Sample records for value of life

  1. Speaking of the value of life.

    PubMed

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2011-06-01

    The phrase 'the value of life' is important in bioethics, particularly for those who hold the traditional views that life has intrinsic value and that the distinction between killing and allowing to die is valid. Ambiguities in the meaning of 'the value of life,' however, can lead to errors in medical ethical analysis by those who hold these traditional views. This essay notes three sources of such ambiguity: (1) three senses of the verb 'is,' (2) the difference between the transcendent and the transcendental, and (3) the difference between the transcendental and the empirical. On the basis of these distinctions, several conclusions are drawn: that the value of life is transcendental, not transcendent, both finite and priceless, that decisions to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments are always judgments about the qualities of a person's life, so one cannot universally condemn "quality of life judgments," that the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die tracks the distinction between the transcendental and the empirical, that "life itself" is not a benefit of treatment, and that foregoing treatments that are not futile can be consistent with respect for the value of life. PMID:21696095

  2. Conditions of Life and Parental Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Ailsa; And Others

    Kohn's work on the relationship between social class and parental values was expanded by searching for value dimensions other than Kohn's self-direction/conformity construct and by investigating three aspects of social structure: immigrant status, quality of neighborhood, and housing type. Data were collected from parents of 305 9- to 11-year-old…

  3. Aging, Autonomy, and the Value of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald S. Klinefelter

    1984-01-01

    This paper analyzes several moral, religious, and social issues relevant to being old in America during the last decades of the twentieth century. Specifically, I explore some ethical and religious dimensions of the relations of freedom and dependence, sickness and health, and meaning and value in the geriatric context. Are there positive alternatives to our prevailing images of aging as

  4. The Life Values of Rural School Students in Uzbekistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temirov, N. S.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the value orientations of the rural school students of Uzbekistan by asking the students a variety of indirect questions, such as what their favorite motto in life is. Finds that these students were concerned mostly with social, moral, and spiritual values. (CMK)

  5. What Determines the Value of Life? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mrozek, Janusz R.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2002-01-01

    A large literature has developed in which labor market contracts are used to estimate the value of a statistical life (VSL). Reported estimates of the VSL vary substantially, from less than $100,000 to more than $25 million. This research uses meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the VSL literature. Results from existing studies are pooled to…

  6. The Value of Statistical Life: Pursuing the Deadliest Catch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt E. Schnier?; William C. Horrace; Ronald G. Felthoven

    2008-01-01

    Observed tradeoffs between monetary returns and fatality risk identify estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL), which inform public policy and quantify preferences for environmental quality, health and safety. To date, few investigations have estimated the VSL associated with tradeoffs between returns from natural resource extraction activities and the fatality risks they involve. Understanding these tradeoffs (and the

  7. Paternalistic Altruism and the Value of Statistical Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Jones-lee

    1992-01-01

    In applying the willingness-to-pay approach to the assessment of public-sector projects that have potential safety effects, it is clearly important to know whether and how values of statistical life and safety should reflect people's altruistic concern for other people's wellbeing. Thus far this question has been answered only for a very limited number of special cases. The purpose of this

  8. Life Values, Regular Educators, and Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Karen Derk

    1986-01-01

    Rokeach's Value Survey (1973) was used to assess possible differences in the life values of special education (N=133) and regular (N=128) classroom teachers . Generally, their value systems were not significantly different; however, 18 values (10 defining personal life goals and 8 defining self conduct and others' conduct) differentiated one group…

  9. AUTOMOBILE SAFETY AND THE VALUE OF STATISTICAL LIFE IN THE FAMILY: VALUING REDUCED RISK FOR CHILDREN, ADULTS AND THE ELDERLY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Mount; Weifeng Weng; William Schulze

    Little work has been done theoretically or empirically to obtain the value of a statistical life (VSL) for children or the elderly. This paper addresses both of these issues by first presenting a theoretical model of how families value risk and then examining family automobile purchases. Automobile safety is shown to be a family public good, where the marginal cost

  10. Value Choices in Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Stressors Causing Human Health Damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    An M. De Schryver; Rosalie van Zelm; Sebastien Humbert; Stephan Pfister; Thomas E. McKone; Mark A. J. Huijbregts

    2011-01-01

    SummaryThis article investigates how value choices in life cycle impact assessment can influence characterization factors (CFs) for human health (expressed as disability?adjusted life years [DALYs]). The Cultural Theory is used to define sets of value choices in the calculation of CFs, reflecting the individualist, hierarchist, and egalitarian perspectives. CFs were calculated for interventions related to the following impact categories: water

  11. The Dynamic and Correlation of the Value Orientations and Life Goals of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivanova, Z. K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the scientific techniques in the study of value orientations and preferences consists of determining adolescents' attitudes toward personality qualities. It is well known that the model of a personality as an ideal construct formed in a person's consciousness correlates with value orientations and life goals. Its study permits us…

  12. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

  13. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

  14. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

  15. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

  16. 38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

  17. The Value of Life and the Rise in Health Spending

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ROBERT E. HALL; CHARLES I. JONES

    2007-01-01

    Over the past half century, Americans spent a rising share of total economic resources on health and enjoyed substantially longer lives as a result. Debate on health policy often focuses on limiting the growth of health spending. We investigate an issue central to this debate: Is the growth of health spending a rational response to changing economic conditions-notably the growth

  18. Valuing health at the end of life: a stated preference discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Shah, Koonal K; Tsuchiya, Aki; Wailoo, Allan J

    2015-01-01

    A source of debate in the field of health care priority setting is whether health gains should be weighted differently for different groups of patients. The debate has recently focused on the relative value of life extensions for patients with short life expectancy. However, few studies have examined empirically whether society is prepared to fund life-extending end-of-life treatments that would not meet the reimbursement criteria used for other treatments. A web-based discrete choice experiment was conducted in 2012 using a sample of 3969 members of the general public in England and Wales. The study design was informed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's supplementary policy for the appraisal of life-extending end-of-life treatments. The choice tasks involved asking respondents which of two hypothetical patients they would prefer to treat, assuming that the health service has enough funds to treat only one of them. Conditional logit regressions were used for modelling. Choices about which patient to treat were influenced more by the sizes of treatment gains than by patients' life expectancy without treatment. Some respondents appear to support a health-maximisation type objective throughout, whilst a small minority always seek to treat those who are worse off without treatment. The majority of respondents, however, seem to advocate a mixture of the two approaches. Overall, we find little evidence that members of the general public prefer to give higher priority to life-extending end-of-life treatments than to other types of treatment. When asked to make decisions about the treatment of hypothetical patients with relatively short life expectancies, most people's choices are driven by the size of the health gains offered by treatment. PMID:25461861

  19. Nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods. Samples of foreshank and short loin subprimals were excised from chilled carcasses (n = 20) of beef steers that were individually finished (120 days) on either supranutritional seleni...

  20. Value-Able Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Susan

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how she made a major improvement to her fifth-grade lesson plan by providing a hands-on Internet experience before students worked on their own oil pastel still life. It was a success with beautiful finished products and highly motivated, engaged students. Details of this lesson are described in this article.

  1. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

  2. Mapping oral health related quality of life to generic health state values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David S Brennan; A John Spencer

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A summary utility index is useful for deriving quality-adjusted life years (QALY) for cost analyses or disability weights for burden of disease studies. However, many quality of life instruments provide descriptive profiles rather than a single utility index. Transforming quality of life instruments to a utility index could extend the use of quality of life instruments to costs analyses

  3. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  4. Life cycle cost management of construction projects based on value engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan Wnag; She-liang Wang

    2011-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of construction projects such as only one time establishment, big investment scale, complicated structure and high energy consumption in operation process, the cost management theories and methods of construction projects are different from other general products. This paper proposes to apply VE to the total life cycle of construction projects, and also proposes a dynamic life

  5. Keene v. Brigham and Women's Hospital, Inc.: On the Value of a Life with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitello, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of the Keene malpractice court case, which awarded compensatory damages to a child with severe disabilities probably contracted shortly after birth, focuses on how the court calculated life expectancy and the loss of life enjoyment, concluding discrimination against people with mental retardation, in that the decision assumes these…

  6. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, ?-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  7. Your Money and Your Life: The Value of Health and What Affects It

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Cutler; Elizabeth Richardson

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the role of medical care in improving health and compares that value of better health produced by medical care with the costs of that care. Valuing medical care requires measuring the health of the population. We start by developing a measure of the nation's health capital -- the dollar value of health a person will have over

  8. Exploring Work Values: Helping Students Articulate Their Good (Work) Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…

  9. A scenario-based, randomized trial of patient values and functional prognosis on intensivist intent to discuss withdrawing life support

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Alison E.; Krall, Jenna R.; Ruhl, A. Parker; Curtis, J. Randall; Halpern, Scott D.; Lau, Bryan M.; Needham, Dale M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of (1) patient values as expressed by family members, and (2) a requirement to document patients’ functional prognosis on intensivists’ intention to discuss withdrawal of life support in a hypothetical family meeting. Design A 3-armed, randomized trial Setting 179 U.S. hospitals with training programs in critical care accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Subjects 630 intensivists recruited via e-mail invitation from a database of 1,850 eligible academic intensivists Interventions Each intensivist was randomized to review ten, on-line, clinical scenarios with a range of illness severities involving a hypothetical patient (Mrs. X). In control-group scenarios, the patient did not want continued life support without a reasonable chance of independent living. In the first experimental arm, the patient wanted life support regardless of functional outcome. In the second experimental arm, patient values were identical to the control group, but intensivists were required to record the patient’s estimated three-month functional prognosis Measurements and Main Results Response to the question: “Would you bring up the possibility of withdrawing life support with Mrs. X’s family?” answered using a five-point Likert scale. There was no effect of patient values on whether intensivists intended to discuss withdrawal of life support (P = 0.81), but intensivists randomized to record functional prognosis were 49% more likely (95% confidence interval: 20%–85%) to discuss withdrawal. Conclusions In this national, scenario-based, randomized trial, patient values had no effect on intensivists’ decisions to discuss withdrawal of life support with family. However, requiring intensivists to record patients’ estimated 3-month functional outcome substantially increased their intention to discuss withdrawal. PMID:24584065

  10. Clinical Value of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Uric Acid Levels during First Week of Life

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, B. A.; Bassi, Urmilla; Gough, G.; Williams, Angela

    1971-01-01

    Levels of creatine kinase and uric acid in cord blood were variable but similar to those in maternal blood. During the first 24 hours of life there was a rise in the concentration of both substances, particularly of creatine kinase, to reach levels well above those normally found in later childhood. Thereafter there was a steady fall to stable levels around the fifth day. The causes of these obvious changes in concentration are not known. Uric acid levels during the first 24 hours were higher after a longer labour. Creatine kinase levels were lower, and uric acid levels higher in low birthweight babies. The plasma creatine kinase originated from non-cardiac muscle. Plasma creatine kinase and uric acid levels may help in the early diagnosis of rare specific disorders such as muscular dystrophy and the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, but do not help in the diagnosis of other neurological disorders at this time of life, and give no indication of the child's prognosis, despite their occasional help in adult patients. Even with the specific syndromes, however, interpretation must be guarded. It is not known whether the high creatine kinase levels associated with Duchenne muscular dystrophy would be lost in the upper limits of the normal range for the first few days of life or whether they would be higher still. In the Lesch-Nyhan syndrome uric acid levels are well above the normal range defined in this investigation. PMID:5104539

  11. Incentive Life-cycles: Learning and the Division of Value in Firms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomasz Obloj; Metin Sengul

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the individual and organizational learning mechanisms leading to the evolution of the division of value between economic actors under a given contractual arrangement. Focusing on the division of value between a firm and its employees, we theorize that following a change in the organizational incentive structure, employees learn, over time and with experience, how to

  12. Exploratory Study of within-Country Differences in Work and Life ValuesThe Case of Spanish Business Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shimon L. Dolan; Miriam Díez-Piñol; MariLuz Fernández-Alles; Antonio Martín-Prius; Salustiano Martínez-Fierro

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the article is to present the results of an exploratory study that analyses a sample of business students from two geographically separated regions (the North-East and the South-West) in Spain, to establish if different sub-cultures can be detected within one country, taking into account work and life values. Measures of culture (defined by a set of work

  13. A contribution to the determination of the optimum value of tool life criterion of cutting tools tooled with throw-away carbide tips

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. MURANSKY

    1974-01-01

    An original procedure for the determination of the optimum value of tool life criterion of cutting tools tooled with throw-away carbide tips is described in this paper. The procedure has the character of an iterative method, on the basis of which one can reach the optimum value of tool life criterion with respect to attaining the minimum machining cost. The

  14. Predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms involving the skin on quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bez, Yasin; Yesilova, Yavuz; Ar?, Mustafa; Kaya, Mehmet Cemal; Alpak, Gokay; Bulut, Mahmut

    2013-11-01

    Acne is one of the most common dermatological diseases, and obsessive compulsive disorder is among the most frequent psychiatric conditions seen in dermatology clinics. Comorbidity of these conditions may therefore be expected. The aim of this study was to measure obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life in patients with acne vulgaris, compare them with those of healthy control subjects, and determine whether there is any predictive value of obsessive compulsive symptoms for quality of life in patients with acne. Obsessive compulsive symptoms and quality of life measurements of 146 patients with acne vulgaris and 94 healthy control subjects were made using the Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire and Short Form-36 in a cross-sectional design. Patients with acne vulgaris had lower scores for physical functioning, physical role dysfunction, general health perception, vitality, and emotional role dysfunction. They also had higher scores for checking, slowness, and rumination. The only predictor of physical functioning and vitality dimensions of health-related quality of life in these patients was rumination score. Obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with acne vulgaris are higher than in controls, and this may correlate with both disease severity and quality of life for patients. PMID:23572177

  15. EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

  16. Rescaling quality of life values from discrete choice experiments for use as QALYs: a cautionary tale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terry N Flynn; Jordan J Louviere; Anthony AJ Marley; Joanna Coast; Tim J Peters

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Researchers are increasingly investigating the potential for ordinal tasks such as ranking and discrete choice experiments to estimate QALY health state values. However, the assumptions of random utility theory, which underpin the statistical models used to provide these estimates, have received insufficient attention. In particular, the assumptions made about the decisions between living states and the death state are

  17. Q value and half-life of double-electron capture in 184Os

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Rodríguez, T. R.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Eliseev, S.; Langanke, K.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Shabaev, V. M.; Tupitsyn, I. I.; Zubova, N. A.

    2012-10-01

    184Os has been excluded as a promising candidate for the search of neutrinoless double-electron capture. High-precision mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP result in a marginal resonant enhancement with ?=-8.89(58) keV excess energy to the 1322.152(22) keV 0+ excited state in 184W. State-of-the-art energy density functional calculations are applied for the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements to the excited states predicting a strong suppression due to the large deformation of mother and daughter states. The half-life of the transition exceeds T1/2(184Os)?1.3×1029 yr for an effective neutrino mass of 1 eV.

  18. Comparison of toxicity values across zebrafish early life stages and mammalian studies: Implications for chemical testing.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Nicole A; Reif, David M; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Bondesson, Maria

    2015-08-01

    With the high cost and slow pace of toxicity testing in mammals, the vertebrate zebrafish has become a tractable model organism for high throughput toxicity testing. We present here a meta-analysis of 600 chemicals tested for toxicity in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Nineteen aggregated and 57 individual toxicity endpoints were recorded from published studies yielding 2695 unique data points. These data points were compared to lethality and reproductive toxicology endpoints analyzed in rodents and rabbits and to exposure values for humans. We show that although many zebrafish endpoints did not correlate to rodent or rabbit acute toxicity data, zebrafish could be used to accurately predict relative acute toxicity through the rat inhalation, rabbit dermal, and rat oral exposure routes. Ranking of the chemicals based on toxicity and teratogenicity in zebrafish, as well as human exposure levels, revealed that 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), benzo(a)pyrene, and chlorpyrifos ranked in the top nine of all chemicals for these three categories, and as such should be considered high priority chemicals for testing in higher vertebrates. PMID:25261610

  19. Statistical behaviour of ? K threshold values and life prediction analysis in 2091 Al-Li alloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Iacoviello

    2000-01-01

    Fatigue crack propagation resistance in Al alloys is strongly affected by many parameters such as the loading frequency, mean stress or R load ratio, environment, chemical composition, heat treatment conditions. In the present work a ?K threshold values statistical analysis has been done performing 25 threshold tests using the “load shedding” technique. This statistical analysis, connected with a former statistical

  20. The information content of a stated choice experiment: A new method and its application to the value of a statistical life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Rouwendal; Arianne de Blaeij; Piet Rietveld; Erik Verhoef

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to assess the distribution of values of time, and values of statistical life, over participants to a stated choice experiment. The method does not require the researcher to make an a priori assumption on the type of distribution, as is required for example for mixed logit models. It requires a few assumptions to hold

  1. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

  2. Teaching and Learning with Technology: IT as a Value-Added Component of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Martin E.

    2010-01-01

    Effective assessment of teaching and learning with technology requires a capacity to map learning outcomes. Student attitudes of the use of IT are measured in a structural equation model derived from an instrument based on the principles of undergraduate practice of Chickering and Ehrmann (1996). Institutional and background data are included. By…

  3. Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA?s Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

  4. Laughter as Immanent Life-Affirmation: Reconsidering the Educational Value of Laughter through a Bakhtinian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    In this article I try to conceive a new approach towards laughter in the context of formal schooling. I focus on laughter in so far as it is a bodily response during which we are entirely delivered to uncontrollable, spasmodic reactions. To see the educational relevance of this particular kind of laughter, as well as to understand why laughter is…

  5. Inherent Variation in Stable Isotope Values and Discrimination Factors in Two Life Stages of Green Turtles

    E-print Network

    of Green Turtles * Corresponding author; e-mail: hvz@ufl.edu. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85 Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research and Department of Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118525, Gainesville, Florida 32611; 2 Cayman Turtle Farm, P.O. Box 812, Grand Cayman KY1-1301, Cayman

  6. Disclosed Values of Option-Based Compensation – Incompetence, Deliberate Underreporting or the Use of Expected Option Life?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken L. Bechmann; Toke K. Hjortshøj

    2009-01-01

    New accounting standards require firms to value the costs of option-based compensation (OBC). Earlier research has documented that firms in the US generally underreport the values of OBC by manipulating the model inputs used for valuation purposes. This paper examines the information on and values of OBC disclosed by Danish firms. The results show that many firms fail to provide

  7. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  8. Cost-benefit analysis of ambulance and rescue helicopters in Norway: reflections on assigning a monetary value to saving a human life.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a cost-benefit analysis undertaken in 1996 for a public commission set up to plan the future operation of state-owned ambulance and rescue helicopters in Norway. The analysis indicates that the benefits of ambulance missions flown by helicopters exceeds the costs by a factor of almost six. To do this analysis it was necessary to assign a monetary value to human life. Traditionally this has not been done in medicine, and may be widely regarded as inconsistent with medical ethics. The results of the cost-benefit analysis serve as the starting point to a more general discussion surrounding the economic value of activities designed to reduce human mortality. It is concluded that human preferences for the provision of health care or other life-saving interventions are probably too complex to be adequately represented by means of a single monetary value expressing the benefits of life-saving. The task of developing an inclusive framework for a normative approach to priority setting in injury prevention is daunting, and may be insoluble. It is important to assess the extent to which current value-of-life estimates depend on study methods and social context. PMID:14619252

  9. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

  10. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  11. Quantifying the value of human life for cost accounting of safeguards: clarifying formulas applied to the clozapine controversy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, L E

    1992-01-01

    Using CPMS as an example, this article has developed mathematical formulations to compare the value of lives saved against the cost of medical safeguards. By a logical comparison of benefit and cost converted to the same units of currency, the article explores three important questions relating to the CPMS example. These mathematical formulations serve to quantify the decision-making process in a logical manner, and might serve as a useful example for clinical and public policy decisions. PMID:1301835

  12. The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castel, Alan D.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Galvan, Adriana; Balota, David A.; McCabe, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A…

  13. The value of the qualitative method for adaptation of a disease-specific quality of life assessment instrument: the case of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Tammaru, Marika; Strömpl, Judit; Maimets, Kadri; Hanson, Ele

    2004-01-01

    Background Due to differences in current socio-economical situation and historically shaped values, different societies have their own concepts of high-quality life. This diversity of concepts interferes with quality of life (Qol) research in health sciences. Before deciding to apply a Qol assessment tool designed in and for another society, a researcher should answer the question: how will this instrument work under the specific circumstances of my research. Our study represents an example of the utilization of qualitative research methods to investigate the appropriateness of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQol) for the assessment of Qol in Estonian patients. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of Tartu University Hospital and these were analyzed using the principles of the grounded theory. Results We described the significance of the questionnaire's items for our patients and also identified topics that were important for the Qol of Estonian RA patients, but that were not assessed by the RAQol. We concluded that the RAQol can be successfully adapted for Estonia; the aspects of Qol not captured by the questionnaire but revealed during our study should be taken into account in future research. Conclusions Our results show that qualitative research can successfully be used for pre-adaptation assessment of a Qol instrument's appropriateness. PMID:15579209

  14. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

  15. Everyday life and legal values: a concept paper.

    PubMed

    Finkel, N J; Fulero, S M; Haugaard, J J; Levine, M; Small, M A

    2001-04-01

    This "concept paper" emerged from a Law and Human Behavior (LHB) Workshop, that was called by the journal's Editor, Richard Wiener, and held at St. Louis University on March 19-21, 1999. This workshop, which brought together 22 scholars and researchers in legal psychology, was part of James Ogloff's Presidential Initiative Project for the American Psychology/Law Society, and was supported by St. Louis University and an NSF grant. Prior to our arrival, each participant answered queries from the Editor about LHB and the field of psychology and law, and each was asked to offer five topics that were underrepresented in the journal or that we would like to see addressed in future issues. At the workshop, we were assigned to small groups, and the authors of this paper constituted one such group. The "charge" for all groups was to "develop plans for encouraging submissions in areas of psycholegal scholarship that continue to be infrequent topics of investigation," and then to develop a concept paper. The direction our group took is captured by our title, "Everyday Life and Legal Values," and within this paper we explicate the topic, identify a number of underrepresented research areas, suggest some research paradigms for investigating them, and present this within a "perspectival directions" frame that ties established lines of research to the newer ones we propose. PMID:11419377

  16. Following things of rubbish value: End-of-life ships, ‘chock-chocky’ furniture and the Bangladeshi middle class consumer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gregson; M. Crang; F. Ahamed; N. Akhter; R. Ferdous

    2010-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of geographical work tracing globalised flows of commodities in the wake of Appadurai’s (1986) call to ‘follow the things’. This paper engages with calls to follow the thing but argues that work thus far has been concentrated, first, on global flows from developing world producers to developed world consumers, and, second, on things that remain

  17. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

  18. Cultural revitalisation : The importance of acknowledging the values of an organization's “golden era” when promoting work-life balance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samantha J. Callan

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to challenge the notion that culture change programmes will inevitably gain support from employees by exploring ways in which policy implementation is affected by and provokes shifts in organizational cultures. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Case studies investigated aspects of cultural change post-implementation of family-friendly policies. A grounded theory approach was adopted in the collection

  19. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  20. The value of valuing nature

    E-print Network

    Adams, W. M.

    2014-10-31

     synthetic  biology.  Thus,  services  such  as  carbon  sequestration  may  in  future  be  provided  by  ecosystems  that  retain  little  of  their  original  diversity  (8).  Such  ecosystems  are...  ecosystem  services  in  the  watershed  of  the  Panama  Canal  found  that  timber  production  and  carbon  sequestration  increased  synergistically.  However,  contrary  to  managers’  expectations,  both...

  1. The Boat People and Achievement in America. A Study of Family Life, Hard Work, and Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    A longitudinal study of the economic self-sufficiency and academic achievement of Indochinese refugees, commonly known as "Boat People," concludes that cultural background and family influence play key roles in achievement in American society. Statistical data were drawn from two surveys of 6,775 individuals in 1,384 Chinese, Laotian, and…

  2. Corneal Curvature and Axial Length Values in Children with Congenital\\/Infantile Cataract in the First 42 Months of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paolo Capozzi; Chiara Morini; Simone Piga; Marina Cuttini; Pasquale Vadala

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE. To evaluate corneal curvature (Km) and axial length (AL) of eyes of term-born children aged 3.5 years with un- complicated congenital cataract and provide age-specific esti- mates. METHODS. This was a retrospective review of patients undergo- ing cataract extraction from January 1994 to December 2006. Exclusion criteria were preterm birth, microphthalmia, micro- cornea, megalocornea, glaucoma, traumatic or complicated cataract,

  3. Demand chain alignment competence — delivering value through product life cycle management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uta Jüttner; Janet Godsell; Martin G. Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This paper endorses demand chain alignment as a competence that supports effective product life cycle (PLC) management. Demand chain alignment integrates the demand creation (historic domain of marketing) and demand fulfilment processes (domain of supply chain management), to develop and to deliver products that convey superior customer value while deploying resources efficiently. So far, the relationship between demand chain alignment

  4. Debating Propositions of Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlon, Ronald J.

    1978-01-01

    Advances a rationale for debating propositions of value in interscholastic contests. Considers implications for burden of proof, presumption, and the location of issues in value propositions, and proposes a preliminary system for the analysis of value propositions. (JMF)

  5. Value of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Kocher, Mininder S

    2015-01-01

    Value has become the buzzword of contemporaneous health care reform. Value is defined as outcomes relative to costs. Orthopaedic surgery has come under increasing scrutiny due to high procedural costs. However, orthopaedic surgery may actually be a great value given the benefits of treatment. The American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) Value Project team was tasked to develop a model for assessing the benefits of orthopaedic surgery including indirect costs related to productivity and health-related quality of life. This model was applied to 5 orthopaedic conditions demonstrating robust societal and economic value. In all cost-effectiveness models, younger patients demonstrated greater cost-effectiveness given increased lifespan and productivity. This has tremendous implications within the field of pediatric orthopedic surgery. Pediatric orthopaedics may be the best value in medicine! PMID:26049310

  6. Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

    This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of the human…

  7. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  8. Approved Module Information for EC311C, 2014/5 Module Title/Name: Value Risk & Whole Life Cost

    E-print Network

    Neirotti, Juan Pablo

    of the cost management of a construction project. Therefore, the module specifically aims to: * To develop life cost for a construction project; 4. A range of approaches to value and risk and whole life cost, analysis and appraisal; 5. How cost control is applied to construction projects and organisations; 6

  9. Technological Forms of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Lash

    2001-01-01

    E THINK so naturally in terms of the notion of 'forms of life', that it is difficult to obtain any distance on the notion. Ludwig Wittgen- stein made the concept of 'forms of life' rather common currency across a range of scholarly disciplines. Indeed, in academic talk and everyday talk we speak incessantly of life and forms of life. We

  10. Precise half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2010-03-04

    All existing "positive" results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for the half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  11. Average and recommended half-life values for two-neutrino double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2015-03-01

    All existing positive results on two-neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, 100Mo-100Ru (01+), 116Cd, 130Te, 136Xe, 150Nd, 150Nd-150Sm (0values for half-lives of 128Te and 130Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated using latest (more reliable and precise) values for phase space factor. Finally, previous results (PRC 81 (2010) 035501) were updated and results for 136Xe were added.

  12. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  13. Health policy approaches to measuring and valuing human life: conceptual and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R H; Bryant, J H

    1995-10-01

    To achieve more cost-effective and equitable use of health resources, improved methods for defining disease burdens and for guiding resource allocations are needed by health care decision makers. Three approaches are discussed that use indicators that combine losses due to disability with losses due to premature mortality as a measure of disease burden. These indicators can also serve as outcome measures for health status in economic analyses. However, their use as tools for measuring and valuing human life raises important questions concerning the measurement of mortality and the multidimensions of morbidity; valuing of life, particularly regarding weighting productivity, dependency, age, and time-preference factors; and conflicts between equity and efficiency that arise in allocation decisions. Further refinement of these tools is needed to (1) incorporate national and local values into weighting; (2) elaborate methods for disaggregating calculations to assess local disease patterns and intervention packages; and (3) develop guidelines for estimating marginal effects and costs of interventions. Of utmost importance are methods that ensure equity while achieving reasonable efficiency. PMID:7573617

  14. Well for life: a way of life.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Wendi A; Thompson, Catherine E; McKenzie, Rosemary A; Naccarella, Lucio

    2007-10-01

    Well for Life is an innovative public program in Victoria, Australia that focuses on improving nutrition and increasing physical activity to promote healthy aging. For more than 4 years Aged Care has funded projects for frail older people who live in Public Sector Residential Aged Care (PSRAC) facilities or attend Home and Community Care (HACC) Planned Activity Groups (PAGs). Many stereotypes exist around what frail older people can or cannot do. Well for Life challenges many of these through organizational culture and policy change and workforce development. A person-centered approach to care is adopted that emphasizes improving participants' activities of daily living and encouraging exercise and involvement. An external provider used a participatory evaluation approach to support the first phase of Well for Life. This approach enabled funded agencies to plan, implement, and monitor progress in their projects and assist them to embed Well for Life into policy and practice. The evaluation not only revealed insight into the delivery and adoption of Well for Life, but also assisted management and staff to make Well for Life a reality. Many PSRAC residents and PAG participants have reported significant gains from their involvement in Well for Life. These achievements reflect staff enthusiasm and organizational commitment to Well for Life principles. Evidence supports the benefit of improved nutrition and physical activity for people of any age and Well for Life is adding to the evidence-base for frail older people. PMID:17986594

  15. Quality of Life: Its Definition and Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Perry, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on quality of life for people with mental retardation and proposes a model of quality of life that integrates objective and subjective indicators, a broad range of life domains, and individual values. The model includes five dimensions: physical well-being, material well-being, social well-being, emotional…

  16. Patterns of Work Values Held by Secondary School Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearne, T. David; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The work values of 541 high school girls did not vary significantly from grade to grade. The girls valued security, achievement, and the "good life" the most and valued management, intellectual stimulation, and esthetics the least. (SB)

  17. Nutritive Value of Foods.

    E-print Network

    Anoymous,

    1982-01-01

    ] . . . , ..~ . . ~ .. - CONTENTS Page Explanation of the tables .................................................................... 1 Further information ......................................................................... 3 Index...) ............................................. 32 5 Food sources of additional nutrients ................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34 1 (Blank Pale to Origiaal BuUetlot .. , -.t . , . '~ .; * ? '."r NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS Extension Foods...

  18. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  19. Life Cycle of Plants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss Johnson

    2011-04-07

    What is the life cycle of plants? First, look at pictures of Apple seeds , A Peach Seed , and Corn Seeds . Second, look at pictures of a Tomato Seedling , a Coconut Seedling , and Lettuce Seedlings . Third, look at pictures of Adult Palm Trees , Adult Rice Plants , and an Adult Grape Vine . Next, read about Seed Growth and How Seeds Start to Grow. After doing so, watch the Plant Life Cycle Video and fill out the Plant Life Cycle Organizer . ...

  20. Value of Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

  1. The value of data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herman van Haagen; Christine Chichester; Peter-Bram't Hoen; Johan T den Dunnen; Gertjan van Ommen; Erik van Mulligen; Bharat Singh; Rob Hooft; Marco Roos; Joel Hammond; Bruce Kiesel; Belinda Giardine; Jan Velterop; Paul Groth; Erik Schultes; Barend Mons

    2011-01-01

    Data citation and the derivation of semantic constructs directly from datasets have now both found their place in scientific communication. The social challenge facing us is to maintain the value of traditional narrative publications and their relationship to the datasets they report upon while at the same time developing appropriate metrics for citation of data and data constructs.

  2. Life of Teenage Hemophiliacs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Giersdorf

    The life period of teenagers is characterized by rebellion, further development of identity, gradual detachment from parents,\\u000a and as a consequence steps in more independence and self responsibility. The life of a young hemophiliac has the additional\\u000a burden of chronic disease.

  3. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  4. Economic Value of Veterinary

    E-print Network

    Economic Value of Veterinary Diagnostics Public Investment in Animal Health Testing Yields Economic Benefits TEXAS VETERINARY MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC LABORATORY TEXAS A&M SYSTEM #12;The Texas Veterinary Medical figure on these activities, scientific studies have shown a cost-benefit ratio of 1:10 for veterinary

  5. Origin of Life

    E-print Network

    Ashwini Kumar Lal

    2012-01-16

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  6. Origin of Life

    E-print Network

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, astrophysics and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA(ribonucleic acid) world, iron-sulphur world, panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kickstarting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  7. The structure of value.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Keys to success in developing the right framework for delivering greater value in an era of reform include the following: Have a compelling vision. In evaluating potential partnerships, carefully consider the extent to which the organizations' cultures are aligned. Ensure that initiatives stay on course. Develop sustainable energy among leaders and staff through early wins. Measure patient, physician, and employee satisfaction before and after initiatives are implemented and respond accordingly. PMID:24511778

  8. The Value of Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Stefanie C.; Gomperts, John S.

    2005-01-01

    Older volunteers are helping urban students in developing the confidence and skills to succeed. Older adults, with their life experience and strong commitment to social service, can make a special contribution in underfunded and understaffed urban schools.

  9. End of Life Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of Life Considerations There are situations that ill older adults may find themselves in at the end of ... not effective for people whose death is expected. Older adults generally do poorly after CPR because of serious ...

  10. Department of Physics Artificial Life

    E-print Network

    ?umer, Slobodan

    different natural and social sciences. It is a discipline that studies life and life-like behaviours: growth (Soft ALife) creates digital constructions and simulations that exhibit life-like behaviours. 1 The most of life-like systems. Examples of hardware based artificial life are autonomous robots. In this seminar we

  11. Every sign of life

    E-print Network

    Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

    2003-01-01

    Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

  12. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  13. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  14. Research of accelerated life test of cycle-life products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tianye Li; Xiaohong Wang

    2009-01-01

    Work was carried out in order to make the results of accelerated life test of the cycle-life products more accurate. Two kinds of products which both use cycle numbers as a main life indicator were mentioned to explain the essence of cycle-life of product. And by analyzing the latest research results of their failure mechanisms, possible improvements of cycle conditions

  15. Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapel Hill City Schools, NC.

    GRADES OR AGES: Grades 1-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Values. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is intended to define the development of the valuing process and contains ideas for classroom teachers. It is not a conventional curriculum guide but is recommended for use with the guide on drug education (SP 007 318). It contains the following…

  16. Thermodynamic Origin of Life

    E-print Network

    Michaelian, K

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Out of equilibrium structuring in space and time is contingent on continuous entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the natural tendency of Nature to explore all available microstates. The process producing the greatest amount of entropy in the biosphere is the absorption and transformation of sunlight, leading to the transpiration of water by plants and cyanobacteria. Here we hypothesize that life began, and exists today, as a dynamic catalyst for the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat, which could then be efficiently harvested by the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are extremely rapid in transforming this light into heat that can be readily absorbed by liquid water. The origin and evolution of life was thus driven...

  17. The Tree of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David R. Maddison

    2007-12-12

    The Tree of Life is a collection of about 2000 World Wide Web pages containing information about the diversity of life. These pages are authored by biologists from around the world... Each page contains information about one group of organisms. The pages are linked one to another in the form of the evolutionary tree of organisms, with the pages branching off from a group's page being about subgroups. This vast site contains a large collection of biological images, most of which can be reproduced and used for educational purposes. Since some of the topics are controversial in nature, an attempt is made to present all sides of the issue. References are included.

  18. The value of money

    SciTech Connect

    Rudd, M.S. [Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Wheatfield, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Today, more than ever before, power plant engineers find themselves in a new arena of competition. It is no longer enough to address the technical problems. Today is also an era of financial competition. This is not just competition in the sense of {open_quotes}the enemy out there{close_quotes}. Engineers are competing with a myriad of other good projects within their own company for precious budget dollars. Utility budget scrutiny is increasing every year. To be successful, engineers have to be prepared to justify their projects in clear, measurable terms that withstand management`s scrutiny. Today`s engineer is faced with a technical and financial challenge and must be prepared if he or she is to succeed. This paper addresses methods used at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company for justification of feedwater heater replacements. Though only a suggested method; it is nonetheless a method that has worked well. This paper covers how a feedwater heater replacement is evaluated, from the identified need to the proposed solution. Expectations are defined. Realistic assessments are made. Measurement criteria is established, in advance. Responsibility is assigned. The project is evaluated on its technical and financial merits, reflecting today`s {open_quotes}value of money{close_quotes}.

  19. The memory value of size

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Karwoski

    1931-01-01

    The problem was to determine the memory value of absolute and relative size of letters under conditions in which size alone is the variable. Absolute size has no memory value. A memory value for relative size was obtained as between the largest and either of the two smaller sizes. Repetition of the series diminishes the memory value of relative size.

  20. Value-Added is of Little Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Published indicators of school "performance", such as those shown annually in league tables in England, have been controversial since their inception. Raw-score figures for school outcomes are heavily dependent on the prior attainment and family background of the students. Policy-makers in Wales have reacted to this fundamental flaw by withdrawing…

  1. Life of A Butterfly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Miss. Watterson

    2010-04-30

    This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

  2. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

  3. End of life care.

    PubMed

    2015-01-28

    NHS England is working with statutory and voluntary organisations to develop a five-year plan for end of life care. In the meantime, it has published a framework titled Actions for End of Life Care 2014-2016. This has four interdependent components aimed at ensuring that: individuals and carers are engaged and informed, by providing information and seeking feedback; health and care professionals are committed to partnership working by developing capability and communities of practice; processes provide more consistent, co-ordinated care; and resources and commissioning approaches that improve end of life care are developed. Specific actions to identify and address inequalities are included in each component. To read the document, go to tinyurl.com/p3dv4ce. PMID:25629343

  4. [Conditional reimbursement: a tool to reduce uncertainty relating the value of medicines and reinforce their continuous evaluation in real-life].

    PubMed

    Bail, J-N

    2013-09-01

    In order to alleviate the inherent uncertainty that comes with the market access and public funding of new health products, a conditional reimbursement mechanism is proposed. The latter is circumscribed by recommendations regarding its implementation in limited cases in order to allow for a fair access of patients to therapeutic innovations, within economic conditions both optimum and reviewable. PMID:24075702

  5. Life Cycles of Stars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

  6. Life extension of high temperature components

    SciTech Connect

    Dyson, B.F. (National Physical Lab., Teddington (United Kingdom)); Leckie, F.A. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States))

    1993-05-01

    Power producing plant operating at high temperature are designed for finite life. This is necessary because the operating conditions are sufficiently high to cause continuous growth of material damage. Failure occurs when damage reaches a critical value. Design is based on stress levels with an appropriate factor of safety. Since life is dependent on a strongly non-linear function of stress the actual life can be many times greater than the design life. In these circumstances it is then natural to explore the possibility of extending the working life. To increase the working life it is necessary to decrease the factor of safety, but it may be possible to follow this course of action provided the growth of physical damage is carefully monitored. In this paper creep damage mechanisms are reported and growth laws are proposed. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. A systematic literature review to compare quality of life in psoriasis with other chronic diseases using EQ-5D-derived utility values

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Holmen; Erntoft, Sandra; Vinding, Gabrielle R; Jemec, Gregor BE

    2015-01-01

    Background Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated dermatological disease associated with substantial economic, clinical, and humanistic burden. Objective The aim of this study was to understand the disutility of patients with psoriasis vulgaris, using mean baseline EuroQoL five dimensions (EQ-5D) index scores reported in the published literature, and to compare this to patients with other chronic diseases. Methods Two systematic literature searches were conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches were conducted in ten databases including Embase, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL). The first search (December 2013) used search terms psoria* AND (EQ5D OR EQ OR EUROQoL). Only publications of original research, which reported baseline EQ-5D scores for mild/moderate/severe psoriasis, were included. The second search (March 2014) used the terms (systematic review) AND (EQ5D OR EQ 5D OR EuroQoL). Titles were screened by two independent reviewers. Four independent reviewers reviewed titles and full-length papers. EQ-5D scores for psoriasis patients were qualitatively compared with scores from patients with other chronic diseases identified through the literature search. Results Of 133 publications on psoriasis, 12 met the inclusion criteria. The mean EQ-5D index scores for psoriasis (all severities) ranged from 0.52 (standard deviation: 0.39) to 0.9 (standard deviation: 0.1). Of the 48 results from the second search, six met the inclusion criteria. The reported EQ-5D lower limit for other diseases ranged from 0.20 (Type 2 diabetes mellitus) to 0.66 (liver diseases). The highest EQ-5D estimates for other diseases ranged from 0.79 (liver diseases) to 0.93 (cancer patients). Both lower and upper EQ-5D estimates in psoriasis patients were within the range of those reported for other chronic diseases. Conclusion Comparative studies of morbidity are relevant in health care studies and patient advocacy. This systematic review demonstrates that the ranges of disutility among psoriasis patients are within the ranges of other chronic diseases (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, end-stage renal diseases, liver diseases, cancer, and visual disorders). PMID:26185476

  8. Chemical Origins of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, J. Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    Reviews ideas and evidence bearing on the origin of life. Shows that evidence to support modifications of Oparin's theories of the origin of biological constituents from inorganic materials is accumulating, and that the necessary components are readily obtained from the simple gases found in the universe. (AL)

  9. Milstein Hall of Ocean Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

  10. The Half-Life of Actinouranium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur E. Ruark

    1934-01-01

    Values of the half-life of actinouranium are obtained from data on a Morogoro pitchblende and a uraninite from Great Bear Lake, analyzed by von Grosse and Marble, respectively. Computations were made with two extreme values, 0.03 and 0.04, for the actinium \\

  11. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  12. The Cycle of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

    The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students? understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

  13. The Life of a Butterfly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Logan Greene

    2011-04-06

    What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

  14. A life of cycles.

    PubMed

    Pycock, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Jonathan Pycock is one of three equine claims consultants with the Veterinary Defence Society. His career in equine reproduction, and lecturing on the same topic, has given him the opportunity to work and travel widely, and ensure his work/life balance stays in sync. PMID:25748201

  15. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied. PMID:21491762

  16. Bilastine and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Jáuregui, I; Bartra, J; del Cuvillo, A; Dávila, I; Ferrer, M; Montoro, J; Mullol, J; Sastre, J; Valero, A

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation of quality of life (QoL) and its modification through therapeutic interventions has become a prioritary concern in recent years and a requirement on the part of regulatory agencies for the authorization of new drugs. In clinical studies of allergic disorders, particularly allergic rhinitis and urticaria, different types of generic questionnaires have been used - especially disease specific instruments such as the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) or skin disease specific tools such as the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). Throughout its clinical development, bilastine has been shown to be more effective than placebo and at least as effective as cetirizine, levocetirizine, fexofenadine or desloratadine in controlling the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. QoL has been studied as a secondary objective in three allergic rhinitis clinical trials, using the RQLQ, in a total of 2335 patients. Likewise, in chronic urticaria, QoL has been evaluated using the DLQI in a total of 525 patients, versus levocetirizine and placebo. The improvement in the QoL parameters in these studies (RQLQ or DLQI domains) at all times proved proportional to the symptoms improvement. In general, the data obtained relating to changes in QoL are concordant with the mean global visual analog scale (VAS in mm) values and their changes, from the beginning until the end of the treatment period, for all of the trials, for bilastine and all its comparators. PMID:22185046

  17. Half Life of {sup 127}Te

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, Wagner F.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zamboni, Cibele B.; Zahn, Guilherme S. [Centro do Reator de Pesquisas (CRPq)-Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Av. Linneu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP, 05507-000 (Brazil)

    2009-06-03

    In this work, the half life of the beta-unstable nucleus {sup 127}Te was studied using neutron-irradiated samples of {sup 126}Te. The gamma activity of each of the irradiated samples was followed for 3-5 consecutive half lives. The results were analysed in two different ways, and the resulting half-life was 9.295(5)h, which is compatible with the tabulated value of 9.35(7)h, with much lower uncertainty.

  18. Direct measurement of the half-life of (223)Ra.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Ferreira, K M; Fenwick, A J; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-05-01

    Radioactive decay half-life measurements of (223)Ra, a member of the (235)U naturally occurring radioactive decay series, have been performed of a radiochemically pure solution with an ionisation chamber. The radioactive decay of (223)Ra was followed for 50 days, approximately 4.4 half-lives. The deduced half-life of (223)Ra was found to be 11.4358 (28) days, supporting the other published direct measurements. A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. A new evaluation of the published half-life values was performed, indicating significant variation across the existing published values, suggesting that further measurements of the half-life of (223)Ra are required. A new evaluated half-life has been calculated using a power moderated weighted mean of selected experimental values, with a new value of the recommended half-life for (223)Ra of 11.4354 (17) days. PMID:25699667

  19. Teaching the Value of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors…

  20. Race-Related Stress, Quality of Life Indicators, and Life Satisfaction Among Elderly African Americans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn O. Utsey; Yasser A. Payne; Ebonique S. Jackson; Antoine M. Jones

    2002-01-01

    This article examined the relationships among race-related stress, quality of life indicators, and life satisfaction among elderly African Americans. A sample of 127 elderly African Americans, consisting of 87 women and 26 men (and 14 missing values), were administered the Index of Race-Related Stress, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey. Results indicated that elderly African

  1. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  2. Last Days of Life (PDQ)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Ask Your Doctor about Advanced Cancer Research Last Days of Life (PDQ®) Overview The end of life ... death. Knowing what to expect in the final days or hours helps comfort the family. Most people ...

  3. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  4. "Desires" Clarified, Much of "Value": A Plea for Values Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    1988-01-01

    Presents a new perspective from which to reassess the values clarification approach to moral education. In doing so, it locates values clarification within a long and rich tradition of ethical and educational theory. Contends that values clarification does not hold arbitrary or mistaken conceptions of "morality" and education, but merely…

  5. The Value of Dissent

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence B. Solum

    2000-01-01

    This essay reviews Dissent, Injustice, and the Meanings of America by Steven H. Shiffrin (1999).\\u000aTheorizing about the freedom of speech has been a central enterprise of contemporary legal scholarship. The important contributions to the debate are simply far too numerous to categorize. One ambition of this theorizing is the production of a comprehensive theory of the freedom of expression,

  6. The value of research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuusisto, Esko

    “Assess the effectiveness of the research in the Adminstration, in relation to the resources available; the resources allocated to research are to be compared to the quality and quantity of results obtained.” This task was given by the Minister of the Environment of Finland on December 14, 1987, to five experts from Canada, Japan, Norway, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. They were invited to conduct an evaluation of the research activities in the National Water and Environment Adminstration of Finland (NWEA).How does one evaluate the quality and quantity of research? At the beginning of the project, the team members received a parcel containing 34 summaries covering different branches of research. The 20 kg weight of the parcel, though not a measure for the quantity of research, served at least as a measure for the quantity of work the experts would face!

  7. Value of forest information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annika Susanna Kangas

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, the quality of forest inventory data has been measured with root mean square error of interesting variables.\\u000a In many occasions, however, even this information has not been available for all variables of interest, as the main focus\\u000a has always been on the accuracy of timber volume estimates. In recent years, the quality of data as a basis for decision-making

  8. Web of Life Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

  9. Triumph of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

  10. The Value of Cocurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

  11. Nutritive Value of Foods. 

    E-print Network

    Anoymous,

    1982-01-01

    or reduced production of epicuticular waxes (Fuchigami et al. , 1981; Grout and Aston, 1977; Sutter and Langhans, 1979) . Working with Liquidsmbar styracif lux L, (sweet gum), Wetxstein and Sommer (1983) determined that in vitro cuticular wax development... and Naene, 1981). Yie and Liaw (1977) reported that root hairs do not develop on roots of Carica papaya L. cultured on agar, with George and Sherrington (1984) hypothesizing that lack of sufficient agar aeration is probably the major factor contributing...

  12. The Epistemology Of Value

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Elliot D.

    of our assump­ tions must be mistaken. But A O ) and A(2) are, I be­ lieve, quite "safe." Indeed, entailment preserves truth: a statement entailed by a true statement must, no doubt, itself be true. And knowledge entails justified belief... disvalue inde­ pendently of or apart from their causal consequences. How, then, are we to recognize the intrinsically valuable and the intrinsically disvaluable? We may, I suggest, say that a state of affairs is intrinsically good (bad) provided...

  13. Life Products of Stars

    E-print Network

    Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

    2006-06-27

    We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

  14. The Value of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of positive interpersonal relationships in developing an effective leadership style. It provides recommendations for developing effective relations with subordinates, vendors and suppliers, and bosses. Advice for dealing with low self-esteem concludes the article. (GR)

  15. The Value of Wetlands

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    This video segment adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department explores the role of the wetlands in our environment, including providing habitats for wildlife, acting as natural water filters, and playing a part in the greater water cycle.

  16. The Value of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation in the United States is a means to assure and improve higher education quality, assisting institutions and programs using a set of standards developed by peers. An institution or program that has successfully completed an accreditation review has in place the needed instructional, student support and other services to assist students…

  17. The Value of Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Video connects sight and sound, creating a composite experience greater than either alone. More than any other single technology, video is the most powerful way to communicate with others--and an ideal medium for sharing with others the vital learning occurring in music classrooms. In this article, the author leads readers through the process of

  18. Comparison of three methods for estimating complete life tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

    2013-04-01

    A question of interest in the demographic and actuarial fields is the estimation of the complete sets of qx values when the data are given in age groups. When the complete life tables are not available, estimating it from abridged life tables is necessary. Three methods such as King's Osculatory Interpolation, Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation and Heligman-Pollard Model are compared using data on abridged life tables for Malaysian population. Each of these methods considered was applied on the abridged data sets to estimate the complete sets of qx values. Then, the estimated complete sets of qx values were used to produce the estimated abridged ones by each of the three methods. The results were then compared with the actual values published in the abridged life tables. Among the three methods, the Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation method produces the best estimates of complete life tables from five-year abridged life tables.

  19. The Value of Virginity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hymen reconstruction surgery is a simple procedure to repair a woman's hymen, requested by women who, for religious and cultural reasons, believe they must appear to have an intact hymen on their wedding night. Debates surrounding possible ethical justification for the procedure are complex and heated. These articles from the Harvard Ethics Consortium present and explore the case of a young woman who asked a young female physician on call for a referral for the procedure. PMID:26132062

  20. The Value of Healthy Estuaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Christian (Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences; )

    2009-03-22

    Healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife. They provide food, supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treat waste and runoff to maintain water quality, protect coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation and marine operations, and nurture a balance of the food web upon which all life depends.

  1. The Moral Value of Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergoffen, Debra B.

    1980-01-01

    This essay develops the thesis that we can, by appealing to Socrates and Bertrand Russell as role models, counter the assumption that philosophy is an ivory tower enterprise and show students that an essential relationship exists between the process of rationale reflection and the living of a moral life. (Author)

  2. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-09

    E-print Network

    A. S. Barabash

    2009-08-28

    All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

  3. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, 100Mo-100Ru (01+), 116Cd, 130Te, 136Xe, 150Nd, 150Nd-150Sm (01+) and 238U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of 128Te and 130Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  4. Value of g' for Supermalloy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Scott

    1960-01-01

    The gyromagnetic ratio of supermalloy has been determined by measurements of the Einstein-deHaas effect. The value of 1.905+\\/-0.002 obtained for g' is equivalent to a spectroscopic splitting factor g of 2.105. This is in good agreement with values obtained by ferromagnetic resonance experiments.

  5. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  6. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  7. Preparing for the End of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking about death, ... it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how people die ...

  8. Vision and quality-of-life.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, G C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of visual acuity loss to quality of life. DESIGN: Three hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of 20/40 or greater in at least 1 eye were interviewed in a standardized fashion using a modified VF-14, questionnaire. Utility values were also obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual function score on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as well as with utility values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods. RESULTS: Decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off method of utility evaluation. The standard gamble method of utility evaluation was not as directly correlated with vision as the time trade-off method. Age, level of education, gender, race, length of time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic comorbidities did not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual loss in the better eye. The level of reduced vision in the better eye, rather than the specific disease process causing reduced vision, was related to mean utility values. The average person with 20/40 vision in the better seeing eye was willing to trade 2 of every 10 years of life in return for perfect vision (utility value of 0.8), while the average person with counting fingers vision in the better eye was willing to trade approximately 5 of every 10 remaining years of life (utility value of 0.52) in return for perfect vision. CONCLUSIONS: The time trade-off method of utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing quality of life associated with visual loss. Time trade-off utility values decrease in direct conjunction with decreasing vision in the better-seeing eye. Unlike the modified VF-14 test and its counterparts, utility values allow the quality of life associated with visual loss to be more readily compared to the quality of life associated with other health (disease) states. This information can be employed for cost-effective analyses that objectively compare evidence-based medicine, patient-based preferences and sound econometric principles across all specialties in health care. PMID:10703139

  9. Research Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests

    E-print Network

    , a higher quality of life achieved for local populations, and the diversity of cultural landscapes increasedResearch Summary Cultural values of trees, woods and forests Forest managers have to take account of cultural values as one of the central themes of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM). These are accounted

  10. Evolution of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

  11. POV: Steam of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

  12. Half life of /sup 26/Al

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

    1983-01-01

    The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

  13. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

  14. Values Added: Some Sociological Interpretations of Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines current British concerns about the need for values education from the perspective of postmodern social theorists. Argues that, viewed sociologically, the current approach to values education is broadly functionalist (and conservative), for it fails to come to terms with the deep structure of contemporary society, specifically consumerism…

  15. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind. PMID:22880627

  16. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  17. Life of a Tree

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2007-08-09

    In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

  18. The Amenity Value of Wetlands

    E-print Network

    Gao, Shan

    2010-07-14

    Wetlands provide recreation and cultural values including scenic views, aesthetics, open-spaces, and leisure opportunities to surrounding residents. This study applies a hedonic approach to estimate the impact of wetland amenities on nearby single...

  19. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043

  20. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    E-print Network

    Donoghue, John F.

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be ...

  1. Way of life Extra material

    E-print Network

    Gelman, Andrew

    Ubiquity Way of life Extra material Ubiquity of multilevel models and how to understand them better material Making more use of existing information The problem: not enough data to estimate effects Way of life Extra material Making more use of existing information The problem: not enough data

  2. Early quality of life benefits of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy Guo; Marsha Wolfson; Robert Holt

    2002-01-01

    Early quality of life benefits of icodextrin in peritoneal dialysis.BackgroundThe impact of new therapies on patient quality of life (QOL) is emerging as an important indicator of the value of these therapies. In patients on dialysis, previous QOL evaluations have focused mainly on comparative approaches between modalities, or on longitudinal trends within a modality, but few have evaluated technical innovations

  3. The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Marianne Andrews

    The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

  4. Analysis of value creation and value capture in microfluidics market

    E-print Network

    Yadav, Shailendra

    2010-01-01

    Advances in microfluidics in the last two decade have created a tremendous technological value which is shaping genomics; drug discovery; proteomics; and point-of-care diagnostics. The positive impact has resulted in faster ...

  5. CONTESTING THE VALUE OF THE SHARED VALUE Andrew Crane

    E-print Network

    Sheldon, Nathan D.

    whilst simultaneously driving greater profitability. In the words of Porter and Kramer3 , CSV `can give biannual, global, company-wide `Creating Shared Value' (CSV) reports. Eventually, some five years after

  6. The evolution of complex life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

  7. Life stresses of slavery.

    PubMed

    Kelley, J O; Angel, J L

    1987-10-01

    Skeletal evidence exists for life stresses of 120 Black individuals from 25 sites in Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Periods for statistical comparison are eighteenth century, 1690-1770; Catoctin Furnace, Maryland industrial slaves, 1790-ca.1820; 1800-ca.1860, nineteenth century; and a twentieth-century Black sample compiled from forensic (accidental deaths) cases. From these archaeological sources, skeletal age at death shifts from 36 years, female, and 30 years, male in eighteenth century (N = 29) to 34.8, female, and 36.3, male in nineteenth century (N = 56). Catoctin Furnace slaves' longevity may reflect special conditions for skilled males (34.6 years, female; 41.2 years, male (N = 16). Nutritional stresses are indicated by dental lesions, hypoplasias, stature, and skull base height and pelvic brim index. Occupational stress occurs in some adolescents and in many adults as exaggerated development of lifting muscles (deltoid and pectoral crests) and early vertebral and shoulder breakdown. Lead content of bone may reflect site of occupation. The most common pathology is anemia or sicklemia; parietal depressions and ulna fractures ("parry") indicate violence-related trauma. PMID:3322027

  8. Life's Underlying Unity Characteristics of LifeCharacteristics of Life

    E-print Network

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    DNAReproduction via DNA ·· Living organisms reproduce orLiving organisms reproduce or replicate from other living organismsliving organisms ­­ Animals consumeAnimals consume plants or animalsplants or organismsGroups of different species or organisms ­­ Live and interact in a certain areaLive and interact

  9. UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE STUDENT LIFE

    E-print Network

    Firestone, Jeremy

    UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE STUDENT LIFE 2010-2011 STRATEGIC INITIATIVES ANNUAL REPORT AUGUST 2011 in alignment with the University of Delaware's diversity statement. · Implement a new Path to ProminenceTM/Student #12;2 Increase the quality and impact of Student Life programs and services at the University

  10. A Philosophical Time of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manheimer, Ronald J.

    2000-01-01

    Looks at aging from three perspectives: (1) a young person who notices thinning hair; (2) an older friend who is thinking about suicide if the quality of her life deteriorates; and (3) one leading a seminar on "Your New Life," for retirees considering a move. Describes the new meanings of aging in the socioeconomic context. (JOW)

  11. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  12. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  13. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  14. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  15. The Epistemic Value of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic value. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…

  16. Springs of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET

    2010-11-05

    In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

  17. Modular values and weak values of quantum observables

    E-print Network

    Yaron Kedem; Lev Vaidman

    2010-07-29

    The concept of a modular value of an observable of a pre- and post-selected quantum system is introduced. It is similar in form and in some cases has a close connection to the weak value of an observable, but instead of describing an effective interaction when the coupling is weak, it describes a coupling of any strength but only to qubit meters. The generalization of the concept for a coupling of a composite system to a multi-qubit meter provides an explanation of some current experiments.

  18. Principles of Life Principles of Life

    E-print Network

    Takahashi, Ryo

    Cloning 2) The Polymerase Chain Reaction 3) Gene Sequencing and Genome Projects 4) RNA Inhibition of Gene Function 10) Stem Cells and Animal Cloning The Past and Future in Molecular Genetics 11) Yeast and Cell Biology 12) Drosophila and Developmental Biology 13) Vertebrates as Human Models 14) Complex

  19. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  20. Half-life of /sup 218/Po

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.G.; Soloshenkov, P.S.

    1986-10-01

    The decay of Po 218 is accompanied by the emission of 6.00-MeV alpha particles. The most suitable method for studying it is the alphaspectrometric method. To generate radon, the source for RaA, the authors used a preparation of Ra 226 with a high degree of purity. Targets were prepared for measuring the half-life on a radon setup. Approximately 30 sec after holding in a radon atmosphere the target was placed with the polonium deposited on it into a vacuum chamber. It was noted that the intensity of the peak at 6.70 MeV decreases at the same rate as the decay of Po 218, and the ratio of the intensities of their peaks was equal to 0.037 +/- 0.007%. The spectra (alpha was analyzed on an LP-4900 analyzer. The values of the half-life that were obtained are in good agreement with the values obtained previously.

  1. Quality of life in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Teovska Mitrevska, Natasa; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Guarneri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is defined by the World Health Organization as "individuals' perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." Often overlooked in the past, it is nowadays considered, in a more holistic view of medicine, a decisive factor to understand the impact of diseases and improve the quality of medical care. Such evaluation is particularly relevant for dermatological diseases, because visibility of the lesions can significantly affect self-esteem and social relationships. Vitiligo represents an emblematic case: often disfiguring and located in visible areas, confused in the past (and, in many world regions, even in the present) with leprosy, often perceived by physicians as a harmless, purely cosmetic problem, it significantly decreases the quality of life of affected persons. After a brief overview on definition, usefulness and methods for the assessment of quality of life, the authors examine the peculiarities of its relationship with skin diseases, particularly vitiligo. The state of the art of knowledge and research in this field is presented, together with data showing usefulness and positive results of a multidisciplinary approach, which adequately keeps into account perceived quality of life, on patient's satisfaction, adherence to treatment protocols and, ultimately, better outcome of treatments. In this context, an important role can be played by support communities, groups of patients and dedicated associations and societies, connected through modern communication networks like the Internet. PMID:23237035

  2. The research of reliability and accelerated life tests method of oil-line pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingping Zhang; Jiansheng Lu; Zengliang Zhang; Boling Hu

    1992-01-01

    Mechanical pumps are used to show how to determine the useful life of a product and its corresponding reliability characteristic values and acceleration coefficient by means of constant stress accelerated life testing. The existing difficulties of lengthy life test time, high test cost, and unknown reliability indices are then resolved. The overall period of life test time has been shortened

  3. [Quality of life in psychosomatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Novikova, I A; Sidorov, P I; Solov'ev, A G

    2002-01-01

    To study life quality (LQ) in psychosomatic diseases, 104 patients (58 females and 46 males) with these diseases were examined. Among them there were 35 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), 28 with arterial hypertension (AH), 21 with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), 20 with duodenal peptic ulcer (PU). A matched group comprised 26 patients with acute pneumonia (AP). Low LQ was determined according to all 3 components: somatic, mental, and social. The lowest LQ was noted in patients with CHD, AH, and DM, indicating severity of these diseases accompanying marked changes in all spheres of life. PU was characterized by higher values that showed a fair LQ and that were due to a more favorable course of the disease. Patients with AP had a high LQ, which suggests that this acute disease does not lower LQ or accompany pronounced changes in human life. By and large, paychosomatic patients' LQ depended on age, severity, stage, and duration of a disease, disability. PMID:12494565

  4. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  5. Maintaining Life Satisfaction: The Role of Positive Cognitive Bias

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Cummins; Helen Nistico

    2002-01-01

    Recent research into population standards of life satisfaction has revealed a remarkable level of uniformity, with the mean values for Western populations clustering at around three-quarters of the measurement scale maximum. While this seems to suggest the presence of a homeostatic mechanism for life satisfaction, the character of such a hypothetical device is uncertain. This paper proposes that well-being homeostasis

  6. QUALITY of LIFE 2009 Report

    E-print Network

    of Business, Economic Development & Tourism #12;2 QUALITY OF LIFE IN HAWAI`I The QOL framework Development & Tourism (DBEDT). Three decades later, in 2005, the University of Hawai`i Center on the Family

  7. Inversion concept of the origin of life.

    PubMed

    Kompanichenko, V N

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism). PMID:22644566

  8. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909

  9. Water, a host of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

    2012-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

  10. Last Days of Life (PDQ®)

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

  11. A Rooted Net of Life

    E-print Network

    Williams, David

    Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

  12. What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

  13. Values Education, the Judgment of Value and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidle, William R.

    If individuals have an objectified, firm understanding of themselves as subjects who exist within a basic self-constituting process for knowing and valuing, they will discover that their authenticity as human beings exists in fulfilling the requirements through which this self-constituting process effectively expresses itself. Self-appropriation…

  14. The Value of a Garden

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    M.E. Krasny, P. Newton, and L. Tompkins (Cornell University; )

    2004-11-05

    This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of botanical, community, and other gardens in preserving biodiversity and in contributing to sustainable communities. It introduces several concepts drawn from system dynamics, including feedback loops, behavior-over-time graphsand more! It includes a PowerPoint presentation, Feedback Loops in Flower Gardening,of 29 slides that will guide teachers and students through activities that generate feedback loops.

  15. Half-life of {sup 66}Ga

    SciTech Connect

    Severin, G. W.; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.; George, E. A. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    We measured the half-life of {sup 66}Ga by observing positrons from the {beta}{sup +} branch to the ground state of {sup 66}Zn with a superconducting Wu-type beta spectrometer. Our result is t{sub 1/2}=9.304(8)hours, which is the highest-precision measurement to date and disagrees with the Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS) value by over 6{sigma}.

  16. Protocells: At the Interface of Life and Non-Life

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wentao; Feng, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The cellular form, manifesting as a membrane-bounded system (comprising various functional molecules), is essential to life. The ultimate reason for this is that, typically, one functional molecule can only adopt one “correct” structure to perform one special function (e.g., an enzyme), and thus molecular cooperation is inevitable. While this is particularly true for advanced life with complex functions, it should have already been true for life at its outset with only limited functions, which entailed some sort of primitive cellular form—“protocells”. At the very beginning, the protocells may have even been unable to intervene in the growth of their own membrane, which can be called “pseudo-protocells”. Then, the ability to synthesize membrane components (amphiphiles) may have emerged under selective pressure, leading to “true-protocells”. The emergence of a “chromosome” (with genes linked together)—thus avoiding “gene-loss” during the protocell division, was another key event in the evolution of protocells. Such “unitary-protocells”, containing a central genetic molecule, may have appeared as a milestone—in principle, since then life could evolve endlessly, “gaining” more and more functions by introducing new genes. To synthesize in laboratory these different types of protocells, which stand at the interface between life and non-life, would greatly enhance our understanding on the essence of life. PMID:25809963

  17. Quality of Life and the Migration of the College-Educated: A Life-Course Approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RONALD L. WHISLER; BRIGITTE S. WALDORF; GORDON F. MULLIGAN; DAVID A. PLANE

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how the college-educated population-segmented into selective demographic groups, from young adults to the elderly-differentially values quality-of-life (QOL) indicators of metropolitan areas in the United States. Using data from the 2000 Census and the 1997 \\

  18. Building the Encyclopedia of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiafico, P. A.; Patterson, D. J.

    2010-04-01

    The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is a collaborative project that indexes information about species, and makes it freely accessible to anyone. In order to accomplish this, EOL is building collaborative tools and infrastructure to unify the information.

  19. Life of a Gypsy Moth

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

  20. Half life of 175Hf.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kaihong; Wang, Dawei; Yang, Shaobo; Zhao, Jiangtao; Peng, Haibo; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Tieshan

    2012-10-01

    This work measured the half life of radioisotope (175)Hf, which was produced by neutron activation method at the ZF-300-II Intense Neutron Generator in Lanzhou University. The half life of (175)Hf, measured by ?-ray spectrometry using a well calibrated GEM-60P coaxial High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector, has been found to be 70.65±0.19 days. The present result agrees with the literature data well, while the accuracy was improved. PMID:22871434

  1. Regression with Life Data Table Of Contents

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    Regression with Life Data #12;#12;Table Of Contents Copyright © 2003­2005 Minitab Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Table Of Contents Regression with Life Data...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Regression with Life Data Overview

  2. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Modifications to cash value and future mortality charges upon the death of insured . If both the cash value and future mortality charges under a contract change...death, both the cash value and mortality charges of the life insurance...

  3. Effects of Depreciation and Corporate Taxes on Asset Life Under Debt-Equity Financing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandros P. Prezas

    1992-01-01

    Under debt-equity financing, the optimal life of an asset increases with the amount of riskless debt used. Also, higher depreciation increases (does not affect) optimal life if asset book value is positive (zero) upon termination. Further, the optimal life of an asset fully depreciated before termination increases with the corporate tax rate. The optimal life of all asset not fully

  4. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences

    E-print Network

    Buehrer, R. Michael

    College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Alumni Organization With a special presentation. Agricultural Research and Extension Center With updates from: Alan Grant, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life

  5. A year in the life of eLife.

    PubMed

    Schekman, Randy; Watt, Fiona M; Weigel, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    Improving the peer review process, overcoming the limitations of print journals and providing open access to the very best work in the life and biomedical sciences are three highlights of our first year. PMID:24137550

  6. Moisture Exclusion from Encapsulation of Long-Life Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. I. B. Cooper

    1962-01-01

    The requirement for long-life transistors places stringent demands on sealing processes. There are empirical reasons for believing that water content is a critical factor and should be preserved at a very low value. The first consequent problem is to design the sealing operation so that the encapsulate is sufficiently dry at the beginning of life. A practicable solution demands the

  7. Development and validation of the perceived life significance scale.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Rachel; Vandenberg, Brian

    2015-07-01

    A recent literature review of meaning and bereavement suggests a conceptual distinction between sense-making, or the integration of a loss with beliefs and narratives, and life significance, or perception of value associated with an aspect of one's life experience. The present study aims to develop and validate a new measure: the Perceived Life Significance Scale (PLSS). Exploratory (n = 353) and confirmatory (n = 483) factor analyses support three factors: active pursuit of goals and activities; emptiness/insignificance (reverse-scored); and receptivity to beauty in everyday life. The PLSS demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with respect to general measures of meaning, negative affect, depression, and sense-making. PMID:25679540

  8. Altruism and the value of other people's safety

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Jones-lee

    1991-01-01

    This article considers the manner in which people's altruistic concern for other people's safety should be incorporated in willingness-to-pay based values of statistical life and safety. It is shown that, within a utilitarian framework, the traditional prescription that such values should take full account of people's willingness to pay for others' safety is validif andonly if altruism is exclusivelysafety-focused, in

  9. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

  10. Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept oflife course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept oflife course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences oflife course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

  11. Integrating varieties of life course concepts.

    PubMed

    Alwin, Duane F

    2012-03-01

    A body of work referred to as the "life course" framework (also known as "life course theory," the "life course paradigm," and the "life course perspective") has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the "life course" is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept of "life course" is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how "life course" is distinguished from "life span" and "life cycle," among other "life" words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term "life course": (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley's age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept of "life course" within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences of "life course events and transitions" and understanding the manner by which "life events" and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

  12. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  13. The process of value generation in cultural creative industries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Chang

    2011-01-01

    Cultural creative industries (CCIs) are the new industrial patterns in the knowledge-based economy. They have been an important parts of the government sponsors fields. CCIs have many characteristics such as individual knowledge intensive, high value added, and intangibles. CCIs activities not only directly promotes the level of a personal life but drives the industries' upgrades. Hence, this research approaches the

  14. The Insurance Value of Medical Innovation Darius Lakdawalla

    E-print Network

    Mateo, Jill M.

    the manner in which medical innovations reduce the health risk borne by consumers. First, using the parlance by medical innovation in reducing physical risks to life and health. Only medical technology can reduce1 The Insurance Value of Medical Innovation Darius Lakdawalla University of Southern California

  15. The Value of Information in Library Catalogs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of information contained within a library's online public access catalog. Assesses the value of MARC records; authority records; indexes; location and status information; and value for an individual. (LRW)

  16. Master's Thesis Life Cycles of Communities

    E-print Network

    Moon, Sue B.

    the life cycle of communities in online social network. Wefirst shows that the life expectancy of large Communities over Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 6.2 Life Expectancy of CommunitiesMaster's Thesis Life Cycles of Communities in an Online Social Network ( You, Jinyoung) Department

  17. End-of-life challenges: honoring autonomy.

    PubMed

    Valente, Sharon M

    2004-01-01

    Patients' end-of-life decisions challenge nurses to improve palliative care, symptom management, and patient advocacy, and examine ethical issues. When terminally ill patients take charge of the last stages of life, they may challenge nurses to reexamine attitudes about lifesaving technology and autonomy and values about preserving life. Staff members can become benevolent and believe that they know what is best despite the patient's independent decisions. When patients unsuccessfully decline continued aggressive, life prolonging strategies, they may decide to hasten dying rather than accept a natural death. Researchers (Breitbart WS et al. JAMA. 2000;284:2907-2911) defined desire for hastened death as a unifying construct underlying requests for assisted suicide, euthanasia, and withdrawal of food and fluids. When a terminally ill patient considers a hastened death, the nurse needs to examine the patient's mental health, symptom management, advance directives, and decision making. Medical and psychological symptoms and spiritual distress often trigger thoughts of hastening death even when pain and symptoms have been treated (Breitbart WS et al. JAMA. 2000;284:2907-2911). Ethical issues and guidelines for management of patients and evaluation of rationality are presented. PMID:15292727

  18. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  19. Teaching Time Value of Money Using an Excel Retirement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Fernando; Mulig, Liz; Rhame, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The time value of money (TVM) is required knowledge for all business students. It is traditionally taught in finance and accounting classes for use in various applications in the business curriculum. These concepts are also very useful in real life situations such as calculating the amount to save for retirement. This paper details a retirement…

  20. The Detection of Individual and Group Values in Young People: Relevant Methodological Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geger, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Life values, value orientations, social attitudes, and other corresponding social collisions have been the object of many studies. Research on the values of youth in Russia is marred by methodological problems that have not been adequately addressed, and more careful approaches show that there may not be a finite list of values that are held and…

  1. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

  2. Service life prediction of reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, M.T.; Wang, K.L.; Liang, C.H.

    1999-09-01

    This paper is focused on the estimation of durability and service life of reinforced concrete structures. Assuming that the chloride ion in concrete can be absorbed on tricalcium aluminate, calcium silicate hydrate, and by other constituents of hardened cement paste, hydrated or not, the exact analytical solution of the governing partial differential equation together with its boundary and initial conditions can be obtained through nondimensional parameters and Laplace's transform. When the results of an exact analytical solution using suitable parameters were compared with the results of previous experimental work, the differences were found to be very small. This suggests that the absorption model is of considerable value. The exact analytical solution with the saturation parameter and time and diffusion coefficients under different effective electrical potential could be used to predict both the experimental results and the service life of reinforced concrete structures.

  3. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500?Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500?Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500?Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  4. History of Life Through Time

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This online exhibit explores the ancestor/descendant relationships of the three domains of organisms, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryota. Topics include the fossil record, life history and ecology, systematics, and morphology of each domain. There is also a link to a list of available taxa for the Eukaryotic kingdoms (chromista, fungi, metazoa, plantae, and protista) and to reference material on phylogeny, cladistics and evolution.

  5. Dating the Tree of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Benton; Francisco J. Ayala

    2003-01-01

    The relative merits of molecular and paleontological dates of major branching points in the tree of life are currently debated. In some cases, molecular date estimates are up to twice as old as paleontological dates. However, although it is true that paleontological dates are often too young (missing fossils), molecular dates are often too old (statistical bias). Intense study of

  6. Quality of Life Project Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Eleanor; And Others

    The Quality of Life Project at Eastfield College (Texas), a set of campus and community activities designed to promote involvement in influencing the campus and community environments, is described by three people who were involved in its development and activities: Kathryn Berry, Coordinator of Student Services at Eastfield; Eleanor Ott,…

  7. The Early History of Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. G. Nisbet; C. M. R. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly

  8. Life Cycle of a Glacier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    An interactive slide show explores the journey of a single snowflake onto and through a glacier. This journey, which can take as much as 30,000 years to complete, shows that the life cycle of a glacier can be more complex than originally perceived.

  9. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  10. Assessing the Impact of Life Changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarason, Irwin G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Described the development of the life experiences survey for the measurement of life changes. It was designed to eliminate shortcomings of previous life stress measures and to allow for separate assessment of positive and negative life experiences. Studies bearing on the usefulness of the life experiences survey are presented. (Author/BEF)

  11. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10?? in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

  12. The Financial Value of the Teacher Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Fay

    This paper addresses the financial value of the teacher librarian, outlines areas in which this value can be identified, and indicates measures that can be used to demonstrate this value. The four major financial areas in which the value of the teacher librarian can be assessed are: (1) capital investment, made up of the building, stock, and…

  13. The Life and Times of Dick Ruggles: Village Life

    E-print Network

    Lanham, Neil

    returned with stories. Dick Ruggles is both. He is a keeper and custodian of the inherited tradition of his area (called Seanachie in Ireland).His stories are as passed on (some from his mother etc and some are folk tales) or from his experience of life...

  14. Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Niles

    2013-12-01

    An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water–ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length. PMID:24256858

  15. Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, Niles

    2013-12-01

    An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

  16. Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veisson, Marika

    2009-01-01

    R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

  17. The fires of life.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Gottfried

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective recounts the hunt for the mechanism of mitochondrial ATP synthesis, the early days of research on mitochondrial formation, and some of the colorful personalities dominating these often dramatic and emotional efforts. The narrative is set against the backdrop of postwar Austria and Germany and the stream of young scientists who had to leave their countries to receive postdoctoral training abroad. Many of them--including the author--chose the laboratory of a scientist their country had expelled a few decades before. The article concludes with some thoughts on the uniqueness of U.S. research universities and a brief account of the struggles to revive science in Europe. PMID:22224564

  18. [The helix of life].

    PubMed

    Kahn, Axel

    2003-04-01

    The discovery of DNA's double helix 50 years ago was the founding event of molecular biology. It was also the moment that forged the reputation of two of biology's most compelling figures, no doubt in perpetuity. However, Jim Watson and Francis Crick were not the only players of this outstanding fest whose certain circumstances remain today rather singular. PMID:12836225

  19. Half-life of {sup 120}Xe

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, A. A.; Andreoiu, C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Finlay, P.; Garrett, P. E.; Grinyer, G. F.; Hyland, B.; Schumaker, M. A.; Svensson, C. E.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Ball, G. C.; Behr, J. A.; Hackman, G.; Pearson, M. R.; Smith, M. B. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Chupp, T. E.; Nuss-Warren, S. R.; Tardiff, E. R. [Focus Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Hayden, M. E.; Warner, T. [Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    We have measured the half-life of {sup 120}Xe using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector to monitor the 176, 178, and 762 keV {gamma} rays from {sup 120}Xe {beta}{sup +} decay. The result, 46{+-}0.6 min, differs significantly from the value 40{+-}1 min reported by Andersson et al. [Ark. Fys. 28, 37 (1964)]. We have also measured the half-lives of {sup 120}Cs and {sup 120}I to be 60{+-}0.7 s and 82.1{+-}0.6 min, respectively, both of which are consistent with previous measurements.

  20. Constructor theory of life

    PubMed Central

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  1. The Molecules of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

  2. The Web of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Duane Friend

    This lesson plan helps students understand the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem through five activities. From these activities, students will understand that an animal's needs determine its preferred habitat, the concept of ecosystems and interdependence, and that interrelating communities are components of an ecosystem.

  3. The Ladder of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Children's Museum of Indianapolis

    2007-01-01

    In this activity, learners identify the DNA base bars guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. Learners create a DNA model using colored paper clips to resemble these base pairs. This activity is featured on pp.19-20 (part of a lesson that begins on p.18) of the "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Agricultural Biology" unit of study for grades 6-8.

  4. Dynamics Of The Fair Value In Accounting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mihai Ristea; Ionel Jianu

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the historical cost principle has dominated accountancy. At this time, another princi-ple seems to operate: the fair value principle. The discussion will gravitate around the questions: What is fair value? How has concept of fair value evolved? How much is the fair value used as the ba-sis for measurement in IFRS? Are we moving towards a full fair

  5. THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 sequestration and between 1 and 49 percent for forest based carbon sequestration. Value adjustments offsets. Net present value analysis reveals value reductions between 0 and 62 percent for soil carbon

  6. The Life of Birds

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Attenborough, David, 1926-.

    This companion to a new PBS series featuring renowned wildlife documentary host Sir David Attenborough is not as feature-rich as some comparable sites but deserves a visit nonetheless. Essentially a collection of five thoughtful illustrated essays, the site explores bird evolution, intelligence, songs (with RealPlayer examples), parenting, and several superlative birds. Additional contents include classroom resources (currently only two lessons), an essay on the making of the series, and a selection of annotated online resources.

  7. Extinctions of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

  8. Continuity of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Houghton Mifflin Science

    This self-contained module on classification of organisms, reproduction, cell structure and function includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. The activities impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

  9. Phylogeny of Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Allen Collins

    2007-12-12

    At this site, students browse through University of California at Berkeley's musuem exhibits relating to phylogeny. The exhibits explore the ancestor/descendant relationships which connect all organisms, past and present. Search by taxonomy, time period, or topic. Site also includes information on how scientists systematically approach diversity and patterns of events that have led to it.

  10. The Staff of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1994-01-01

    Some children have chronic illnesses that require diet modifications as part of their medical treatment. Advises school districts to hire a registered dietitian or look for resources at a local hospital or public health office. In addition, schools should work with parents, improve staff training, and conduct spot checks of school cafeterias. (MLF)

  11. Half-Life of $^{14}$O

    E-print Network

    J. T. Burke; P. A. Vetter; S. J. Freedman; B. K. Fujikawa; W. T. Winter

    2006-07-27

    We have measured the half-life of $^{14}$O, a superallowed $(0^{+} \\to 0^{+})$ $\\beta$ decay isotope. The $^{14}$O was produced by the $^{12}$C($^{3}$He,n)$^{14}$O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ion beam of $^{14}$O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil. The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. We find $t_{1/2} = 70.696\\pm 0.052$ s. This result is $1.5\\sigma$ higher than an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees more closely with the most recent previous measurement.

  12. 26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

  13. 26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

  14. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  15. The Economic Consequences of Fair Value Accounting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingzhe Yuan; Huifeng Liu

    2011-01-01

    Two fatal intrinsic flaws of fair-value accounting are found and mathematically proved by this paper. One flaw concerns its non-complete existence, that is, the required fair value may not exist under certain conditions. One direct consequence of the flaw is that a huge fair value trap may be created by fair-value accounting when the fair value does not exist. Another

  16. The Life of Art

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-02-07

    When some look at art, they might just see a beautiful vase or a well-done etching of a street scene from 19th century Salamanca. But look closely: every work of art reveals something about the world in which it was made, from ancient Egypt to 21st century Detroit. This rather engaging interactive exhibit from the Getty Museum invites visitors to look at four items from this collection for just such a close look. The items here include a silver fountain, a wall light, a side chair, and a lidded bowl. Each item will give visitors the opportunity to learn about a unique period in human history by looking at the various tools and technologies used to create it. Additionally, curious parties can view a collection of links that will encourage further exploration.

  17. [Between the poles of life and death].

    PubMed

    Conti, Marco; Merlani, Paolo

    2015-04-22

    Sometimes, conditions of critically ill patients unable to communicate, force us to decide whether or not to continue treatment. The most frequent elements we have to consider in individual patients, are survival at any cost and reduced future physical functioning and quality of life. In this article, we highlight existing literature's inability to precisely determine a given patient's preferences or to guess what they might be. Confronted with this crucial decision, the intensivist must therefore avoid the misstep of imposing their own values and expectations upon the patients. Patients even when unable to communicate must remain the master of their own destiny through their health care surrogate. If the question of their values and expectations, their advanced directives or their health care surrogate have been addressed or evoked beforehand by the family doctor, the chosen treatment modalities taken by the parties involved at a critical moment will thus allow the patient to remain the main actor of his care and destiny. PMID:26072604

  18. An Examination of Personal Values and Value Systems of Chinese and U.S. Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacomino, Don E.; Li, Xin; Michael D. Akers,

    2013-01-01

    Using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke typology this paper examines the personal values and value systems of business students in China and compares the results with the results of a recent study that used similar methodology to examine the values and value systems of U.S. students. The study also examines the differences in values

  19. Life Cycle of a Glacier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This slide show follows a snowflake through its life in a glacier. The path of the ice crystal is traced from its incorporation in the zone of accumulation, through the zone of ablation to its final departure, whether being calved as an iceberg or melting or sublimated. There is also information on the speed of the glacier and the difference between a cold and a warm glacier.

  20. The value of medical and pharmaceutical interventions for reducing obesity.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H

    2012-07-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small. The net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

  1. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  2. The Secret Life of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Alan; Abramson, Louis

    2015-04-01

    We have learned much about galaxy evolution since z = 2, and something to even higher redshifts. How can it be that we know so little about! the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies? Although great progress has been made accumulating huge samples with only rudimentary properties, progress in galaxy evolution means connecting what we've learned to detailed measurements of the life-histories of specific - not just representative - systems.

  3. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  4. Virtues, Values, and the Good Life: Alasdair MacIntyre's Virtue Ethics and Its Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…

  5. The conception of life in synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Deplazes-Zemp, Anna

    2012-12-01

    The phrase 'synthetic biology' is used to describe a set of different scientific and technological disciplines, which share the objective to design and produce new life forms. This essay addresses the following questions: What conception of life stands behind this ambitious objective? In what relation does this conception of life stand to that of traditional biology and biotechnology? And, could such a conception of life raise ethical concerns? Three different observations that provide useful indications for the conception of life in synthetic biology will be discussed in detail: 1. Synthetic biologists focus on different features of living organisms in order to design new life forms, 2. Synthetic biologists want to contribute to the understanding of life, and 3. Synthetic biologists want to modify life through a rational design, which implies the notions of utilising, minimising/optimising, varying and overcoming life. These observations indicate a tight connection between science and technology, a focus on selected aspects of life, a production-oriented approach to life, and a design-oriented understanding of life. It will be argued that through this conception of life synthetic biologists present life in a different light. This conception of life will be illustrated by the metaphor of a toolbox. According to the notion of life as a toolbox, the different features of living organisms are perceived as various rationally designed instruments that can be used for the production of the living organism itself or secondary products made by the organism. According to certain ethical positions this conception of life might raise ethical concerns related to the status of the organism, the motives of the scientists and the role of technology in our society. PMID:21484320

  6. Towards the bibliography of life

    PubMed Central

    King, David; Morse, David R.; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole. The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them. PMID:22207811

  7. Essence of life and multiformity of its realization: expected signatures of life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. I. Bartsev

    2004-01-01

    The question on the essence of life as phenomenon is the key one for astrobiology, since the answer to this question determines “breadth of our outlook”. Taking Earth's version of life as the pattern extremely under-estimates our estimation of the probability of life origin and respectively expected probability of extraterrestrial life discovery. In the paper the hypothetical key attribute of

  8. 26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

  10. 26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

  11. Providing end of life care.

    PubMed

    2015-07-10

    It could be argued that the role of emergency department (ED) staff is to provide treatment to those with traumatic or acute injury or illness. However, because more and more older people with advanced chronic illnesses are presenting at EDs, staff must provide more palliative or end of life (EOL) care. In chaotic environments where staff's main concern is saving lives, this can be challenging. PMID:26159341

  12. The body as site of pleasure and surplus value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waltraud Ernst

    2010-01-01

    This presentation is part of the Value and the Body track.\\u000aNatural sciences and epistemologies are narrations about nature and knowledge, especially about the knowledge of nature and the nature of knowledge. In these narrations we are also told about the nature and meaning of social relations. Biology as the science of life, most prominently, tells about the function of

  13. Quality of life philosophy II: what is a human being?

    PubMed

    Ventegodt, Søren; Andersen, Niels Jørgen; Kromann, Maximilian; Merrick, Joav

    2003-12-01

    The human being is a complex matter and many believe that just trying to understand life and what it means to be human is a futile undertaking. We believe that we have to try to understand life and get a grip on the many faces of life, because it can be of great value to us to learn to recognize the fundamental principles of how life is lived to the fullest. Learning to recognize the good and evil forces of life helps us to make use of the good ones. To be human is to balance between hundreds of extremes. Sometimes we have to avoid these extremes, but at other times it seems we should pursue them, to better understand life. With our roots in medicine, we believe in the importance of love for better health. The secret of the heart is when reason and feelings meet and we become whole. Where reason is balanced perfectly by feelings and where mind and body come together in perfect unity, a whole new quality emerges, a quality that is neither feeling nor reason, but something deeper and more complete. In this paper, we outline only enough biology to clarify what the fundamental inner conflicts are about. The insight into these conflicts gives us the key to a great deal of the problems of life. To imagine pleasures greater than sensual pleasures seems impossible to most people. What could such a joy possibly be? But somewhere deep in life exists the finest sweetness, the greatest quality in life, the pure joy of being alive that emerges when we are fully present and life is in balance. This deep joy of life is what we call experiencing the meaning of life. PMID:14646012

  14. Predictive value of serial measurements of quality of life on all-cause mortality in prostate cancer patients: data from CaPSURE™ (cancer of the prostate strategic urologic research endeavor) database

    E-print Network

    Sadetsky, Natalia; Hubbard, Alan; Carroll, Peter R.; Satariano, William

    2009-01-01

    screening, diagnosis, and treatment of prostate cancerprostate cancer disease severity, age at diagnosis, andCancer of the Prostate Strategic Urologic Research Endeavor) who were treated within 6 months of diagnosis and

  15. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  16. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 2011-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. 351.405 Section 351.405 Customs Duties...Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation...

  17. Life table of Paederus fuscipes (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae).

    PubMed

    Bong, Lee-Jin; Neoh, Kok-Boon; Jaal, Zairi; Lee, Chow-Yang

    2012-05-01

    The life history characteristics of the rove beetle Paederus fuscipes Curtis were studied under laboratory conditions using three field strains from Malaysia: Desa Wawasan (DW), Sri Pinang (SP), and Ampang Jajar (AJ). The total development time of immature stages differed significantly among the three strains, especially between DW (17.43 +/- 0.16 d), SP (18.60 +/- 0.19 d), and AJ (18.68 +/- 0.22 d). Adult females and males from DW also exhibited a shorter life span, although the difference among strains was not significant. In terms of fecundity, the numbers of eggs laid per female for DW, SP, and AJ were 121.28 +/- 15.98, 127.30 +/- 18.01, and 147.45 +/- 17.12, respectively. Additionally, because of the shorter life span in DW strain, two apparent peaks in age-stage specific fecundity were detected. The beetles compensated for their shorter life span by increasing their reproductive activity to sustain the progeny in the population. The intrinsic rates of increase (r) of P. fuscipes from DW, SP, and AJ were 0.0773 +/- 0.0046 d(-1), 0.0788 +/- 0.0051 d(-1), and 0.0873 +/- 0.0054 d(-1), respectively; and the net reproduction rates (R0) were 40.09 +/- 7.39 offspring, 45.29 +/- 8.74 offspring, and 42.34 +/- 8.25 offspring, respectively. The mean generation time of P. fuscipes from AJ was 43.08 +/- 1.07 d, which was significantly higher than that from DW (47.95 +/- 1.36 d) and SP (48.57 +/- 1.43 d). The total immature development time of P. fuscipes in this study was shorter than values reported in previous studies. PMID:22679850

  18. Perturbation expansions of complex-valued travel time along real-valued reference rays

    E-print Network

    Cerveny, Vlastislav

    Perturbation expansions of complex-valued travel time along real-valued reference rays Martin of the complex­valued travel time (complex­valued action function). The solution of the complex­valued Hamilton­ Jacobi equation for complex­valued travel time by Hamilton's equations of rays would require complex

  19. Life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Liu; S. Bellamy; J. Shuler

    2007-01-01

    The objective of life cycle management of radioactive materials packaging is to ensure the safety functions (i.e. containment of radioactivity, protection against radiation, and criticality safety for fissile contents) during the entire life cycle of the packaging in storage, transportation and disposal. A framework has been developed for life cycle management regarding type B radioactive and fissile materials packaging, drawing

  20. Optimization of value of CVP's hydropower production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Alberto Tejada-Guibert; Jery R. Stedinger; Konstantin Staschus

    1990-01-01

    CVPOP is a nonlinear programming model for the optimization of the multi-month operation of the hydropower system of the California Central Valley Project (CVP). CVPOP includes the dependence of energy values within each month of the capacity factor of the generating unit, avoiding the simplification of assuming constant monthly or yearly values as is common in other models. The model

  1. Value Tensions in Design: The Value Sensitive Design, Development, and Appropriation of a Corporation's

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Richard

    Value Tensions in Design: The Value Sensitive Design, Development, and Appropriation report on the value sensitive design, development, and appropriation of a groupware system to support individuals) suggest the methods employed were successful in addressing value tensions, particularly

  2. The logic of prices as values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guglielmo Carchedi

    1984-01-01

    There are two major lines of criticism moved at Marx's approach to the transformation of values into prices. The circularity critique holds that constant and variable capital appear in Marx's numerical examples as inputs at their individual values and as outputs at their social, transformed value (or price of production). This critique is rejected as being foreign to Marx's methodology.

  3. The Use of Fair Value in IFRS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Cairns

    2006-01-01

    The implementation of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), particularly in the European Union, has led to frequent comments that IFRS are “fair value based standards” and that the IASB is moving inexorably towards full fair value accounting. This article examines the extent to which IFRS do, in fact, require the use of fair values for the measurement of assets and

  4. The Value of Natural History Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allmon, Warren D.

    1994-01-01

    Presents research and public values of natural history museum collections. Research values include documenting biotas no longer available and serving as inspiration for scientific discovery. Public values include servings as resources for identification of unknown specimens, hands-on education, and depositories for evidence of the history and…

  5. Measurement of the 225Ac half-life.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Marouli, M; Suliman, G; Dikmen, H; Van Ammel, R; Jobbágy, V; Dirican, A; Stroh, H; Paepen, J; Bruchertseifer, F; Apostolidis, C; Morgenstern, A

    2012-11-01

    The (225)Ac half-life was determined by measuring the activity of (225)Ac sources as a function of time, using various detection techniques: ?-particle counting with a planar silicon detector at a defined small solid angle and in a nearly-2? geometry, 4??+? counting with a windowless CsI sandwich spectrometer and with a pressurised proportional counter, gamma-ray spectrometry with a HPGe detector and with a NaI(Tl) well detector. Depending on the technique, the decay was followed for 59-141 d, which is about 6-14 times the (225)Ac half-life. The six measurement results were in good mutual agreement and their mean value is T(1/2)((225)Ac)=9.920 (3)d. This half-life value is more precise and better documented than the currently recommended value of 10.0 d, based on two old measurements lacking uncertainty evaluations. PMID:22940415

  6. The Automaticity of Social Life

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Williams, Erin L.

    2008-01-01

    Much of social life is experienced through mental processes that are not intended and about which one is fairly oblivious. These processes are automatically triggered by features of the immediate social environment, such as the group memberships of other people, the qualities of their behavior, and features of social situations (e.g., norms, one's relative power). Recent research has shown these nonconscious influences to extend beyond the perception and interpretation of the social world to the actual guidance, over extended time periods, of one's important goal pursuits and social interactions. PMID:18568084

  7. The mathematical logic of life.

    PubMed

    Cullmann, G; Labouygues, J M

    1984-01-01

    Protein synthesis can be likened to a particular coded information storage, transmission and execution system. Noise, error or mutations are the essential phenomena to which a living organism is subjected. Genetic coding aims at preserving the integrity of a structure under aggression from the surroundings. It can be shown that the different amino acids translated in the proteins, except the particular case of SER, obey a logical code for optimization of resistance to mutation effects. The study of the structure of this code allows a better comprehension of the logic of life. PMID:6379559

  8. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Anthony

    . Samanez-Larkin, Anthony D. Wagner, and Brian Knutson Department of Psychology, Stanford University prefrontal and medial temporal brain regions (Brewer et al., 1998; Wagner et al., 1998; Ranganath and D

  9. Multicellular life cycle of magnetotactic prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carolina N. Keim; Juliana L. Martins; Fernanda Abreu; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Henrique Lins de Barros; Radovan Borojevic; Ulysses Lins; Marcos Farina

    2004-01-01

    Most multicellular organisms, prokaryotes as well as animals, plants, and algae have a unicellular stage in their life cycle. Here, we describe an uncultured prokaryotic magnetotactic multicellular organism that reproduces by binary fission. It is multicellular in all the stages of its life cycle, and during most of the life cycle the cells organize into a hollow sphere formed by

  10. A Consideratlon of Life Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Keiko

    This paper is a record of Special Lecture at the awarding ceremony of the 22nd “Niwa Prize”. Lecturer describes the mechanism in biology, taking a biology as an information system. For instance, when we make a protain by genes, every substance like hormones and nezymes, which were made by genes, has information. The system of biology moves by the fact that an gene dose not move itself, but substances with information go around in the body. From the viewpoint of life sciences, lecturer proposes the necessity to reconsider information as a linkage of heart and substance.

  11. The Tree of Animal Life

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stan Braude

    2007-09-01

    The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal groups in a general way. Though the activity doesn't teach about each animal group's characteristics in great detail, the process of sorting of atypical examples (e.g., bat, octopus) does spark interesting discussions among students on the differences between animals and how scientists classify them. I've conducted the activity with students of various ages.

  12. Life history of Coelomomyces psorophorae.

    PubMed Central

    Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A

    1975-01-01

    The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. Images PMID:235761

  13. Life history of Coelomomyces psorophorae.

    PubMed

    Whisler, H C; Zebold, S L; Shemanchuk, J A

    1975-02-01

    The mosquito parasite, Coelomomyces psorophorae (Blastocladiales, Chytridiomycetes) alternates obligately between the larvae of Culiseta inornata and the copepod Cyclops vernalis. Isogametes, derived from heterothallic, wall-less gametangia which develop in the copepod, fuse to produce a diploid zygote that subsequently infects the mosquito host. Zoospores from the resistant sporangia which are produced in the haemocoel of the mosquito infect the copepod. A tentative life-history is proposed and implications of these discoveries for the biology, taxonomy, and possible role of Coelomomyces in biological control are discussed. PMID:235761

  14. The Benefits of Reflecting on and Discussing Purpose in Life in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundick, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of understanding and pursuing one's purposes in life are well documented. However, few studies have addressed potential interventions for enhancing purpose. This article presents the results of an empirical investigation testing whether reflecting on and discussing one's core values, life goals, and purposes in life has benefits for…

  15. Fingerprints of Life CD and Website

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-01-01

    This teacher resource on astrobiology and life in extreme environments contains classroom activities, presentation-ready slideshows with scripts and many other resources. It shows how NASA research on microbial life on Earth helps identify possible signs of life on Martian meteorites.

  16. [Measuring quality of life in palliative care].

    PubMed

    Lopes Ferreira, Pedro; Pinto Barros, Ana; Barros Brito, Ana

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the process followed to create and validate the Portuguese versión of a quality of life measurement instrument for patients in palliative care. After a literature review about the measurement of the quality of life in this particular and very specific kind of patients, we opt by the Irene Higginson's measurement instrument called Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS). It has been selected as the one most appropriate to Portuguese patients' reality. For the creation of the Portuguese version we followed the recommended methodologies for the forward-backward translations. These methodologies allow us to determine semantic and linguistic equivalences of health outcomes measurement instruments. The validation was performed on a sample of 104 cancer patients aged between 40 and 85 years old. 70% were female, 29% had lung cancer, 46% breast cáncer and 22% had melanoma. Content validity was assured by two cognitive debriefing tests, respectively performed in oncologists and in patients. Construct validation allow us to find five ortogonal factors, including 'emotional well being' (19.7% of variance explained), 'consequences of the disease in life' (18.2%), 'received information and support' (11.7%), 'anxiety' (10.1%), and 'burden of illness' (9.8%). Criterion validity was tested by comparing the results obtained by POS to the ones obtained by the EORTC QLQ-C30, a genetic instrument especially designed for cancer patients. The found correlation values were moderated to strong and ranged from 0.51 to 0.63. The reliability of the Portuguese version was assured through the reproducibility test and the search for the internal consistency. The scores obtained by a one-week testrestest ranged from 0.66 to 1.00. Cronbach's alpha was 0.68, acceptable and allowing us to consider POS as a unique index Time responsiveness and diagnosis responsiveness were also analysed. Comparing values measured with a one-month interval showed sensibility to the lack of the quality of life felt by patients. This measurement instrument was also sensitive to the various pathologies. In conclusion, we may defend the quality of the performance of the Portuguese versión of the POS. This version may be used to prospectively assess the palliative care on advances cancer patients. PMID:18625090

  17. Life on Titan: Theorem of existance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potashko, O.

    Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective ``search for life'' are Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites and first of all -- Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity -- from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active -- mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet -- like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn't lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These events are known as extinctions or ice ages. Huygens considered that God's wisdom and providence is clearest in the creation of life, and Earth holds no privileged position in the heavens that life must be universal. He is right. Huygens helps find life on Titan. 1. Potashko, O.S. (2003) Volcano activity as transformers from mineral to organic. III European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology - Mars: Search for Life, Madrid, Nov. 18-20, 2003, p.197.

  18. Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poplawski, Joseph V.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Peters, Steven M.

    2000-01-01

    Four roller profiles used in cylindrical roller bearing design and manufacture were analyzed using both a closed form solution and finite element analysis (FEA) for stress and life. The roller profiles analyzed were flat, tapered end, aerospace, and fully crowned loaded against a flat raceway. Four rolling-element bearing life models were chosen for this analysis and compared. These were those of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, Ioannides and Harris, and Zaretsky. The flat roller profile without edge loading has the longest predicted life. However, edge loading can reduce life by as much as 98 percent. The end tapered profile produced the highest lives but not significantly different than the aerospace profile. The fully crowned profile produces the lowest lives. The resultant predicted life at each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both Lundberg-Palmgren and Iaonnides-Harris equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMAJISO standards. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field.

  19. Spacelab life sciences 1 - Reprints of background life sciences publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Ronald (editor); Leonard, Joel (editor)

    1991-01-01

    Results from investigations conducted in preparation for the first Spacelab life-sciences mission are summarized in selected previously published papers. Topics discussed are the role of calcium in osteoporosis, orthostaic hypotension, cardiovascular adjustments to gravitational stress, cell biology, exposure to stressful environments, heart-lung interactions in aerospace medicine, effects of weightlessness on human fluid and electrolyte physiology, macular bioaccelerometers on earth and in space, and metabolism of nonessential N-15-labeled amino acids and the measurement of human whole-body protein synthesis rates.

  20. Strategies for Culturally Effective End-of-Life Care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LaVera M. Crawley; Patricia A. Marshall; Bernard Lo; Barbara A. Koenig

    2002-01-01

    As a result of profound worldwide demographic change, physi- cians will increasingly care for patients from cultural backgrounds other than their own. Differences in beliefs, values, and traditional health care practices are of particular relevance at the end of life. Health care providers and patients and families may not have shared understandings of the meaning of illness or death and

  1. Effect of Roller Profile on Cylindrical Roller Bearing Life Prediction. Part 1; Comparison of Bearing Life Theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poplawski, Joseph V.; Peters, Steven M.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2001-01-01

    Four rolling-element bearing life theories were chosen for analysis and compared for a simple roller-race geometry model. The life theories were those of Weibull; Lundberg and Palmgren; Ioannides and Harris; and Zaretsky. The analysis without a fatigue limit of Ioannides and Harris is identical to the Lundberg and Palmgren analysis, and the Weibull analysis is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. The resultant predicted life a each stress condition not only depends on the life equation used but also on the Weibull slope assumed. The least variation in predicted life with Weibull slope comes with the Zaretsky equation. Except for a Weibull slope of 1.11, at which the Weibull equation predicts the highest lives, the highest lives are predicted for the Zaretsky equation. For Weibull slopes of 1.5 and 2, both the Lundherg-Palmgren and Ioannides-Harris (where tau(sub u) = 0) equations predict lower lives than the ANSI/ABMA/ISO standard. Based upon the Hertz stresses for line contact, the accepted load-life exponent of 10/3 results in a maximum Hertz stress-life exponent equal to 6.6. This value is inconsistent with that experienced in the field. The assumption of as shear stress fatigue limit tau(sub u) results in Hertz stress-life exponents greater than are experimentally verifiable.

  2. Two determinations of the (223)Ra half-life.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Denis E; Fitzgerald, Ryan

    2015-08-01

    Ra-223 is an alpha-emitter that is being used as a bone-seeking radiotherapeutic agent. The relatively large uncertainty on its evaluated half-life (0.26%, Bé et al., 2011) is an impediment to precision activity assays, which often involve measurements by various methods over time spans of days or weeks. We have performed two series of measurements using an ionization chamber (IC) and a NaI(Tl) well counter (?-wc) to determine new, precise values for the (223)Ra half-life. We have endeavored to realistically assess the uncertainties on the derived half-lives, looking beyond the fit uncertainties to identify uncertainty components acting on multiple timescales. We recovered respective values of 11.447(6)d and 11.445(13)d from the IC and ?-wc measurements. Our values are in accord with the evaluated value of 11.43(3)d, but with smaller combined uncertainties. PMID:25997112

  3. A keratinocyte's course of life.

    PubMed

    Houben, E; De Paepe, K; Rogiers, V

    2007-01-01

    An adequate permeability barrier function of the mammalian epidermis is guaranteed by the characteristic architecture of the stratum corneum. This uppermost layer consists of a highly organized extracellular lipid compartment which is tightly joined to the corneocytes. The generation of the extracellular lipid compartment and the transformation of the keratinocytes into corneocytes are the main features of epidermal differentiation. However, equally important is the continuous renewal of the stratum corneum, which is insured by a careful balance between the replenishment of new keratinocytes from the proliferating basal layer, and the well-orchestrated loss of the most superficial cells after the so-called 'epidermal programmed cell death'. In this overview, the complete life of keratinocytes is described, from the proliferative organization to the process of desquamation. PMID:17191035

  4. Forming Values of Productive Behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muslich Anshoria; Fendy Suhariadia

    Work behaviors which are aimed to the vision and the mission of the company are called productive behaviours. There are two types of productive behaviors: efficient behaviors and effective behaviors. Effective-productive behaviors are workers' behaviors toward the attaiment of the organization's (company) targets (job effectiveness). Efficient behaviors are workers' behaviors which are oriented to the attempts of maximally using and

  5. Early Predictors of Alcohol Abuse: A Study of the Relationships Between Interests, Values and Personality Variables From the 1960 TALENT Data Base and Alcohol Abuse in Later Life. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Richard A.

    In 1960, Project TALENT gathered demographic, cognitive, and socio-pyschological data from a nationwide sample of high school students. In addition, responses from a saturation sample of 16,000 cases in Knox County, Tennessee were collected. The relationships between attitudes, personality traits, and subsequent alcohol abuse (as shown by Knox…

  6. NET ECONOMIC VALUES OF RECREATIONISTS

    E-print Network

    .C. Recreation Activity Estimates 5.1 Summary of Reports 5.2 Estimates of Water Based Recreation Activity activities * become data in a benefit-cost analysis of a public policy decision, such as a land use planning., V7M 3H7. #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Executive Summary page 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 Introduction Overview

  7. The Predictive Value of IQ.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Bundy, Donald A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews findings on the predictive validity of psychometric tests of intelligence. Concludes that conventional tests of intelligence can be useful but only if they are interpreted very carefully, taking into account the factors that can affect them, and in conjunction with other measures. (Author)

  8. Study of Quality of Work Life (QWL)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Nasl Saraji; H Dargahi

    2006-01-01

    A high quality of work life (QWL) is essential for organizations to continue to attract and retain employees. QWL is a com- prehensive program designated to improve employee satisfaction. This research aimed to provide insights into the positive and negative attitudes of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) Hospitals' employees from their quality of life. A cross- sectional, descriptive and

  9. Lost in translation: dignity dialogues at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Hawryluck, Laura

    2004-01-01

    After a diagnosis of life-threatening illness, decisions must be made regarding various treatment options including life-sustaining interventions. The preservation of dignity is commonly invoked in these discussions with patients, their substitute decision makers, and health care providers. Current thoughts on dignity explore two main ideas: dignity as intrinsic worth and dignity as worth judged according to extrinsic socially based constructs. For the most part, both notions of dignity are appealed to in discussions of continuing or withholding/withdrawing treatments and in debates on the legalization of assisted death. These conceptions of dignity are value-laden and frequently biased, and therefore should be used with caution, if at all, in discussions with patients and their substitute decision makers. The fundamental issues in discussion with all patients diagnosed with a life-threatening illness are ones of respect for persons, acceptance, caring, and the value of interpersonal relationships. PMID:15511033

  10. The diagnostic value of pedobarography.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Rak; Lee, Ho Seong; Kim, Dong Eun; Lee, Dong Ho; Kim, Jong Min; Ahn, Ji Yong

    2014-12-01

    Pedobarography can quantify static and dynamic foot pressure. Despite an increase in the clinical use of pedobarography, the results and the clinical diagnosis do not always correlate, leading to confusion and misdiagnosis. The authors evaluated the potential of pedobarography to diagnose several diseases associated with abnormal pressure across the plantar surface. The study included 72 patients (96 cases) between January 2009 and August 2012 with symptoms of excessive plantar pressure. The average age was 50.9 years (range, 18-92). Patients had the lesion for an average of 17 months (range, 8-29). Pedobarographic measurements were used to evaluate the compatibility between the highest pressure on pedobarography and the clinical peak pressure with plantar ulcers or calluses. Maximal peak pressure was evaluated by static and dynamic measurements using numeric and graphic measurements in pedobarography. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was analyzed by comparing clinical peak pressure and pedobarographic measurements. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was 17.7% to 51% for static measurement and 13.5% to 49% for dynamic measurement. The diagnostic validity of pedobarography was low for intractable plantar keratosis and metatarsal head callus associated with metatarsophalangeal dislocation in rheumatoid arthritis. However, it was 57% to 100% for Charcot arthropathy with midfoot ulcers. When used to compare numeric pressure and graphic peak pressure for each part of the foot, pedobarography showed low diagnostic correlation. Based on the study results, the diagnostic validity of pedobarography is low. PMID:25437079

  11. The Value of Healthy Estuaries

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Christian (East Carolina University; )

    2009-03-15

    The article explores why healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife: supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treating waste and runoff, protecting coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation, and nurturing a balance of the food web

  12. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be met on the 6.7…

  13. [Value of simulation in pediatrics].

    PubMed

    Oriot, D; Boureau-Voultoury, A; Ghazali, A; Brèque, C; Scépi, M

    2013-06-01

    The authors present the concepts of simulation and its utilization in pediatrics. Simulation in medicine is a teaching method that has not yet been developed in Europe and has not spread in pediatrics in France. Motivations for simulation are first and foremost ethical: "Never the first time on patients!" Simulation also provides benefits in teaching communication skills and theoretical concepts. It is an essential means to maintain patient safety by limiting the risk of errors. It covers teaching procedures requiring realistic models such as in teaching communication and crisis resource management. Simulation can also be used for teaching disclosure of bad news, using actors. Simulation skills are acquired during debriefing, when the supervisor acts as a facilitator. Evaluation is mandatory in simulation, dependent on the how realistic the models are and on the performance of a procedure or multidisciplinary team management. Performance can be objectively assessed only with validated tools. Simulation will become a mandatory teaching method in medicine. PMID:23619209

  14. Describing Spirituality at the End of Life.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Berry, Devon M

    2014-05-25

    Spirituality is salient to persons nearing the end of life (EOL). Unfortunately, researchers have not been able to agree on a universal definition of spirituality reducing the effectiveness of spiritual research. To advance spiritual knowledge and build an evidence base, researchers must develop creative ways to describe spirituality as it cannot be explicitly defined. A literature review was conducted to determine the common attributes that comprise the essence of spirituality, thereby creating a common ground on which to base spiritual research. Forty original research articles (2002 to 2012) focusing on EOL and including spiritual definitions/descriptions were reviewed. Analysis identified five attributes that most commonly described the essence of spirituality, including meaning, beliefs, connecting, self-transcendence, and value. PMID:24862937

  15. [The moral values of Malthus].

    PubMed

    Vilquin, E

    1998-01-01

    "More than his other writing, Malthus' first essay 'Essay on the Principle of Population' is a militant text, its arguments based more strongly on moral positions than scientific data.... In Malthusian demographic theory, 'vice' and 'moral constraint', factors in human behaviour, play a fundamental role that is indissociable from their moral significance. With his primary concern to preserve human freedom, but torn between his tendency toward idealism and his demand for realism, Malthus developed a pragmatic morality, a morality of the lesser evil, today described as 'Malthusian pessimism'." (EXCERPT) PMID:12295166

  16. The Values of Outdoor Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes outdoor play as a solid foundation and a central vehicle of knowledge about the real world. Outdoor play is important to all age levels, but particularly in early childhood and the elementary years. Children's outdoor play is not a luxury. It is critical in children's ability to learn about the world, others, and themselves.…

  17. THE VALUE OF VOLUNTEER INVOLVEMENT

    E-print Network

    Abolmaesumi, Purang

    of engagement · It creates opportunities for non-profit organizations to accomplish their goals by engaging community GUIdING PRINcIPLEs FOR VOLUNTEER INVOLVEMENT Volunteers have rights. Non-profit organizations, communities, organizations, and individuals. Volunteer involvement is fundamental to a healthy and democratic

  18. The Value of Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with the author's personal experience within The National Association for Music Education (MENC) and stresses the importance of professional organizations by addressing issues that have a consequential benefit to both students and teachers. Additionally, issues are addressed that seem problematic for some individuals within…

  19. The Value of DNA Evidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DNA is a powerful investigative tool because, with the exception of identical twins, no two people have the same DNA. Therefore, DNA evidence collected from a crime scene can be linked to a suspect or can eliminate a suspect from suspicion. During a sexual assault, for example, biological evidence such as hair, skin cells, semen, or blood can be left

  20. The Mysterious Life of Caves

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NOVA Science Programming on Air and Online

    This is a companion website to a NOVA television series investigating strange life-forms found in toxic caverns. The program reviews the traditional theory of cave formation; introduces new theories of microbial sulfuric acid production; examines the role of oil-feeding microbes in dissolving limestone; presents the discovery of microbes in caves that live solely on chemical nutrients; and reviews other extreme environments. The site offers an interview with a microbiologist, an essay by a caver, a slide show of decorated caves, a teacher's guide including the classroom activity entitled "Microbial Townhouse," and interactive animation about cave formation. The video of the program may be ordered from PBS (Public Broadcasting Service), but is not necessary to complete the activites.

  1. Life as a planetary phenomenon: the colonization of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.; Guerrero, R.

    1995-01-01

    Life is a planet-wide phenomenon in which its components incessantly move and interact. Life imperatively recycles its parts at the surface of the Earth in a chemical transformation and physical transport that depends utterly on the energy from a recent star, the Sun. Humanity, entirely dependent on other beings, plays a recent and relatively small part in the great phenomenon of life that transports and transforms the surface of the Earth. Our species accelerates but does not dominate the metabolism of the Earth system. Ironically, during the Apollo days of the sixties, fears were rampant that Martian or other extraterrestrial "germs" might "contaminate" our planet. After Viking, such fears are seen as the manifestation of cultural paranoia. The Viking missions complemented ground-based astronomical observation and yielded definitive evidence for the lack of life on the red planet. The Gaia hypothesis states that the surface temperature, composition of the reactive gases, oxidation state, alkalinity-acidity on today's Earth are kept homeorrhetically at values set by the sum of the activities of the current biota. Life, in other words, not only produces and maintains its immediate environment, but appears on Earth only as a planetary phenomenon. Since the natural tendency of all life is to grow exponentially to fill proximal volume, the question now "can life ecopoietically expand to Mars?" is entirely equivalent to the query of "can Gaia reproduce?".

  2. The Fertilizing Value of Greensand. 

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

    1931-01-01

    .75 Total phosphoric acid .29 32 .10 . 98 . 32 .25 .20 . 19 .04 .ll 5.04 5.70 3.18 4.39 2.82 4.97 6.. 30 .12 1-aboratory Number - 4937 9767 11507 161 59 16160 16161 18306 16371 16372 201 87 24144 29210 29220 20320 r.... .................. ................... Greensand 2!)3.3 1 Greensand 29409. .................. Grecnsand 2941 0. .................. ................ Muriate of potash.. Greensand 29210. .................. Greensand 2IU20. .................. Greensand 20320.. ................. Greensand...

  3. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  4. Assumptions About the Learning of Political Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roberta Sigel

    1965-01-01

    Political socialization refers to the learning process by which the political norms and behaviors acceptable to an ongoing political system are transmitted from generation to generation. The goal of political socialization is so to train or develop individuals that they become well-functioning mem bers of political society. Such learning begins very early in the person's life and need not be

  5. Toward a Developmental Psychology of Sehnsucht (Life Longings): The Optimal (Utopian) Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne Scheibe; Alexandra M. Freund; Paul B. Baltes

    2007-01-01

    The topic of an optimal or utopian life has received much attention across the humanities and the arts but not in psychology. The German concept of Sehnsucht captures individual and collective thoughts and feelings about one's optimal or utopian life. Sehnsucht (life longings; LLs) is defined as an intense desire for alternative states and realizations of life. Presenting a first

  6. Value of Solar - San Antonio, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Lisa

    2013-02-14

    This report presents an analysis of value provided by grid-connected, distributed PV in San Antonio from a utility perspective. The study quantified six value components, summarized in Table ES- 1. These components represent the benefits that accrue to the utility, CPS Energy, in accepting solar onto the grid. This analysis does not treat the compensation of value, policy objectives, or cost-effectiveness from the retail consumer perspective.

  7. On the uniqueness of the Shapley value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Dubey

    1975-01-01

    L.S. Shapley [1953] showed that there is a unique value defined on the classD of all superadditive cooperative games in characteristic function form (over a finite player setN) which satisfies certain intuitively plausible axioms. Moreover, he raised the question whether an axiomatic foundation could be obtained for a value (not necessarily theShapley value) in the context of the subclassC (respectivelyC',

  8. Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada is a member of the Sun Life Financial group of companies. 2005 Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. All rights reserved.

    E-print Network

    Mullins, Dyche

    JL 5/26/09 Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada is a member of the Sun Life Financial group of companies. © 2005 Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. All rights reserved. Sun Life Financial and the globe symbol are registered trademarks of Sun Life Assurance Company of Canada. SLPC 5302 07/02 H I G H

  9. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudritz, Ralph; Higgs, Paul; Stone, Jonathon

    2013-01-01

    Preface; Part I. Planetary Systems and the Origins of Life: 1. Observations of extrasolar planetary systems Shay Zucker; 2. The atmospheres of extrasolar planets L. Jeremy Richardson and Sara Seager; 3. Terrestrial planet formation Edward Thommes; 4. Protoplanetary disks, amino acids and the genetic code Paul Higgs and Ralph Pudritz; 5. Emergent phenomena in biology: the origin of cellular life David Deamer; Part II. Life on Earth: 6. Extremophiles: defining the envelope for the search for life in the Universe Lynn Rothschild; 7. Hyperthermophilic life on Earth - and on Mars? Karl Stetter; 8. Phylogenomics: how far back in the past can we go? Henner Brinkmann, Denis Baurain and Hervé Philippe; 9. Horizontal gene transfer, gene histories and the root of the tree of life Olga Zhaxybayeva and J. Peter Gogarten; 10. Evolutionary innovation versus ecological incumbency Adolf Seilacher; 11. Gradual origins for the Metazoans Alexandra Pontefract and Jonathan Stone; Part III. Life in the Solar System?: 12. The search for life on Mars Chris McKay; 13. Life in the dark dune spots of Mars: a testable hypothesis Eörs Szathmary, Tibor Ganti, Tamas Pocs, Andras Horvath, Akos Kereszturi, Szaniszlo Berzci and Andras Sik; 14. Titan: a new astrobiological vision from the Cassini-Huygens data François Raulin; 15. Europa, the Ocean Moon: tides, permeable ice, and life Richard Greenberg; Index.

  10. Prolonging the life of software

    SciTech Connect

    Connell, J.; Brice, L.

    1984-01-01

    Presented here are methods for successfully controlling software maintenance activity so that present systems will be more useful and less expensive to support. While it is based on experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory, it is not based on solutions developed and implemented there. Los Alamos is presently struggling with the problems identified in this paper and is impacted by them to the same extent as the rest of industry. An idea has emerged from this struggle: the deterioration of production software is basically a quality control problem which can and should be solved. Many data processing shops currently have two options concerning old (over five years), marginally useful systems; pay the high cost of supporting them or undertake a rewrite. If the principles presented in this paper are applied, a third option may become available; prolonging the useful life of software by making it more cost-effective to support.

  11. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  12. The Impact of World Views on Professional Life-Styling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Darrell

    1980-01-01

    Analyzes the impact of world views on professional life style and counselor value systems. A philosophical approach is outlined. Theism, deism, agnosticism and antheism are discussed. Another author reviews this approach and urges counselors to focus on the philosophical area of axiology. (Author/CC)

  13. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  14. The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values

  15. The Evolution of Transfers and Life Histories

    PubMed Central

    Cyrus, C. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Much of life history theory analyzes life histories of independent, isolated individuals, who grow, forage, reproduce, and die. However, in many species social interactions such as food sharing are a key part of the life history strategy, altering the energetic budget constraint. Transfers and sharing raise reproductive success and also alter the fitness impact of other aspects of the life history. We discuss a variety of traits and behaviors for which transfers are important, synthesizing results from a number of earlier papers. Topics include the U-shaped mortality curve, post reproductive survival, causes of early life mortality decline, why intergenerational transfers evolve and co-evolve with longevity, time preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual differences in transfers, menopause, demographic advantages of social sharing, and consequences of social sharing for life history evolution. PMID:22750486

  16. Self-hatred, the right to a life, and the tasks of mid-life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sharon McQuaide

    1996-01-01

    In this article the developmental tasks of mid-life are explored. The difficulty that self-hatred brings to the mid-life passage and the contribution of both separation guilt and survivor guilt to self-hatred are discussed. Clinical work with a mid-life woman struggling to believe that she has a right to a life is presented.

  17. COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES CHECKSHEET for a MINOR in INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE AND LIFE SCIENCES CHECKSHEET for a MINOR in INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL AND LIFE SCIENCES Offered by Academic Programs in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Effective for Students Graduating 2015 The minor in International Agricultural and Life Sciences focuses on agricultural

  18. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  19. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  20. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  1. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  2. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  3. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  4. 46 CFR 180.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 180.78 Section 180.78 Shipping...TONS) LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 180.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  5. 46 CFR 117.78 - Stowage of life jackets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stowage of life jackets. 117.78 Section 117.78 Shipping...PASSENGERS LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS Ring Life Buoys and Life Jackets § 117.78 Stowage of life jackets....

  6. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  7. Age of appearance of circadian rhythm in salivary cortisol values in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D A Price; G C Close; B A Fielding

    1983-01-01

    Samples of saliva (4 in 24 hours), collected at monthly intervals for the first 6 months of life in 8 term infants by their mothers, were analysed for cortisol by radioimmunoassay. Values in the first month were more variable, daily mean values were greater, and amplitudes of variation were greater than in subsequent months. The circadian rhythm appeared by the

  8. Quality of life among lifetime victimized men.

    PubMed

    Soares, Joaquim J F; Viitasara, Eija; Macassa, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    Quality of life was compared for lifetime victimized (n = 353) and nonvictimized men (n = 167) for demographic and quality of life variables by a cross-sectional design. The univariate analyses showed that victims compared to nonvictims had a lower quality of life, were younger, more often had upper secondary school education, and were more often blue-collar/low white-collar workers, on student allowances, on unemployment, financially strained, and smokers. The regressions revealed that unemployment, financial strain, smoking, depression, and home/public abuse were associated with reduced quality of life among victimized men. Being a blue-collar/low/intermediate white-collar worker and social support were related to increased quality of life. This study may have provided new insights into the experiences of quality of life of victimized men. PMID:17479555

  9. [End of life care in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Rorive, G; Damas, F; Petermans, J

    2014-01-01

    The increase in life expectancy is associated with a good quality of life until a very old age. However, the unavoidable aging process eventually affects the autonomy of the patient and may force the individual to live in a nursing home. The alteration of sensorial functions and the increased number of degenerative diseases may finally induce a physical and psychological burden that might lead to resort to palliative care, end of life sedation, and in some cases, euthanasia. PMID:25065253

  10. Variables of which values are a function

    PubMed Central

    Leigland, Sam

    2005-01-01

    The ordinary-language concept of values has a complex history in psychology and in science generally. The traditional fact-value distinction commonly found in traditional scientific perspectives has been challenged by the varieties of philosophical pragmatism, which have similarities to Skinner's radical behaviorism. Skinner's challenge to the fact-value distinction maintained that the phenomena of both “facts” and “values” are a matter of contingencies of environment-behavior interaction, and both phenomena may be observed when a scientist does research or makes recommendations in applied settings based on that research. Some of the processes and variables relevant to an analysis of values as behavioral phenomena are described, and examples of both nonverbal and verbal contingencies are considered, along with implications for the values of an individual and a culture. If the various issues of methodology can be addressed successfully, then behavior analysis will be in the position to move beyond descriptive studies of values, such as those found in humanistic psychology, by providing analyses of the variables of which values are a function. PMID:22478445

  11. The differential mean value of divided differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Abel; Mircea Ivan

    2007-01-01

    The paper deals with the asymptotic behaviour of the differential mean value of divided differences as the interval shrinks to zero by presenting an asymptotic expansion. The coefficients are given by a recurrence formula. For a wide class of analytic functions the differential mean value can be represented by a convergent sum. Our results generalize two recent theorems by Powers,

  12. The Myth of Value Free Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, John F.

    A counselor's values are inherent in all that he does with a client, ranging from selection of the counseling modality to the decision to terminate facilitative intervention. Value-free counseling is a myth, and recognition of this fact is the first step in arriving at a clear conception of what counseling can, or should, be. A counselor can be…

  13. The street value of prescription drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amin Sajan; Trevor Corneil; Stefan Grzybowski

    Background: Although most physicians are aware of the potential for abuse and re- sale of prescribed medications, little has been done to document it. The purpose of this study was to determine which prescription drugs have street value, what that value is and why these drugs are used. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional survey using a semistructured interview technique was carried

  14. Time dependency of strainrange partitioning life relationships

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalluri, S.; Manson, S. S.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of exposure time (or creep rate) on the CP life relationship is established by conducting isothermal CP tests at varying exposure times on 316 Ss at 1300 and 1500 F. A reduction in the CP cycle life is observed with an increase in the exposure time of the CP test at a given inelastic strain-range. This phenomenon is characterized by modifying the Manson-Coffin type of CP relationship. Two new life relationships: (1) the Steady State Creep Rate (SSRC) Modified CP life relationship, and (2) the Failure Time (FT) Modified CP life relationship, are developed in this report. They account for the effect of creep rate and exposure time within the CP type of waveform. The reduction in CP cyclic life in the long exposure time tests is attributed to oxidation and the precipitation of carbides along the grain boundaries.

  15. End-of-Life Issues in US Child Life Specialist Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parvin, Katie V.; Dickinson, George E.

    2010-01-01

    A professional outlet in most children's hospitals for seriously-ill children is the child life specialist. Our objective in this study was to determine the extent that dying and death is emphasized in child life programs in the United States. Therefore, we surveyed via snail mail the 35 child life programs on the website of the Child Life

  16. Quality of life issues in palliative medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. O’Boyle; Dympna Waldron

    1997-01-01

    The assessment of patients’ quality of life is assuming increasing importance in medicine and health care. Illnesses, diseases\\u000a and their treatments can have significant impacts on such areas of functioning as mobility, mood, life satisfaction, sexuality,\\u000a cognition, and ability to fulfil occupational, social and family roles. The emerging quality of life construct may be viewed\\u000a as a paradigm shift in

  17. End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cherrie Ohigashi; Christi Brito

    2007-01-01

    The End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium is pleased to bring you the winter 2007 issue of ELNEC Connections, a quarterly newsletter to showcase efforts in end-of-life nursing education. This newsletter spotlights project developments and provides resources that may be useful to you as an ELNEC trainer. ELNEC is a national education program to improve end-of-life care by nurses. The project, which

  18. Communicating effectively at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Chopra, A

    2001-10-01

    A majority of patients and families are interested in discussing end-of-life issues with their physicians. End of life conversations can be difficult and challenging for physicians. Several barriers hamper effective communication between physicians and their patients and families. Physicians have received little training to acquire needed interpersonal skills to address end-of-life issues. This article reviews practical approaches for conducting end-of-life discussions. These general guidelines can be used in situations such as advanced care planning, do not resuscitate orders, artificial hydration, and nutrition, and implementation of palliative/hospice care. PMID:11681167

  19. The Owen Value of Stochastic Cooperative Game

    PubMed Central

    E, Cheng-Guo; Li, Quan-Lin; Li, Shi-Yong

    2014-01-01

    We consider stochastic cooperative game and give it the definition of the Owen value, which is obtained by extending the classical case. Then we provide explicit expression for the Owen value of the stochastic cooperative game and discuss its existence and uniqueness. PMID:24892100

  20. Defining The Value Proposition of Biotech Therapies

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Just what is the value of a biotech therapy? It depends on your perspective. Throughout the last decade, private healthcare financing has been oriented toward managing costs more than care. The ‘valueof biotech therapies depends on what you see from outside the silo. PMID:23372498

  1. The governance of global value chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Gereffi; John Humphrey; Timothy Sturgeon

    2005-01-01

    This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance patterns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature – transaction costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning – to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are: (1) the complexity of

  2. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ?-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2? uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2? uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2? uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age <800 ka can clearly be resolved from the isotopic composition of a sample in secular equilibrium, assuming closed system behavior. Using these techniques, we analyzed a Sanbao Cave (Hubei, China) stalagmite that formed between 510 and 640 ka ago. As the half-life values were determined independent of the Sanbao Cave ages, the observed co-variation between stalagmite ?18O and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation is consistent with accurate ages and half-life values.

  3. Evolution of Life: A Cosmic Perspective

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    N. Chandra Wickramasinghe and Fred Hoyle (Cardiff University, UK; )

    2001-05-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article presents that the concept of life being a cosmic phenomenon is rapidly gaining support, with new evidence from space science, geology and biology. In this picture life on Earth resulted from the introduction of bacteria from comets, and the subsequent evolution of life required the continuing input of genes from comets. This paper is accompanied by a synopsis of the hypothesis, Life from Space: An Emerging Paradigm, at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/wickramasinghe/article.html and a counterpoint commentary at http://www.actionbioscience.org/newfrontiers/wickramasinghe/review.html.

  4. Character in Learning for Life: A Virtue-Ethical Rationale for Recent Research on Moral and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, James; Carr, David

    2013-01-01

    This article has three broad aims. The first is to draw attention what is probably the largest empirical study of moral, values and character education in the United Kingdom to the present date. The second is to outline--sufficient for present purposes--a plausible conceptual or theoretical case for placing a particular virtue-ethical concept of

  5. The impact of estimation method and population adjustment on Canadian life table estimates.

    PubMed

    Ng, E; Gentleman, J F

    1995-01-01

    Abridged life tables centred on 1991 were produced from the 1991 Canadian census, net census undercoverage estimates, and death data from 1990 to 1992. The sensitivity of life table values to differing methods of estimation and population estimates was investigated. The results from four methods by Greville, Chiang, and Keyfitz were compared, and population estimates, both adjusted and unadjusted for net census undercoverage, were used to test the effects of method and type of population estimates on life table values. The results indicate that the method used to derive the estimates had much less influence on the life table values than did the choice of population estimate. The change in life expectancy at birth due to the method of calculation chosen was at most 15 days, whereas the change due to the population estimate chosen was about 73 days. Since there are age, sex and provincial variations in net undercoverage rates, life expectancies differed accordingly. PMID:8652799

  6. The Relationship Between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers’ Cultural Values and their Perceptions of Scientists’ Cultural Values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valarie L. AkersonCary; Cary A. Buzzelli; Jennifer Eastwood

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers’ cultural values and the values they believe\\u000a are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) Adv Exp Soc Psychol 25:331–351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment\\u000a of the values they believed were held by scientists. Schwartz postulated that cultural values

  7. The governance of global value chains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Gereffi; John Humphrey; Timothy Sturgeon

    2003-01-01

    This article builds a theoretical framework to help explain governance pat- terns in global value chains. It draws on three streams of literature - trans- action costs economics, production networks, and technological capability and firm-level learning - to identify three variables that play a large role in determining how global value chains are governed and change. These are: (1) the

  8. Value Clarification in the Social Studies: Six Formats of the Values Sheet. Research Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casteel, J. Doyle; And Others

    One of the major goals of the social studies is to help students gain and refine skills in the area of value clarification. Value sheets, carefully planned activities designed to elicit value clarifying patterns of language from students, are one way of securing value clarification. Sheets, planned in conjunction with ongoing units of instruction,…

  9. Life course socio-economic position and quality of life in adulthood: a systematic review of life course models

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A relationship between current socio-economic position and subjective quality of life has been demonstrated, using wellbeing, life and needs satisfaction approaches. Less is known regarding the influence of different life course socio-economic trajectories on later quality of life. Several conceptual models have been proposed to help explain potential life course effects on health, including accumulation, latent, pathway and social mobility models. This systematic review aimed to assess whether evidence supported an overall relationship between life course socio-economic position and quality of life during adulthood and if so, whether there was support for one or more life course models. Methods A review protocol was developed detailing explicit inclusion and exclusion criteria, search terms, data extraction items and quality appraisal procedures. Literature searches were performed in 12 electronic databases during January 2012 and the references and citations of included articles were checked for additional relevant articles. Narrative synthesis was used to analyze extracted data and studies were categorized based on the life course model analyzed. Results Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and used data from 10 datasets and five countries. Study quality varied and heterogeneity between studies was high. Seven studies assessed social mobility models, five assessed the latent model, two assessed the pathway model and three tested the accumulation model. Evidence indicated an overall relationship, but mixed results were found for each life course model. Some evidence was found to support the latent model among women, but not men. Social mobility models were supported in some studies, but overall evidence suggested little to no effect. Few studies addressed accumulation and pathway effects and study heterogeneity limited synthesis. Conclusions To improve potential for synthesis in this area, future research should aim to increase study comparability. Recommendations include testing all life course models within individual studies and the use of multiple measures of socio-economic position and quality of life. Comparable cross-national data would be beneficial to enable investigation of between-country differences. PMID:22873945

  10. An Examination of the Role of Values in Working-Class Students' Career Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The literature suggests that members of the working class value informal ("hot") information rather than formal ("cold") information. They are also said to lack a future orientation; have a fatalistic (and pessimistic) attitude to life; and have low aspirations. These values should influence the way students from working-class backgrounds approach…

  11. The physical nature of life.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, Ad J; Gonzalez, Ivan Fernando; McClune, Michael C

    2002-01-01

    Life evolved from the primeval world of physics. Sensory systems inform animals of the natural environment, enabling them to conduct responsively. The discovery of weak, DC bioelectric fields in the vicinity of aquatic organisms and the role they play in guiding sharks and rays to their prey have led to the recognition of fundamental, hitherto less well known, physical aspects of sensory biology. The inferred cybernetic algorithm of electric-field orientation in sharks and rays is highly effective and extremely robust. In orienting to the weak DC electric fields of ocean currents and to the earth's magnetic field, sharks and rays unwittingly practise the motional-electric principles that Einstein had in mind when he introduced the special theory of relativity. At the sense-organ, receptor-membrane, and ion-channel levels, the elasmobranch ampullae of Lorenzini operate on the basis of graded positive feedback driven by negative conductance, supposedly employing voltage-sensitive ion channels as the active, excitable elements. The electric sense of sharks and rays presents an exquisite implementation of the very biophysical principles that also govern the graded, much richer than all-or-none, integrative brain processes of animal and man. PMID:14692484

  12. Reframing our pursuit of life balance.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, David G; Ogden, Rachel R; Ryan-Haddad, Ann; Strang, Aimee F

    2015-04-25

    During our time in the 2013 Academic Leadership Fellows Program, we explored what it takes to achieve life balance through a framework presented in a Harvard Business Review article. In this Statement, we describe 5 different areas from the article that provide infrastructure for reflecting on how we have learned to approach life balance in academia. We also provide brief messages based on this reading and others to help academics' pursuit of life balance. PMID:25995509

  13. Materials 2: Life Cycle View of Material

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-12-19

    This video explains what is meant by a materials life cycle framework. It describes what happens at each step in the life cycle and why designers should consider the life cycle in the design process. This video is part of the Sustainability Learning Suites, made possible in part by a grant from the National Science Foundation. See 'Learn more about this resource' for Learning Objectives and Activities.

  14. 27Student Life Student Life

    E-print Network

    Dresden, Gregory

    26 III Student LIfe #12;27Student Life Student Life The and recreational phases of their college experience. Thesamecodeofhonorthatgovernsacademic life also governs's superior academic preparation com- bined with the character-building responsibilities of student life mark

  15. Quality of Life and City Competitiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert J. Rogerson

    1999-01-01

    People love lists, especially lists which position one place, one person, one above another. In this paper, we explore initially public and other interest in one type of list the rating of cities and locations in terms of the quality of life they offer. In particular, the paper focuses on how quality of life has been viewed as part of

  16. Quality of Life in Macau, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rato, Ricardo; Davey, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    We report the initial findings of an ongoing, long-term investigation into subjective quality of life in Macau, a Special Administrative Region of China. Data were collected via quarterly public surveys (2007 to 2009; n = 8,230), as part of the Macau Quality of Life Report. The main aims of the study were to: (a) ascertain the public's…

  17. Individual Viewpoints of Stressful Life Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redfield, Joel; Stone, Arthur

    1979-01-01

    Assessed whether change alone provides adequate representation of the qualities of life events and if individuals differ systematically in their perceptions of events. Results indicate that important characteristics of events vary widely among individuals and that future assessment of properties of life stress are both multidimensional and…

  18. The Turbulent Life of Phytoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosal, S.; Rogers, M.; Wray, A.

    2000-01-01

    Phytoplankton is a generic name for photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer (euphotic zone) of almost all oceans and bodies of freshwater. They are agents for "primary production," the incorporation of carbon from the environment into living organisms, a process that, sustains the aquatic food web. It is estimated that phytoplankton contribute about half of the global primary production, the other half being due to terrestrial plants. By sustaining the aquatic food web and controlling the biogeochemical cycles through primary production, phytoplankton exert a dominant influence on life on earth. Turbulence influences this process in three very important ways. First, essential mineral nutrients are transported from the deeper layers to the euphotic zone through turbulence. Second, turbulence helps to suspend phytoplankton in the euphotic zone since in still water, the phytoplankton, especially the larger species, tend to settle out of the sunlit layers. Third, turbulence transports phytoplankton from the surface to the dark sterile waters, and this is an important mechanism of loss. Thus, stable phytoplankton populations are maintained through a delicate dynamic balance between the processes of turbulence, reproduction, and sinking. The first quantitative model for this was introduced by Riley, Stommel and Bumpus in 1949. This is an attempt to extend their efforts through a combination of analysis and computer simulation in order to better understand the principal qualitative aspects of the physical/biological coupling of this natural system.

  19. John Greenleaf's life of science.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a "thought leader" and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in human systems-level environmental physiology. He avoided self-aggrandizement and believed that deeds rather than words define one's legacy. Viewed another way, however, Greenleaf's words define his deeds: 48% of his 185 articles are first author works, which is an unusually high proportion for a scientist of his stature. He found that writing a thorough and thoughtful discussion section often led to novel ideas that drove future research. Beyond Greenleaf's words are the many students, postdocs, and collaborators lucky enough to have worked with him and thus learn and carry on his ways of science. His core principles included the following: avoid research "fads," embrace diversity, be the first subject in your own research, adhere to rules of fiscal responsibility, and respect administrative forces-but never back down from them when you know you are right. Greenleaf's integrity ensured he was usually right. He thrived on the axiom of many successful scientists: avoid falling in love with hypotheses, so that when unexpected findings appear, they arouse curiosity instead of fear. Dr. Greenleaf's legacy will include the John and Carol Greenleaf Award for prolific environmental and exercise-related publication in the Journal of Applied Physiology. PMID:23209002

  20. Values and female entrepreneurship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine Terrell; Michael Troilo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to research the extent to which different types of values influence a woman's decision to become an entrepreneur. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper constructs a two-stage model to capture the entrepreneurial decision. In the first stage, life values affect the decision to enter the workforce. In the second stage, work values impact the

  1. The complexity of conservative valued CSPs

    E-print Network

    Kolmogorov, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    We study the complexity of valued constraint satisfaction problems (VCSP). A problem from VCSP is characterised by a \\emph{constraint language}, a fixed set of cost functions over a finite domain. An instance of the problem is specified by a sum of cost functions from the language and the goal is to minimise the sum. We consider the case of languages containing all possible unary cost functions. In the case of languages consisting of only $\\{0,\\infty\\}$-valued cost functions (i.e. relations), such languages have been called \\emph{conservative} and studied by Bulatov [LICS'03] and recently by Barto [LICS'11]. Since we study valued languages, we call a language conservative if it contains all finite-valued unary cost functions. The complexity of conservative valued languages has been studied by Cohen et al. [AIJ'06] for languages over Boolean domains, by Deineko et al. [JACM'08] for $\\{0,1\\}$-valued languages (a.k.a Max-CSP), and by Takhanov [STACS'10] for $\\{0,\\infty\\}$-valued languages containing all finite-v...

  2. On the life time of contrail cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.; Graf, K.

    2012-04-01

    Contrails represent reproducible prototypes of cirrus clouds which are easier to understand scientifically and offer better chances for experimental investigations than natural cirrus. In the past, investigation of contrails led to important general insight into the atmosphere system, such as the detection of ice supersaturation, homogeneous and heterogeneous ice particle formation, and subvisible cirrus. Even the Brewer-Dobson circulation was detected because contrails were observed to be short-lived at multitudes above the tropopause. Here we present results constraining the mean life time of contrail cirrus based on comparisons of results from a new contrail cirrus model, ECMWF forecast data and several years of Meteosat satellite observations for the North Atlantic and Europe. The mean life time of contrails is not yet well known. Persistent contrails form at aviation cruise altitudes mainly in the upper troposphere, when the temperature is below the Schmidt-Appleman (SAC) threshold temperature and when the ambient atmosphere is humid enough for long-lived contrails. The SAC threshold depends on aircraft and fuel properties, pressure and humidity. Contrails spread and persist in ice supersaturated air masses. Contrails are visible also for several minutes or even longer when the relative humidity is slightly below saturation, in particular at low temperatures. Contrails survive until the ambient air gets dried beyond ice saturation (e.g. by subsidence, mixing with dry air, radiative warming) or until the ice particles get large enough to sediment quickly and to fall down into drier air masses or, rarely, precipitate to ground. Contrails with large ice particles may end in fallstreaks (i.e. in a curtain of large and quickly falling ice particles). With time, contrails may loose their identity and become part of other thicker cirrus clouds. We model the formation and decay of contrails for a fleet of aircraft using a recently developed Lagrangian contrail cirrus prediction model CoCiP (Schumann, U.: A contrail cirrus prediction model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss., 4, 3185-3293, doi:10.5194/gmdd-4-3185-2011, 2011). The formation of contrails and their transition into contrail cirrus is modeled for given aircraft types, aircraft tracks and given meteorology (taken from ECMWF). We found that the computed contrail cover is highly sensitive to the processes which limit the life time of contrail cirrus. The life-time of contrail clusters should be similar to the lifetime of ice supersaturated regions (ISSR) which has been estimated at mid-latitudes to vary from minutes to possibly a few days with median values of order hours. Here, we estimate the life-time of ISSR regions by computing the age of trajectories which start at aircraft waypoints satisfying the SAC in ice supersaturated air and last until the ambient humidity drops below ice saturation. This aircraft-related ISSR-life-time is not the life-time of ISSR per se, but the life-time of ice supersaturation relevant for contrails. For this purpose we use the Lagrangian trajectory model part of CoCiP for a passive tracer with ECMWF data. Most of such trajectories end after less than one hour. The age frequency distribution follows an exponential function. Based on such a fit the mean and median ages of ISSR regions are 14.6 and 10.1 h. The life time depends on many parameters; it is large in particular in the upper and mid polar and upper tropical troposphere. When we apply CoCiP for contrails including ice formation form ambient ice supersaturation but without any particle number loss process, we compute ages which exceed the ISSR ages. The larger life time result from the reservoir of ice water built up in the contrails while staying in the ISSR. This ice water reservoir is a maximum just when the ISSR regime ends. It takes considerable time to mix drier ambient air into the contrail and to sublimate this ice. Hence, the total contrail age without ice loss processes could reach about 1.5 times the age of ISSR masses. With some loss processes included in the model, the c

  3. Renormalization of multiple q -zeta values

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianqiang Zhao

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we shall define the renormalization of the multiple q-zeta values (MqZV) which are special values of multiple q-zeta functions ?\\u000a q\\u000a (s\\u000a 1, ..., s\\u000a \\u000a d\\u000a ) when the arguments are all positive integers or all non-positive integers. This generalizes the work of Guo and Zhang (Renormalization of Multiple Zeta Values, arxiv: math\\/0606076v3). We show that our

  4. The economic value of ecological stability

    PubMed Central

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Roughgarden, Joan E.

    2003-01-01

    Seemingly intangible ecosystem characteristics that preoccupy ecologists, like ecosystem stability and the responsiveness of populations to environmental variation, have quantifiable economic values. We show how to derive these values, and how their consideration should change environmental decision making. To illustrate these concepts, we use a simple reserve design model. When resource managers choose a particular landscape configuration, their decision affects both the mean abundance of species and the temporal variation in abundances. Population stability and related phenomena have economic value, because management actions affect the variance of ecosystem components. In our example, a larger reserve size is recommended when accounting for the stability of the managed ecosystem. PMID:12777632

  5. Predictive and Treatment Validity of Life Satisfaction and the Quality of Life Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Michael B.; Clark, Michelle P.; Rouse, Steven V.; Rudd, M. David; Paweleck, Jennifer K.; Greenstone, Andrew; Kopplin, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The clinical and positive psychology usefulness of quality of life, well-being, and life satisfaction assessments depends on their ability to predict important outcomes and to detect intervention-related change. These issues were explored in the context of a program of instrument validation for the Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI) involving 3,927…

  6. Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin G. Sarason; James H. Johnson; Judith M. Siegel

    1978-01-01

    Describes the development of a new instrument, the Life Experiences Survey (LES), for the measurement of life changes. The LES is a 57-item self-report measure that is divided into 2 sections: Section 1 consists of 47 items that refer to life changes in a wide variety of situations; Section 2 consists of 10 items that are designed primarily for use

  7. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life. PMID:22230745

  8. EARLY-LIFE PREDICTORS OF HUMAN LONGEVITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia S. Gavrilova; Leonid A. Gavrilov; Galina N. Evdokushkina; Victoria G. Semyonova

    2001-01-01

    The idea of fetal origins of adult degenerative diseases and early-life programming of late-life health and survival is being actively discussed in the scientific literature. This idea is also important for understanding the historical changes in human lifespan through the mechanism of technophysio evolution as suggested by Robert Fogel and Dora Costa. Can this new fascinating concept also be useful

  9. Optimistic biases in observational learning of value

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, A.; Symmonds, M.; Dolan, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Action-outcome contingencies can be learnt either by active trial-and-error, or vicariously, by observing the outcomes of actions performed by others. The extant literature is ambiguous as to which of these modes of learning is more effective, as controlled comparisons of operant and observational learning are rare. Here, we contrasted human operant and observational value learning, assessing implicit and explicit measures of learning from positive and negative reinforcement. Compared to direct operant learning, we show observational learning is associated with an optimistic over-valuation of low-value options, a pattern apparent both in participants’ choice preferences and their explicit post-hoc estimates of value. Learning of higher value options showed no such bias. We suggest that such a bias can be explained as a tendency for optimistic underestimation of the chance of experiencing negative events, an optimism repressed when information is gathered through direct operant learning. PMID:21354558

  10. Value Engineering. "A Working Tool for Cost Control in the Design of Educational Facilities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jerry

    Value Engineering (VE) is a cost optimizing technique used to analyze design quality and cost-effectiveness. The application of VE procedures to the design and construction of school facilities has been adopted by the state of Washington. By using VE, the optimum value for every life cycle dollar spent on a facility is obtained by identifying not…

  11. Sense of Coherence, Hope and Values among Adolescents under Missile Attacks: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore measures of spirituality--sense of coherence (SOC), hope and values--among adolescents living in a violent political area and experiencing missile attacks. The three variables represent attributes of spirituality, such as searching for meaning and purpose in life, hope and feelings about the future, as well as values

  12. The origin of modern terrestrial life

    PubMed Central

    Forterre, Patrick; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2007-01-01

    The study of the origin of life covers many areas of expertise and requires the input of various scientific communities. In recent years, this research field has often been viewed as part of a broader agenda under the name of “exobiology” or “astrobiology.” In this review, we have somewhat narrowed this agenda, focusing on the origin of modern terrestrial life. The adjective “modern” here means that we did not speculate on different forms of life that could have possibly appeared on our planet, but instead focus on the existing forms (cells and viruses). We try to briefly present the state of the art about alternative hypotheses discussing not only the origin of life per se, but also how life evolved to produce the modern biosphere through a succession of steps that we would like to characterize as much as possible. PMID:19404443

  13. Understanding the value of boutique hotels

    E-print Network

    Wheeler, Daniel F. (Daniel Fairchild)

    2006-01-01

    In recent decades, boutique hotels have witnessed a dramatic increase in popularity in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with an understanding of boutique hotel value and conditions that ...

  14. The Life Cycle and Life Span of Namibian Fairy Circles

    PubMed Central

    Tschinkel, Walter R.

    2012-01-01

    In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called “fairy circles” are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43–75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions. PMID:22761663

  15. A Theory of Life in the Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatman, Elfreda A.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of information and theories of "life in the round" through a study of ways in which inmates at a maximum-security prison for women in Neuse City (North Carolina) redefine their social world to survive incarceration. Findings from ethnographic research and interviews with 80 women at the prison revealed that a life in the round…

  16. Life Prediction of X37 Space Vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Castillo; R. Latham

    Computer methods are utilized to evaluate the progressive damage and fracture tolerance characteristics of space structures. Progressive failure, reliability and durability analyses assist in life prediction of the X-37 mini space plane's composite sandwich structure. As part of the future X-37 design, the progressive failure analysis (PFA) is intended to reduce the X-37 development cost by accurate life predictions and

  17. Chemical origins of life: Prebiotic RNA unstuck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Armando R.; Piccirilli, Joseph A.

    2013-05-01

    Non-enzymatic copying of an RNA template is appealing as a transition from pre-life to an RNA world, but it has been difficult to demonstrate in the laboratory. Now, two separate studies focusing on RNA's backbone connectivity offer partial solutions to some of the problems raised with this hypothesis for the origin of life.

  18. Pleoanamorphic life cycle of Exophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. S. de Hoog; K. Takeo; S. Yoshida; E. Göttlich; K. Nishimura; M. Miyaji

    1994-01-01

    The anamorph life cycle of the black yeastExophiala (Wangiella) dermatitidis is described. The fungus is dimorphic, yeast cells being the prevalent form of propagation. The fungus is strongly hydrophilic, probably completing its anamorph life cycle in submersion. Adaptation to dry conditions is slow. Types of conidiogenesis comprise annellidic, phialidic and sympodial reproduction, in addition to isotropic development. Phialoconidia fail to

  19. Study on Life Management of Power Transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Weizheng; Li Yanming; Yang Lanjun

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the general knowledge, theory and methodology of life management that used in electric power transformer. The paper also discusses the basic failure theory and method to establish failure model of power transformer. Insulation ageing is a problem due to dielectric, chemical, thermal and electro-mechanic stresses, which is highly depending on operational conditions. Life management of power transformer

  20. Value, Freedom and Transformation: Some Reflections on the Place of Value in the Teaching of Philosophy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Neil

    Values and value awareness are central dimensions of the philosophy program at LaGuardia Community College. The broad and fundamental values of the program include the development of self-awareness, the recognition and overcoming of confusion and alienation, and the emergence of clarity and integration. Philosophy (seen as the process of critical…

  1. Customer value impact of sales contests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason Garrett; Srinath Gopalakrishna

    2010-01-01

    Although firms spend more than $26 billion annually on sales contests, no empirical research has investigated the effects\\u000a of contests on individual customers. While some short-term firm effects of contests have been documented, the impact on long-term\\u000a customer value has remained a matter of speculation. This research investigates the long-term customer impact of sales contests,\\u000a by applying the customer value

  2. Development of immunity in early life.

    PubMed

    Goenka, Anu; Kollmann, Tobias R

    2015-06-01

    The immune system in early life goes through rapid and radical changes. Early life is also the period with the highest risk of infections. The foetal immune system is programmed to coexist with foreign antigenic influences in utero, and postnatally to rapidly develop a functional system capable of distinguishing helpful microbes from harmful pathogens. Both host genetics and environmental influences shape this dramatic transition and direct the trajectory of the developing immune system into early childhood and beyond. Given the malleability of the immune system in early life, interventions aimed at modulating this trajectory thus have the potential to translate into considerable reductions in infectious disease burden with immediate as well as long-lasting benefit. However, an improved understanding of the underlying molecular drivers of early life immunity is prerequisite to optimise such interventions and transform the window of early life vulnerability into one of opportunity. PMID:25934325

  3. Shelf-Life Prediction of Chilled Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, Gudmundur; Kristbergsson, Kristberg

    All foods have a finite shelf life. Even foods, which mature with time, will in the end deteriorate, although their life span can exceed 100 years. Definitions of shelf life of food products differ. Some stress the suitability of the product for consump¬tion, others for how long the product can be sold. The Institute of Food Science and Technology emphasizes safety in its definition of shelf life: "The period of time under defined conditions of storage, after manufacture or packing, for which a food product will remain safe and be fit for use" ( http://www.ifst.org ). This definition does not describe what makes a food product "safe" or "fit" for use, but one can say all factors which restrict the shelf life of a food product either affect safety or quality or both.

  4. Euthanasia and the quality of life debate.

    PubMed

    Breck, John

    1995-12-01

    Orthodox Christian ethics is grounded in the sacredness of life principle. Yet, it can accept a quality of life approach where "quality" refers not to capacities or states, but to the relationship between the patient's condition and the quest for transcendent life goals (Walter and Shannon, 1990). The true quality of human life derives from the vocation to stewardship, which enjoins an attitude of humble acceptance toward beneficial or "redemptive" suffering. The proper response to suffering in terminal cases is not active euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide but appropriate pain management and personal care. In cases of PVS or deep coma, only the determination of higher brain death can warrant the withholding or withdrawing of food and hydration. Yet, artificial maintenance of biological existence is also immoral. Death is to be accepted and embraced as a transition to eternal life. PMID:11654498

  5. What Is the Value of @*#? Deepening Teachers' Understanding of Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Theresa M.; Cady, Jo Ann

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the use of a unique number system to facilitate teachers' understanding of the concepts of place value. Teachers' mastery of base-ten may hinder their recognition of the difficulties students have with place value, so the authors created a number system that used five symbols to represent values. Using this system, teachers…

  6. Quality of Life as Context for Planning and Evaluation of Services for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This article reviews definitions of quality of life; explores the subjective nature of life quality for people with disabilities; relates the concept to cultural norms and universal human values and needs; explores the optimal theory of personal well-being; and surveys the source and use of research and implications for planning and evaluating…

  7. Pursuit of communal values in an agentic manner: a way to happiness?

    PubMed Central

    Abele, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research studies the association between traits, values, and life satisfaction. While values should influence the direction of an individual’s goals and behavior, his/her traits impact effort-expenditure, efficiency, and persistence in goal-pursuit. We apply the framework of the “Big Two” of agency and communion (Bakan, 1966) for distinguishing the content of values and traits. While agentic content refers to qualities relevant for goal-attainment, such as assertiveness, competence or persistence, communal content refers to qualities relevant for the establishment and maintenance of social relationships, such as being friendly, helpful, or fair. We predict that high scores on communal values and high scores on agentic traits are associated with life satisfaction. We test these predictions in two studies conducted in different countries (Germany and Russia) with different cultural background. The findings support our reasoning: across both countries we find positive associations of communal values and agentic traits with life satisfaction; and individuals high in communal values and high in agentic traits are most satisfied with their lives. In Russia, the association of communal values with life satisfaction is moderated by agentic traits; in Germany, however, there is a main effect of communal values. PMID:25477843

  8. Pursuit of communal values in an agentic manner: a way to happiness?

    PubMed

    Abele, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    The present research studies the association between traits, values, and life satisfaction. While values should influence the direction of an individual's goals and behavior, his/her traits impact effort-expenditure, efficiency, and persistence in goal-pursuit. We apply the framework of the "Big Two" of agency and communion (Bakan, 1966) for distinguishing the content of values and traits. While agentic content refers to qualities relevant for goal-attainment, such as assertiveness, competence or persistence, communal content refers to qualities relevant for the establishment and maintenance of social relationships, such as being friendly, helpful, or fair. We predict that high scores on communal values and high scores on agentic traits are associated with life satisfaction. We test these predictions in two studies conducted in different countries (Germany and Russia) with different cultural background. The findings support our reasoning: across both countries we find positive associations of communal values and agentic traits with life satisfaction; and individuals high in communal values and high in agentic traits are most satisfied with their lives. In Russia, the association of communal values with life satisfaction is moderated by agentic traits; in Germany, however, there is a main effect of communal values. PMID:25477843

  9. The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen

    E-print Network

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    with dead bodies," Roland Huntford Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 Let's name the countries Scandanavian Nations with dead bodies," Roland Huntford Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 F #12;The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 F S #12;The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen ­ ,,The Daring Viking "Polar exploration

  10. The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen

    E-print Network

    Fabrikant, Sara Irina

    Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 NP #12;The Inspirational Life of Fridtjof Nansen ­ `The Daring Viking' Fram:1890's Kodak Brownie Camera Events of Period U.S. Civil War 1861-1865 Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 #12;The.S. Civil War 1861-1865 2nd Industrial Rev. 1880's Fridtjof Nansen 1861-1930 #12;The Inspirational Life

  11. Hall of Ocean Life Educator's Guide Insert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The museum's Milstein Family Hall of Ocean Life explores the diverse, complex web of life supported by the ocean and the vital inter-relationships between human and aquatic systems. This insert to the hall guide is designed to help you maximize your trip to the museum.

  12. Mechanical Simulation of a Half-Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, T. T.; Masters, M. F.

    2008-01-01

    The exponential function model of radioactive decay and the concept of a half-life are used in nuclear experiments that appear in introductory and intermediate laboratories. In our interactions with students, we have found that students at all levels have significant confusion about both the term exponential and what is meant by a half-life as…

  13. Values and beliefs of vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M; Ng, S H; Dunne, M

    2000-08-01

    Following the claim by some anthropologists and sociologists that 1 symbolic meaning of meat is a preference for hierarchical domination (C. J. Adams, 1990; N. Fiddes, 1989; D. D. Heisley, 1990; J. Twigg, 1983), the authors compared the values and beliefs of vegetarians and omnivores in 2 studies conducted in New Zealand. They compared the full range of vegetarians and omnivores on right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, human values, and consumption values. The participants tending toward omnivorism differed from those leaning toward veganism and vegetarianism in 2 principal ways: The omnivores (a) were more likely to endorse hierarchical domination and (b) placed less importance on emotional states. Accordingly, the acceptance or rejection of meat co-varied with the acceptance or rejection of the values associated with meat; that finding suggests that individuals consume meat and embrace its symbolism in ways consistent with their self-definitions. PMID:10981371

  14. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  15. Trading Off Value Creation and Value Appropriation: The Financial Implications of Shifts in Strategic Emphasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Mizik; Robert Jacobson

    Firms allocate their limited resources between two fundamental processes of creating value (i.e., innovating, pro- ducing, and delivering products to the market) and appropriating value (i.e., extracting profits in the marketplace). Although both value creation and value appropriation are required for achieving sustained competitive advantage, a firm has significant latitude in deciding the extent to which it emphasizes one over

  16. Extraction of uranium values from phosphoric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Largman; S. Sifniades; A. A. Tunick

    1982-01-01

    Aqueous phosphoric acid solutions containing uranium values are contacted with an organic solution of a mixture of organophosphorus compounds produced from a carboxylic acid and pcl3 in the presence of water or from corresponding acid halides or anhydrides and phosphorous acid to extract the uranium values. The organophorus compounds generally include an alkane-1,1,2triphosphonic acid or a 1-hydroxy-1,1-alkanediphosphonic acid or both,

  17. The dynamic process of life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Heller, Daniel; Watson, David; Ilies, Remus

    2006-10-01

    Drawing from the Cognitive Affective Personality System (Mischel & Shoda, 1995, 1998), we argue for a need to examine within-individual variation in life satisfaction. Thus, employing a diary study of 76 fully employed, married adults we examined the magnitude, antecedents, and consequences of intra-individual variation in life satisfaction. Our findings establish a substantial amount of intra-individual variation, comparable to other personal evaluations assessed with a state approach (e.g., self-esteem), but less than that observed with major mood dimensions. In addition, concurrent changes in life satisfaction were systematically related to fluctuations in job and marital satisfaction; however, contrary to prediction, our results did not support a cross-level moderating role of Neuroticism in these associations. Our findings also lend support for the lagged influence of life satisfaction on next-day domain satisfaction ratings. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the systematic nature and importance of within-subject variation in life satisfaction. PMID:16958708

  18. Design of Experiments for Extreme Value Distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick J. Laycock; Jesús López-Fidalgo

    In this paper experimental designs are considered for classic extreme value distribution models. A careful review of the literature\\u000a provides some information matrices in order to study experimental designs. Regression models and their design implications\\u000a are discussed for some situations involving extreme values. These include a constant variance and a constant coefficient of\\u000a variation model plus an application in the

  19. John Greenleaf's life of science

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Donald Watenpaugh (University of North Texas Health Science Center)

    2012-12-01

    This article summarizes the life and career of John E. Greenleaf, PhD. It complements an interview of Dr. Greenleaf sponsored by the American Physiological Society Living History Project found on the American Physiological Society website. Dr. Greenleaf is a Â?thought leaderÂ? and internationally renowned physiologist, with extensive contributions in human systems-level environmental physiology. He avoided self-aggrandizement and believed that deeds rather than words define one's legacy. Viewed another way, however, Greenleaf's words define his deeds: 48% of his 185 articles are first author works, which is an unusually high proportion for a scientist of his stature. He found that writing a thorough and thoughtful discussion section often led to novel ideas that drove future research. Beyond Greenleaf's words are the many students, postdocs, and collaborators lucky enough to have worked with him and thus learn and carry on his ways of science. His core principles included the following: avoid research Â?fads,Â? embrace diversity, be the first subject in your own research, adhere to rules of fiscal responsibility, and respect administrative forcesÂ?but never back down from them when you know you are right. Greenleaf's integrity ensured he was usually right. He thrived on the axiom of many successful scientists: avoid falling in love with hypotheses, so that when unexpected findings appear, they arouse curiosity instead of fear. Dr. Greenleaf's legacy will include the John and Carol Greenleaf Award for prolific environmental and exercise-related publication in the Journal of Applied Physiology.

  20. Updating the Life Cycle of the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Paul C.

    1977-01-01

    Changes from decade to decade in family life cycle patterns are analyzed for women who have married this century. Women entering marriage today are expected to have one to two fewer children, to end child-bearing three years sooner, and to have 11 more years of married life after the last child marries. (Author)

  1. 26 CFR 25.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  2. 26 CFR 25.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  3. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  4. 26 CFR 20.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  5. 26 CFR 20.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  6. 26 CFR 25.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  7. 26 CFR 20.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  8. 26 CFR 1.7520-1 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or terms of years, and remainder or reversionary...market value of annuities, interests for life or for a term of years (including...

  9. The evolution of predictive adaptive responses in human life history

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Frankenhuis, Willem E.; Rickard, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies in humans have shown that adverse experience in early life is associated with accelerated reproductive timing, and there is comparative evidence for similar effects in other animals. There are two different classes of adaptive explanation for associations between early-life adversity and accelerated reproduction, both based on the idea of predictive adaptive responses (PARs). According to external PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity provides a ‘weather forecast’ of the environmental conditions into which the individual will mature, and it is adaptive for the individual to develop an appropriate phenotype for this anticipated environment. In internal PAR hypotheses, early-life adversity has a lasting negative impact on the individual's somatic state, such that her health is likely to fail more rapidly as she gets older, and there is an advantage to adjusting her reproductive schedule accordingly. We use a model of fluctuating environments to derive evolveability conditions for acceleration of reproductive timing in response to early-life adversity in a long-lived organism. For acceleration to evolve via the external PAR process, early-life cues must have a high degree of validity and the level of annual autocorrelation in the individual's environment must be almost perfect. For acceleration to evolve via the internal PAR process requires that early-life experience must determine a significant fraction of the variance in survival prospects in adulthood. The two processes are not mutually exclusive, and mechanisms for calibrating reproductive timing on the basis of early experience could evolve through a combination of the predictive value of early-life adversity for the later environment and its negative impact on somatic state. PMID:23843395

  10. Chance of Necessity: Modeling Origins of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The fundamental nature of processes that led to the emergence of life has been a subject of long-standing debate. One view holds that the origin of life is an event governed by chance, and the result of so many random events is unpredictable. This view was eloquently expressed by Jacques Monod in his book Chance or Necessity. In an alternative view, the origin of life is considered a deterministic event. Its details need not be deterministic in every respect, but the overall behavior is predictable. A corollary to the deterministic view is that the emergence of life must have been determined primarily by universal chemistry and biochemistry rather than by subtle details of environmental conditions. In my lecture I will explore two different paradigms for the emergence of life and discuss their implications for predictability and universality of life-forming processes. The dominant approach is that the origin of life was guided by information stored in nucleic acids (the RNA World hypothesis). In this view, selection of improved combinations of nucleic acids obtained through random mutations drove evolution of biological systems from their conception. An alternative hypothesis states that the formation of protocellular metabolism was driven by non-genomic processes. Even though these processes were highly stochastic the outcome was largely deterministic, strongly constrained by laws of chemistry. I will argue that self-replication of macromolecules was not required at the early stages of evolution; the reproduction of cellular functions alone was sufficient for self-maintenance of protocells. In fact, the precise transfer of information between successive generations of the earliest protocells was unnecessary and could have impeded the discovery of cellular metabolism. I will also show that such concepts as speciation and fitness to the environment, developed in the context of genomic evolution also hold in the absence of a genome.

  11. The land value impacts of wetland restoration.

    PubMed

    Kaza, Nikhil; BenDor, Todd K

    2013-09-30

    U.S. regulations require offsets for aquatic ecosystems damaged during land development, often through restoration of alternative resources. What effect does large-scale wetland and stream restoration have on surrounding land values? Restoration effects on real estate values have substantial implications for protecting resources, increasing tax base, and improving environmental policies. Our analysis focuses on the three-county Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill, North Carolina region, which has experienced rapid development and extensive aquatic ecological restoration (through the state's Ecosystem Enhancement Program [EEP]). Since restoration sites are not randomly distributed across space, we used a genetic algorithm to match parcels near restoration sites with comparable control parcels. Similar to propensity score analysis, this technique facilitates statistical comparison and isolates the effects of restoration sites on surrounding real estate values. Compared to parcels not proximate to any aquatic resources, we find that, 1) natural aquatic systems steadily and significantly increase parcel values up to 0.75 mi away, and 2) parcels <0.5 mi from EEP restoration sites have significantly lower sale prices, while 3) parcels >0.5 mi from EEP sites gain substantial amenity value. When we control for intervening water bodies (e.g. un-restored streams and wetlands), we find a similar inflection point whereby parcels <0.5 mi from EEP sites exhibit lower values, and sites 0.5-0.75 mi away exhibit increased values. Our work points to the need for higher public visibility of aquatic ecosystem restoration programs and increased public information about their value. PMID:23792789

  12. Valuation of Life in Old and Very Old Age: The Role of Sociodemographic, Social, and Health Resources for Positive Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jopp, Daniela; Rott, Christoph; Oswald, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Valuation of life (VOL) represents a construct capturing active attachment to life put forward by M. P. Lawton (e.g., 1999). As old and very old individuals may differ in terms of endorsement and with respect to what makes a life worth living, the present study investigated whether mean levels and the explanatory value of

  13. The Shapley value of phylogenetic trees.

    PubMed

    Haake, Claus-Jochen; Kashiwada, Akemi; Su, Francis Edward

    2008-04-01

    Every weighted tree corresponds naturally to a cooperative game that we call a tree game; it assigns to each subset of leaves the sum of the weights of the minimal subtree spanned by those leaves. In the context of phylogenetic trees, the leaves are species and this assignment captures the diversity present in the coalition of species considered. We consider the Shapley value of tree games and suggest a biological interpretation. We determine the linear transformation M that shows the dependence of the Shapley value on the edge weights of the tree, and we also compute a null space basis of M. Both depend on the split counts of the tree. Finally, we characterize the Shapley value on tree games by four axioms, a counterpart to Shapley's original theorem on the larger class of cooperative games. We also include a brief discussion of the core of tree games. PMID:17805545

  14. New Measurement of the {sup 60}Fe Half-Life

    SciTech Connect

    Rugel, G.; Faestermann, T.; Knie, K.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Schumann, D.; Kivel, N.; Guenther-Leopold, I.; Weinreich, R.; Wohlmuther, M. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2009-08-14

    We have made a new determination of the half-life of the radioactive isotope {sup 60}Fe using high precision measurements of the number of {sup 60}Fe atoms and their activity in a sample containing over 10{sup 15} {sup 60}Fe atoms. Our new value for the half-life of {sup 60}Fe is (2.62+-0.04)x10{sup 6} yr, significantly above the previously reported value of (1.49+-0.27)x10{sup 6} yr. Our new measurement for the lifetime of {sup 60}Fe has significant implications for interpretations of galactic nucleosynthesis, for determinations of formation time scales of solids in the early Solar System, and for the interpretation of live {sup 60}Fe measurements from supernova-ejecta deposits on Earth.

  15. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    PubMed Central

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life’ is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the ‘problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty’). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers. PMID:24664917

  16. Normal values of pulse oximetry in newborns at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Ahmad F; Habib, Hamed S

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish normal values of pulse oximetry saturation, respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure in healthy newborns at high altitude. Vital signs and oximetry saturation readings were collected from healthy term newborns at birth, at 1 h, and at 24 h of life. These were analyzed and compared with reference ranges at sea level. This study was carried out at altitudes of 1640 m above sea level in Taif city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 6011 term newborns were examined at birth and 1 h and 4274 were examined at 24 h of life. At birth, the mean SpO(2) was 68.6 per cent and 60.3 per cent from the right upper and lower limbs, respectively. Mean SpO(2) was 94.3 per cent and 95.4 per cent at the age of 1 and 24 h, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those reported at sea level. The mean respiratory rate, heart rate, and mean blood pressure at 24 h were 45.7/min, 149.7/min, and 46.9 mmHg, respectively. It is concluded that pulse oximetry saturation for newborn babies is lower at higher altitudes than at sea level. This effect is observable at altitudes of 1600 m above sea level. Cut-off levels lower than those used at sea level should be adopted when dealing with newborns living at high altitudes. PMID:15855304

  17. Half-life and spin of 60Mn^g

    E-print Network

    S. N. Liddick; P. F. Mantica; B. A. Brown; M. P. Carpenter; A. D. Davies; M. Horoi; R. V. F. Janssens; A. C. Morton; W. F. Mueller; J. Pavan; H. Schatz; A. Stolz; S. L. Tabor; B. E. Tomlin; M. Wiedeking

    2006-04-06

    A value of 0.28 +/- 0.02 s has been deduced for the half-life of the ground state of 60Mn, in sharp contrast to the previously adopted value of 51 +/- 6 s. Access to the low-spin 60Mn ground state was accomplished via beta decay of the 0+ 60Cr parent nuclide. New, low-energy states in 60Mn have been identified from beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy. The new, shorter half-life of 60Mn^g is not suggestive of isospin forbidden beta decay, and new spin and parity assignments of 1+ and 4+ have been adopted for the ground and isomeric beta-decaying states, respectively, of 60Mn.

  18. Use of value functions in environmental decisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Banion, Kerry

    1980-01-01

    Value functions are devices that allow discrete analyses of environmental impacts to be reconciled to a single quantitative scale of preference. The values obtained can then be “weighted” and combined into measures of the relative desirability of policy alternatives. However, for this methodology to be valid, the set of impacts used must satisfy a number of conditions; and whether or not these are met depends on how the impacts are selected and characterized. This paper generalizes instances where the conditions may be violated and how they may be resolved, and concludes with a few thoughts on how the methodology might be adapted to the routine of bureaucracy.

  19. Safe disposal of metal values in slag

    SciTech Connect

    Halpin, P.T.; Zarur, G.L.

    1982-10-26

    The method of safely disposing of sludge containing metal values capable of displaying toxic ecological properties includes the steps of deriving from an organic or inorganic sludge an intermediate product such as a dewatered sludge or an incinerated ash, and adding this intermediate product to a metal smelting step of a type producing a slag such that most of the metal values become encapsulated in the slag. Some precious metal values may be recovered with the metal being smelted, and may be subsequently separated therefrom by appropriate metal winning steps. The sludge product brings to the smelting process certain additives needed therein such as silica and phosphates for the slag, alumina and magnesium to lower the viscosity of the molten slag, and organic matter serving as reducing agents.

  20. On the value of a language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Christian

    2006-05-01

    We live in an age where the extinction of languages has become a topic of discussion in many different circles. Opinions on whether the process should be stopped or considered profitable differ widely even in the field of linguistics, let alone in the public domain. A rational attitude presupposes the recognition that a language may constitute a value for some and that value judgements are controlled by more or less outspoken and divergent interests. In the case of a language, interest is taken in its maintenance (or suppression) at all the levels from the individual via the speech community and the scientific community up to mankind. These interests have to be made explicit before the value of a language can be assessed. Ultimately, such an evaluation must even be confronted with the costs that arise in the maintenance of a minority language or in the revitalization of a dying language.

  1. The principles of life-cycle analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Curlee, T.R.

    1996-05-01

    Decisionmakers representing government agencies must balance competing objectives when deciding on the purchase and sale of assets. The goal in all cases should be to make prudent or financially {open_quotes}cost-effective{close_quotes} decisions. That is, the revenues from the purchase or sale of assets should exceed any out-of-pocket costs to obtain the revenues. However, effects external to these financial considerations such as promoting environmental quality, creating or maintaining jobs, and abiding by existing regulations should also be considered in the decisionmaking process. In this paper, we outline the principles of life-cycle analysis (LCA), a framework that allows decisionmakers to make informed, balanced choices over the period of time affected by the decision, taking into account important external effects. Specifically, LCA contains three levels of analysis for any option: (1) direct financial benefits (revenues) and out-of-pocket costs for a course of action; (2) environmental and health consequences of a decision; and (3) other economic and socio-institutional effects. Because some of the components of LCA are difficult to value in monetary terms, the outcome of the LCA process is not generally a yes-no answer. However, the framework allows the decisionmaker to at least qualitatively consider all relevant factors in analyzing options, promoting sound decisionmaking in the process.

  2. Modeling the secondary shelf life of ground roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Anese, Monica; Manzocco, Lara; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2006-07-26

    This work was addressed to study the secondary shelf life of ground roasted coffee. To this purpose, fresh dark-roasted ground coffee samples were equilibrated at increasing water activity (aw) values up to 0.44 and stored at 30 degrees C for up to 1 month. To simulate home storage conditions, the headspace atmosphere was periodically perturbed by opening for a short time and then closing the packaging. The changes of some chemical and physicochemical indexes of coffee staling were studied, and sensory analysis was carried out to determine the end point of coffee acceptability. The results showed that the volatile compounds in the headspace are representative indexes of the quality depletion of roasted ground coffee during home usage. The sensory and instrumental results were used to develop a mathematical model allowing to simply and quickly calculate the secondary shelf life of coffee on the basis of its aw value at a given temperature. PMID:16848547

  3. Virtual Remaining Life Assessment of Electronic Hardware Subjected to Shock and Random Vibration Life Cycle Loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sony Mathew; Diganta Das; Michael Osterman; Michael Pecht

    2007-01-01

    This study presents a physics-of-failure-based virtual remaining life assessment method for assessing the remaining life of an electronic circuit card. The approach is then demonstrated through a case study of a circuit card assembly in the Space Shuttle solid rocket booster. Using thermal and mechanical stress damage models, the accumulated damage in the circuit card due to the life cycle

  4. Algorithmic survey of parametric value function approximation.

    PubMed

    Geist, Matthieu; Pietquin, Olivier

    2013-06-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a machine learning answer to the optimal control problem. It consists of learning an optimal control policy through interactions with the system to be controlled, the quality of this policy being quantified by the so-called value function. A recurrent subtopic of RL concerns computing an approximation of this value function when the system is too large for an exact representation. This survey reviews state-of-the-art methods for (parametric) value function approximation by grouping them into three main categories: bootstrapping, residual, and projected fixed-point approaches. Related algorithms are derived by considering one of the associated cost functions and a specific minimization method, generally a stochastic gradient descent or a recursive least-squares approach. PMID:24808468

  5. The Organizational Values of "Gimnazija" in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2006-01-01

    This article assesses the organizational values of "gimnazija" in Slovenia and examines the factors that contribute to the building of quality management. The theoretical framework is built on Schein's model of levels of culture, Sathe's interpretation of organizational culture and Getzels and Guba's model of organizational behaviour. Based on the…

  6. The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture

    E-print Network

    The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture Gregory Graff, Ryan Mortenson, Rebecca Goldbach, Dawn of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agricultural Sciences, and the Office of Engagement Colorado by support from the Colorado Department of Agriculture and the Colorado State University Office of Engagement

  7. The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture

    E-print Network

    Stephens, Graeme L.

    The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture Gregory Graff, Ryan Mortenson, Rebecca Goldbach, Dawn of Agricultural and Resource Economics, College of Agricultural Sciences, and the Office of Engagement Colorado the Colorado Department of Agriculture and the Colorado State University Office of Engagement. The authors

  8. Offender Perceptions on the Value of Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terri-Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Given the histories of employment instability of the offenders entering correctional systems, enhancing an offender's vocational skills is an important need to address prior to their reintegration into the community. The purpose of the current research was to examine offender perceptions of the value of employment and crime, obtained as part of a…

  9. Compression of Complex-Valued SAR Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Eichel P.; Ives, R.W.

    1999-03-03

    Synthetic Aperture Radars are coherent imaging systems that produce complex-valued images of the ground. Because modern systems can generate large amounts of data, there is substantial interest in applying image compression techniques to these products. In this paper, we examine the properties of complex-valued SAR images relevant to the task of data compression. We advocate the use of transform-based compression methods but employ radically different quantization strategies than those commonly used for incoherent optical images. The theory, methodology, and examples are presented.

  10. Nutritive value of hydrolyzed feather meal 

    E-print Network

    McCasland, William Edward

    1965-01-01

    NUTRITIVE VALUE OP HYDROLYZED PEATHER MEAL A Thesis William Edward Mcpasland Submit ted to the Gra . 'uat:- Vol legs of the lemas Agll teiuersity in partial fulfillment of the requirement. s for t' he degree oi . iER Ol (ifhCF' Msy lq66... Major Subject bfOCHPMISTRt ABO RUTRI'XION NUTRITIVE VALUE OF HYDROLYZED FEATHER MEAL A Thesis William Edward McCasland Approveti as to style and content. hy ((. , a I trna n of Committee) Bead of Department) (N exnbc c) (Me nfh e r ) et May I&66...

  11. The Concept and the Practices of Discipline in Contemporary Organizational Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, James R.; Cheney, George

    1994-01-01

    Explicates Michel Foucault's perspective on "discipline," and demonstrates its usefulness for organizational analysis in a case study of the corporate specification of an employee value system. Articulates four aspects of discipline in contemporary organizational life. (SR)

  12. Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and Mortality in Later Life: An Integration of Four Life-Course Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we examine (a) how socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 affects all-cause mortality at ages 54–72, and (b) whether the effect of early-life SES is consistent with the critical period, accumulation of risks, social mobility, and pathway models. We also explore gender differences in the effect of early-life SES and life-course mechanisms. Method. Participants (N = 6,547) were surveyed in 1957, 1975, and 1993, with vital status established until 2011. We combine discrete-time survival analysis with structural equation modeling. SES and health behaviors are modeled as latent factors. Results. Early-life SES affects mortality indirectly via status attainment and health behaviors in adulthood and midlife. This finding is contrary to the critical period and consistent with the pathway model. Persistent disadvantage at three life stages is a strong risk factor for mortality, thus, supporting the accumulation of risks. Moreover, the mortality risk of individuals who experienced downward socioeconomic mobility is comparable to their peers with persistent disadvantage. Discussion. This study highlights the complexity of interrelated life-course processes underlying the effect of early-life SES on mortality in later life. PMID:24496607

  13. Prestige value of foods: Changes over time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susan J. Crockett; Diana L. Stuber

    1992-01-01

    Prestige is a measure of the position of food in a hierarchy relative to society's values. It is possible that determining the ideas people have about the prestige of foods can serve to identify trends useful in stimulating food habit changes. This paper reports the results of a study which sought to determine what changes in perceived prestige of foods

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Life Sciences Multimedia Learning System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li-Yeh Chuang; Cheng-Huei Yang; Cheng-Hong Yang

    2001-01-01

    In this research, we used multimedia and computer-aided educational facilities to design a life sciences curriculum. The objective of this curriculum is to introduce and explore the mysteries of life. In daily life, children always feel curious and sometimes dubious about many aspects of life. However, at present, very little educational material for life science is available. The present teaching

  15. The Half Life of {sup 193}Osbeta-decay

    SciTech Connect

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Oliva, Jefferson W. M.; Zamboni, Cibele B. [Centro do Reator de Pesquisas (CRPq)-Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP). Av. Linneu Prestes, 2242-Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo, SP, 05507-000 (Brazil)

    2010-05-21

    In this work, the half life of the beta{sup -} decay of {sup 193}Os was measured by following the activity of 25 5 mg {sup 192}Os-enriched samples for 20-60 h after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Three different transitions associated with this beta decay were analyzed, and the results were then processed using three different statistical methods; the resulting values were compatible with the tabulated value, with an uncertainty of the same order of magnitude.

  16. Quality of life, depression, and anxiety among hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Gülseren; Gümüs, Aysun Babacan; Orgun, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study was designed to determine the depression and anxiety levels, and their effects, on quality of life of patients with chronic Hepatitis B. Chronic infection with Hepatitis B virus has a profound effect on health-related quality of life. Medications, including interferon, that are commonly used to treat chronic viral Hepatitis B may cause depression as an adverse effect. However, little is known about the impact of depression and anxiety on quality of life in patients with Hepatitis B. A total of 96 patients aged between 15 and 61 years were included in the study. Slightly more than half of them (52%) were female. Three scales-the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Scale, and Short Form of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF)-were used in the study. The scores obtained from the BDS in 91.7% of the patients were above the cutoff value of 17. Moreover, 80 patients received interferon. There was a negative correlation between the physical, environmental, and cultural areas on the Beck Anxiety Scale and WHOQOL-BREF (Turkish) (p< .05). A high level of depressive symptoms was established in this study, and the physical, environmental, and cultural aspects of quality of life were determined to increase as the anxiety level increased. PMID:24084133

  17. Comparing Value Propositions with Users’ Perceptions to Better Understand the eValues of Electronic Marketplaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carine Dominguez

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we question the nature and dimensions of eValues. We apply our approach to electronic marketplaces (EMPs), as an illustration of interorganizational information systems. The research is based upon 50 interviews made in 6 EMPs, and a thematic analysis on the themes linked to “the value of EMPs”. Our results categorise the different perceptions of eValues according to

  18. The Burden of Diseases on Disability-Free Life Expectancy in Later Life

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol Jagger; Ruth Matthews; Fiona Matthews; Thompson Robinson; Jean-Marie Robine

    2007-01-01

    Background. The consequences of diseases in later life have been judged predominantly through mortality, resulting in an emphasis on the fatal rather than the nonfatal disabling conditions. We use a longitudinal study with follow-up at 2, 6, and 10 years to assess the impact of different diseases on both total life expectancy (TLE) and disability-free life expectancy (DFLE). Methods. The

  19. Hall of Ocean Life Educator's Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The museum's Hall of Ocean Life explores the diverse, complex web of life supported by the ocean and the vital interrelationships between human and aquatic systems. This comprehensive guide to the hall's resources is designed to help you maximize your trip to the museum. It includes detailed background information to help you prepare for your museum field trip, including six topics on ocean life that you can incorporate into your science curriculum, several pre-, during-, and post-visit activities to do with your students and a listing of related museum exhibits and suggestions for how to tie them into your field trip.

  20. Detecting nanoscale vibrations as signature of life

    PubMed Central

    Kasas, Sandor; Ruggeri, Francesco Simone; Benadiba, Carine; Maillard, Caroline; Stupar, Petar; Tournu, Hélène; Dietler, Giovanni; Longo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The existence of life in extreme conditions, in particular in extraterrestrial environments, is certainly one of the most intriguing scientific questions of our time. In this report, we demonstrate the use of an innovative nanoscale motion sensor in life-searching experiments in Earth-bound and interplanetary missions. This technique exploits the sensitivity of nanomechanical oscillators to transduce the small fluctuations that characterize living systems. The intensity of such movements is an indication of the viability of living specimens and conveys information related to their metabolic activity. Here, we show that the nanomotion detector can assess the viability of a vast range of biological specimens and that it could be the perfect complement to conventional chemical life-detection assays. Indeed, by combining chemical and dynamical measurements, we could achieve an unprecedented depth in the characterization of life in extreme and extraterrestrial environments. PMID:25548177

  1. Assembling the Early Puzzle of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radu, Popa

    So far no theory, no approach, no set of formulas, and no blackboard scheme have been found satisfactory in explaining the origin of life. The absence of solid experimental evidence is the largest drawback in the theoretical models of early life. Therefore, no one may claim the ultimate model'. At the current level of knowledge, this remains impossible. The theory presented here gathers what I consider the most compelling data into a model based on the principles of hierarchical accretion. The challenge to any hierarchical theory about the origin of life is to organize the early achievements of life in a sequence that is thermodynamically meaningful and provides temporal direction (overall increase in stability and efficiency). Some of the major assumptions of this model are as follows:

  2. THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF CANNED FOODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. E. CLIFCORN

    The studies of Kohman and Eddy ('37), sponsored by the National Canners Association during the period 1924-1937, produced informa tion on the nutritive value of canned foods as determined mainly by animal assay methods. Subsequently, further fractionation of the vitamin B complex into well established entities, together with the development of improved methods for their determination and more suitable methods

  3. The Singular Values of the GOE

    E-print Network

    Folkmar Bornemann; Michael La Croix

    2015-04-24

    As a unifying framework for examining several properties that nominally involve eigenvalues, we present a particular structure of the singular values of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE): the even-location singular values are distributed as the positive eigenvalues of a Gaussian ensemble with chiral unitary symmetry (anti-GUE), while the odd-location singular values, conditioned on the even-location ones, can be algebraically transformed into a set of independent $\\chi$-distributed random variables. We discuss three applications of this structure: first, there is a pair of bidiagonal square matrices, whose singular values are jointly distributed as the even- and odd-location ones of the GOE; second, the magnitude of the determinant of the GOE is distributed as a product of simple independent random variables; third, on symmetric intervals, the gap probabilities of the GOE can be expressed in terms of the Laguerre unitary ensemble (LUE). We work specifically with matrices of finite order, but by passing to a large matrix limit, we also obtain new insight into asymptotic properties such as the central limit theorem of the determinant or the gap probabilities in the bulk-scaling limit. The analysis in this paper avoids much of the technical machinery (e.g. Pfaffians, skew-orthogonal polynomials, martingales, Meijer $G$-function, etc.) that was previously used to analyze some of the applications.

  4. Nutritional Value of Crude Glycerin for Nonruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apparent metabolizable energy value of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the ISU Swine Nutrition Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight (BW) of 11.0 ±0.5kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal diet combined...

  5. Two Essays on the Value of Cash

    E-print Network

    Tippens, Timothy

    2012-10-19

    in an Environment without Frictions. .............................................................................................. 11 Table 2.2 Semi-quantitative Predictions: Partial Derivatives of Market Equity in Environments of Various Frictions... of our tests using changes in total market equity as the dependent variable and find some different coefficients, most notably for the equity issuance and equity payout variables as expected. 11 value, expressed in terms of partial derivatives...

  6. "Value Added" Gauge of Teaching Probed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    A new study by a public and labor economist suggests that "value added" methods for determining the effectiveness of classroom teachers are built on some shaky assumptions and may be misleading. The study, due to be published in February in the "Quarterly Journal of Economics," is the first of a handful of papers now in the publishing pipeline…

  7. The Value of Targeted Comic Book Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Kay; Danaher, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    A limitation of extensive reading programmes is the time required for progress in vocabulary acquisition. This paper reports on a qualitative exploration of student perceptions of the value of non-compulsory comic books in ESL elementary and upper-intermediate level courses at a tertiary institution. We aimed to develop supplementary materials…

  8. Life analysis of restored and refurbished bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coy, J. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Cowgill, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    An analysis of the potential life of refurbished and restored bearings was performed. The sensitivity of 10-percent life and mean-time-between-failure to the effects of cumulative fatigue damage and the amount of stressed volume removed in the restoration process were examined. A modified Lundberg-Palmgren theory was used to predict that the expected 10-percent life of a restored bearing, which is dependent on the previous service time and the volume of material removed from the race surfaces, can be between 74 and 100 percent of the new bearing life. Using renewal theory, it is found that the mean time between failure ranged from 90 to 100 percent of that for a new bearing.

  9. Adult education and the quality of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijnman, Albert

    1990-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the complementary role of adult education in influencing people's objective and subjective quality of life. The analytical strategy used to achieve this end is to estimate parameters in a path model which includes both objective indicators such as occupational status and earned income, and subjective indicators such as job satisfaction and perceived personal wellbeing. The investigation builds on Swedish data and employs the LISREL method in the fitting of the model to the data. The results indicate that adult education positively influences objective indicators of the quality of life. Even though adult education is found to relate to measures of perceived personal wellbeing, the hypothesis that it also influences the way men assess their life situation and evaluate their subjective quality of life cannot be confirmed.

  10. College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Agricultural Technology

    E-print Network

    Virginia Tech

    College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Agricultural Technology Applied Agricultural Management Option Checksheet for Students Graduating in Calendar Year 2013 Associate of Agriculture Degree Required Agricultural Technology Core Courses (31 credits) 3 AT 0104 Computer Applications 3 AT 0114 Applied

  11. An Experiment in Structural Analysis of the Value Orientations of the Parents of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobkin, V. S.; Marich, E. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present article is a continuation of a study of the life values and fears regarding their future on the part of parents of children of older preschool age. The raw material was obtained by questionnaire surveying 941 parents (334 fathers and 607 mothers) whose children were going to kindergarten. In this work the authors attempted to show the…

  12. A century of life-history evolution in grayling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thrond O. Haugen; Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad

    2001-01-01

    Synchronic and allochronic data sets consisting of phenotypic values of various life-history traits from five grayling Thymallus thymallus populations with common ancestors were analysed for the purpose of estimating evolution and divergence rates. The synchronic data contained both juvenile and adult traits from populations that have been segregated for 44–88 years (9–22 generations). The allochronic time series contained growth- and

  13. A century of life-history evolution in grayling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thrond O. Haugen; Leif Asbjørn Vøllestad

    \\u000a Synchronic and allochronic data sets consisting of phenotypic values of various life-history traits from five grayling Thymallus thymallus populations with common ancestors were analysed for the purpose of estimating evolution and divergence rates. The synchronic\\u000a data contained both juvenile and adult traits from populations that have been segregated for 44-88 years (9-22 generations).\\u000a The allochronic time series contained growth- and

  14. Role of Minor Actinides for Long-Life Reactor Cores

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, M.; Artisyuk, V. [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan); Shmelev, A. [Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute, 31, Kashirskoe Shosse, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikitin, K.; Peryoga, Y

    2002-07-01

    The paper addresses the study on advanced fuel cycles for LWR oriented to high burnup values that exceed 100 GWd/tHM, thus giving the chance to establish the long-life reactor cores without fuel reloading on site. The key element of this approach is a broad involvement of Minor Actinides whose admixture to 20% enriched uranium fuel provides safe release of initial reactivity excess and improved proliferation resistance properties. (authors)

  15. Effects of handicap on life expectancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DJ Lai; LM Lee; ES Lee

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify and partition the expected years of life with and without handicap for the Chinese population according to various types of handicaps, age–sex groups and regions.A large-scale sample survey on handicapped persons conducted in 1987, and the 1990 population census constitute the basis for computing the expected years of life free of handicapped

  16. End-of-life preferences in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Braun, K L; Onaka, A T; Horiuchi, B Y

    2000-12-01

    Questions on end-of-life preferences were included in two statewide, random-sample telephone surveys. Findings suggest that Hawaii residents are similar to mainlanders on their rates of advance directive completion, their preference for dying at home, their desire for hospice care when dying, and their support for legalization of aid in dying. Physicians are encouraged to ask these questions directly of their patients as a first step to improving end-of-life care. PMID:11191257

  17. A real time neural net estimator of fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troudet, T.; Merrill, W.

    1990-01-01

    A neural net architecture is proposed to estimate, in real-time, the fatigue life of mechanical components, as part of the Intelligent Control System for Reusable Rocket Engines. Arbitrary component loading values were used as input to train a two hidden-layer feedforward neural net to estimate component fatigue damage. The ability of the net to learn, based on a local strain approach, the mapping between load sequence and fatigue damage has been demonstrated for a uniaxial specimen. Because of its demonstrated performance, the neural computation may be extended to complex cases where the loads are biaxial or triaxial, and the geometry of the component is complex (e.g., turbopump blades). The generality of the approach is such that load/damage mappings can be directly extracted from experimental data without requiring any knowledge of the stress/strain profile of the component. In addition, the parallel network architecture allows real-time life calculations even for high frequency vibrations. Owing to its distributed nature, the neural implementation will be robust and reliable, enabling its use in hostile environments such as rocket engines. This neural net estimator of fatigue life is seen as the enabling technology to achieve component life prognosis, and therefore would be an important part of life extending control for reusable rocket engines.

  18. Estimating the Value of Groundwater in Irrigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Brozovic; Shahnila Islam

    2010-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing regulation of agricultural water use in order to reduce transboundary and environmental water conflicts. Effective policy analysis needs to have tools to estimate correctly the value of irrigation water. Irrigating land increases crop yields and this higher profitability should be capitalized into the sales price of the land. For irrigation that depends on

  19. The Value of Literacy. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkeley, Christy C.

    Literacy is a commodity of measurable value to those who acquire it. This proposition is easy to accept if the many benefits of acquiring literacy are considered: better jobs, more productive use of leisure time, greater self-sufficiency, increased ability to help one's children with school work and hobbies. The Gannett Foundation first became…

  20. Investigating Pedagogical Value of Wiki Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazari, Sunil; North, Alexa; Moreland, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study investigates the potential of Wiki technology as a tool for teaching and learning. Wikis are a component of Web 2.0 technology tools that provide collaborative features and active learning opportunities in a web-based environment. This research study sought to empirically determine the pedagogical value of using Wiki…

  1. Value of Ear Endoscopy in Cholesteatoma Surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Badr-el-Dine

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the value of ear endoscopy in cholesteatoma surgery and to demonstrate its consequence in improving surgical outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 92 ears with acquired cholesteatoma (primary or secondary) were operated on. In this prospective study, 82 cases were operated on by using canal wall up (CWU) technique, and

  2. An Aesthetic Value Scale of the Rorschach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insua, Ana Maria

    1981-01-01

    An aesthetic value scale of the Rorschach cards was built by the successive interval method. This scale was compared with the ratings obtained by means of the Semantic Differential Scales and was found to successfully differentiate sexes in their judgment of card attractiveness. (Author)

  3. The (Surplus) Value of Scientific Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Discusses research on scientific communication. Topics include theory-less and formal technical/natural scientific models of scientific communication; social-scientific, power-sensitive models; the sociology of scientific communication; sciences as fields of competition; fraud and deception; potential surplus value across subject information…

  4. The value of a nursing annual report.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Susan H; Ellerbe, Suellyn

    2013-01-01

    Nursing annual reports have been increasingly published by acute care facilities and provide a record of accomplishments for the year. Nursing annual reports provide yearly documentation of accomplishments. As future goals are set, they provide value as a record of past accomplishments. A community hospital reports on the content and timeline for a nursing annual report along with the advantages. PMID:24592536

  5. Evaluation of probabilistic underspecification as a method for incorporating uncertainty into comparative life cycle assessments

    E-print Network

    Wildnauer, Margaret T. (Margaret Thea)

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments are quickly becoming a crucial method through which the environmental impacts of products or processes are evaluated. A concern with current practice, however, is that the use of deterministic values ...

  6. Life and reliability of rotating disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Smith, Todd E.; August, Richard

    1988-01-01

    In aerospace applications, an engineer must be especially cognizant of size and weight constraints which affect design decisions. Although designing at or below the material fatigue limit may be desirable in most industrial applications, in aerospace application it is almost mandatory to design certain components for a finite life at an acceptable probability of survival. Zaretsky outlined such a methodology based in part on the work of W. Weibull (1939, 1951) and G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren (1947a, 1947b, 1952). It is the objective of this work to apply the method of Zaretsky (1987) to statistically predict the life of a generic solid disk with and without bolt holes; determine the effect of disk design variables, thermal loads, and speed on relative life; and develop a generalized equation for determining disk life by incorporating only these variables.

  7. Student Retention and Persistence to Graduation: Effects of an Introductory Life Calling Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Shanna L.; Daugherty, Douglas A.; Gilmore, Megan N.

    2013-01-01

    The researchers examined the effect of a course, Introduction to Life Calling (LDR150), on retention and persistence to graduation at a private, Midwestern university. The course emphasizes self-assessment, student-faculty engagement, personal values, and the student's developing sense of Life Calling. The subjects consisted of 3338 students who…

  8. A Life History of a Korean Adolescent Girl Who Attempted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores the life history of a South Korean adolescent girl who attempted suicide. The study focuses on how sociocultural values affected her suicide attempt and how she made meaning out of the experience. The results revealed that her life history was a process of seeking independence and autonomy, and freeing herself from…

  9. Overview of the LIFE fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, S.; Babineau, D.; Davis, R.; Taylor, C.; Anklam, T.; Dunne, M.; Flowers, D.; Gentile, C.; Latkowski, J.; Maroni, V.; Martinez-Frias, J.; Miles, R.; Willms, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) engine is a laser-driven inertial fusion energy system being developed with the goal to deliver fusion power in the next decade. A pre-conceptual design is being developed for the LIFE fuel cycle, with the purpose of maximizing the potential safety advantages of fusion energy. Some key features of the LIFE fuel cycle include a high tritium fuel burn-up fraction, a relatively high tritium breeding ratio, low tritium permeation from the coolant/breeder, and limited tritium inventories throughout the facility. The present paper offers an overview the pre-conceptual design of the LIFE fuel cycle, including a summary of the development plan for the delivery of the related tritium processing equipment.

  10. Value of Energy Storage for Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Jorgenson, J.; Hummon, M.; Jenkin, T.; Palchak, D.; Kirby, B.; Ma, O.; O'Malley, M.

    2013-05-01

    This analysis evaluates several operational benefits of electricity storage, including load-leveling, spinning contingency reserves, and regulation reserves. Storage devices were simulated in a utility system in the western United States, and the operational costs of generation was compared to the same system without the added storage. This operational value of storage was estimated for devices of various sizes, providing different services, and with several sensitivities to fuel price and other factors. Overall, the results followed previous analyses that demonstrate relatively low value for load-leveling but greater value for provision of reserve services. The value was estimated by taking the difference in operational costs between cases with and without energy storage and represents the operational cost savings from deploying storage by a traditional vertically integrated utility. The analysis also estimated the potential revenues derived from a merchant storage plant in a restructured market, based on marginal system prices. Due to suppression of on-/off-peak price differentials and incomplete capture of system benefits (such as the cost of power plant starts), the revenue obtained by storage in a market setting appears to be substantially less than the net benefit provided to the system. This demonstrates some of the additional challenges for storage deployed in restructured energy markets.

  11. End of Life: Helping with Comfort and Care

    MedlinePLUS

    End of Life: Helping With Comfort and Care Introduction At the end of life, each story is different. Death comes suddenly, or ... to the one who has died. End-of-life care is the term used to describe the ...

  12. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Proceeds of life insurance. 20.2042-1 Section 20...Estate § 20.2042-1 Proceeds of life insurance. (a) In general. ...proceeds of insurance on the decedent's life (i) receivable by or for the...

  13. College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences AGRICULTURE,

    E-print Network

    Stuart, Steven J.

    40 College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sciences 40 COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, AND LIFE SCIENCES The College of Agriculture, Forestry, and Life Sci- ences (virtual- nity and Economic Development Concentration; Agricultural Education; Agricultural Mechanization

  14. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable conditions are meet. Perhaps it could start in a very short interval during the first tens of millions of years after crustal formation. Even with impact-driven extinction events, such a short start-up time would allow life to restart multiple times until it persevered. If panspermia is considered, life could be introduced as soon as liquid surface water was present and could instantly thrive and spread.

  15. THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-print Network

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION BRUCE A. MCCARL, BRIAN C. MURRAY, AND UWE A. SCHNEIDER A. Abstract Carbon sequestration via forests and agricultural soils saturates over time to sequestration because of (1) an ecosystems limited ability to take up carbon which we will call saturation

  16. On the market value of wind power

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Obersteiner; Marcelo Saguan

    2009-01-01

    In leading European wind power countries wind power generation affects wholesale power prices already today. First investigations indicate that the respective wind power - price relation lowers the market value of wind power relative to the baseload price with increasing penetration. The aim of this paper is to identify parameters that determine this effect based on simulations for the Central

  17. Campylobacter biotyping scheme of epidemiological value

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F J Bolton; A V Holt; D N Hutchinson

    1984-01-01

    A biotyping scheme has been developed which utilises 12 tests, including growth at 28 degrees C, hippurate hydrolysis, and 10 resistotyping tests. These tests are arranged in groups of three, and by assigning a numerical value to each positive test a four figure code is produced for each strain. The order of the tests is such that campylobacters are both

  18. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  19. Mothers and Daughters: The Value of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullis, Ann K.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined mothers' and their college-age daughters' attitudes about the value of children, rural-urban differences in attitudes, and family size effects. Correlations between mothers and daughters on two of nine Opinions About Children scales, rural-urban differences on three scales, and negligible differences for family size were found. (Author/BL)

  20. Exploration of Values: Israeli Teachers' Professional Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Yael

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to explore Israeli teachers' professional ethics and values using the Facet Theory (Guttman in Psychmetrika 33:469-506, 1968). Since Israel does not have a teachers' code of ethics, such exploration can be a basis for constructing one. The study is mainly exploratory, and the main hypotheses that guided the study…