interprets the data and in the effort expended in calibration and validation. These efforts are the ones that directly contribute to the information gain that provides the value of these data.

Barkstrom, B. R.

2009-12-01

201

Detection of life in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The selection of spacecraft experiments and equipment to detect extraterrestrial life outside earth centers on observations of chemical compounds similar to amino acids and proteins, on signs of metabolism in the form of nutrient absorption, and life form impressions in fossiles or signs of civilization.

Corliss, W.

1974-01-01

202

Life Cycle of Stars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

1999-01-01

203

Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

Bertka, Constance M.

2009-09-01

204

The Value of the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

Tubbs, Nigel

2013-01-01

205

Transfer of value from fit.  

PubMed

People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer. PMID:12793581

Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

2003-06-01

206

Life Cycle of a Pencil.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

Reeske, Mike

2000-01-01

207

The Value of Value Stream Mapping to Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides a discussion of the value of teaching the lean manufacturing topic of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to senior students in engineering. Value Stream Mapping is a technique that is used to view, on a broad level, a company's manufacturing of a part family. The technique is used to identify possible improvement areas within the manufacturing plant. Once identified, the appropriate Lean Manufacturing technique is used to meet specific improvement metrics. These techniques include visual systems, 5S, TPM, cellular layout, work balancing, JIT, etc. Engineering students in college typically do not have an extensive understanding, or the experience, in a manufacturing environment. Unless the topic of value stream mapping is presented correctly the student may not be able to properly use the technique in an actual applied situation. One method of re-enforcing the technique is to have the students working in teams to perform an actual analysis of a manufacturing system and present appropriate and realistic opportunities for improvement. In order to organize this paper, an overview of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) technique will be discussed first. The primary section of the paper will be on the method of incorporating active learning in the presentation of VSM to engineering students.

Lobaugh, Michael

2009-10-15

208

The Epistemic Value of Diversity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic value. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…

Robertson, Emily

2013-01-01

209

The evolution of complex life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

Billingham, J.

1985-01-01

210

The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

2013-01-01

211

Life Cycles of Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a brief introduction, the page is divided into Places to go, People to see, Things to do, Teacher resources and a Bibliography. Each division has several links. For example the Places to go division has links to frog, ant, coral reef, and American bald eagle life cycles.

2010-01-01

212

The fitness value of information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologists measure information in different ways. Neurobiologists and researchers in bioinformatics often measure information using information- theoretic measures such as Shannon's entropy or mutual information. Be- havioral biologists and evolutionary ecologists more commonly use decision- theoretic measures, such the value of information, which assess the worth of information to a decision maker. Here we show that these two kinds of

Carl T. Bergstrom; Michael Lachmann

2005-01-01

213

The Evolution of Complex Life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

Billingham, John

1989-01-01

214

The Psychology of Life Stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent years have witnessed an upsurge of interest among theorists and researchers in autobiographical recollections, life stories, and narrative approaches to understanding human behavior and experience. An important development in this context is D. P. McAdams's life story model of identity (1985, 1993, 1996), which asserts that people living in modern societies provide their lives with unity and purpose by

Dan P. McAdams

2001-01-01

215

Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value  

SciTech Connect

We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

Donoghue, John F. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Dutta, Koushik [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Foehringer Ring 6, D-80805, Muenchen (Germany); Ross, Andreas [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Tegmark, Max [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2010-04-01

216

Forecasting the Value of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

Basarab, Dave

2011-01-01

217

Measuring the value of pharmacogenomics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics offer the potential of developing DNA-based tests to help maximize drug efficacy and enhance drug safety. Major scientific advances in this field have brought us to the point where such tests are poised to enter more widespread clinical use. However, many questions have been raised about whether such tests will be of significant value, and how to

Stephanie L. Van Bebber; Kathryn A. Phillips

2005-01-01

218

Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

Tierney, William G.

2010-01-01

219

Quality of life: perception of lung cancer patients.  

PubMed

An investigation was carried out to examine what quality of life means to lung cancer patients. 200 patients with either lung cancer (108) or chronic respiratory disease (92) were interviewed using a short open-ended questionnaire. They were asked to define quality of life in general, identify what they considered to be a good quality of life for themselves and to rank the relative importance attached to each nominated item. A content analysis was carried out and patients' responses were categorised into eight items. These were: ability to do what one wants to do/work, enjoyment of life, family life, financial security, happiness, health, living longer and social life/leisure activities. Of these, health (42%), enjoyment of life (25%) and family life (24%) were the three most nominated items as definition of quality of life in general. Patients perceived a good quality of life for themselves differently. Family life (58%), health (51%) and social life (43%) were found to be the most nominated components of a good quality of life for the patients. Overall, patients ranked family life and health as the first or second most important factors. There were no significant differences between cases and controls. The study results are challenging and serve to remind us that the term quality of life is misused in many studies. Most existing measures do not encompass the wider aspects of quality of life identified here, but rather concentrate on the "health-related" aspects of quality of life. To achieve this, the research into the best ways of measuring and assessing quality of life must continue to seek individual values and preferences and how these can be applied in a simple way in clinical studies. PMID:9038611

Montazeri, A; Milroy, R; Gillis, C R; McEwen, J

1996-12-01

220

Transfer of Value From Fit  

Microsoft Academic Search

People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with

E. Tory Higgins; Lorraine Chen Idson; Antonio L. Freitas; Scott Spiegel; Daniel C. Molden

2003-01-01

221

Value creation and the role of agribusiness value-chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews evidence from agribusiness value chains in developing and developed countries, to explore the extent to which a strategic focus on value-based marketing and value creation can contribute towards generating successful value chains. The evidence suggests that managers and policy makers in developing countries interested in building such value chains would benefit by focusing on complementing improved capital

Bodo E. Steiner

222

Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

2009-01-01

223

What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

Scherrer, Jimmy

2012-01-01

224

Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

Dierking, Lynn D.

2010-01-01

225

The essence of life purpose.  

PubMed

Life purpose is an important thread of critical care nursing. However, no consensus exists for a definition of life purpose. In addition, ambiguity prevails regarding the manner in which life purpose is incorporated into nursing practice and research. Therefore, through a conceptual synthesis process, this article aims to clarify the essence of life purpose with relevance to health and critical care nursing today. The outcome of the conceptual synthesis is an operational definition to be used in future nursing research. Information was obtained from a literature search of scholarly articles using (1) searches of electronic databases of literature about life purpose and (2) research studies addressing conceptual, substantive, and methodological domains. Topics consisted of the philosophical underpinnings of life purpose, its attributes, definitions, and theoretical frameworks, along with differences in theories and empirical support. Finally, emerging from this process, the article culminates with a proposed conceptual definition of life purpose, which may be applied broadly to older adults in various critical care settings. PMID:19300082

Hodges, Pamela J

2009-01-01

226

Can life be evaluated? The Jewish Halachic approach vs. the quality of life approach in medical ethics: a critical view.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been an increase in the number of requests for "mercy killings" by patients and their relatives. Under certain conditions, the patient may prefer death to a life devoid of quality. In contrast to those who uphold this "quality of life" approach, those who hold the "sanctity of life" approach claim that life has intrinsic value and must be preserved regardless of its quality. This essay describes these two approaches, examines their flaws, and offers a "golden path" between the two extreme positions. We discuss the halachic and the secular views, arguing for a balance between the sanctity of life and the quality of life. We argue that, indeed, such a balance exists in practice, and that life is important, but it is not sacred. Life can be evaluated, but quality of life is not the sole criterion. PMID:10967949

Cohen-Almagor, R; Shmueli, M

2000-01-01

227

The Value of a Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of botanical, community, and other gardens in preserving biodiversity and in contributing to sustainable communities. It introduces several concepts drawn from system dynamics, including feedback loops, behavior-over-time graphsand more! It includes a PowerPoint presentation, Feedback Loops in Flower Gardening,of 29 slides that will guide teachers and students through activities that generate feedback loops.

M.E. Krasny, P. Newton, and L. Tompkins (Cornell University;)

2004-11-05

228

Tree of Life Workshop Report  

NSF Publications Database

... Development meets Tree Of Life What are the most exciting questions in the Evolution of Development ... the key questions about the Evolution of Development? How does the community exploit these increased ...

229

Quality of Life: Perspectives and Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The book deals with the concept of quality of life for persons with mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Part I, "Quality of Life: Personal Perspectives," contains "A Dream for Myself" (Connie Martinez); "Reflections on My Quality of Life: Then and Now" (Nancy Ward); "Quality of Life versus Quality of Life Judgments: A Parent's…

Schalock, Robert L., Ed.

230

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

231

Systems of Values and Their Multidimensional Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Values were elicited spontaneously from a sample of undergraduates and adults attending college, and were compared to Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values. Multidimensional scaling revealed a simpler structure among spontaneously mentioned values than Rokeach's values. (JKS)

Jones, Russell A.; And Others

1978-01-01

232

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

233

Building the Encyclopedia of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a collaborative project that indexes information about species, and makes it freely accessible to anyone. In order to accomplish this, EOL is building collaborative tools and infrastructure to unify the information.

Mangiafico, P. A.; Patterson, D. J.

2010-04-01

234

Half life of 175Hf.  

PubMed

This work measured the half life of radioisotope (175)Hf, which was produced by neutron activation method at the ZF-300-II Intense Neutron Generator in Lanzhou University. The half life of (175)Hf, measured by ?-ray spectrometry using a well calibrated GEM-60P coaxial High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, has been found to be 70.65±0.19 days. The present result agrees with the literature data well, while the accuracy was improved. PMID:22871434

Fang, Kaihong; Wang, Dawei; Yang, Shaobo; Zhao, Jiangtao; Peng, Haibo; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Tieshan

2012-10-01

235

A year in the life of eLife  

PubMed Central

Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year.

Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M

2013-01-01

236

Quality of Life and Functional Status across the Life Course.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Behavioral Center of Excellence in Breast Cancer contains three separate, but related research projects focused on breast cancer patients quality of life and functional status. There is also a Biostatistics's Core Facility supporting all three studie...

M. J. Naughton

2007-01-01

237

Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course  

PubMed Central

We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions.

Margolis, Rachel; Myrskyla, Mikko

2013-01-01

238

Matters of Feeling: Values Education Reconsidered.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Various aspects of values education in public schools in the United States are explored in the monograph. Objectives are to examine the philosophy underlying values education, identify problems in values teaching, describe processes used to teach values, clarify differences between values education and indoctrination, and to suggest how values…

Junell, Joseph S.

239

Social inequality in the later life: cross-national comparison of quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyses quality of life and inequality in old age in an international comparative and a life course perspective. Quality of life is seen as an outcome of unequal chances in life. We distinguish between overall and domain specific expressions of quality of life which allows us to analyse the determinants of overall quality of life and their development

Andreas Motel-Klingebiel; Hans-Joachim von Kondratowitz; Clemens Tesch-Römer

2004-01-01

240

The Values of Australian Activists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relevant literature on student activism was reviewed so as to discover leads for predictions about differences between activists and non-activists in the way they might be expected to rank the terminal and instrumental values from Rokeach's Value Survey. (Editor)

Ellerman, D. A.; Feather, N. T.

1976-01-01

241

The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger  

PubMed Central

Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother’s life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of “double effect,” while Islamic law cites the maq??id, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario.

Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I.

2010-01-01

242

Quality of Life of Caregivers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is a descriptive analysis of various features of the quality of life (QoL) of the caregivers in different pathological conditions. Definitions of the concept of QoL, caregiver goals and burdens, caregiver stress and coping with factors that could contribute to or impact the QoL in caregivers are discussed both through a review of literature and an analysis of

Janna M. Glozman

2004-01-01

243

Toward a Systemic Explanation of Valuing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined complexity of valuing by assessing valuing process, beginning with basic method of rank ordering. Participants (n=64) recorded their comments as they completed Rokeach Value Survey. Examination of comments revealed many agendas operating, making valuing far more complex than linear model of rank ordering values permits. Participants'…

Hague, William J.

1993-01-01

244

The Value of Information Given Decision Flexibility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a useful concept for decision analysis -- the value of information having flexibility. An exploration is made into the impact of decision flexibility on the value of information. The usefulness of calculating the value of information u...

M. W. Merkhofer

1975-01-01

245

Game of Life JS Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Game of Life Model simulates a popular 2D cellular automata of a lattice in a finite state which is updated in accordance with a set of nearby-neighbor rules. The universe of the Game of Life, developed by John Conway, is a two-dimensional orthogonal grid of square cells, each of which is in one of two possible states, live or dead. Every cell interacts with its eight neighbors to determine if it will live or die (generally when there are too many live neighbors or not enough live neighbors) in the next time step. You can clear the lattice, design initial configurations (click on a cell to toggle between dead/live), and change the lattice size. The Game of Life JS Model was developed using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) version 5. It is distributed as a ready-to-run html page and requires only a browser with JavaScript support.

Christian, Wolfgang; Franciscouembre

2013-09-05

246

VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*  

PubMed Central

Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings.

House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

2009-01-01

247

The Acquisition and Development of Values. Perspectives on Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A conference on research relating to how children acquire their systems of values and morality was held with the overall objective toward improving the quality of human life through greater scientific understanding of the developmental processes and the support of research on these complex problems. Participants stressed that many child-rearing…

Wells, Leora Wood, Comp.

248

Early assembly of cellular life.  

PubMed

Popular hypotheses that attempt to explain the origin of prebiotic molecules and cellular life capable of growth and division are not always agreed upon. In this manuscript, information on early bacterial life on Earth is examined using information from several disciplines. For example, knowledge can be integrated from physics, thermodynamics, planetary sciences, geology, biogeochemistry, lipid chemistry, primordial cell structures, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, metabolism and genetics. The origin of life also required a combination of elements, compounds and environmental physical-chemical conditions that allowed cells to assemble in less than a billion years. This may have been widespread in the subsurface of the early Earth located at microscopic physical domains. PMID:12732262

Trevors, J T

2003-04-01

249

Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.  

PubMed

When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

Carpenter, Brian D

2014-01-01

250

Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts  

PubMed Central

A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of “life course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept of “life course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences of “life course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle.

2012-01-01

251

Optimization of data life cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

2014-06-01

252

Does risk aversion increase the value of mortality risk?  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is often asserted that individual willingness to pay to reduce mortality risk is greater among individuals who are “more risk-averse.” If risk aversion is defined in the colloquial sense of distaste for mortality risk, the assertion is tautological since a larger value of statistical life (VSL) represents a higher rate of substitution between money and mortality risk. If risk

Louis R. Eeckhoudt; James K. Hammitt

2004-01-01

253

Altruism and the value of other people's safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article considers the manner in which people's altruistic concern for other people's safety should be incorporated in willingness-to-pay based values of statistical life and safety. It is shown that, within a utilitarian framework, the traditional prescription that such values should take full account of people's willingness to pay for others' safety is validif andonly if altruism is exclusivelysafety-focused, in

Michael Jones-lee

1991-01-01

254

Comparison of Student and Recruiter Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Value priorities of campus employment recruiters and liberal arts students were compared using Rokeach's Value Survey. Confirmed: (1) students ranked idealistic values high, while recruiters ranked values applicable to business high; (2) more significant differences were found among instrumental than among terminal values; and (3) recruiters chose…

Vecchiotti, Dorothea I.; Korn, James H.

1980-01-01

255

The Value of Information in Library Catalogs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the value of information contained within a library's online public access catalog. Assesses the value of MARC records; authority records; indexes; location and status information; and value for an individual. (LRW)

Matthews, Joe

2000-01-01

256

Dementia at the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Finding Care At the End of Life Understanding Health Care Decisions Related Publications Mourning the Death of a Spouse Getting Your Affairs in Order Also of Interest End-of-Life Care - Alzheimer’s Caregiving Tip Sheet (PDF, ... Care At the End of Life Dementia At the End of Life Understanding Health Care Decisions What Happens When Someone Dies Things ...

257

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

258

The physical nature of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life evolved from the primeval world of physics. Sensory systems inform animals of the natural environment, enabling them to conduct responsively. The discovery of weak, DC bioelectric fields in the vicinity of aquatic organisms and the role they play in guiding sharks and rays to their prey have led to the recognition of fundamental, hitherto less well known, physical aspects

Ad. J. Kalmijn; Ivan Fernando Gonzalez; Michael C. McClune

2002-01-01

259

A Woman's Life Before Serving Life: Examining the Negative Pre-Incarceration Life Events of Female Life-Sentenced Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increase in the number of females incarcerated, there is a paucity of research concerning female life-sentenced inmates in the United States. Using a nationally representative data set containing the largest known sample of this population, the present research examines the pre-incarceration traumatic experiences of female life-sentenced inmates. The results indicate that these women are more likely to experience

Margaret E. Leigey; Katie L. Reed

2010-01-01

260

Game of life on phyllosilicates: Gliders, oscillators and still life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines - silicon nodes and oxygen nodes - which mimics structure of the phyllosilicate. A node takes states 0 and 1. Each node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon) or six (oxygen) neighbours. Phyllosilicate automata exhibit localisations attributed to Conway's Game of Life: gliders, oscillators, still lifes, and a glider gun. Configurations and behaviour of typical localisations, and interactions between the localisations are illustrated.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2013-10-01

261

Knowledge, place, and power: geographies of value in the bioeconomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that there is an emerging “bioeconomy” characterized by the capture of the latent value found in biological material (e.g. cells, tissues, plants, etc.) has become a popular policy agenda since the mid-2000s. A number of scholars have also written about this intersection between the life sciences and capitalism, often drawing on anthropological and sociological perspectives to conceptualize the

Kean Birch

2012-01-01

262

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life  

PubMed Central

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them.

2010-01-01

263

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.  

PubMed

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

2010-01-01

264

Life Cycle Cost of Bridges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This is a continuation of the 2004 project to use historical cost data from a variety of geographically distributed bridges of different structural designs to (a) formulate a cost model for bridge life cycle cost, (b) assess the impact of deferred mainten...

R. Krizek

2009-01-01

265

History of Life Through Time  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.

266

The origins of cellular life.  

PubMed

All life on earth can be naturally classified into cellular life forms and virus-like selfish elements, the latter being fully dependent on the former for their reproduction. Cells are reproducers that not only replicate their genome but also reproduce the cellular organization that depends on semipermeable, energy-transforming membranes and cannot be recovered from the genome alone, under the famous dictum of Rudolf Virchow, Omnis cellula e cellula. In contrast, simple selfish elements are replicators that can complete their life cycles within the host cell starting from genomic RNA or DNA alone. The origin of the cellular organization is the central and perhaps the hardest problem of evolutionary biology. I argue that the origin of cells can be understood only in conjunction with the origin and evolution of selfish genetic elements. A scenario of precellular evolution is presented that involves cohesion of the genomes of the emerging cellular life forms from primordial pools of small genetic elements that eventually segregated into hosts and parasites. I further present a model of the coevolution of primordial membranes and membrane proteins, discuss protocellular and non-cellular models of early evolution, and examine the habitats on the primordial earth that could have been conducive to precellular evolution and the origin of cells. PMID:24756907

Koonin, Eugene V

2014-07-01

267

Breaking the Bread of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

2000-01-01

268

Subjective Evaluation of Life Events.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed medical/surgical patients concerning life events during the preceding year. Subjective evaluations of events were obtained for dimensions of desirability, adjustment, anticipation, and control. Psychological impairment was associated with subjective evaluations, specifically desirability and adjustment. Inclusion of anticipation and…

Fontana, Alan F.; And Others

1979-01-01

269

A Zoo of Life Forms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A catalog is presented, of those Life forms on strips of widths up to nine whose translational behavior during a single generation can be inferred from two levels of de Bruijn diagrams. The paper is written in October 26, 1988; revised July 20, 1992.

McIntosh, Harold V.

270

Wolbachia pipientis - Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Encyclopedia of Life species page offers a comprehensive summary of the biology, ecology, evolution and relevance of Wolbachia pipientis. It includes an interactive media panel with images, videos and distribution maps, as well as a navigable classification structure. The page is supplemented with links to literature references, educational opportunities and additional research links.

Life, Encyclopedia O.

271

Half-life of Sm151 remeasured  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The half-life of Sm151 was redetermined and compared with literature values. A 151Sm2O3 sample was produced by exposing 150Sm2O3 to the high neutron flux of the heavy water research reactor at the China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The number of atoms and the activity of Sm151 in the sample were measured by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) and liquid scintillation counting (LSC), respectively. The half-life of Sm151 determined in this work is 96.6 yr, with a standard uncertainty of 2.4 yr based on a quadratic summation of the uncertainty components from the measurements of the number of atoms and the activity of Sm151.

He, Ming; Shen, Hongtao; Shi, Guozhu; Yin, Xinyi; Tian, Weizhi; Jiang, Shan

2009-12-01

272

Towards the bibliography of life  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole. The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them.

King, David; Morse, David R.; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

2011-01-01

273

An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

Bedau, Mark A.

2010-12-01

274

Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

Knauth, Paul

2000-01-01

275

LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.  

PubMed

Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10?? in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

2012-08-01

276

Cancer Patient Preferences for Quality and Length of Life  

PubMed Central

Background Optimal patient decision making requires integration of patient values, goals, and preferences with information received from the physician. In the case of life-threatening illness such as cancer, the weights placed on quality of life (QOL) and length of life (LOL) represent critical values. The objective of this study is to describe cancer patient values regarding QOL and LOL, and explore associations with communication preferences. Methods Patients with advanced cancer completed a computer-based survey prior to the initial consultation with a medical oncologist. Assessments included sociodemographics, physical and mental health state, values regarding quality and length of life, communication preferences and cancer-related distress. Results Seven hundred forty three advanced cancer patients were enrolled. Among 459 advanced cancer patients, fifty-five percent of patients equally valued QOL and LOL, 27% preferred QOL, and 18% preferred LOL. Patients with a QOL preference had lower levels of cancer-related distress (p < 0.001). QOL preference was associated with older age (p = 0.001), male gender (p = 0.003), and higher education (p = 0.062). Patients who preferred LOL over QOL desired a more supportive and less pessimistic communication style from their oncologists. Conclusions These data indicate that a values preference for length vs. quality of life may be simply measured, and is associated with wishes regarding the nature of oncologist communication. Awareness of these values during the clinical encounter could improve decision making by influencing the style and content of the communication between oncologists and their patients.

Meropol, Neal J.; Egleston, Brian L.; Buzaglo, Joanne S.; Benson, Al B.; Cegala, Donald J.; Diefenbach, Michael A.; Fleisher, Linda; Miller, Suzanne M.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.; Weinfurt, Kevin P.

2008-01-01

277

Life span of the biosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological,

J. E. Lovelock; M. Whitfield

1982-01-01

278

The Chemistry of Life's Origin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

Ferris, James P.

1984-01-01

279

Towards a Meaning of LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract LIFE is an experimental programming language proposing to integrate three orthogonal programming paradigms proven useful for symbolic computation From the programmer's standpoint, it may be perceived as a language taking after logic programming, functional programming, and object - oriented programming From a formal perspective, it may be seen as an instance (or rather, a composition of three instances) of

Hassan Aït-kaci; Andreas Podelski

1993-01-01

280

Osteology of Mesozoic Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores vertebrate paleontology/paleobiology of the Mesozoic. It focuses on dinosaur osteology using skeletons and models at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University in Philadelphia. Students will compare the morphology of several types of bones between a variety of ornithischian and saurischian dinosaurs.

Allison Tumarkin-Deratzian, Temple University, altd@temple.edu

281

Service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper is focused on the estimation of durability and service life of reinforced concrete structures. Assuming that the chloride ion in concrete can be absorbed on tricalcium aluminate, calcium silicate hydrate, and by other constituents of hardened cement paste, hydrated or not, the exact analytical solution of the governing partial differential equation together with its boundary and initial conditions can be obtained through nondimensional parameters and Laplace's transform. When the results of an exact analytical solution using suitable parameters were compared with the results of previous experimental work, the differences were found to be very small. This suggests that the absorption model is of considerable value. The exact analytical solution with the saturation parameter and time and diffusion coefficients under different effective electrical potential could be used to predict both the experimental results and the service life of reinforced concrete structures.

Liang, M.T.; Wang, K.L.; Liang, C.H.

1999-09-01

282

Generation of finite life distributional Goodman diagrams for reliability prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

1971-01-01

283

Prayer Life of a Professor  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This autoethnographic account describes interconnections among the author's personal prayer life, teaching, and research. The contextual frame for the story includes episodes and observations from a twelve-year span, encompassing postacademic tenure and promotion to the present. The author's prayer is that others might resonate with parts of this…

Baesler, E. James

2009-01-01

284

Quality of Working Life Process.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The handbook is developed by the U.S. Postal Service and the National Postal Mail Handlers Union to provide policy guidance in implementing a Quality Working Life (QWL) process at the Postal Service. The handbook includes QWL phases of development, struct...

1988-01-01

285

Towards a Meaning of LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

LIFE (Logic, Inheritance, Functions, Equations) is an experimental programming language proposing to integrate three orthogonal programming paradigms proven useful for symbolic computation. From the programmer's standpoint, it may be perceived as a language taking after logic programming, functional programming, and object-oriented programming. ?From a formal perspective, it may be seen as an instance (or rather, a composition of three instances)

Hassan Aït-kaci; Andreas Podelski

1991-01-01

286

Lifing of Engine Components.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics mat...

2005-01-01

287

The Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine ways that Native Americans of the Southwest express their relationship with nature through art. Learners cooperate to create a large weaving and individual rug designs. This activity is featured on pp.30-31 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.

Indianapolis, The C.

2014-04-30

288

Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Director's Message The Center for the Environment (C4E) is one of 10 core centers in Purdue's Discovery Park. The Center was established to develop methods of protecting the environment while sustaining a healthy economy. Researchers working with the center study ways to model and predict the impact of human activities on ecosystems, monitor environmental quality, and manage and protect our

Richard Garlikov

2007-01-01

289

Game of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does over-fishing mean? What are the effects of over-fishing on fish stocks? Through the game in this lesson, students will understand the effects of over-fishing on the sustainability of fish stocks and, thus, the ability to meet the human demand for seafood.

290

The Molecules of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

Weinberg, Robert A.

1985-01-01

291

Life of an Island  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson covers the evolution of a volcanic island from origin to erosion. Students will be able to determine the relative ages of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, given their position in the archipelago and why these islands are so much smaller than the main islands of the Hawaiian chain. They will discover that volcanic islands form over a hot spot on the ocean floor and that islands form and erode in eight stages, so the relative age of an island or atoll can be determined based on its state of growth or erosion.

Museum, Bishop

292

The Life of Birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion to a new PBS series featuring renowned wildlife documentary host Sir David Attenborough is not as feature-rich as some comparable sites but deserves a visit nonetheless. Essentially a collection of five thoughtful illustrated essays, the site explores bird evolution, intelligence, songs (with RealPlayer examples), parenting, and several superlative birds. Additional contents include classroom resources (currently only two lessons), an essay on the making of the series, and a selection of annotated online resources.

Attenborough, David, 1926-.; Davies, Gareth H.

293

Web of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses a general program of health education in schools based on the theory that children exposed to this program can, as they grow and change, respond to their bodies, function in a group, select a wide variety of appropriate foods, accept medical and dental care, and modify hazardous situations. (JD)

Miller, Judith R.

1976-01-01

294

Continuity of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on classification of organisms, reproduction, cell structure and function includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. The activities impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Science, Houghton M.

295

Extinctions of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1988-01-01

296

Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably good…

Ahsanullah, M.

297

Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

Lehman, Niles

2013-12-01

298

The Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how interdisciplinary, thematic lessons about plants, animals, and the environment were introduced with children's literature. First-grade students created a display of the African baobab tree and its inhabitants, focusing on their interdependence.

Plummer, Donna M.; Macshara, Jeannie; Brown, Skila K.

2003-03-01

299

Structures of Life (Revised).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Preface: Why Structure; Chapter 1: Proteins Are the Body's Worker Molecules; Chapter 2: X-Ray Crystallography: Art Marries Science; Chapter 3: The World of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR): Magnets, Radio Waves, and Detective Work; Chapter 4: St...

2000-01-01

300

Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Collaboration by biologists worldwide assembles webpages on diversity of organisms on earth, their evolutionary history, phylogenetic relationships, characteristics. Each group described with introduction, photos, map, key references, important links. Start at Kingdom level and move down to individual species by clicking on branches of the Tree diagram. Designed for biologists familiar with Latin names, but useful for others. Treehouse pages, designed for K-16 learners and teachers, complement technical pages presented elsewhere on the site.

301

Subjective Quality of Life of Navy Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The subjective quality of life (QOL) of a sample of enlisted Navy personnel (68 males and 64 females) was studied. Measures were administered assessing: global QOL, satisfaction with 13 life domains, satisfaction with the Navy, satisfaction with Navy job,...

S. Booth-Kewley M. D. Thomas

1993-01-01

302

Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webpage for every organism on earth is the goal of this site, which was initially funded in 2007 by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation. To "learn how to navigate EOL, search for content, customize your experience, and explore pages..." visitors can start with the tab "Using the Site" at the top of the page. Here, there is a video tour on general "Navigation" of the site and instructions on how specifically to use the "Species Pages". Users can check out the FAQs section under the same tab for more help. Visitors can select the "Language" tab at the top of the page to view the site in English, Spanish, Russian, Ukranian, German, or French. In the "About EOL" tab on the far upper right hand side of the page, visitors can check out the "Content Partners" link about halfway down the menu. There are over two dozen partners and links to their websites listed, including the Nearctic Spider Database, Mushroom Observer, FishBase, and AntWeb.

303

The Structures of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

2007-01-01

304

The Structures of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, explains how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. This publication contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on…

National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

305

CHALLENGES OF MID LIFE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical and psychosocial changes, challenges, and options that occur during middle adulthood induce stress. The individual feels the pressure of time, decisional conflict, and frustration. Adaptive and maladaptive responses are discussed as they relate to these developmental issues. A five stage occupational therapy treatment model is presented that facilitates adaptive behavior by problem solving and conflict resolution which leads to

Ferol Menks

1982-01-01

306

First Day of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... up over the first few days or weeks after birth. The doctor will examine your baby within the first 12-24 hours of birth and make sure that any rashes or spots are normal. Remember, your baby's appearance will change dramatically over the ...

307

Toward a Heuristic Theory of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The theoretical model of values presented in this paper differs from the Rokeach model, which assumes that the hierarchic order among the values in each individual's system is relatively stable. The hypothesis of the value model presented here is that value priorities change consonantly with the perceived expectations of situations. To test this…

Heath, Robert L.

308

Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

Veisson, Marika

2009-01-01

309

The Value of English Picture Story Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a study investigating EFL teachers' views on the educational values of English picture story books in Taiwan. Ten teachers with experience of using the books with primary school children participated in this study. The results suggest three main educational values perceived by the teachers: (1) linguistic value, (2) the value…

Hsiu-Chih, Sheu

2008-01-01

310

Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

Parrott, Allen

2002-01-01

311

The Dawn of Animal Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Miller Museum Online Exhibit, the Dawn of Animal Life, is provided by the Miller Museum of Geology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Patrons can explore the evolution of life from three billion to about 500 million years ago by clicking on the various links, which include the formation of the earth, eukaryotic cells, the oldest known animal fossils, the ediacarian fauna, the mistaken point fossil assemblage, and the world's oldest complex animal fossils found in Newfoundland called Charnia. The site offers non-technical descriptions of where the fossils were found, what their significance is, and a host of very interesting photographs of the fossils themselves. Although the fossils presented are limited to certain locations, the site does a good job of explaining how they help researchers learn about the past around the globe.

312

Involving the Extended Value Chain in a Whole Life Target Costing Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

International Consortium consists of: (2) Manufacturing companies; (2) Service organizations; (3) Government; (4) Professional bodies; (5) Software companies; (6) Consultancies; (7) Academia, who work in collaboration to solve management problems and crit...

R. L. Sindel

2007-01-01

313

Quality of life theory II. Quality of life as the realization of life potential: a biological theory of human being.  

PubMed

This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL) used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life) questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of life (or philosophy of life), which we believe is necessary for global and generic quality-of-life research. Whereas traditional medical science has often been inspired by mechanical models in its attempts to understand human beings, this theory takes an explicitly biological starting point. The purpose is to take a close view of life as a unique entity, which mechanical models are unable to do. This means that things considered to be beyond the individual's purely biological nature, notably the quality of life, meaning in life, and aspirations in life, are included under this wider, biological treatise. Our interpretation of the nature of all living matter is intended as an alternative to medical mechanism, which dates back to the beginning of the 20th century. New ideas such as the notions of the human being as nestled in an evolutionary and ecological context, the spontaneous tendency of self-organizing systems for realization and concord, and the central role of consciousness in interpreting, planning, and expressing human reality are unavoidable today in attempts to scientifically understand all living matter, including human life. PMID:14570994

Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav; Andersen, Niels Jørgen

2003-10-13

314

The Dual Life of RNA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular biology techniques have enabled us to prepare and select RNA aptamers that can bind specifically to small targets. RNA oligonucleotides can also be used as fluorescent probes. We have combined the two approaches to obtain Aptamer Beacons, in which molecular recognition is linked to the emission of an optical signal. These RNA biosensors could be used to detect directly the signatures of life in samples of mineral and extra-terrestrial material.

Meli, M.; Maurel, M.-C.

2004-06-01

315

The half-life of /sup 218/Po  

SciTech Connect

Direct observation of the /sup 218/Po alpha-peak decay with a microcomputer-controlled alpha-spectrometer yielded a mean half-life value of 3.040 +/- 0.008 min, where the error quoted represents twice the standard deviation of the means from 38 separate decay measurements. The 1912 and 1924 /sup 218/Po half-life measurements, which provided the 3.05-min value listed in nuclear tables for the past 60 y, are critically reviewed. Two more recent experiments, which yielded longer values of 3.11 min and 3.093 min, are also discussed. 25 references.

Martz, D.E.; Harris, R.T.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

1989-07-01

316

Half-life of {sup 120}Xe  

SciTech Connect

We have measured the half-life of {sup 120}Xe using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector to monitor the 176, 178, and 762 keV {gamma} rays from {sup 120}Xe {beta}{sup +} decay. The result, 46{+-}0.6 min, differs significantly from the value 40{+-}1 min reported by Andersson et al. [Ark. Fys. 28, 37 (1964)]. We have also measured the half-lives of {sup 120}Cs and {sup 120}I to be 60{+-}0.7 s and 82.1{+-}0.6 min, respectively, both of which are consistent with previous measurements.

Phillips, A. A.; Andreoiu, C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Ball, G. C.; Behr, J. A.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, M. R.; Smith, M. B. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chupp, T. E.; Nuss-Warren, S. R.; Tardiff, E. R. [Focus Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hayden, M. E.; Warner, T. [Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

2006-08-15

317

Life Cycle of a Grasshopper  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will be able to observe, identify, and describe incomplete metamorphosis of grasshoppers. Learners will first listen to the book, "The Life Cycle of a Grasshopper" by Lisa Trumbauer and Gail Sanders-Smith and then create grasshoppers from household items. This activity was intended to enhance a visit to an outdoor environmental science exhibit, but can be used on its own. The lesson guide includes background information, key vocabulary words, questions to ask, extensions and resources.

Houston, Children'S M.

2008-01-01

318

Towards a Definition of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

: This article offers a new definition of life as a “self-contained, self-regulating, self-organizing, self-reproducing, interconnected, open thermodynamic network of component parts which performs work, existing in a complex regime which combines stability and adaptability in the phase transition between order and chaos, as a plant, animal, fungus, or microbe.” Open thermodynamic networks, which create and maintain order and are

Peter T. Macklem; Andrew Seely

2010-01-01

319

Towards a Definition of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article offers a new definition of life as a “self-contained, self-regulating, self-organizing, self-reproducing, interconnected, open thermodynamic network of component parts which performs work, existing in a complex regime which combines stability and adaptability in the phase transition between order and chaos, as a plant, animal, fungus, or microbe.” Open thermodynamic networks, which create and maintain order and are used

Peter T. Macklem; Andrew Seely

2010-01-01

320

New Thoughts of Customer Value Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

321

Assignment of personal values among adolescents.  

PubMed

Two groups of adolescents (N = 357) consisting of 212 tenth-grade students and 145 ninth-grade students were administered the Rokeach Value Survey (1960) to determine how adolescents identify with traditional values and with those values containing concrete or abstract components. The subjects ranked 18 terminal values according to their importance. Values that can be experienced to some extent by adolescents were ranked highest by both groups, but social values that seemed abstract or impersonal were ranked lower by both groups. Values dealing with the inner self were ranked higher by the 10th-grade group. Ninth-graders' modality for idealism seemed to influence their views of values such as a world of peace and pleasure. Tenth-graders' greater socialization toward adult roles seemed to influence their views of values relating to future events. PMID:6512718

Thornburg, H D; Thornburg, E; Ellis-Schwabe, M

1984-09-01

322

Quality of life of caregivers.  

PubMed

This article is a descriptive analysis of various features of the quality of life (QoL) of the caregivers in different pathological conditions. Definitions of the concept of QoL, caregiver goals and burdens, caregiver stress and coping with factors that could contribute to or impact the QoL in caregivers are discussed both through a review of literature and an analysis of empirical evidences. The QoL in caregivers of patients with Parkinson's disease is also discussed. An original Scale of QoL of Caregivers is described and compared with other existing measures. The concepts of patient-caregiver dyad in research and in interventions is stressed. PMID:15796115

Glozman, Janna M

2004-12-01

323

The value of medical and pharmaceutical interventions for reducing obesity.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small. The net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H

2012-07-01

324

The Value of Medical and Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing Obesity  

PubMed Central

This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small while the net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account.

Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H.

2012-01-01

325

Value correlates of preventive health behavior.  

PubMed

In a postal survey, 113 respondents completed the Rokeach (1967) Terminal Value Survey with an additional value, "health," and 15 questions about their preventive health behavior (PHB). Correlation and regression analyses showed that health and other values were related to overall PHB, suggesting that health researchers should also consider the role of values other than health. In consistency with Rokeach's theory, respondents who reported good PHB valued health more than did those who reported poor PHB. There were also significant differences in the general value orientation of extraversion versus introversion. Health educators might apply knowledge of such differences to a value confrontation program. As hypothesized, regression analyses for each of the 15 PHB items showed that health value was more likely to be predictive of behavior that involved a direct rather than indirect risk to health. For behaviorally consistent respondents, health value was correlated with both types of behavior, whereas for behaviorally inconsistent respondents, health value was only correlated with direct-risk behavior. This suggests that health researchers should ensure that subjects are aware of the relevance of a PHB to health before concluding that health value, or a related construct, cannot be predictive of PHB. Finally, the regression analyses suggest that it was possible to predict specific PHBs from the more general value ranks. This finding raised questions about the validity of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1977) notion of levels of specificity and provided further support to Rokeach's value theory. PMID:4045702

Kristiansen, C M

1985-09-01

326

Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

2011-01-01

327

Morality, Values, and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the importance of ethical understanding, moral values, and cultural literacy in various aspects of life. Argues that community college leaders have a responsibility to enlighten students and the community with respect to morality, values, and culture. (DMM)

Martin, Warren Bryan

1985-01-01

328

Exobiology and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

1976-01-01

329

Enhance End-of-Life Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... lead in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. Photo: Corbis ...

330

Quality of Life: Meaning, Measurement, and Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews the history of quality of life research, identifies reasons for focusing on quality of life as a desired outcome, and discusses objective and subjective approaches to its assessment. The distinction between cognition and affect in perc...

E. W. Kerce

1992-01-01

331

Experimental verification of the half-life of 65Zn.  

PubMed

The half-life of 65Zn was determined experimentally and compared with literature values. Two ampoules of a 65Zn solution were measured at regular intervals in two ionisation chambers over a period corresponding to nearly two half-lives. The result of 243.8+/-0.3 days is in agreement with the value of 244.0+/-0.2 days obtained by De Roost et al. (Z. Phys. 250 (1975) 395) at the same institute (previously called CBNM) in 1972. Moreover, this half-life is supported by most of the other measurements reported in the literature. PMID:14987664

Van Ammel, R; Pommé, S; Sibbens, G

2004-01-01

332

Gender, Work–Life Balance and Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The past 15 years have seen dramatic changes in women’s lives, with much greater numbers in paid work, often combining this\\u000a work with childcare and other responsibilities. Undoubtedly, having jobs has improved women’s lives in many ways, raising\\u000a their living standards and giving them greater economic independence. However, there may be a downside to these gains: women’s\\u000a quality of life

Frances McGinnity; Helen Russell; Emer Smyth

333

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

334

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

335

Optimization of value of CVP's hydropower production  

Microsoft Academic Search

CVPOP is a nonlinear programming model for the optimization of the multi-month operation of the hydropower system of the California Central Valley Project (CVP). CVPOP includes the dependence of energy values within each month of the capacity factor of the generating unit, avoiding the simplification of assuming constant monthly or yearly values as is common in other models. The model

J. Alberto Tejada-Guibert; Jery R. Stedinger; Konstantin Staschus

1990-01-01

336

The Poet as Creator of Social Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

Sanchez, Sonia

1985-01-01

337

Work Values of Mortuary Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

2005-01-01

338

The Value of Natural History Collections.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research and public values of natural history museum collections. Research values include documenting biotas no longer available and serving as inspiration for scientific discovery. Public values include servings as resources for identification of unknown specimens, hands-on education, and depositories for evidence of the history and…

Allmon, Warren D.

1994-01-01

339

Development of Value Systems in Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the value systems of 739 adolescents in Grade 5, 7, 9 and 11 using the Rokeach Value Survey. Discussion focuses on the relative stability of the rankings over grades and value differences related to age and sex. (SDH)

Beech, Robert P.; Schoeppe, Aileen

1974-01-01

340

The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*  

PubMed Central

A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy.

Edwards, Ryan D.

2012-01-01

341

The Life Cycle of Centrioles  

PubMed Central

Centrioles organize the centrosome and nucleate the ciliary axoneme, and the centriole life cycle has many parallels to the chromosome cycle. The centriole cycle in animals begins at fertilization with the contribution of two centrioles by the male gamete. In the ensuing cell cycles, the duplication of centrioles is controlled temporally, spatially, and numerically. As a consequence of the duplication mechanism, the two centrioles in a typical interphase cell are of different ages and have different functions. Here, we discuss how new centrioles are assembled, what mechanisms limit centriole number, and the consequences of the inherent asymmetry of centriole duplication and segregation.

Hatch, E.

2013-01-01

342

Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

2007-01-01

343

2002 Navy Quality of Life Survey: Methodology.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Navy Quality of Life (QOL) Survey is to determine the overall perceptions that Sailors have of QOL in the Navy and of specific life domains, such as Career and Work, Shipboard Life, Leisure and Recreation, Friends and Friendships, Stand...

G. L. Wilcover M. S. Hay

2004-01-01

344

Value of Farm Capital: Agriculture Economic Statistics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 2008, Canadas farm capital value increased by 8.0% to $283.7 billion, continuing a long upward trend which began in 1993. The increase in the value of land and buildings more than offset the decrease in the value of livestock and poultry. British Colum...

2009-01-01

345

Validity of the Rokeach Value Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The construct validity of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) was evaluated. It was concluded that the RVS may be situation specific; and that ipsative measurement is useful when information about value choice is desired, but that normative measurement is more appropriate when the research is investigating the nature of value perception. (Author/PN)

Thompson, Bruce; And Others

1982-01-01

346

Effect of Values on Perception and Decision Making: A Study of Alternative Work Values Measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four alternative methods of measuring values were used to examine the impact of work values on perception and decision-making tasks. Perception and its relation to values was assessed using interpretation of ambiguous stimuli. The effect of values on decision making was evaluated using within-subject regression analyses of 20 separate decisions. A total of 103 undergraduate subjects completed values measures and

Elizabeth C. Ravlin; Bruce M. Meglino

1987-01-01

347

Half-life measurement of 66Ga with ?-spectroscopy.  

PubMed

The half-life of (66)Ga, an isotope very important for high-energy efficiency calibration of ?-detectors, has been measured using ?-spectroscopy. In order to reduce systematic uncertainties, different source production methods and ?-counting conditions have been applied. A half-life value of t(1/2)=(9.312±0.032)h has been obtained in agreement with a recent measurement but in contradiction with some of the earlier results. PMID:21868243

Gyürky, Gy; Farkas, J; Halász, Z; Szücs, T

2012-01-01

348

Nutritive Value of Indian Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief outline of general principles and considerations that govern the planning of satisfactory diets is given in this book. In the section dealing with dietary principles, information is given on the importance of the various nutritional constituents t...

C. Gopalan B. V. Rama Sastri S. C. Balasubramanian

1980-01-01

349

The value of values: Resourcing co-design of ubiquitous computing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of values in design work is gaining increasing attention. However, some of the work to date takes an approach which starts with generic values, or assumes values are constant. Through discussion of three accounts of value discovery and value evolution in projects focused on exploring novel uses of ubiquitous computing, we complement current thinking by arguing for the

John Halloran; Eva Hornecker; Mark Stringer; Eric Harris; Geraldine Fitzpatrick

2009-01-01

350

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basic features of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi have been known for nearly a century. Various aspects of the life cycle, however, have been elucidated only recently, whilst others remain either controversial or unstudied. Here, we present a revised life cycle influenced by recent findings and specific questions that remain unresolved.

K. M. Tyler; D. M. Engman

2001-01-01

351

The Value of Symbolic Computation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Standard generative linguistic theory, which uses discrete symbolic models of cogni- tion, has some strengths and weaknesses. It is strong on providing a network of out- posts that make scientific travel in the jungles of natural language feasible. It is weak in that it currently depends on the elaborate and unformalized use of intuition to de- velop critical supporting assumptions

Whitney Tabor

2002-01-01

352

The value of asking questions.  

PubMed

Science begins by asking questions and then seeking answers. Young children understand this intuitively as they explore and try to make sense of their surroundings. However, science education focuses upon the end game of "facts" rather than the exploratory root of the scientific process. Encouraging questioning helps to bring the true spirit of science into our educational system, and the art of asking good questions constitutes an important skill to foster for practicing scientists. PMID:23486404

Vale, Ronald D

2013-03-01

353

Values and judgements of wage differentials.  

PubMed

This study examined the relationship between value priorities as assessed by the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) and judgements of wage differentials. Students completed the RVS and judged the fairness of the wages for a number of jobs. Judgements of fairness were related to differences in value priorities but the justifications provided did not relate to these value priorities or draw on similar systems. The results are discussed in relation to the question of whether or not values are systematically organized, core cognitive constructs. PMID:1933149

Dickinson, J

1991-09-01

354

Risk Aversion and the Value of Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains why risk aversion does not always induce a greater information value, but instead may induce a lower information value when increased. Presents a basic model defining the concept of perfect information value and providing a numerical illustration. Includes references. (CMK)

Eeckhoudt, Louis; Godfroid, Phillippe

2000-01-01

355

[Clinical value of crystalluria study].  

PubMed

Crystalluria is a marker of urine supersaturation present in both normal and pathological conditions. Indeed, nature and characteristics of the spontaneous crystalluria are of clinical interest for detecting and following biological disorders involved in renal diseases. Method. Crystalluria examination should preferably be performed on first morning urine or fresh fasting voiding samples by polarised microscopy in a Malassez cell. Urine samples must be stored at 37 degrees C or at room temperature and examined within two hours following voiding. Results and discussion. Crystalluria should be interpreted according to various criteria: 1) chemical nature of crystals for abnormal crystals such as struvite, ammonium urate, cystine, dihydroxyadenine, xanthine or drugs; 2) crystalline phase of common chemical species as calcium oxalates, calcium phosphates and uric acids; 3) crystal morphology (calcium oxalates); 4) crystal size (calcium oxalates); 5) crystal abundance (calcium oxalates, calcium phosphates, uric acids, cystine); 6) crystal aggregation (calcium oxalates); 7) frequency of crystalluria assessed on serial first morning urine samples, a very useful tool for long-term surveillance of patients. Within calcium oxalate crystalluria, presence of whewellite is a marker of elevated oxalate concentration (urine oxalate > 0.3 mmol/L); a crystal number > 200/mm 3 is highly suggestive of heavy hyperoxaluria of genetic or absorptive origin. Predominant weddellite crystalluria is most often indicative of an excessive urine calcium concentration (> 3.8 mmol/L); a dodecahedric aspect of the crystals is a marker for heavy hypercalciuria (> 6 mmol/L) while an increased crystal size (>or= 35 microm) is indicative of simultaneous hypercalciuria and hyperoxaluria. Calculation of the global crystal volume, especially when applied to calcium oxalates or cystine, is a clinically useful tool for the monitoring of patients suffering from primary hyperoxaluria or cystinuria. Lastly, presence of crystalluria in more than 50% of serial first voided morning urine samples is in our experience the most reliable biological marker for detecting the risk of stone recurrence in lithiasic patients. Conclusion. Crystalluria examination is an essential laboratory test for detecting and following pathological conditions, which may induce renal stone disease or alter kidney function due to urine crystals. PMID:15297232

Daudon, M; Jungers, P; Lacour, B

2004-01-01

356

Obesity, longevity, quality of life  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that optimization of murine immunological reactivity in tissue culture required a sulfhydryl compound; the most effective being 2-mercaptoethanol (2-Me). Since these reports, 2-Me was found beneficial for both growth/function of other cell-types in vitro, including those of other species, and when fed orally, it impeded and/or reversed some in situ physiological changes associated with aging. More recently, thiol-containing compounds possessing oxidation-reduction potentials weaker than 2-Me were found to impart beneficial effects for many other, including human, diseases. Based on these effects, the research herein addressed the question: What consequences might dietary 2-Me impart on health and disease of mice other than those associated with aging? The main parameters monitored over the lifetime of individual animals exposed to dietary 10?3 M 2-Me in their drinking water were: quality of life (obesity and development of recumbent, emaciated and/or cachectic health, longevity, and appearance of tumors. Instead of anticipated toxic attributes, the following unique benefits were found: mean survival of a moderately-lived strain (A/J) was increased 40.8%, high-fat-diet obesity was curtailed in C57BL/10 mice, and a goal of aging intervention protocols, namely preventing loss of quality of life during aging (recumbent, emaciated and/or cachectic) was achieved. Various mechanisms are discussed as they pertain to these findings.

2010-01-01

357

Life-Cycle Costing of Life Support Equipment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A feasibility study has been accomplished on applying life-cycle costing (LCC) to aircrew life support equipment (LSE). The AFLC Logistics Support Cost (LSC) model was examined and found to be too complex for application to life support devices (LSD). A p...

C. C. Petersen C. L. Moodie J. Posey G. Schulties J. Chen

1981-01-01

358

The Therapeutic Value of Pets  

PubMed Central

While domestic pets are capable of transmitting disease and inflicting injury, they may also be of benefit to human health. Studies suggest that companion animals, in addition to their well-known role as helpers to the handicapped, may alleviate depression, solace the lonely, facilitate psycho-therapy, socialize criminals, lower blood pressure, increase survivorship from myocardial infarction and ease the social pain of aging in our society.

Fitzgerald, Faith T.

1986-01-01

359

The value of shared services.  

PubMed

A multisite shared services organization, combined with a robust business continuity plan, provides infrastructure and redundancies that mitigate risk for hospital CFOs. These structures can position providers to do the following: move essential operations out of a disaster impact zone, if necessary. Allow resources to focus on immediate patient care needs. Take advantage of economies of scale in temporary staffing. Leverage technology. Share in investments in disaster preparedness and business continuity solutions PMID:21789944

Wallace, Beverly B

2011-07-01

360

Radiography of laryngeal carcinoma. Assessment of value.  

PubMed

The value of various radiographic methods (except laryngography) in laryngeal carcinoma was assessed in a material of 71 patients. Radiography proved of no value in T1 and T2 tumours if a satisfactory clinical examination could be performed but gave valuable information in recurrences as well as in T3 and T4 cases. PMID:1189963

Jorgensen, J; Jorgensen, K; Jensen, O M; Jensen, J T; Elbrond, O; Andersen, A P

1975-07-01

361

The value of birth control  

Microsoft Academic Search

When econometric simulation is employed as a tool of national policy analysis, a persuasive argument can be made for including demographic elements in the models. In the short run, changes in birth rates alter female labour force participation rates and hence affect the size of the labour force. Also, changes in birth rates influence investment rates even in the short

Paul M. Sommers

1980-01-01

362

The Economic Value of Teeth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

2010-01-01

363

The value of weak connections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Most business leaders are aware of the success and high market valuations associated with internet networking businesses such as Facebook and LinkedIn. But they often fail to apply the lessons from the success of these businesses to their own brick and mortar operations. This article discusses the underlying human willingness to help others with whom we have relatively

Stuart E. Jackson

2011-01-01

364

Assessing the Value of Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The issue of assessment in U.S. education is one that is wrought with conflict because there are many kinds of assessments being used--in various configurations--from district to district and state to state. Contributing writer Susan Reese looks at various assessments, including those being used in career and technical education classrooms, and…

Reese, Susan

2009-01-01

365

The Value of Healthy Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The article explores why healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife: supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treating waste and runoff, protecting coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation, and nurturing a balance of the food web

Robert Christian (East Carolina University;)

2009-03-15

366

The Value of Endangered Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The infamous snail darter controversy of the 1970s raised an interesting philosophical problem, one that continues to arise, as illustrated by the more recent spotted owl controversy in the Pacific Northwest. The snail darter is a fish that eats snails; it is three and a half inches long, a relative of the perch, and ranges in color from brown to

Ben Bradley

2001-01-01

367

[Value of simulation in pediatrics].  

PubMed

The authors present the concepts of simulation and its utilization in pediatrics. Simulation in medicine is a teaching method that has not yet been developed in Europe and has not spread in pediatrics in France. Motivations for simulation are first and foremost ethical: "Never the first time on patients!" Simulation also provides benefits in teaching communication skills and theoretical concepts. It is an essential means to maintain patient safety by limiting the risk of errors. It covers teaching procedures requiring realistic models such as in teaching communication and crisis resource management. Simulation can also be used for teaching disclosure of bad news, using actors. Simulation skills are acquired during debriefing, when the supervisor acts as a facilitator. Evaluation is mandatory in simulation, dependent on the how realistic the models are and on the performance of a procedure or multidisciplinary team management. Performance can be objectively assessed only with validated tools. Simulation will become a mandatory teaching method in medicine. PMID:23619209

Oriot, D; Boureau-Voultoury, A; Ghazali, A; Brèque, C; Scépi, M

2013-06-01

368

NFL: A perversion of values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author examines the National Forensic League's overemphasis on “winning”;, and points out how, in four respects, this “winning’ philosophy is educationally unsound. He concludes by suggesting several ways to remedy these weaknesses of the NFL.

Robert L. Smith

1959-01-01

369

The value of direct messaging.  

PubMed

Direct secure messaging (DSM) is a way to send patient information in an encrypted form among physicians, among provider organizations, and to state agencies. Improving efficiency of communication between physicians through DSM also improves productivity-not only for physician users, but also for the practices and organizations they serve. However, use of DSM must expand for users and their organizations to achieve full benefits. PMID:24611231

Wagner, Karen

2014-02-01

370

Unchaining the value of design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design in the 1980s is big business, but relatively few organisations seem to appreciate the nature and breadth of its potential contribution. To the extent that design has been absorbed into corporate thinking, it has primarily related to product design. There has been little done to incorporate design in its broadest sense into current business analytical and strategic frameworks. To

Eric Schneider

1989-01-01

371

A Rooted Net of Life  

PubMed Central

Abstract Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a single model that acknowledges the discrete evolutionary units that constitute the organism. Briefly, this Rooted Net of Life genome phylogeny is constructed around an initial, well resolved and rooted tree scaffold inferred from a supermatrix of combined ribosomal genes. Extant sampled ribosomes form the leaves of the tree scaffold. These leaves, but not necessarily the deeper parts of the scaffold, can be considered to represent a genome or pan-genome, and to be associated with members of other gene families within that sequenced (pan)genome. Unrooted phylogenies of gene families containing four or more members are reconstructed and superimposed over the scaffold. Initially, reticulations are formed where incongruities between topologies exist. Given sufficient evidence, edges may then be differentiated as those representing vertical lines of inheritance within lineages and those representing horizontal genetic transfers or endosymbioses between lineages. Reviewers W. Ford Doolittle, Eric Bapteste and Robert Beiko.

2011-01-01

372

Correlates of life satisfaction among military wives.  

PubMed

Military life includes constant change. This study explored the relationship of life satisfaction among military wives with the individual attitudinal and personality variables of perceived social support, locus of control, and temperament. Sixty wives of noncommissioned military personnel were selected as participants. Life satisfaction was found to be related to high levels of perceived social support from family and from friends, to an internal locus of control, and to low levels of emotionality-stress and emotionality-fear. The results supported the role of individual resources for mediating adjustment and enhancing life satisfaction during the changes inherent in military life. Implications for identifying and helping high-risk women emerged. PMID:2585351

Klein, H A; Tatone, C L; Lindsay, N B

1989-09-01

373

Value of global weather sensors  

SciTech Connect

Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-12-23

374

Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.  

PubMed

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis. PMID:24892374

Vickers, Mark H

2014-01-01

375

Early Life Nutrition, Epigenetics and Programming of Later Life Disease  

PubMed Central

The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be transmitted across generations is essential for the implementation of initiatives aimed at curbing the current obesity and diabetes crisis.

Vickers, Mark H.

2014-01-01

376

The Value of DNA Sequencing  

Cancer.gov

This video is one in a series of videos from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project explaining TCGA’s approach to determining the important genomic changes that lead to cancer. TCGA researchers, Drs. Richard Gibbs, Lynda Chin, Stacey Gabriel and Paul Spellman, explain DNA sequencing and what it tells us about DNA changes in cancer, how looking across many tumors will help us to find which changes are meaningful and identify potential drug targets, and how genomics is changing how we think about cancer.

377

Fingerprints of Life CD and Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher resource on astrobiology and life in extreme environments contains classroom activities, presentation-ready slideshows with scripts and many other resources. It shows how NASA research on microbial life on Earth helps identify possible signs of life on Martian meteorites.

2004-01-01

378

Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

White, Ronald (editor); Leonard, Joel (editor)

1991-01-01

379

Origin of Life and Definition of Life, from Buffon to Oparin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many theories on origin of life at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth, generally use conceptions of life instead of explicit definitions of life. This paper presents ideas on the origin of life as studied by Buffon (1707-1788), Lamarck (1744-1829), Darwin (1809-1882), Huxley (1825-1895), Oparin (1894-1980) and Haldane (1892-1964). We show that their conceptions on the evolution of matter and life reveal their conceptions of life rather than their definitions of life.

Tirard, Stéphane

2010-04-01

380

Folklore: A Tapestry of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the value of introducing folklore into the curriculum to help students learn about their sense of place in the community. Describes various pertinent Web sites, including the American Folklife Center of the Library of Congress, the American Folklore Society, and the Smithsonian Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage. (LRW)

Joseph, Linda C.

2001-01-01

381

Accelerating the life of transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Choosing small and medium power switching transistors of the NPN type in a 3DK set as the study object, the test of accelerating life is conducted in constant temperature and humidity, and then the data are statistically analyzed with software developed by ourselves. According to degradations of such sensitive parameters as the reverse leakage current of transistors, the lifetime order of transistors is about more than 104 at 100 °C and 100% relative humidity (RH) conditions. By corrosion fracture of transistor outer leads and other failure modes, with the failure truncated testing, the average lifetime rank of transistors in different distributions is extrapolated about 103. Failure mechanism analyses of degradation of electrical parameters, outer lead fracture and other reasons that affect transistor lifetime are conducted. The findings show that the impact of external stress of outer leads on transistor reliability is more serious than that of parameter degradation.

Haochun, Qi; Changzhi, Lü; Xiaoling, Zhang; Xuesong, Xie

2013-06-01

382

Directory of Productivity and Quality of Working Life Centers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory was prepared to foster the mutually supportive relationships among the Productivity and Quality of Working Life Centers in the United States. It was also designed to be of value to innovative managers in the public and private sectors by making readily available sources of information on the various aspects of productivity and…

National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, Washington, DC.

383

Measurement of the 225Ac half-life.  

PubMed

The (225)Ac half-life was determined by measuring the activity of (225)Ac sources as a function of time, using various detection techniques: ?-particle counting with a planar silicon detector at a defined small solid angle and in a nearly-2? geometry, 4??+? counting with a windowless CsI sandwich spectrometer and with a pressurised proportional counter, gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector and with a NaI(Tl) well detector. Depending on the technique, the decay was followed for 59-141 d, which is about 6-14 times the (225)Ac half-life. The six measurement results were in good mutual agreement and their mean value is T(1/2)((225)Ac)=9.920 (3)d. This half-life value is more precise and better documented than the currently recommended value of 10.0 d, based on two old measurements lacking uncertainty evaluations. PMID:22940415

Pommé, S; Marouli, M; Suliman, G; Dikmen, H; Van Ammel, R; Jobbágy, V; Dirican, A; Stroh, H; Paepen, J; Bruchertseifer, F; Apostolidis, C; Morgenstern, A

2012-11-01

384

Effects of coal oxidation on calorific value  

SciTech Connect

A brief investigation of the effects of oxidation on the calorific values of three Turkish lignite samples has been made. The lignite samples have been vacuum dried and oxidized in pure oxygen at 35, 45, and 55 C at 100 kPa for 10 days. The calorific values of the oxidized and unoxidized samples have been measured. A relation has been observed between the extent of oxidation and decrease in calorific value. Various possibilities of modeling the relation have been explored.

Uenal, S. [Univ. of Marmara, Istanbul (Turkey); Yalcin, Z.G.; Piskin, S. [Yildiz Technical Univ., Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-04-01

385

Brief report: Value priorities of early adolescents.  

PubMed

Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys. PMID:24931555

Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

2014-07-01

386

DOES THE USE OF PICTURES GIVE THE EMPLOYEES A VOICE IN VALUE-DEVELOPMENT PROCESSES?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address management by values from the perspective of the employee. Much focus has been given the definition of values by organizations in recent years. However, the effect of defined values on the daily life and practice in workplaces is often quite limited due to the fact that employees are seldom engaged in defining, interpreting and implementing

Pernille Bottrup; Birgit Hjermov

387

The Tree of Life's Macromolecules  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students start with images of living organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. They "zoom" into cells and tissues to discover that they are made of different macromolecules. Students observe that these macromolecules are polymers. They zoom into polymers to find that some are made from almost identical monomers, while others, such as proteins, are made from a set of different monomers. They discover that all monomers making up biological macromolecules are composed of just a few types of chemical elements: C, H, O, N, P and S. Students will be able to:Identify typical molecular building blocks (monomers) that form biological macromolecules; determine the types of atoms that make up most biopolymers; reason about the uniformity and diversity at the atomic level of life's molecular building blocks.

Project, Molecular L.

388

Validation of the Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life Questionnaire  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe Restless Legs Syndrome Quality of Life questionnaire (RLSQoL) assesses the impact of RLS on daily life, emotional well-being, social life, and work life. This study investigates its validity and reliability.

Linda Abetz; Susan M. Vallow; Jeff Kirsch; Richard P. Allen; Tinna Washburn; Christopher J. Earley

2005-01-01

389

Life span of the biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological, Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis (1974) for climate control, and Walker et al's (in press) model of automatic thermostasis, in which the abundance of such atmospheric greenhouse gases as CO2 adjusts to resist the warming tendency of the increased solar flux. It is concluded that, since atmospheric CO2 is now close to its partial pressure lower limit, the biosphere will on a geological time-scale be soon exposed, without protection, to the predicted solar luminosity increases.

Lovelock, J. E.; Whitfield, M.

1982-04-01

390

The Life Cycle of Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the parts of a flower? How does seed dispersal work? These are a few of the important questions answered by this site which offers a refresher on the life cycle of plants. The five areas here include "Seed Growth", "Parts of a flower", "Seed Dispersal", and "Plant Identification". Clicking on each of the first three sections mentioned here will reveal a set of interactive diagrams and illustrations that show different scenarios documenting the conditions that can affect plant growth. The "Seed Dispersal" area is quite a pip, as visitors can learn about such phenomenon as "Shakers", "Water", and "Animal Food" and how they affect plant growth. Finally the "Plant Identification" area features a handy guide to identifying plants based on some simple illustrations with key features highlighted.

391

Assessment of ethical decisions and values.  

PubMed

The development and pilot testing of the Professional Decisions and Values Test (PDV) is described. The PDV is designed to assess how ethical conflicts are dealt with by medical and law students and which moral values motivate them. Data from two consecutive classes of entering medical and law students are presented and their action tendencies and ethical values are compared. The findings support the construct validity of the test. Regarding reliability, stability over time is present for action tendencies but not for values. Perhaps the ethical values of entering medical and law students do not become stable until later. Change in ethical values can be studied with the PDV for groups, not individuals, during the first year of professional education. PMID:1538661

Rezler, A G; Schwartz, R L; Obenshain, S S; Lambert, P; Gibson, J M; Bennahum, D A

1992-01-01

392

The half-life of ²¹⁸Po  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct observation of the ²¹⁸Po alpha-peak decay with a microcomputer-controlled alpha-spectrometer yielded a mean half-life value of 3.040 +\\/- 0.008 min, where the error quoted represents twice the standard deviation of the means from 38 separate decay measurements. The 1912 and 1924 ²¹⁸Po half-life measurements, which provided the 3.05-min value listed in nuclear tables for the past 60 y, are

D. E. Martz; R. T. Harris; G. H. Jr. Langner

1989-01-01

393

The Value of Teachers in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report examined the impact of teachers and other school related factors on educational achievement in one Southern California school district. These school related factors included (a) family life, as measured by size, structure and father's occupation, (b) peer groups, (c) student's innate abilities, and (d) school itself. Protocols were…

Hanushek, Eric

394

The Values of Middle Class Drug Users and Their Perceptions of the Values of Society.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Values of drug users were measured using the Rokeach Value Survey. The values the drug users espoused and perceived to be in opposition to society's values formed three themes: tranquility, aesthetics, and humanism. Although this group was perceived as deviant, they adhered to the literal meaning of these cultural ideals. (Author/BEF)

Beech, Robert; Katz, Bernard

1980-01-01

395

Prolonging the life of software  

SciTech Connect

Presented here are methods for successfully controlling software maintenance activity so that present systems will be more useful and less expensive to support. While it is based on experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory, it is not based on solutions developed and implemented there. Los Alamos is presently struggling with the problems identified in this paper and is impacted by them to the same extent as the rest of industry. An idea has emerged from this struggle: the deterioration of production software is basically a quality control problem which can and should be solved. Many data processing shops currently have two options concerning old (over five years), marginally useful systems; pay the high cost of supporting them or undertake a rewrite. If the principles presented in this paper are applied, a third option may become available; prolonging the useful life of software by making it more cost-effective to support.

Connell, J.; Brice, L.

1984-01-01

396

Life of a Vertebrate Fossil  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unless you have a very large research grant, it can be difficult to find fossil bones. Fortunately, this very fine online learning module from the Smithsonian's Natural History Museum can help both young and old to learn about locating fossil bones, among other things. Through this multimedia feature created by the History Museum's department of paleobiology, visitors will learn what paleontologists do in each stage in the life of a vertebrate fossil. With the assistance of short video clips, interactive diagrams, and photographs, visitors will learn about how fossils are prepared for examination and how scientists unravel the stories of these paleontological finds. Finally, visitors will also learn how fossils are stored and preserved.

397

Determination of Turboprop Reduction Gearbox System Fatigue Life and Reliability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two computational models to determine the fatigue life and reliability of a commercial turboprop gearbox are compared with each other and with field data. These models are (1) Monte Carlo simulation of randomly selected lives of individual bearings and gears comprising the system and (2) two-parameter Weibull distribution function for bearings and gears comprising the system using strict-series system reliability to combine the calculated individual component lives in the gearbox. The Monte Carlo simulation included the virtual testing of 744,450 gearboxes. Two sets of field data were obtained from 64 gearboxes that were first-run to removal for cause, were refurbished and placed back in service, and then were second-run until removal for cause. A series of equations were empirically developed from the Monte Carlo simulation to determine the statistical variation in predicted life and Weibull slope as a function of the number of gearboxes failed. The resultant L(sub 10) life from the field data was 5,627 hr. From strict-series system reliability, the predicted L(sub 10) life was 774 hr. From the Monte Carlo simulation, the median value for the L(sub 10) gearbox lives equaled 757 hr. Half of the gearbox L(sub 10) lives will be less than this value and the other half more. The resultant L(sub 10) life of the second-run (refurbished) gearboxes was 1,334 hr. The apparent load-life exponent p for the roller bearings is 5.2. Were the bearing lives to be recalculated with a load-life exponent p equal to 5.2, the predicted L(sub 10) life of the gearbox would be equal to the actual life obtained in the field. The component failure distribution of the gearbox from the Monte Carlo simulation was nearly identical to that using the strict-series system reliability analysis, proving the compatibility of these methods.

Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Lewicki, David G.; Savage, Michael; Vlcek, Brian L.

2007-01-01

398

An Overlooked Riddle of Life’s Origins: Energy-Dependent Nucleic Acid Unzipping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The imposing progress in understanding contemporary life forms on Earth and in manipulating them has not been matched by a comparable progress in understanding the origins of life. This paper argues that a crucial problem of unzipping of the double helix molecule of nucleic acid during its replication has been underrated, if not plainly overlooked, in the theories of life’s

Ladislav Ková?; Jozef Nosek; L’ubomír Tomáška

2003-01-01

399

The value of information technology in healthcare.  

PubMed

Not only will healthcare investments in information technology (IT) continue, they are sure to increase. Just as other industries learned over time how to extract more value from IT investments, so too will the healthcare industry, and for the same reason: because they must. This article explores the types of business value IT has generated in other industries, what value it can generate in healthcare, and some of the barriers encountered in achieving that value. The article ends with management principles for IT investment. PMID:12645778

Skinner, Richard I

2003-01-01

400

A Model of Residential Land Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Memorandum presents the findings of a pilot study that deals with the determinants of residential land values in an urban area. As part of the RAND Urban Transportation effort, one primary purpose of this study was to develop a land-value submodel fo...

E. F. Brigham

1964-01-01

401

Calorific value of municipal solid waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

At present, the calorific values of a variety of combustible solid or liquid substances are determined at commercial laboratories with conventional combustion bomb calorimetric techniques using gram?size samples. This paper describes the process to calculate the calorific value of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). Samples of raw refuse were burnt firstly as received and, secondly, after sorting the different combustible components.

Carlos Franjo Franjo; Jesus Palacios Ledo; Jose A. Rodriguez Anon; Lisardo Nunez Regueira

1992-01-01

402

Object Relations and the Development of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Claims acquisition of values is related to successes and failures of early relationships. Describes steps person goes through in making identifications, explaining steps that move person toward construction of value system. Refers to works of Heinz Kohut to explain how child's idealizing has within it necessary components for child's growth in…

Gazda, George M.; Sedgwick, Charlalee

1990-01-01

403

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

404

Understanding the Value of Systems Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practices of systems engineering are believed to have high value in the development of complex systems. Heuristic wisdom is that an increase in the quantity and quality of systems engineering (SE) can reduce project schedule while increasing product quality. This paper explores recent theoretical and statistical information concerning this heuristic value of SE. It explores the underlying theoretical relationships

Eric C. Honour

405

Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four roller profiles used in cylindrical roller bearing design and manufacture were analyzed using both a closed form solution and finite element analysis (FEA) for stress and life. The roller profiles analyzed were flat, tapered end, aerospace, and fully crowned loaded against a flat raceway. Four rolling-element bearing life models were chosen for this analysis and compared. These were those of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, Ioannides and Harris, and Zaretsky. The flat roller profile without edge loading has the longest predicted life. However, edge loading can reduce life by as much as 98 percent. The end tapered profile produced the highest lives but not significantly different than the aerospace profile. The fully crowned profile produces the lowest lives. The resultant predicted life at each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both Lundberg-Palmgren and Iaonnides-Harris equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMAJISO standards. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field.

Poplawski, Joseph V.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Peters, Steven M.

2000-01-01

406

The Dual Approach to the Value of Information: An Appraisal of Use and Exchange Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Develops a framework for analyzing the value of information, information products, and services from the viewpoint of information use, and analyzes the practical values of different types of information to study the problems involved in assessing their value-in-use and exchange value. Existing research studies are analyzed using this approach.…

Repo, Aatto J.

1986-01-01

407

26 CFR 25.2519-1 - Dispositions of certain life estates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...qualifying income interest for life in trust corpus, the...qualifying income interest for life. Therefore, the...section 2702 for special rules applicable in valuing...of 40 percent of S's life income interest). See...section 2702 for additional rules that may affect...

2013-04-01

408

Semi-Values of Political Economic Games.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Semi-values are defined in Dubey and Weber 1981 where characterization of the semi-values is given for two basic spaces; the space of all finite games, and the space of differentiable non-atomic games, i.e., pNA. In the purely economic situation, we usual...

A. Neyman

1982-01-01

409

Market Versus Assessed Values of Industrial Land  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to identify the manner in which parcel scale, micro-location, and macro-location influence the market values and the assessed values of parcels zoned for industrial use. The implicit prices exhibited by the market for industrial parcels in the west suburbs of Detroit are somewhat different than those which are embodied in the assessment process in

Joseph G. Kowalski; Peter F. Colwell

1986-01-01

410

Validity of the Rokeach Value Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study evaluated the construct validity of the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS). Rokeach has presented factor analytic evidence that his instrument has the theorized dimensions. However, his results were based on analysis of ipsative data, and therefore, must be cautiously interpreted. The subjects in this study provided ratings of the values employed on the RVS, or normative data, which may

Bruce Thompson; Justin E. Levitov; Patrick A. Miederhoff

1982-01-01

411

Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

Moosmayer, Dirk

2011-01-01

412

Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

2013-01-01

413

Strong Families, Tidy Houses, and Children's Values in Adult Life: Are "Chaotic", "Crowded" and "Unstable" Homes Really so Bad?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Chaotic home systems have been linked with children's adverse psychological and academic outcomes. But, as they represent a departure from the suburban ideal of space, order, and family cohesiveness and stability, they should also be linked with low support for survival values. Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70)…

Flouri, Eirini

2009-01-01

414

Signs of Life on Venus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for "habitable zones" in extrasolar planetary systems is based on the premise of "normal" physical conditions in a habitable zone, i.e. pressure, temperature range, and atmospheric composition similar to those on the Earth. However, one should not exclude completely the possibility of the existence of life at relatively high temperatures, despite the fact that at the first glance it seems impossible. The planet Venus with its dense, hot (735 K), oxigenless CO2 - atmosphere and high 92 bar-pressure at the surface could be the natural laboratory for the studies of this type. Amid exoplanets, celestial bodies with the physical conditions similar to the Venusian can be met. The only existing data of actual close-in observations of Venus' surface are the results of a series of missions of the soviet VENERA landers which took place the 1970's and 80's in the atmosphere and on the surface of Venus. For 36 and 29 years since these missions, respectively, I repeatedly returned to the obtained images of the Venus' surface in order to reveal on them any unusual objects observed in the real conditions of Venus. The new analysis of the Venus' panoramas was based on the search of unusual elements in two ways. Since the efficiency of the VENERA landers maintained for a long time they produced a large number of primary television panoramas during the lander's work. Thus, one can try to detect: (a) any differences in successive images (appearance or disappearance of parts of the image or change of their shape), and understand what these changes are related to (e.g., wind), and whether they are related to hypothetical habitability of a planet. Another sign (b) of the wanted object is their morphological peculiarities which distinguishes them from the ordinary surface details. The results of VENERA-9 (1975) and VENERA -13 (1982) are of the main interest. A few relatively large objects ranging from a decimeter to half meter and with unusual morphology were observed in some images, but were absent in the other or altered their shape. What sources of energy, in principle, could be used by life in the high temperature oxigenless atmosphere? The objects found are large enough, they are not micro-organisms. It is most natural to assume that, like on Earth, Venusian fauna is heterotrophic, and the source of its life is hypothetical autotrophic flora. There is enough light for flora's photosynthesis. Since the critical temperature of water on Venus is about 320°C and the temperature at the surface is about 460°C, the metabolism of organisms on Venus (if any) should be built without water, on the basis of some other liquid medium. Based on data analyzed it has been suggested that because of the limited energy capacity of the Venusian fauna, the temporal characteristics of their physical actions can be much longer than that of the Earth.

Ksanfomality, L.

2012-04-01

415

The Evolution of Transfers and Life Histories  

PubMed Central

Much of life history theory analyzes life histories of independent, isolated individuals, who grow, forage, reproduce, and die. However, in many species social interactions such as food sharing are a key part of the life history strategy, altering the energetic budget constraint. Transfers and sharing raise reproductive success and also alter the fitness impact of other aspects of the life history. We discuss a variety of traits and behaviors for which transfers are important, synthesizing results from a number of earlier papers. Topics include the U-shaped mortality curve, post reproductive survival, causes of early life mortality decline, why intergenerational transfers evolve and co-evolve with longevity, time preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual differences in transfers, menopause, demographic advantages of social sharing, and consequences of social sharing for life history evolution.

Cyrus, C. Y.

2012-01-01

416

The Owen Value of Stochastic Cooperative Game  

PubMed Central

We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness.

E, Cheng-Guo; Li, Quan-Lin; Li, Shi-Yong

2014-01-01

417

The Value of Human Capital Wealth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The value of human capital wealth and its return process are important to quantify in order to study consumption behavior and portfolio allocation. This paper introduces a new approach to measure the value of an economy's total human capital wealth. By assuming that the consumption to wealth ratio is constant, we exploit aggregate consumption data to recover total wealth, and

Julian di Giovanni; Akito Matsumoto

2011-01-01

418

The Value of Behavioral Research on Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Facts documented by references are presented to prove beyond any reasonable doubt the value of behavioral research on animals. Attempts by radical animal activists to mislead humane people by repeatedly asserting such research is completely without any value and by other false statements are a disservice to animal welfare by deflecting funds from worthy activities. Some of the significant contributions

Neal E. Miller

1985-01-01

419

Expectancy-Value Theory of Achievement Motivation.  

PubMed

We discuss the expectancy-value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy-value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest. Research is reviewed dealing with two issues: (1) change in children's and adolescents' ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and subjective values, and (2) relations of children's and adolescents' ability-expectancy beliefs and subjective task values to their performance and choice of activities. Copyright 2000 Academic Press. PMID:10620382

Wigfield; Eccles

2000-01-01

420

Quality of life during antihypertensive therapy  

PubMed Central

1 Assessment of the impact of antihypertensive therapy upon the quality of life of the hypertensive patient can provide practical data associated with patient acceptance of therapy. 2 For measurement purposes, quality of life is the organizing concept around which the major components relating to the patient's subjective evaluation of symptoms, functions and perceptions revolve. 3 Substantive evaluation of quality of life involves the organization of psychometric items or questions which form the basic scales underlying these major components including, symptom distress, well-being, vitality, depression, anxiety, work performance, sexual functioning, cognition and life satisfaction.

Testa, Marcia A.

1987-01-01

421

SETG: An instrument for detection of life on Mars ancestrally related to life on Earth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life on Mars, if it exists, may be related to life on Earth. 12 This common ancestry hypothesis is supported by theoretical and experimental studies of meteoritic exchange between Earth and Mars, exchange that could have spread life between those planets. If so, we can target the basic building blocks of life, DNA or RNA, in our search. We are

Clarissa Lui; Christopher E. Carr; Holli Rowedder; Gary Ruvkun; Maria Zuber

2011-01-01

422

Approach to End of Life Care  

PubMed Central

End of life care is often overlooked in busy day-to-day medical practice. Physicians need to recognize that death is inevitable for many medical conditions despite aggressive treatment. Optimal end of life care begins with an honest discussion of disease progression and prognosis. By coordinating the care with the family and a hospice program, terminally ill patients can achieve relief of pain and other unwanted symptoms, leading to a good quality of life during their remaining days.

Lee, David H.

2002-01-01

423

Personality and Life Events as Predictors of Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: Do Life Events Mediate the Link between Personality and Life Satisfaction?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the association among personality traits, life events and life satisfaction, and the underlying pathways from personality traits to life satisfaction. A total of 1,961 adolescents were recruited from 21 secondary schools in Hong Kong. The adolescent version of the Chinese Personality Assessment Inventory (CPAI-A), the Chinese…

Ho, Man Yee; Cheung, Fanny M.; Cheung, Shu Fai

2008-01-01

424

Life events and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Life-course approaches to understanding the determinants of health have led to a greater focus on the effects of life events\\u000a on health. Life events may be construed as either positive or negative, and may have differential health effects. The aims\\u000a of the study were to assess the association of positive and negative life events with oral-health-related quality of life\\u000a (OHRQoL).

David Simon Brennan; A. John Spencer

2009-01-01

425

Life table of Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The life history of the oriental latrine fly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), was studied at 26 °C in the laboratory. The raw data were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table, in order to take both sexes and the variable developmental rate among individuals and between sexes into consideration. The intrinsic rate of increase ( r), the finite rate of increase ( ?), the net reproduction rate ( R0) and the mean generation time ( T) of C. megacephala were 0.2182, 1.2438 d -1, 91.7 offspring/individual and 20.7 days, respectively. The life expectancy of a newborn egg is 32 days. The maximum reproductive value of females is on the 19th day, which coincides with the total pre-oviposition period counted from birth. The two-sex life table analysis gives a comprehensive description of the stage differentiation of C. megacephala.

Gabre, Refaat M.; Adham, Fatma K.; Chi, Hsin

2005-05-01

426

Values as Predictors of Global Consciousness.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study assessed the relationships between human values and the psychological construct of world-mindedness. Fifty-one college students and 58 high school students in a town in the Pacific Northwest completed the Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992, 94) and the Cross-cultural World-mindedness Questionnaire (Der-Karabetian, 1992). A stepwise…

Mayton, Daniel M., II; Lerandeau, Elizabeth A.

427

Lost in translation: dignity dialogues at the end of life.  

PubMed

After a diagnosis of life-threatening illness, decisions must be made regarding various treatment options including life-sustaining interventions. The preservation of dignity is commonly invoked in these discussions with patients, their substitute decision makers, and health care providers. Current thoughts on dignity explore two main ideas: dignity as intrinsic worth and dignity as worth judged according to extrinsic socially based constructs. For the most part, both notions of dignity are appealed to in discussions of continuing or withholding/withdrawing treatments and in debates on the legalization of assisted death. These conceptions of dignity are value-laden and frequently biased, and therefore should be used with caution, if at all, in discussions with patients and their substitute decision makers. The fundamental issues in discussion with all patients diagnosed with a life-threatening illness are ones of respect for persons, acceptance, caring, and the value of interpersonal relationships. PMID:15511033

Hawryluck, Laura

2004-01-01

428

Elasticity Analysis of Green Sturgeon Life History  

Microsoft Academic Search

I provide an analysis of a simplified life history model for green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, based on published and recent estimates of reproduction and growth rates and survival rates from life history theory. The\\u000a deterministic life cycle models serve as a tool for qualitative analysis of the impacts of perturbations on green sturgeon,\\u000a including harvest regulations based on minimum and

Selina S. Heppell

2007-01-01

429

Profiled Roller Stress/Fatigue Life Analysis Methodology and Establishment of an Appropriate Stress/Life Exponent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this work was to determine the three dimensional volumetric stress field, surface pressure distribution and actual contact area between a 0.50" square roller with different crown profiles and a flat raceway surface using Finite Element Analysis. The 3-dimensional stress field data was used in conjunction with several bearing fatigue life theories to extract appropriate values for stress-life exponents. Also, results of the FEA runs were used to evaluate the laminated roller model presently used for stress and life prediction.

1997-01-01

430

Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?".

Margulis, L.; Guerrero, R.

1995-01-01

431

Quality of life philosophy VI. The concepts.  

PubMed

The about a hundred central concepts related to research in the global quality of life can, in a holistic medical frame of interpretation, be organized under ten abstract key concepts: existence, creation of the world, state of being, daily living, talents, relations, sex, health, personal development, and therapy with subthemes as discussed in this paper. The paper shows that the concepts in each group can be seen as related to each other in a quite intuitive and logical way, to give a coherent quality of life philosophy that allows the physician to encourage, inspire, and support his patient. In every consultation, one new concept and idea of existence can be taught to the patient, helping him or her to realize the meaning of life, the source of joy, and the reason for the actual suffering. In this way, we help the patient to mobilize hidden and known resources and to improve quality of life, subjective health, and the ability to function. The concepts were harvested in 2003 at a Nordic seminar on quality of life research, held in Sweden. Life does not only cohere on the inside, but also on the outside. The same power that ties together all the cells in our body, seems to tie us together in relationships and new wholeness. This power evolves into new kinds of relations that unite on more and more complex levels, with the global ecosystem as the highest known level. Our intentions come from this coherent matrix of life. In the beginning of our life, the web of life itself gave birth to our fundamental purpose of life. The abstract purpose determines the frame of interpretation of reality: How we will perceive ourselves throughout life, our inner life, and the world around us. The frame of interpretation is pitched in language and concepts, in fact it creates our perceptions. Based on these perceptions and our purposes of life, our behavior arises. Our consciousness evolves through the witnessing of our behavior and through the response caused by it. Through the slowly acquired mastering of our surrounding world, we obtain our power, which gives us success in life, when we use it responsibly and unite it in harmony with our deepest purpose of life. When many people experience not having success, it is because they are not conscious about their original purpose or the deepest meaning of their lives. They do not know themselves. They do not experience the world in that way and do not realize that they themselves are the cause. Therefore responsibility and self-knowledge, which add up to wisdom, are the ways to a good and successful life. PMID:14646016

Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Merrick, Joav

2003-12-01

432

Comparison of Measured Spacecraft Modal Damping Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presentation summarized the experiences at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the prediction and the measurement of modal damping values of spacecraft for use in the determination of design loads. The initial recognition of the uncertainty in the predic...

B. K. Wada J. C. Chen

1984-01-01

433

The Role of Values-Consistent Behavior in Generalized Anxiety Disorder  

PubMed Central

Background Theory and research suggest that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is associated with diminished quality of life and restriction in valued action. The purpose of this study was to examine the relevance of values-consistent behavior (valued action) in understanding the impairment in quality of life in GAD. Method Treatment-seeking clients with a principal diagnosis of GAD (n=30) were compared with demographically matched non-anxious controls (n=30) using self-report measures. Results Participants with GAD reported significantly less valued action compared with controls, and within the GAD group, diminished valued action was not fully explained by depression comorbidity. Valued action was significantly correlated with measures of experiential avoidance, distress about emotions, and quality of life. Further, consistent with a theoretical model of GAD, restrictions in valued action contributed unique variance to diminished quality of life over and above the contributions of gender, GAD severity, experiential avoidance, distress about emotions, and depression comorbidity. Finally, an acceptance-based behavioral therapy significantly improved self-reports of valued action for GAD clients with 40% achieving clinically significant change in this domain. Conclusion The findings provide preliminary support for the relevance of valued action in understanding the functional impairment associated with GAD, and the beneficial effects of an acceptance-based behavior therapy in increasing valued action.

Michelson, Susan E.; Lee, Jonathan K.; Orsillo, Susan M.; Roemer, Lizabeth

2011-01-01

434

The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.

Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.

2000-01-01

435

Evolution of Life: A Cosmic Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents that the concept of life being a cosmic phenomenon is rapidly gaining support, with new evidence from space science, geology and biology. In this picture life on Earth resulted from the introduction of bacteria from comets, and the subsequent evolution of life required the continuing input of genes from comets. This paper is accompanied by a synopsis of the hypothesis, Life from Space: An Emerging Paradigm, at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/wickramasinghe/article.html and a counterpoint commentary at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/wickramasinghe/review.html.

N. Chandra Wickramasinghe and Fred Hoyle (Cardiff University, UK;)

2001-05-01

436

John Greenleaf's life of science.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a "thought leader" and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in human systems-level environmental physiology. He avoided self-aggrandizement and believed that deeds rather than words define one's legacy. Viewed another way, however, Greenleaf's words define his deeds: 48% of his 185 articles are first author works, which is an unusually high proportion for a scientist of his stature. He found that writing a thorough and thoughtful discussion section often led to novel ideas that drove future research. Beyond Greenleaf's words are the many students, postdocs, and collaborators lucky enough to have worked with him and thus learn and carry on his ways of science. His core principles included the following: avoid research "fads," embrace diversity, be the first subject in your own research, adhere to rules of fiscal responsibility, and respect administrative forces-but never back down from them when you know you are right. Greenleaf's integrity ensured he was usually right. He thrived on the axiom of many successful scientists: avoid falling in love with hypotheses, so that when unexpected findings appear, they arouse curiosity instead of fear. Dr. Greenleaf's legacy will include the John and Carol Greenleaf Award for prolific environmental and exercise-related publication in the Journal of Applied Physiology. PMID:23209002

Watenpaugh, Donald E

2012-12-01

437

John Greenleaf's life of science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a ÃÂthought leaderÃÂ and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in human systems-level environmental physiology. He avoided self-aggrandizement and believed that deeds rather than words define one's legacy. Viewed another way, however, Greenleaf's words define his deeds: 48% of his 185 articles are first author works, which is an unusually high proportion for a scientist of his stature. He found that writing a thorough and thoughtful discussion section often led to novel ideas that drove future research. Beyond Greenleaf's words are the many students, postdocs, and collaborators lucky enough to have worked with him and thus learn and carry on his ways of science. His core principles included the following: avoid research ÃÂfads,ÃÂ embrace diversity, be the first subject in your own research, adhere to rules of fiscal responsibility, and respect administrative forcesÃÂbut never back down from them when you know you are right. Greenleaf's integrity ensured he was usually right. He thrived on the axiom of many successful scientists: avoid falling in love with hypotheses, so that when unexpected findings appear, they arouse curiosity instead of fear. Dr. Greenleaf's legacy will include the John and Carol Greenleaf Award for prolific environmental and exercise-related publication in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

Donald Watenpaugh (University of North Texas Health Science Center)

2012-12-01

438

Quality of Life and Social Life Situation in Islet Transplanted Patients: Time for a Change in Outcome Measures?  

PubMed Central

Background: One of the overall goals in health care is to prolong life, increase patients’ wellbeing and quality of life. Many of patients with severe insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus experience fear of hypoglycemia (FoH), which forces them to change their lives both physically and socially to avoid episodes of hypoglycemia. Objective: To investigate the quality of life and the social life situation, with special focus on the consequences of FoH in islet transplanted patients. Methods: 11 patients (4 women and 7 men) were included; they have undergone islet transplantation at Uppsala University Hospital during the period 2001–2009. Short Form 36 (SF-36) and the Swedish version Hypoglycemia Fear Survey (Swe-HFS) were used to investigate quality of life, in relation to FoH. In addition, telephone interviews were conducted to investigate the patients social life situation in relation to FoH, after islet transplantation and were analyzed using a content analysis method. Results: The mean value for quality of life was lower than that in the normal population. 3 out of 10 patients experienced FoH; one patient declined to answer the questionnaire. 3 predominant themes were revealed; one theme associated with pre-transplant, was “struggle for control of social life situation” and two themes associated with post-transplant, were “regain power and control of social life situation” and “at peace with the balance between the present and the future.” Conclusion: The patients experienced improved control over social life situation while quality of life in relation to FoH may have improved following islet transplantation.

Haggstrom, E.; Rehnman, M.; Gunningberg, L.

2011-01-01

439

Comparative values of advanced space solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

Slifer, L. W., Jr.

1982-09-01

440

Comparative values of advanced space solar cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A methodology for deriving a first order dollar value estimate for advanced solar cells which consists of defining scenarios for solar array production and launch to orbit and the associated costs for typical spacecraft, determining that portion affected by cell design and performance and determining the attributable cost differences is presented. Break even values are calculated for a variety of cells; confirming that efficiency and related effects of radiation resistance and temperature coefficient are major factors; array tare mass, packaging and packing factor are important; but cell mass is of lesser significance. Associated dollar values provide a means of comparison.

Slifer, L. W., Jr.

1982-01-01

441

Measurement of the (54)Mn half-life.  

PubMed

The half-life of (54)Mn was measured by following the decay of sources from a radiochemically pure solution using three different measuring systems: an ionisation chamber, a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and two 7.5 cm (diameter) × 7.5 cm (height) NaI(Tl) scintillation detectors in opposite position. The measurements were performed over a period of 3 years, i.e. about 3.5 half-lives of (54)Mn. The resulting half-life values and detailed uncertainty budgets are presented for the three measuring systems. The half-life obtained with the ionisation chamber, 312.32 (9) days, is consistent with but more precise than the ones obtained with the HPGe detector, 311.9 (5) days and the NaI(Tl) detectors, 311.9 (6) days, respectively. Our final half-life value of 312.32 (9) days is rather consistent with the currently recommended values of 312.29 (26) (IAEA, 2007) and 312.13 (3) days (Helmer and Schönfeld, 2004), even though the uncertainty of the latter may be underestimated. From a partially weighted mean (Pommé and Spasova, 2008) of selected experimental values published after 1970, a new best estimate of T(1/2)((54)Mn)=312.20 (8) days was calculated. PMID:20580237

Van Ammel, R; Paepen, J; Pommé, S; Sibbens, G

2010-12-01

442

Value of Logistics Information to the Warfighter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This MBA project analyzes the benefit of integrating Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology into the Department of Defense supply chain management infrastructure. The project confirms the existence of an inherent value in logistics information u...

C. J. Corrigan J. E. Kielar

2004-01-01

443

Numerical Values of Acoustic Surface Wave Velocities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The velocity of acoustic surface waves on solids is calculated in terms of the values of the transverse wave velocities for Poisson's ratios from 0.0001 to 0.5000 in steps smaller than 0.0004. (Author)

W. G. Mayer G. B. Lamers

1966-01-01

444

Thermal Conductivity of Vitreous Silica: Selected Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The published literature on the thermal conductivity of vitreous silica has been assembled and the results critically evaluated. Best values of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature have been selected. These are presented in both graphical and...

L. C. K. Carwile H. J. Hoge

1966-01-01

445

Thermal Conductivity of Polystyrene: Selected Values.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The published literature on the thermal conductivity of polystyrene was assembled and the results critically evaluated. Best values of thermal conductivity as a function of temperature were selected. These are presented in both graphical and tabular form;...

L. C. K. Carwile H. J. Hoge

1966-01-01

446

Value of Information and Information Services.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes and, where possible, quantifies the value of information and information services for transportation agencies. It evaluates the various means of accessing information and looks at the important role of the information professional. I...

1998-01-01

447

Value of information analysis - Nevada test site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents an innovative use of decision analysis to perform a Value of Information Analysis that compares the cost of acquiring environmental information during a corrective action investigation with a benefit. The benefit has been defined as th...

G. McNulty B. Deshler H. Dove

1997-01-01

448

Toward a Holistic Psychology of Valuing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Kohlberg's moral development theory and the necessity of a holistic theory. Describes Dabrowski's theory of cognitive disintegration. Implies that this theory could become a holistic theory and penetrate the sources of values objectivity. (Author/BH)

Hague, William J.

1988-01-01

449

Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

Muller, Ruth

2012-01-01

450

Quality of Life: Theory and Methodology in Rehabilitation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Urges rehabilitation professionals to identify, through scientific studies, the factors that contribute to their client's quality of life on the basis of the client's assumptions, perceptions, goals, and values. Both culturally relevant theoretical foundations and measurement-methodology issues are addressed. (DB)

Tam, Sing-Fai

1998-01-01

451

Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ?-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2? uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2? uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2? uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age <800 ka can clearly be resolved from the isotopic composition of a sample in secular equilibrium, assuming closed system behavior. Using these techniques, we analyzed a Sanbao Cave (Hubei, China) stalagmite that formed between 510 and 640 ka ago. As the half-life values were determined independent of the Sanbao Cave ages, the observed co-variation between stalagmite ?18O and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation is consistent with accurate ages and half-life values.

Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.

2013-06-01

452

The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles  

PubMed Central

In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions.

Tschinkel, Walter R.

2012-01-01

453

Materials 2: Life Cycle View of Material  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video explains what is meant by a materials life cycle framework. It describes what happens at each step in the life cycle and why designers should consider the life cycle in the design process. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

Vanasupa, Linda

454

Individual value preferences among American police officers : The Rokeach theory of human values revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the value orientation of American police officers in a major municipal police department. Relying primarily on survey data, the aim of this paper is to utilize Milton Rokeach’s theory of human values to investigate the following three issues: What are the value orientations of police officers today? Have such value orientations among police officers changed over time?

Jihong Zhao; Ni He; Nicholas P. Lovrich

1998-01-01

455

Quality of life after perimesencephalic haemorrhage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life was measured by means of the sickness impact profile (SIP) questionnaire in a prospectively collected, consecutive series of 25 patients with perimesencephalic haemorrhage. A mean of two years and four months (range six months to six years) after the perimesencephalic haemorrhage, quality of life scores of the (former) patients were comparable with those of a random sample

Eva H Brilstra; Jeanette W Hop; Gabriel J E Rinkel

1997-01-01

456

The diagnostic value of serum leucine aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

Serum leucine aminopeptidase determination was found to be a useful screening procedure for hepatobiliary disease in jaundiced and unjaundiced patients. Values under 1,000 units are of no help in the differential diagnosis of jaundice but values above 1,000 units are highly indicative of biliary obstruction. The differentiation of intra- from extrahepatic obstruction as well as of malignant from benign jaundice cannot generally be established by this single test.

Mericas, G.; Anagnostou, E.; Hadziyannis, St.; Kakari, S.

1964-01-01

457

The value relevance of intellectual capital disclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to examine whether or not listed companies' disclosure of intellectual capital is value-relevant in share markets and to assess its moderating role in the value-relevance of reported earnings and equity following the adoption of international financial reporting standards (IFRS). Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A measure of intellectual capital disclosure (ICD), based on a content analysis of the

Alireza Vafaei; Dennis Taylor; Kamran Ahmed

2011-01-01

458

The Boundary Value Problem of Physical Geodesy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report compares the existing methods for solving the geodetic boundary value problem, i.e., the gravimetric determination of the geoid (traditional methods) or the physical surface of the earth (modern methods). A unified treatment is attempted by de...

H. Moritz

1964-01-01

459

Characteristics of life events during adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies of the characteristics of life events during adolescence are reported. In the first, open-ended reports of major life events and daily events were obtained from early, middle, and late adolescents. Analyses of the frequency of past events perceived as positive versus negative revealed effects for type of event (major vs. daily), age, and gender. In contrast, anticipated events

Bruce E. Compas; Glen E. Davis; Carolyn J. Forsythe

1985-01-01

460

The predictive value of childhood blood pressure values for adult elevated blood pressure  

PubMed Central

Because of the paucity of serial blood pressure data on the same individuals, little is known about the accuracy of elevated blood pressure (BP) in childhood for predicting hypertension (HBP) later in life. The availability of long-term serial BP data from the Fels Longitudinal Study (FLS) presents the opportunity to link HBP in adulthood directly to BP measured decades earlier in the same individuals as children. We analyzed serial data from 965 men and 1114 women in the FLS. We used an autoregressive-moving average (1, 1) [ARMA (1, 1)] longitudinal model to predict adult HBP from childhood values. For 15-year-old boys with SBP 15 mmHg and 30 mmHg above the average SBP of 90 mmHg, the probabilities of having HBP at age 35 are 0.18 and 0.33, respectively. The corresponding probabilities for 15-year-old girls are only 0.04 and 0.08. This striking sex difference in risk of HBP at age 35 between 15-year-old boys and girls indicates that the risk of developing HBP in women is low regardless of their childhood blood pressure at any age from 2 to 17 years. Men are about 4.25 times more likely to have HBP at age 35 than women over a range of SBP of 90 – 140 mmHg at age 15. The ARMA (1, 1) model allows the identification of boys at risk for HBP as adult men.

Carrico, Robert J.; Sun, Shumei S.; Sima, Adam P.; Rosner, Bernard

2013-01-01

461

Conductance values of alkanedithiol molecular junctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the electrical conductance of octanedithiol molecular junctions using a mechanically controllable break-junction setup. The stability of the system allows control of whether the electrodes get into contact before each new molecular junction formation or not (contact and non-contact modes). We find three characteristic conductance values for octanedithiol. Well-defined peaks in the conductance histograms at multiples of 1.2×10-5 G0 suggest that this value corresponds to the conductance of a single molecular junction conductance. Reproducible features are also observed at 4.5×10-5 and 2.3×10-4 G0. The first value has the strongest statistical weight, whereas the second is only observed in the non-contact mode. We propose that these two values reflect the formation of several molecular junctions in parallel between the electrodes.

González, M. Teresa; Brunner, Jan; Huber, Roman; Wu, Songmei; Schönenberger, Christian; Calame, Michel

2008-06-01

462

Accelerated life testing of spacecraft subsystems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rationale and requirements for conducting accelerated life tests on electronic subsystems of spacecraft are presented. A method for applying data on the reliability and temperature sensitivity of the parts contained in a sybsystem to the selection of accelerated life test parameters is described. Additional considerations affecting the formulation of test requirements are identified, and practical limitations of accelerated aging are described.

Wiksten, D.; Swanson, J.

1972-01-01

463

Quality of life in lung cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given that lung cancer is one of the common cancers world-wide, the implications of focusing on quality of life as well as survival require to be understood. We have carried out a study of the relationship between survival and quality of life in patients with lung cancer comparing patients those who lived with those who died within 3 months. The

Ali Montazeri; Robert Milroy; David Hole; James McEwen; Charles R. Gillis

2001-01-01

464

On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.  

PubMed

This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeho