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1

The value of life and the value of life extension.  

PubMed

Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics. PMID:16803974

Horrobin, Steven

2006-05-01

2

Life devoid of value?  

PubMed

6 arguments arise in response to Dr. Baunemann's letter to the Canadian Medical Association Journal: 1) defenders of abortion do not recommend abortion for fetuses that "may be deprived" of physical and emotional support; 2) a developing embryo is not a "human being" but rather a "potential" human being; 3) the concepts of Hoche and Binding did not directly lead to Nazi-inspired sterilizations and murders; 4) Hitler and Mussolini were staunch antiabortionists as well as proponents of euthanasia; 5) the recent drives for abortions and euthanasia derive from different sources; and 6) the term "proabortion" is misleading, as no supporter of abortion considers it a desirable act. This letter is then answered by Dr. Baunemann, who points out that Dr. Rapp has himself used the strawman argument, that a fetus is a human being with "potential", that Hitler's antiabortion stand stemmed from a desire for population increase, and that there is a connection between abortion and euthanasia. PMID:608155

Rapp, M S

1977-03-19

3

The Family, Values, and Quality of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjective indicators were used to measure perceived overall quality of life and the value placed on and satisfaction with life concerns of some rural, white families in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. A human ecological systems approach which assumes that human needs are satisfied through use of resources of the natural, human-constructed, and…

Bubolz, Margaret J.

4

Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.  

PubMed

Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822

Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

2014-09-01

5

Frederick Douglass & the Value of My Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" can be used to explore differences between biography and autobiography, and how a personal account can be used to change attitudes of others. Presents poems written by 10th- and 11th-grade students composed after reading Douglass's "Narrative."…

Adisa, Opal Palmer

1996-01-01

6

The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.  

PubMed Central

Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values. PMID:6803602

Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

1982-01-01

7

What Is the Value of Life? … and Other Socratic Questions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Casey Cuny was frustrated with the lack of depth in his high school English students' writing. He'd heard about Socratic seminars but was reluctant to try them until he saw them in action. He decided to conduct Socratic seminars with his students centered on the question, What is the value of life? In past years, student papers on this…

Cuny, Casey

2014-01-01

8

Valuing Nonfatal Quality of Life Losses with Quality-Adjusted Life Years: The Health Economist's Meow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonfatal injuries and illnesses cause impairment that can result in the loss of functional capacity and reduce quality of life (Nagi, 1991). When impairment is the result of injury or toxic exposure, juries often are asked to place a value on quality of life losses. Their judgments typically are based on gut reactions to anecdotal testimony and to medical forecasts

Ted R. Miller

2000-01-01

9

The Value of Human Life in Global Warming Impacts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recent article in Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change by Fankhauser and Tol makes monetary estimates\\u000a of potential global warming damages that assign higher value to each life lost in wealthy countries as opposed to poor ones.\\u000a Regardless of how much sense such a procedure may make to GDP-oriented economists, it is morally unacceptable to most of the

Philip M. Fearnside

1998-01-01

10

Therapeutic values clarification and values development for end-of-life patients: a conceptual model.  

PubMed

The social, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual challenges that may be a major concern for a certain category of end-of-life patients are the focus of a conceptual counseling model. The intervention that was developed as a result of several years of practice is referred to as therapeutic values clarification and values development. This article outlines 4 phases of this intervention. This therapeutic process is illustrated by a case vignette with explanation of the key concepts. This model is suggested for use with end-of-life patients that are self-aware, emotionally and cognitively competent, and have adequate verbal skills. It may be useful as an optional tool for hospice workers, social workers, and clergy who render services to terminally ill patients and their families. PMID:23661769

Edwards, Andrew Wallace

2014-06-01

11

Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

Carlstrom, Aaron H.

2011-01-01

12

MEASUREMENT OF PARAMETERS TO VALUE HUMAN LIFE EXTENSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In safety analysis as in engineering, the development of a satisfactory mathematical model is required to identify the parameters that need to be measured and calculated. The establishment of a proper calculus of safety begins with the recognition that the fundamental concept is life expectancy, and then, by extension, the increase in life expectancy that a safety measure brings about.

Philip Thomas; Roger Jones; James Kearns

2009-01-01

13

Pathways From Religion to Advance Care Planning: Beliefs About Control Over Length of Life and End-of-Life Values  

PubMed Central

Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the extent to which religious affiliation and self-identified religious importance affect advance care planning (ACP) via beliefs about control over life length and end-of-life values. Design and Methods: Three hundred and five adults aged 55 and older from diverse racial and socioeconomic groups seeking outpatient care in New Jersey were surveyed. Measures included discussion of end-of-life preferences; living will (LW) completion; durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC) appointment; religious affiliation; importance of religion; and beliefs about who/what controls life length, end-of-life values, health status, and sociodemographics. Results: Of the sample, 68.9% had an informal discussion and 46.2% both discussed their preferences and did formal ACP (LW and/or DPAHC). Conservative Protestants and those placing great importance on religion/spirituality had a lower likelihood of ACP. These associations were largely accounted for by beliefs about God’s controlling life length and values for using all available treatments. Implications: Beliefs and values about control account for relationships between religiosity and ACP. Beliefs and some values differ by religious affiliation. As such, congregations may be one nonclinical setting in which ACP discussions could be held, as individuals with similar attitudes toward the end of life could discuss their treatment preferences with those who share their views. PMID:23161430

Garrido, Melissa M.

2013-01-01

14

The Dynamics of the Life Values of Rural Youth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What kind of impact have the last decade's radical changes in types of economic systems, property ownership, and opportunities for employment had on the rural youth of Russia? This paper examines this topic by presenting a survey of upper-grade students in rural schools in a region of Saratov Oblast in 1994, 1997, and 2004, using the same…

Mikheev, P. A.

2006-01-01

15

The Dynamic and Correlation of the Value Orientations and Life Goals of Urban Adolescents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of the scientific techniques in the study of value orientations and preferences consists of determining adolescents' attitudes toward personality qualities. It is well known that the model of a personality as an ideal construct formed in a person's consciousness correlates with value orientations and life goals. Its study permits us…

Selivanova, Z. K.

2014-01-01

16

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2010-07-01

17

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2013-07-01

18

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2011-07-01

19

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2014-07-01

20

38 CFR 8.12 - Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments under...OF VETERANS AFFAIRS NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value and Policy Loan...Payment of the cash value of National Service Life Insurance in monthly installments...

2012-07-01

21

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2011-04-01

22

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2014-04-01

23

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2012-04-01

24

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2010-04-01

25

25 CFR 179.102 - How does the Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Secretary calculate the value of a remainder and a life estate? 179.102 Section 179.102 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER LIFE ESTATES AND FUTURE INTERESTS Life Estates Not Created Under AIPRA §...

2013-04-01

26

The Game of Life: College Sports and Educational Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing on historical research, data on alumni giving, information on budgetary spending on college athletics, and a database of 90,000 students from 30 selective colleges and universities in the 1950s, 1970, and 1990s, this book demonstrates how athletics influences the class composition and campus ethos of selective schools. The chapters are:…

Shulman, James L.; Bowen, William G.

27

The Influence of Value Orientations and Demographics on Quality-of-Life Perceptions: Evidence from a National Survey of Singaporeans  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the linkages between value orientations, demographics and the quality of life perceptions for Singaporeans based on a nationwide values and lifestyles study conducted in 2001. The quality of life perception is assessed using cognitive evaluations of satisfaction with life in general (subjective personal well-being) and with…

Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Kau, Ah Keng

2006-01-01

28

Value of statistical life and cause of accident: A choice experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to compare value of statistical life (VSL) estimates for traffic, drowning and fire accidents. Using a choice experiment in a mail survey of 5000 Swedish respondents we estimated the willingness to pay for risk reductions in the three accidents. In the experiment respondents were asked in a series of questions, whether they would choose

Fredrik Carlsson; Dinky Daruvala; Henrik Jaldell

2008-01-01

29

Changes in the Life Values of Polish Youth: Study Results, Observations, Speculation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to explain why a cohort of Polish youth participated so actively in the Solidarity movement of 1980-81, even though studies of these youth conducted in the early 1970s had shown their values to be of a private-stabilization nature. Focuses on the effects of Poland's economic crisis and life under martial law. (KH)

Sulek, Antoni

1985-01-01

30

Nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objective was to assess the nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods. Samples of foreshank and short loin subprimals were excised from chilled carcasses (n = 20) of beef steers that were individually finished (120 days) on either supranutritional seleni...

31

Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

Cunningham, George B.

2009-01-01

32

Value-Able Still Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author discusses how she made a major improvement to her fifth-grade lesson plan by providing a hands-on Internet experience before students worked on their own oil pastel still life. It was a success with beautiful finished products and highly motivated, engaged students. Details of this lesson are described in this article.

Gardner, Susan

2005-01-01

33

Do Extreme Values of Daily-Life Gait Characteristics Provide More Information About Fall Risk Than Median Values?  

PubMed Central

Background Gait characteristics estimated from daily-life trunk accelerations reflect gait quality and are associated with fall incidence in older adults. While associations are based on median values of these gait characteristics, their extreme values may reflect either high-risk situations or steady-state gait and may thus be more informative in relation to fall risk. Objective The objective of this study was to improve fall-risk prediction models by examining whether the use of extreme values strengthens the associations with falls. Methods Trunk acceleration data (Dynaport MoveMonitor) were collected from 202 older adults over a full week. From all walking episodes, we estimated the median and, as reliable estimates of the extremes, the 10th and 90th percentiles of gait characteristics, all over 10-second epochs. In addition, the amount of daily activities was derived from the acceleration data, and participants completed fall-risk questionnaires. Participants were classified as fallers based on one or more falls during 6 months of follow-up. Univariate analyses were performed to investigate whether associations with falls were stronger for the extremes than for the medians. Subsequently, three fall-risk models were compared: (1) using questionnaire data only, (2) adding the amount of activities and medians of gait characteristics, and (3) using extreme values instead of medians in the case of stronger univariate associations of the extremes. Results Stronger associations were found for the extreme characteristics reflecting high regularity, low frequency variability, and low local instability in anterior-posterior direction, for high symmetry in all directions and for low entropy in anterior-posterior and vertical directions. The questionnaire-only model improved significantly by adding activities and gait characteristics’ medians. Replacing medians by extremes with stronger associations did improve the fall prediction model, but not significantly. Conclusions Associations were stronger for extreme values, indicating “high gait quality” situations (ie, 10th and 90th percentiles in case of positive and negative associations, respectively) and not for “low gait quality” situations. This suggests that gait characteristics during optimal performance gait provide more information about the risk of falling than high-risk situations. However, their added value over medians in prediction is limited. PMID:25560937

Rispens, Sietse M; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Beek, Peter J; van Dieën, Jaap H

2015-01-01

34

Valuing the person’s story: Use of life story books in a continuing care setting  

PubMed Central

There is an increasing focus on promoting person-centred systems across continuing care settings, emphasizing the need to enhance the quality of life of older adults. Life story books (LSB) can provide a holistic view of older adults, promote relationship-centred care and enhance person-centred care. The process of developing LSB involve collecting and recording aspects of a person’s life both past and present. The purpose of this study was to engage residents in developing life story books in a nursing home setting and then to explore the narratives and documented life story books with residents and their families. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was utilized for the study. Five residents and three family carers participated. Focus groups were tape recorded and thematically analyzed and a review of the LSB was conducted. The central themes from the data analysis related to the social construction of people’s lives, social roles and religious values, relationships and loss, and sense of self. PMID:18982924

Wills, Teresa; Day, Mary Rose

2008-01-01

35

Valuing the person's story: use of life story books in a continuing care setting.  

PubMed

There is an increasing focus on promoting person-centred systems across continuing care settings, emphasizing the need to enhance the quality of life of older adults. Life story books (LSB) can provide a holistic view of older adults, promote relationship-centred care and enhance person-centred care. The process of developing LSB involve collecting and recording aspects of a person's life both past and present. The purpose of this study was to engage residents in developing life story books in a nursing home setting and then to explore the narratives and documented life story books with residents and their families. A qualitative descriptive exploratory design was utilized for the study. Five residents and three family carers participated. Focus groups were tape recorded and thematically analyzed and a review of the LSB was conducted. The central themes from the data analysis related to the social construction of people's lives, social roles and religious values, relationships and loss, and sense of self. PMID:18982924

Wills, Teresa; Day, Mary Rose

2008-01-01

36

Social values as an independent factor affecting end of life medical decision making.  

PubMed

Research shows that the physician's personal attributes and social characteristics have a strong association with their end-of-life (EOL) decision making. Despite efforts to increase patient, family and surrogate input into EOL decision making, research shows the physician's input to be dominant. Our research finds that physician's social values, independent of religiosity, have a significant association with physician's tendency to withhold or withdraw life sustaining, EOL treatments. It is suggested that physicians employ personal social values in their EOL medical coping, because they have to cope with existential dilemmas posed by the mystery of death, and left unresolved by medical decision making mechanisms such as advanced directives and hospital ethics committees. PMID:24965073

Cohen, Charles J; Chen, Yifat; Orbach, Hedi; Freier-Dror, Yossi; Auslander, Gail; Breuer, Gabriel S

2015-02-01

37

Energetic costs, underlying resource allocation patterns, and adaptive value of predator-induced life-history shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied costs and benefits of life history shifts of water fleas (genus Daphnia) in response to infochemicals from planktivorous fish. We applied a dynamic energy budget model to investigate the resource allocation patterns underlying the observed life history shifts and their adaptive value under size selective predation in one coherent analysis. Using a published data set of life history

Karsten Rinke; Stephan Hülsmann; Wolf M. Mooij

2008-01-01

38

Predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies: a real life experience.  

PubMed

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune destructive joint disease, characterized by the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. Anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies were recently defined as RA criterion with sensitivity and specificity of 50-80 and 75-95 %, respectively. However, in the general population, the predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies is yet to be determined. Herein, we aim to determine the predictive value of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in real life as well as clinical and serological factors related to this value. Retrospective cross-sectional study of consecutive samples evaluated for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies in a referral autoimmune laboratory. Demographic and clinical parameters at the time the sample was drawn were collected. During November 2011 through December 2013, a total of 215 anti-citrullinated peptide antibody tests were performed in our laboratory. Data were available for 140 samples of which only 28 samples were positive for anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies. Of the 140 patients tested, 18 were diagnosed with RA, of which 12 were positive and 6 were negative for anti-citrullinated peptide antibody test. Thus, in this cohort, anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies were positive in 20 % of samples with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 43 % and a negative predictive value of 95 %. In real life, only 20 % of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody tests referred to a tertiary center where found to be positive. The negative predictive value of this test is very high and may support the common use of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody test as an exclusion criterion in the process of evaluating a patient with rheumatic disease. PMID:25407644

Watad, Abdulla; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Gilburd, Boris; Lidar, Merav; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

2014-12-01

39

Life Sciences IBM Institute for Business Value  

E-print Network

Life Sciences IBM Institute for Business Value IBM Global Business Services Cultivating innovation beyond corporate walls Alliances between the life sciences industry and academia #12;IBM Institute;1 Past collaborations between the life sciences industry and academia have not always been successful

40

The picture of happiness in Alzheimer's disease: Living a life congruent with personal values.  

PubMed

It is generally understood that happiness is an important goal of dementia care, though evaluation has been challenging. Concerns about cognitive and communicative limitations have led to the use of proxy reports to assess positive affect. However, proxy reports have been shown to differ from appraisals obtained by the person with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article reports on a qualitative study of happiness in a sample of 12 persons with mild to moderate AD using photo-elicitation and individual interviews for data collection. Results demonstrate people with mild to moderate AD can provide meaningful evaluations of happiness, and that lifelong values continue to be important in the presence of AD. This study suggests photographs may offer a novel approach to obtain a contextualized understanding of happiness and other values in this population which may lead to the development of person centered interventions aimed to improve the individual's quality of life. PMID:25771956

Shell, Lynn

2015-01-01

41

Primary care physician attitudes and values toward end-of-life care and physician-assisted death.  

PubMed

This study explores how primary care physician attitudes toward physician-assisted death (PAD) are related to their personal values toward end-of-life care and PAD. A group of 810 Michigan family physicians, internists, and general practitioners, divided into 4 typology groups by their intention toward participating in PAD, rated their attitudes toward PAD, along with their values and preferences for their own end-of-life care. Respondents who most objected to PAD were less likely to have executed an advance directive and more likely to have values promoting continued life-sustaining treatment in their own terminal care. Furthermore, a significant number of physicians, who had strong values against their own withdrawal of treatment in terminal care, were opposed to the withdrawing or withholding of life-sustaining treatment in patient care. Considerations of personal physician values are relevant in the discussion of PAD and the withdrawal of treatment in terminal care. PMID:11657273

Doukas, David J; Gorenflo, Daniel W; Supanich, Barbara

1999-01-01

42

The accountant as triage master: an economist's perspective on voluntary euthanasia and the value of life debate.  

PubMed

The author, an economist, rebuts the contention that human life cannot and should not be economically evaluated and argues that such evaluations are made implicitly and inconsistently, resulting in a reduction of human welfare. He presents an economic framework for the analysis of costs and benefits in which the focal point, as in most value systems, is the tradeoff between life and quality of life. Therefore, as the quality of life decreases, society's efforts to preserve life should decrease. If the valuation of life includes self evaluation, then there should be less effort to preserve the life of an individual who wishes to die. Richardson concludes that voluntary euthanasia is a limiting case in which society accepts the individual's valuation of life. PMID:11651869

Richardson, J

1987-07-01

43

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

44

Advanced Life Support System Value Metric  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

45

Life-Satisfaction, Values and Goal Achievement: The Case of Planned versus by Chance Searches on the Internet  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relation between life domains satisfaction and overall life satisfaction, values, internal/external perceived control and the option of planning or by chance searching information on the Internet has been explored in a sample of Spanish adolescents aged 12 to 16 (N=968). Age and sex differences have been examined. Results clearly confirm a…

Casas, Ferran; Gonzalez, Monica; Figuer, Cristina; Coenders, Germa

2004-01-01

46

Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

Elosua, Paula

2011-01-01

47

Evidence and values: paying for end-of-life drugs in the British NHS.  

PubMed

In January 2009, Britain's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), following a very public debate triggered by its decision, six months earlier, provisionally to rule against the adoption by the National Health Service (NHS) of an expensive drug for advanced renal cancer, introduced a new policy for evaluating pharmaceuticals for patients nearing the end of their lives. NICE's so-called end-of-life (EOL) guidance for its Committees effectively advises them to deviate from the Institute's threshold range and to value the lives of (mostly) dying cancer patients more than the lives of those suffering from other, potentially curable, chronic or acute conditions. This article tells the story of the EOL guidance. Through looking at specific EOL decisions between 2009 and 2011 and the reactions by stakeholders to these decisions and the policy itself, it discusses the triggers for NICE's EOL guidance, the challenges NICE faces in implementing it and the policy's putative implications for the future role of NICE in the NHS, especially in the context of value-based reforms in the pricing and evaluation of pharmaceuticals, currently under consideration. PMID:23079299

Chalkidou, Kalipso

2012-10-01

48

Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment.  

PubMed

The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to raise adult life expectancy in populations with high HIV prevalence. Using data from a population cohort of over 101,000 individuals in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we measured changes in adult life expectancy for 2000-2011. In 2003, the year before ART became available in the public-sector health system, adult life expectancy was 49.2 years; by 2011, adult life expectancy had increased to 60.5 years--an 11.3-year gain. Based on standard monetary valuation of life, the survival benefits of ART far outweigh the costs of providing treatment in this community. These gains in adult life expectancy signify the social value of ART and have implications for the investment decisions of individuals, governments, and donors. PMID:23430655

Bor, Jacob; Herbst, Abraham J; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

2013-02-22

49

[An approach to abortion and immigration in Spain. The social economic value of the human life].  

PubMed

This paper enters the analysis of the phenomenon of the abortion in Spain, across the study of the reasons of his practices in the group of immigrant women resident in Murcia. The following aims appear are: a) know the prevalence of abortions in the immigrant population of an urban center of primary care health in the state of Murcia, b) know the personal attitude before this population's c) analized abortion this population's socio-economic and religious characteristics and to value their possible relationship with the abortion. The material and method used form a descriptive traverse study, carried out in primary care (Center of primary care San Andrés-state of Murcia) carried out during the months of June to December of 2007. 230 women were included. The collection of data was made by means of interview clinic carrying out a survey semistructured with open and closed questions, in total 14 items, enlarged to 23 items in case one declares voluntary abortions. The Results show us as the fundamental motives for those who are aborted they were the lack of economic means, the disadvantages for his personal projects and the pressure on the part of his pair or family. The conclusions, force first, from the bioethic reflection, to the denunciation of the political- social inaction with regard to the abortion and the ideological manipulation of the socioeconomic reasons of the same practices; and secondly, to the promotion of networks of help to the embarrassed woman and to the public defense of the absolute value of the human life. PMID:21090843

Fernández López, Maria Isabel; Carrillo Navarro, Francisco; Leal Hernández, Mariano; Carrillo Cañaveras, Israel; Carrillo Navarro, Efraím; Lozano Sánchez, María Luisa; Fernández Riquelme, Sergio; Pastor, Luis Miguel

2010-01-01

50

Valuing Australia's protected areas: A life satisfaction approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the life satisfaction approach to value Australia's protected areas, grouped by International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories. We find significant positive life satisfaction effects of living in close proximity to protected areas in three of the seven categories. These life satisfaction effects correspond to implicit willingness-to-pays, in terms of annual household income, ranging from AUD$2950

Christopher L. Ambrey; Christopher M. Fleming

2012-01-01

51

Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost  

SciTech Connect

We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Community Medicine

2009-07-15

52

Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.  

PubMed

Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, ?-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

2014-04-01

53

Your Money and Your Life: The Value of Health and What Affects It  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the role of medical care in improving health and compares that value of better health produced by medical care with the costs of that care. Valuing medical care requires measuring the health of the population. We start by developing a measure of the nation's health capital -- the dollar value of health a person will have over

David M. Cutler; Elizabeth Richardson

1999-01-01

54

Signifiers of the life we value? – considering human development, technologies and Fair Trade from the perspective of the capabilities approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that the capabilities approach challenges us to co-design technologies with users in a way that expands the freedom of the user to live the life they themselves value. The aim is to show, with the help of a concrete example, our attempt at applying the capabilities approach to an information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) action

Dorothea Kleine; Ann Light; Maria-José Montero

2012-01-01

55

Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

1989-01-01

56

The Value of Public Transportation for Improving the Quality of Life for the Rural Elderly  

E-print Network

community is no longer able to drive, issues that come with living in a rural area may be exacerbated, and the individual may experience a decrease in their quality of life. Although individuals may be able to use public transportation most existing options...

Israel, Alicia Ann

2012-07-16

57

Exploring the Effects of Television Viewing on Perceived Life Quality: A Combined Perspective of Material Value and Upward Social Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

American television programs have been criticized for being filled with images endorsing capitalist consumerism and for being weighted toward the upper middle classes. This study proposed that heavy viewing of these distorted representations may culminate in decreases in viewers' life satisfaction. A path model investigated this supposition, based on material value and social comparison perspectives. Surveys were administered to 225

Hyeseung Yang; Mary Beth Oliver

2010-01-01

58

Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees  

PubMed Central

Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

2011-01-01

59

Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

2013-04-01

60

Measuring the Value of Statistical Life: Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials among Workers in India  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Policy makers confronted with the need to introduce health and safety regulations often wonder how to value the benefits of these regulations. One way that a monetary value could be placed on reductions in health risks, including risk of death, is through understanding how people are compensated for the different risks they take. While there is an…

Madheswaran, S.

2007-01-01

61

[The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].  

PubMed

The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

2014-01-01

62

EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

63

Women's Pursuit of Personal Goals in Daily Life With Fibromyalgia: A Value-Expectancy Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty-nine women with fibromyalgia completed the Life Orientation Test, identified health and social goals, and answered questions from the Goal Systems Assessment Battery (P. Karoly & L. Ruehlman, 1995) about their valuation of, and self-efficiency in attaining, each goal. For 30 days, they responded to palm-top computer interviews about their pain and fatigue and rated their goal effort, goal progress,

Glenn Affleck; Howard Tennen; Alex Zautra; Susan Urrows; Micha Abeles; Paul Karoly

2001-01-01

64

The adaptive value of gluttony: predators mediate the life history trade-offs of satiation threshold.  

PubMed

Animals vary greatly in their tendency to consume large meals. Yet, whether or how meal size influences fitness in wild populations is infrequently considered. Using a predator exclusion, mark-recapture experiment, we estimated selection on the amount of food accepted during an ad libitum feeding bout (hereafter termed 'satiation threshold') in the wolf spider Schizocosa ocreata. Individually marked, size-matched females of known satiation threshold were assigned to predator exclusion and predator inclusion treatments and tracked for a 40-day period. We also estimated the narrow-sense heritability of satiation threshold using dam-on-female-offspring regression. In the absence of predation, high satiation threshold was positively associated with larger and faster egg case production. However, these selective advantages were lost when predators were present. We estimated the heritability of satiation threshold to be 0.56. Taken together, our results suggest that satiation threshold can respond to selection and begets a life history trade-off in this system: high satiation threshold individuals tend to produce larger egg cases but also suffer increased susceptibility to predation. PMID:20840307

Pruitt, J N; Krauel, J J

2010-10-01

65

Reference values for the Quality of Life Index in the general Swedish population 18–80 years of age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The aim in the present study was to establish underlying dimensions of quality of life in Sweden, measured by QLI, and to\\u000a obtain reference values among a representative sample between 18 and 80 years of age from the general Swedish population.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  A total of 1,680 randomly selected persons completed the questionnaire (57% response rate). All data were coded and entered\\u000a into

Mats T. Gullberg; Gunilla Hollman-Frisman; Anna-Christina Ek

2010-01-01

66

Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?  

PubMed

The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being. PMID:24749643

Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

2014-08-01

67

New value packing technology extends service life  

SciTech Connect

New packing techniques can extend packing life and retain low stem leakage. The HPI can use these designs to avoid mandatory monitoring and repair schedules for valves that exceed the 500-ppm emission threshold. New EPA leakage limits will enforce monitoring and maintenance programs if more than 2% of the facility's valves exceed this limit. Because valves are dynamic, their control actions are prone to leakage. Also, the best fire-resistant packing material, graphite, has inherent deficiencies such as high compression stress and a high-friction coefficient that shortens its service life. Four basic principles overcome graphite packing's shortcomings for control valve applications. Examples show how these criteria improve sliding stem and rotary valve performance. Incorporating these principles into valve-packing designs can ensure long, low-maintenance service life, and the added benefit of low leakage. Graphite is a very important packing material for the HPI. Unlike fluoropolymer (e.g., PTFE) packing, graphite can tolerate high process temperature without decomposing or losing its sealing properties. More importantly, graphite packing is fire safe. It can survive a fire without a catastrophic failure that could add more flammable materials.

Miller, M.; Jackson, R. (Fisher Controls International, Inc., Marshalltown, IA (United States))

1993-10-01

68

Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value of a Statistical Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred, this institutional change provides an opportunity to estimate

Orley Ashenfelter; Michael Greenstone

2004-01-01

69

Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

2011-01-01

70

Structural Uncertainty and the Value of Statistical Life in the Economics of Catastrophic Climate Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using climate change as a prototype motivating example, this paper analyzes the implications of structural uncertainty for the economics of low-probability high-impact catastrophes. The paper shows that having an uncertain multiplicative parameter, which scales or amplifies exogenous shocks and is updated by Bayesian learning, induces a critical \\

Martin L. Weitzman

2007-01-01

71

Valuing the Welfare Cost of Forest Fires: a Life Satisfaction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable natural resource management is at the core of the policy agenda, given the wide array of goods and services environmental resources generate, that significantly contribute to social welfare and productive capacity of modern economies. Likewise, there is a large policy interest in the monetization of the economic effects of environmental damages, to enable the design of response and mitigation

Kyriaki Remoundou

2011-01-01

72

The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

Razumnikova, O. M.

2005-01-01

73

An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

2013-04-01

74

Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors  

EPA Science Inventory

USEPA?s Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

75

Inherent Variation in Stable Isotope Values and Discrimination Factors in Two Life Stages of Green Turtles  

E-print Network

of Green Turtles * Corresponding author; e-mail: hvz@ufl.edu. Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 85 Archie Carr Center for Sea Turtle Research and Department of Biology, University of Florida, P.O. Box 118525, Gainesville, Florida 32611; 2 Cayman Turtle Farm, P.O. Box 812, Grand Cayman KY1-1301, Cayman

76

Life experience and the value-free foundations of Blumer's collective behavior theory.  

PubMed

Herbert Blumer stated throughout his long career that his ideas regarding collective behavior originated with his introduction to pragmatist philosophy under the auspices of G. H. Mead at the University of Chicago. Blumer's biography, however, presents a different picture. Firsthand experiences with mob behavior, collective outrage, and the fallout associated with Blumer's public utterances early in his career may have had significant impact on the eventual corpus of collective behavior. PMID:21462195

Keys, David; Maratea, R J

2011-01-01

77

Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute' criterion) was calculated as 0.75 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CMC = e(0.8403 ? ln(hardness)-3.572) where the 'ln hardness' is the natural logarithm of the water hardness. Likewise, the criterion continuous concentration (CCC, or 'chronic' criterion) was calculated as 0.37 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CCC = (e(0.6247 ? ln(hardness)-3.384)) ? (1.101672 - ((ln hardness) ? 0.041838))). Using data that were independent of those used to derive the criteria, the criteria concentrations were evaluated to estimate whether adverse effects were expected to the biological integrity of natural waters or to selected species listed as threatened or endangered. One species was identified that would not be fully protected by the derived CCC, the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Exposure to CCC conditions likely would lead to population decreases in Hyalella azteca, the food web consequences of which probably would be slight if macroinvertebrate communities were otherwise diverse. Some data also suggested adverse behavioral changes are possible in fish following long-term exposures to low levels of cadmium, particularly in char (genus Salvelinus). Although ambiguous, these data indicate a need to periodically review the literature on behavioral changes in fish following metals exposure as more information becomes available. Most data reviewed indicated that criteria conditions were unlikely to contribute to overt adverse effects to either biological integrity or listed species. If elevated cadmium concentrations that approach the chronic criterion values occur in ambient waters, careful biological monitoring of invertebrate and fish assemblages would be prudent to validate the prediction that the assemblages would not be adversely affected by cadmium at criterion concentrations.

Mebane, Christopher A.

2006-01-01

78

The Value of LifeAn Argument for the Death Penalty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminologists have generally attacked capital punishment and have argued for its abolition. They contend (1) that there is no evidence showing the superior general deterrent effectiveness of the death penalty, (2) that the death penalty has been applied discriminatorily in the past, (3) that innocent persons may be executed, (4) that the public does not want a constitutionally acceptable form

Marlene W. Lehtinen

1977-01-01

79

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY PAYBACK TIMES AND NET ENERGY PRODUCTION VALUE  

E-print Network

LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PERFORMANCE MONOCRYSTALLINE SILICON PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS: ENERGY performance, energy rating, c-Si, cost reduction 1 INTRODUCTION Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is a framework for transparent and well-balanced LCA of all PV technologies, under the auspices of the International Energy

80

Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment.  

PubMed

Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90?Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

2015-03-01

81

Health-related quality of life measured by the UW-QoL--reference values from a general dental practice.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to obtain age and sex-specific reference values for the University of Washington head and neck cancer questionnaire version 4 (UW-QoLv4) and to compare this with patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Cross-sectional reference data was collected from 372 patients in six local general dental practices, 349 of whom presented for routine appointments. Quota sampling was used to collect data for similar numbers of patients by gender by four age bands (40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 yr). The longitudinal sample consisted of 450 consecutive patients undergoing primary surgery for previously untreated oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma presenting to the Regional Maxillofacial Unit Liverpool, between the years 1995 and 2002. At baseline the key differences were anxiety, pain, swallowing, chewing, and mood. At 1yr there were big differences in all domains with deterioration in the oral cancer group. The difference was least notable in pain, shoulder, mood and anxiety. Reference data from a non-cancer population is very important when considering UW-QoL domains as an outcome parameter in clinical trials and also when discussing health-related quality of life outcomes with patients and their families. PMID:16263326

Rogers, S N; O'donnell, J P; Williams-Hewitt, S; Christensen, J C; Lowe, D

2006-03-01

82

Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value.  

PubMed

Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar-acid-ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

Klatt, Björn K; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-01-22

83

Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value  

PubMed Central

Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

Klatt, Björn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

2014-01-01

84

Measuring and Valuing Health-Related Quality of Life among Children and Adolescents in Mainland China – A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Child Health Utility 9D (CHU9D), a new generic preference-based health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instrument, has been validated for use in young people in both the UK and Australia. The main objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility of using a Chinese version of the CHU9D (CHU9D-CHN) to assess HRQoL and to investigate the association of physical activity, homework hours and sleep duration with HRQoL in children and adolescents in Mainland China. Methods Data were collected using a multi-stage sampling method from grades 4–12 students in May 2013 in Nanjing, China. Consenting participants (N?=?815) completed a self-administered questionnaire including the CHU9D-CHN instrument and information on physical activity, homework and sleep duration, self-reported health status, and socio-demographic characteristics. Descriptive and multivariate linear regression analyses were undertaken. CHU9D-CHN utility scores were generated by employing two scoring algorithms currently available for the instrument, the first derived from UK adults utilising the standard gamble (SG) valuation method and the second derived from Australian adolescents utilising the best-worst scaling (BWS) method. Results It was found that CHU9D utility scores discriminated well in relation to self-reported health status and that better health status was significantly associated with higher utility scores regardless of which scoring algorithm was employed (both p<0.001). The adjusted mean utilities were significantly higher for physically active than inactive students (0.023 by SG, 0.029 by BWS scoring methods, p<0.05). An additional hour of doing homework and sleep duration were, separately, associated with mean utilities of ?0.019 and 0.032 based on SG, and ?0.021 and 0.040 according to BWS scoring algorithms (p<0.01). Conclusion The CHU9D-CHN shows promise for measuring and valuing the HRQoL of children and adolescents in China. Levels of self-reported physical activity, homework and sleep time were important influencers of utility scores. PMID:24586607

Stevens, Katherine; Zhou, HaiRong; Qi, ShengXiang; Wang, ZhiYong; Hong, Xin; Chen, XuPeng; Yang, HuaFeng; Wang, ChenChen; Ratcliffe, Julie

2014-01-01

85

Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey  

PubMed Central

Background The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of these values with quality of life using M. Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values scale. M.Rokeach distinguished terminal values (such as world peace, wisdom, and happiness), which are preferred end-states of existence, and instrumental values (such as responsibility and cooperation), which are preferred modes of conduct. Methods We performed a representative anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of nurses working in regional hospitals of Lithuania. The nurses who participated in the study were distributed into four work cohorts: the Veterans, the Baby Boomers, the Generation Xers, and the Generation Nexters. The majority of the nurses belonged to the Baby Boomers and the Generation Xers cohorts. Since in Lithuania, like in the whole Europe, the representatives of the Baby Boomers generation are predominating among working people, we selected this cohort (N = 387) for the analysis. The survey data was processed using the SPSS statistical software package Results The main values in life were family security, tranquility, and a sense of accomplishment. However, such values as true friendship, equality, and pleasurable and leisured life were seen as rather insignificant. The most important instrumental values were honesty, skillfulness, and responsibility. Our study showed a statistically significant (albeit weak) correlation between the QOL and terminal values such as the sense of accomplishment, tranquility, equality, and pleasure, as well as the instrumental value – obedience. We detected a statistically significant relationship between good QOL and satisfaction with oneself, relationships with the surrounding people, and friends' support. Conclusion The findings of our study showed that, although Lithuania was under a totalitarian regime for 50 years, both the terminal and the instrumental values of the Baby Boomers generation are very similar to those of the same generation in other countries. PMID:17996067

Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Jakusovaite, Irayda

2007-01-01

86

CALORIFIC VALUES IN THE PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POTENTIAL ENERGY, MODE OF LIFE AND THE EVOLUTION OF ENTOPARASITISM  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of the calorific values (kcal\\/g) of seventeen species of animals from six phyla has shown that they have a skewed distribution with a modal fre quency at or near the lower range limit (Slobodkin and Richman, 1%1 ) . This was regarded as support for the hypothesis that natural selection generally favors production of the maximum number of

P. CALOW; J. B. JENNINGS

87

76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...present value of the annuity as of D's date of death, if either: S agrees to roll over the corpus portion of each payment to a QDOT and the executor files the Information Statement described in paragraph (c)(5) of this section and the Roll Over...

2011-08-10

88

Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys  

PubMed Central

Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

2011-01-01

89

Asset Liability Management - A way to maximise Stakeholder Values in Life Assurance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper considers Asset Liability Management (ALM) as a tool to improve a life company's profitability. The increasing impact from macroeconomic developments on life companies balance sheets (e.g. through new accounting regulations), can be more efficiently managed by market value based techniques for risk adjustments. The expected development of stakeholder values according to set strategic objectives, as well as

Mats Åke Berg

90

Selective Reproduction: Social and Temporal Imaginaries for Negotiating the Value of Life in Human and Animal Neonates.  

PubMed

This article employs a multi-species perspective in investigating how life's worth is negotiated in the field of neonatology in Denmark. It does so by comparing decision-making processes about human infants in the Danish neonatal intensive care unit with those associated with piglets who serve as models for the premature infants in research experiments within neonatology. While the comparison is unusual, the article argues that there are parallels across the decision-making processes that shape the lives and deaths of infants and pigs alike. Collectivities or the lack thereof as well as expectations within linear or predictive time frames are key markers in both sites. Exploring selective reproductive processes across human infants and research piglets can help us uncover aspects of the cultural production of viability that we would not otherwise see or acknowledge. PMID:25359420

Svendsen, Mette N

2014-10-31

91

The value of the qualitative method for adaptation of a disease-specific quality of life assessment instrument: the case of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL) in Estonia  

PubMed Central

Background Due to differences in current socio-economical situation and historically shaped values, different societies have their own concepts of high-quality life. This diversity of concepts interferes with quality of life (Qol) research in health sciences. Before deciding to apply a Qol assessment tool designed in and for another society, a researcher should answer the question: how will this instrument work under the specific circumstances of my research. Our study represents an example of the utilization of qualitative research methods to investigate the appropriateness of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQol) for the assessment of Qol in Estonian patients. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of Tartu University Hospital and these were analyzed using the principles of the grounded theory. Results We described the significance of the questionnaire's items for our patients and also identified topics that were important for the Qol of Estonian RA patients, but that were not assessed by the RAQol. We concluded that the RAQol can be successfully adapted for Estonia; the aspects of Qol not captured by the questionnaire but revealed during our study should be taken into account in future research. Conclusions Our results show that qualitative research can successfully be used for pre-adaptation assessment of a Qol instrument's appropriateness. PMID:15579209

Tammaru, Marika; Strömpl, Judit; Maimets, Kadri; Hanson, Ele

2004-01-01

92

Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Surgery in Elderly People over 70 Years Old: Visual Acuity, Quality of Life, and Cost-Utility Values  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To evaluate the influence of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery on elderly patients in terms of visual acuity, vision-related quality of life and its cost-effectiveness. Methods Elderly patients over 70 years old, who were diagnosed and underwent RRD surgery at Shanghai First People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China, from January 1, 2009, through January 1, 2013. The participants received scleral buckling surgery and vitreous surgery with or without scleral buckling under retrobulbar anesthesia. We followed the patients for 1 year and collected best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), vision-related quality of life, and direct medical costs data. Utility values elicited by time-trade-off were analyzed to determine the quality of life. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained in life expectancy were calculated and discounted at 3% annually. Costs per QALY gained were reported using the bootstrap method. Further analyses were made for two age groups, age 70–79 and age over 80 years. Sensitivity analyses were performed to test stability of the results. Results 98 patients were included in the study. The BCVA significantly improved by 0.53±0.44 (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR)) at the 1-year postoperative time point (p<0.001). Utility values increased from 0.77 to 0.84 (p<0.001), and an average of 0.4 QALYs were gained in the life expectancy. Costs per QALY gained from the RRD surgery were 33,186 Chinese Yuan (CNY) (5,276 US dollars (USD))/QALY; 24,535 CNY (3,901 USD)/QALY for the age group of 70–79 years and 71,240 CNY (11,326 USD)/QALY for the age group over 80 years. Conclusions RRD surgery improved the visual acuity and quality of life in the elderly patients over 70 years old. According to the World Health Organization’s recommendation, at a threshold of willingness to pay of 115,062 CNY (18,293 USD)/QALY, RRD surgery is cost effective in the elderly patients. PMID:25330168

Zou, Haidong; Xu, Xiaocheng; Liu, Haiyun; Bai, Lin; Xu, Xun; Zhang, Xi

2014-01-01

93

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.  

PubMed

Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. PMID:19686005

Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

2009-09-01

94

The Gift of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mother of a young child with a life-threatening respiratory disorder recounts her personal growth in learning lessons of acceptance, the value of each moment, the courage to change, and love. (DB)

Miller, Lori G.

1990-01-01

95

The assessment of health-related quality of life in relation to the body mass index value in the urban population of Belgrade  

PubMed Central

Background The association between excess body weight, impairment of health and different co-morbidities is well recognized; however, little is known on how excess body weight may affect the quality of life in the general population. Our study investigates the relationship between perceived health-related quality of life (HRQL) and body mass index (BMI) in the urban population of Belgrade. Methods The research was conducted during 2005 on a sample of 5,000 subjects, with a response of 63.38%. The study sample was randomly selected and included men and women over 18 years of age, who resided at the same address over a period of 10 years. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and nutritional status was categorized using the WHO classification. HRQL was measured using the SF-36 generic score. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare HRQL between subjects with normal weight and those with different BMI values; we monitored subject characteristics and potential co-morbidity. Results The prevalence of overweight males and females was 46.6% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 7.5% in males and 8.5% in females. All aspects of health, except mental, were impaired in males who were obese. The physical and mental wellbeing of overweight males was not significantly affected; all score values were similar to those in subjects with normal weight. By contrast, obese and overweight females had lower HRQL in all aspects of physical functioning, as well as in vitality, social functioning and role-emotional. Conclusion The results of our study show that, in the urban population of Belgrade, increased BMI has a much greater impact on physical rather than on mental health, irrespective of subject gender; the effects were particularly pronounced in obese individuals. PMID:19040759

Vasiljevic, Nadja; Ralevic, Sonja; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola; Maksimovic, Milos; Milosevic, Gorica Sbutega; Tomic, Jelena

2008-01-01

96

Exploring the affective dimension of the life review process: Facilitators' interactional strategies for fostering personhood and social value among older adults with early dementia.  

PubMed

We employed an auto-ethnography approach to explore the affective dimension of life review sessions with community-dwelling older military veterans with minor cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia. Using researchers' analytic memos, we identified facilitators' interactional strategies that fostered the participant's sense of personal identity, dignity and social self-worth. Interaction among participant, caregiver, and facilitators evoked a range of emotional responses, offering a window into the affective world of MCI and early dementia. Positive emotional responses outnumbered negative emotional responses by a ratio of two-to-one in the life review sessions; however, negative emotions were more revelatory of current struggles with declines in health and function. Facilitators utilized two interactional strategies, in particular, to foster personhood and social value of participants: focusing on the participant and creating an empathic connection with the participant. Further work is needed to understand the role of emotions in research interactions and to examine the psychosocial mechanisms through which positive affect functions in promoting identity, personhood and social value among persons with MCI and early dementia. PMID:24339069

Williams, Beverly R; Blizard, Tracie I; Goode, Patricia S; Harada, Caroline N; Woodby, Lesa L; Burgio, Kathryn L; Sims, Richard V

2013-03-19

97

Exploring traditional end-of-life beliefs, values, expectations, and practices among Chinese women living in England: Informing culturally safe care.  

PubMed

Objective: This study explores the end-of-life (EoL) beliefs, values, practices, and expectations of a select group of harder-to-reach Chinese women living in England. Method: A cultural safety approach was undertaken to interpret 11 in-depth, semistructured interviews. Interviews were conducted in Mandarin and Cantonese. Transcripts were translated and back-translated by two researchers. Findings were analyzed using the technical analytical principles of grounded theory. Results: The key themes generated from our analysis include: acculturation; differential beliefs and norms in providing care: family versus health services; language and communication; Eastern versus Western spiritual practices and beliefs; and dying, death, and the hereafter. Significance of Results: End-of-life discussions can be part of an arduous, painful, and uncomfortable process, particularly for migrants living on the margins of society in a new cultural setting. For some Chinese people living in the United Kingdom, end-of-life care requires attention to acculturation, particularly Western versus Eastern beliefs on religion, spirituality, burial practices, and provision of care, and the availability of culturally specific care, all of which encompass issues related to gender. Stories of a purposive sample of Chinese women were viewed through a cultural safety lens to gain a deeper understanding of how social and cultural norms and expectations, in addition to the pressures of acculturation, impact gendered roles and responsibilities. The analysis revealed variations between/within Eastern and Western culture that resulted in pronounced, and oftentimes gendered, differences in EoL care expectations. PMID:25346037

Fang, Mei Lan; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sixsmith, Judith; Wong, Louise Yuen Ming; Callender, Matthew

2014-10-27

98

The relationship between physician behaviors and blood gas values in the first hours of life--implications for "standards" of medical care for infants with respiratory distress.  

PubMed

It is standard practice for physicians to use blood gas (BG) evaluations when evaluating neonates with respiratory distress. In this study we addressed two questions: (1) What is the distribution of BG values in a population of infants receiving BG evaluation in the first 4 hours of life; and (2) How does the behavior of physicians correlate with BG values in these infants? We discuss the implications of our findings for claims about "standards" of medical care for newborn infants with respiratory distress. We reviewed medical records for 226 infants with birthweight > 2000 grams who were not intubated at the time of first BG determination. For 199 arterial samples, mean values were pH = 7.31 +/- 0.9 (SD); PaCO2 = 38.5 +/- 11.9 torr; PaO2 = 104 +/- 52 torr; and base excess (BE) = -6.5 +/- 3.8 mEq/L. These values did not differ significantly from previously published data for normal term infants without respiratory distress. However, the a/A ratio (0.45 +/- 0.19) for patients in our distressed population was significantly lower than reported for normal infants (0.65 +/- 0.10). For 186 infants admitted directly to our Newborn Intensive Care Unit, the elapsed time from birth to BG 1 was 1.07 +/- 0.64 hours. This value did not vary significantly as a function of severity of illness, assessed by pH, PaCO2, PaO2, a/A ratio, or BE. No blood gas parameter was simultaneously sensitive and specific for predicting subsequent mechanical ventilation. PaCo2 1 > 80 torr was associated with subsequent mechanical ventilation in 4 of 4 infants; however, the positive predictive value of PaCO2 1 was < 50% for levels below 80 torr, and only 4 of 22 infants eventually intubated were identified by a value of PaCO2 1 > 80 torr. The power of "abnormal" values of PaO2, a/A ratio, pH, or BE to predict subsequent intubation was even lower than PaCO2. Jurors in medical malpractice cases are instructed to define negligence as a deviation from the "skill and care ordinarily used in similar cases," and to determine the existence or absence of negligence guided by the testimony of "expert" witnesses. Recognizing that anecdotal recall of experience, even by "experts," may be inaccurate and is often systematically biased (the "Monday morning quarterback" phenomenon), we propose that the testimony of expert witnesses ought to conform, whenever possible, to a data-based description of medical care that actually is "ordinary used in similar circumstances". Our current observations suggest that (1) expert opinions of the "standard" to evaluate neonatal respiratory distress with a BG sample should reflect that the time scale is 1 to 2 hours, not 10 to 20 minutes; and (2) expert opinions that "abnormal" BG values either "require" or "preclude" intubation for most newborn infants with respiratory distress find little support in data. Clinical observation, not BG values, appears to be the most powerful "standard" by which physicians determine whether to initiate mechanical ventilation for newborn infants with respiratory distress. PMID:8989475

Meadow, W; Mendez, D; Hipps, R; Vakharia, T; Husein, G; Lantos, J

1996-11-01

99

The value of valuing nature  

E-print Network

,  challenges  arise  in  the  relationship  between  ecological  processes  and  the  delivery  of  ecosystem  services.  The  question  of  how  many  species  (and  how  much  genetic  diversity)  can  be...  the  ecosystem  (such  as  rare  species).  For  example,  in  Maryland,  USA,  stream  channels  were  reengineered  to  provide  particular  services  from  streams  (storm  water  management  for...

Adams, W. M.

2014-10-31

100

The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning About Biodiversity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of fieldwork in a higher education context and present the results of a case study which illustrates its value to student learning and the wider student experience. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the impact of two learning tasks upon the affective and cognitive domains of students. We designed two tasks. One task that included fieldwork, and required students to collect organisms from the field and make labelled drawings of them, and one task that omitted the fieldwork and simply required drawing of specimens that the students had not collected. We evaluated the students' experience through structured and semi-structured questionnaires and written exercises. Students did not perceive the two tasks as being equivalent to one another. They reported that they enjoy fieldwork and value it (in the contexts of their learning at university, life-long learning, and in relation to their career aspirations) and felt that they learn more effectively in the field. Our students were better able to construct a taxonomic list of organisms that they had collected themselves, better able to recall the structural detail of these organisms and were better able to recall the detail of an ecological sampling methodology that they had personally carried out in the field rather than one that a tutor had described to them in a classroom setting. Our case study supports the growing body of evidence that fieldwork is an important way of enhancing undergraduate learning and highlights some key areas for future research.

Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

2012-02-01

101

AN EMPIRICAL BAYES APPROACH TO COMBINING ESTIMATES OF THE VALUE OF A STATISTICAL LIFE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ANALYSIS  

EPA Science Inventory

This analysis updates EPA's standard VSL estimate by using a more comprehensive collection of VSL studies that include studies published between 1992 and 2000, as well as applying a more appropriate statistical method. We provide a pooled effect VSL estimate by applying the empi...

102

On the Truly Noncooperative Game of Island Life: Introducing a Unified Theory of Value & Evolutionarily Stable Island Economic Development Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This discourse offers a solution to The Problem of Sustainable Economic Development on islands. This hypothesis offers a foundational, sub-game solution to The Island Survival Game, a counterintuitive, dominant economic development strategy for ‘islands’ (and relatively insular states). This discourse also tables conceptual building blocks, prerequisite analytical tools, and a guiding principle for The Earth Island Survival Game, a bounded

Matt Funk

2009-01-01

103

Asset\\/Liability Management of German Life Insurance Companies: A Value-at-Risk Approach in the Presence of Interest Rate Guarantees  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contribution analyzes the implications of two major determinants influencing the asset allocation decision of German life insurers, which are the capital market development on the one hand and the interest rate guarantees of the traditional life insurance policies on the other hand. The adverse development of the stock prices between 2000 and 2002 asks for a consideration of not

Peter Albrecht; Carsten Weber II

2003-01-01

104

Universal values of Canadian astronauts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

2012-11-01

105

Toward a Social Theory of Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new social theory of value must be developed because of the possibility of a world-wide emergency in the face of growing famine and pollution and an accompanying decline of moral values. This theory must have the life of all humanity and the life of our own culture as its ultimate values. (Author/RK)

Weigel, Elizabeth

1975-01-01

106

Highly efficient, long life, reusable and robust photosynthetic hybrid core-shell beads for the sustainable production of high value compounds.  

PubMed

An efficient one-step process to synthesize highly porous (Ca-alginate-SiO2-polycation) shell: (Na-alginate-SiO2) core hybrid beads for cell encapsulation, yielding a reusable long-life photosynthetically active material for a sustainable manufacture of high-value metabolites is presented. Bead formation is based on crosslinking of an alginate biopolymer and mineralisation of silicic acid in combination with a coacervation process between a polycation and the silica sol, forming a semi-permeable external membrane. The excellent mechanical strength and durability of the monodispersed beads and the control of their porosity and textural properties is achieved by tailoring the silica and alginate loading, polycation concentration and incubation time during coacervation. This process has led to the formation of a remarkably robust hybrid material that confers exceptional protection to live cells against sheer stresses and contamination in a diverse range of applications. Dunaliella tertiolecta encapsulated within this hybrid core-shell system display high photosynthetic activity over a long duration (>1year). This sustainable biotechnology could find use in high value chemical harvests and biofuel cells to photosynthetic solar cells (energy transformation, electricity production, water splitting technologies). Furthermore the material can be engineered into various forms from spheres to variable thickness films, broadening its potential applications. PMID:25721859

Desmet, Jonathan; Meunier, Christophe; Danloy, Emeric; Duprez, Marie-Eve; Lox, Frédéric; Thomas, Diane; Hantson, Anne-Lise; Crine, Michel; Toye, Dominique; Rooke, Joanna; Su, Bao-Lian

2015-06-15

107

The Boat People and Achievement in America. A Study of Family Life, Hard Work, and Cultural Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A longitudinal study of the economic self-sufficiency and academic achievement of Indochinese refugees, commonly known as "Boat People," concludes that cultural background and family influence play key roles in achievement in American society. Statistical data were drawn from two surveys of 6,775 individuals in 1,384 Chinese, Laotian, and…

Caplan, Nathan; And Others

108

Risk Perceptions and Value of a Statistical Life for Air Pollution and Traffic Accidents: Evidence from Bangkok, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents results of two contingent valuation surveys conducted in Bangkok measuring individuals’ willingness to pay (WTP) to reduce mortality risk arising from two risk contexts: air pollution traffic accidents Results from the risk perception survey disclose that respondents view the two risks differently. WTP to reduce air pollution risk is influenced by degrees of dread, severity, controllability and

Sujitra Vassanadumrongdee; Shunji Matsuoka

2005-01-01

109

Predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life in Croatian soldiers: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Aim To determine the predictive value of dental readiness and psychological dimensions for oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in Croatian soldiers. Methods The sample consisted of 402 consecutive soldiers aged 21 to 54 years classified into the following groups according to dental readiness: Class 1 – not requiring dental treatment (N?=?54), Class 2 – unlikely to need emergency treatment within 12 months (N?=?205), and Class 3 – very likely to need treatment within 12 months (N?=?143). OHRQoL was assessed by the Oral Health Impact Profile and psychological dimensions by the Brief Symptom Inventory and Dental Anxiety Scale. Results Multivariate analysis showed that Class 3 soldiers had higher frequency of psychological discomfort, psychological disability, and physical pain and handicap than Class 1 soldiers (P?=?0.019). Multiple linear regression showed that longer military experience, higher level of dental anxiety, and dental unreadiness were significant predictors of lower OHRQoL (P?of the single psychological symptomatic dimensions was a significant predictor of OHRQoL. Conclusion Although this study found a moderate association between OHRQoL and clinical, military, demographic, and psychological variables, the significant predictors could be used as a basis for further research of clinical and psychosocial factors of OHRQoL. PMID:23100208

Špalj, Stjepan; Peri?, Davorka; Mlacovi? Zrinski, Magda; Bulj, Martina; Plan?ak, Darije

2012-01-01

110

School of Life Sciences 1 Life Sciences  

E-print Network

School of Life Sciences · 1 School of Life Sciences Undergraduate Brochure Biological Sciences Biochemistry Biomedical Science Medical Microbiology and Virology #12;School of Life Sciences · 3 Welcome to the School of Life Sciences The School of Life Sciences provides excellent teaching, delivered by world

Davies, Christopher

111

Ecovillages, values, and interactive technology: balancing sustainability with daily life in 21st century america  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project seeks to provide a rich account of the adaptive process that occurs as individuals with explicit value commitments interact with information technology. Specifically, ethnographic methods are being used to investigate the information technology adaptive process as it unfolds in the daily life of two ecovillages, communities made up of individuals striving to balance their use of technology with

Lisa P. Nathan

2008-01-01

112

The Adolescent with a Hearing Disability: Value Orientations, Life Plans, Social Relations. An Empirical Survey.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the findings of a survey of deaf and hearing-impaired Russian students in the upper grades that investigates the ways in which these two groups deal with their hearing impairment in both school and out-of-school worlds. Focuses on the value orientations and life plans of the students including their family, professional, and educational…

Sobkin, Vladimir Samuilovich

1998-01-01

113

Gender Differences in Adolescent Academic Achievement, Interests, Values and Life-Role Expectations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The objective of this research was to investigate adolescent gender and age differences in perceptions of academic achievement, interests, values and future life role choices. A survey based on the Eccles Model of Achievement Related Choices was administered to 1419 students. Results indicated that younger students were generally more positive…

Lupart, Judy L.; Cannon, Elizabeth; Telfer, Jo Ann

2004-01-01

114

The Adolescent with a Hearing Disability: Value Orientations, Life Plans, Social Relations. An Empirical Survey (Continued).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concludes the findings from a survey that investigated how deaf and hearing-impaired Russian students in the upper grades deal with their hearing impairment in both their school and out-of-school worlds. Examines the value orientations and the emotional assessment of life plans through the prism of the students' attitudes toward their disability.…

Sobkin, Vladimir Samuilovich

1998-01-01

115

The Teaching of Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews prior approaches to instilling values so as to discuss the importance of teaching values now. Suggests how student affairs preparation program curricula can help practitioners learn how to teach values. Identifies five recent changes in campus values and uses examples to show how student affairs practitioners use core values. (RJM)

Moore, Leila V.; Hamilton, Deborah H.

1993-01-01

116

Community Action in Appalachia. Unit 4, Family Life Styles, Social Participation, and Socio-Cultural Change. (Profiles of Selected Knox County Families-Patterns of Family Behavior, Belief and Value Systems and Their Relation to Participation in Community Action Programs.)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Profiles of selected Knox County families, patterns of family behavior, belief and value systems, and participation in community action programs were studied. A purposive sample of 131 intact families was studied to discover features of the family life styles of 3 categorical types: 39 participating poor (PP) families, 56 non-participating poor…

Gladden, James W.

117

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKPEA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition, via food, is a necessity of human life. Humans must obtain the appropriate types of nutrients from the diet, in varying amounts throughout the lifecycle, to adequately sustain life. Food provides energy, essential macro- and micronutrients required for growth, tissue maintenance and the r...

118

Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of

Aurelija Blazeviciene; Irayda Jakusovaite

2007-01-01

119

Five Values of Giftedness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

2011-01-01

120

Quality of life and functional status in patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx: pretreatment values of a prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the pretreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of patients with advanced oral and\\u000a oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty patients were investigated. HRQOL was assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30\\/QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires. Functional\\u000a status assessment comprised speech and oral function tests. The results revealed a wide range of HRQOL and functional deficits\\u000a before treatment. HRQOL appeared to be related to some

Pepijn A. Borggreven; Irma M. Verdonck-de Leeuw; Martin J. Muller; Milou L. C. H. Heiligers; Remco de Bree; Neil K. Aaronson; C. René Leemans

2007-01-01

121

Prognostic value of the six-minute walk test in end-stage renal disease life expectancy: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The six-minute walk test has been widely used to evaluate functional capacity and predict mortality in several populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the six-minute walk test for the life expectancy of end-stage renal disease patients. METHODS: Patients over 18 years old who underwent hemodialysis for at least six months were included. Patients with hemodynamic instability, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical incapacity and acute myocardial stroke in the preceding three months were excluded. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (54% males; 36±11 years old) were followed for 144 months. The distance walked in the six-minute walk test was a survival predictor for end-stage renal disease patients. In the multivariate analysis, for each 100 meters walked with a 100-meter increment, the hazard ratio was 0.53, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37-0.74. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked in the six-minute walk test and peak oxygen consumption (r?=?0.508). In the multivariate analysis, each year of dialysis treatment represented a 10% increase in death probability; in the severity index analysis, each point on the scale represented an 11% increase in the death risk. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that survival increased approximately 5% for every 100 meters walked in the six-minute walk test, demonstrating that the test is a viable option for evaluating the functional capacity in patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:22760895

de Moraes Kohl, Leandro; Signori, Luis Ulisses; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Silva, Antonio Marcos Vargas; Moreira, Paulo Ricardo; Dipp, Thiago; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Lukrafka, Janice Luisa; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa

2012-01-01

122

Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of the human…

Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

123

A Cross-Cultural Study of Assortative Pairing for Sensational Interests, Mate Value, Life History, and Delinquency Un estudio transcultural sobre apareamiento selectivo según Intereses sensacionalistas, valor como pareja, historia de vida y delincuencia  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether sensational interests (SIQ-R), mate value (MVI), or life history strategy (Mini-K) drive assortative pairing between indivi- duals on delinquency (D-20), independently sampled pairs of opposite-sex romantic partners and pairs of same-sex friends rated both themsel- ves and each other on these traits. Whereas assortative mating has been defined as \\

Figueredo Aurelio José

124

The value of superstitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper estimates the value of superstitions by studying the auctions of vehicle license plates. We show that the value of superstitions is economically significant, which justifies their persistence in human civilization. We also document the changes of the value of superstitions across different types of plates, across different policy regimes, and across different macroeconomic environments. Interestingly, some of the

Travis Ng; Terence Chongy; Xin Du

2010-01-01

125

EVALUATION OF HUMAN COST OF NON-FATAL TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS BASED ON THE STATISTICAL VALUE OF LIFE USING STANDARD GAMBLING SURVEY ON WEB  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to propose a method to estimate of human cost in monetary terms for slight casualties and serious casualties consisting as a result of traffic accidents. In order to estimate the value, a questionnaire survey of \\

Jing JING; Hideo Yamanaka; Eiji Tamura

126

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay  

E-print Network

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated using latest (more reliable and precise) values for phase space factor. Finally, previous results (PRC 81 (2010) 035501) were up-dated and results for $^{136}$Xe were added.

Barabash, A S

2015-01-01

127

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay  

E-print Network

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated using latest (more reliable and precise) values for phase space factor. Finally, previous results (PRC 81 (2010) 035501) were up-dated and results for $^{136}$Xe were added.

A. S. Barabash

2015-01-21

128

Technological Forms of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

E THINK so naturally in terms of the notion of 'forms of life', that it is difficult to obtain any distance on the notion. Ludwig Wittgen- stein made the concept of 'forms of life' rather common currency across a range of scholarly disciplines. Indeed, in academic talk and everyday talk we speak incessantly of life and forms of life. We

Scott Lash

2001-01-01

129

Brief Report: Valued Life Activities and Readiness to Quit Smoking among Mobility Impaired Smokers  

PubMed Central

Objective People with physical disabilities smoke at a higher rate than their non-disabled peers, with rates as high as 28–40% among non-elderly adults with functional impairments. One possible explanation for these findings is that restriction of valued life activities (social, professional, pleasurable or otherwise meaningful) due to mobility impairment interferes with smoking cessation. Methods Forty-seven smokers (48.9% female; Mage = 48.91) with chronic mobility impairments (i.e., regularly use equipment to ambulate) were interviewed over the telephone. We assessed demographics, self-efficacy to quit smoking, stage of change, current engagement in valued activities, current restriction of valued activities due to physical limitations, and efforts to replace restricted valued activities in a cross sectional design. Results Bivariate results indicate that 74% of those in the preparation stage had satisfactory replacements for their most valued restricted activity, while only 27% in the contemplation stage and 17% in the pre-contemplation stage had such satisfactory replacements. Multinomial ordinal regression analyses revealed that (a) having satisfactory replacements for activities restricted due to physical disability was significantly associated with higher stage of change and (b) more current valued activities and, to a lesser extent, fewer restricted activities were significantly associated with higher levels of self-efficacy to quit smoking. Conclusions These results support the need for the development of treatments for smoking cessation that aim to increase engagement in valued activities, such as Behavioral Activation. PMID:21875204

Busch, Andrew M.; Borrelli, Belinda

2011-01-01

130

Quality of life and functional status in patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx: pretreatment values of a prospective study.  

PubMed

We assessed the pretreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty patients were investigated. HRQOL was assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires. Functional status assessment comprised speech and oral function tests. The results revealed a wide range of HRQOL and functional deficits before treatment. HRQOL appeared to be related to some extent to tumor site (patients with oral tumors reported more pain compared to patients with oropharyngeal tumors) and tumor classification (patients with T3-T4 tumors reported more trouble opening the mouth and felt more ill compared to patients with T2 tumors). Comorbidity appeared to have a major impact. Patients with comorbidity had significantly worse scores on several scales/items on both the EORTC questionnaires. Functional deficits were related to tumor site, classification and comorbidity. Patients with oral cavity tumors (versus oropharyngeal tumors), patients with T3-T4 tumors (versus T2 tumors), and patients with comorbidity (versus without comorbidity) scored significantly worse on several speech and oral function tests. Impaired speech and oral function appeared to be clearly related to global quality of life (QLQ-C30) and self-reported speech (QLQ-H&N35). Many patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer have compromised HRQOL and functional status before the start of treatment. In addition to tumor site and tumor classification, comorbidity appears to have a major impact on HRQOL and functional status. Knowledge of pretreatment HRQOL and functional status levels is useful for better understanding the impact of treatment on these outcomes over time. PMID:17273840

Borggreven, Pepijn A; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Muller, Martin J; Heiligers, Milou L C H; de Bree, Remco; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

2007-06-01

131

Quality of life and functional status in patients with cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx: pretreatment values of a prospective study  

PubMed Central

We assessed the pretreatment health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and functional status of patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Eighty patients were investigated. HRQOL was assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-H&N35 questionnaires. Functional status assessment comprised speech and oral function tests. The results revealed a wide range of HRQOL and functional deficits before treatment. HRQOL appeared to be related to some extent to tumor site (patients with oral tumors reported more pain compared to patients with oropharyngeal tumors) and tumor classification (patients with T3–T4 tumors reported more trouble opening the mouth and felt more ill compared to patients with T2 tumors). Comorbidity appeared to have a major impact. Patients with comorbidity had significantly worse scores on several scales/items on both the EORTC questionnaires. Functional deficits were related to tumor site, classification and comorbidity. Patients with oral cavity tumors (versus oropharyngeal tumors), patients with T3–T4 tumors (versus T2 tumors), and patients with comorbidity (versus without comorbidity) scored significantly worse on several speech and oral function tests. Impaired speech and oral function appeared to be clearly related to global quality of life (QLQ-C30) and self-reported speech (QLQ-H&N35). Many patients with advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer have compromised HRQOL and functional status before the start of treatment. In addition to tumor site and tumor classification, comorbidity appears to have a major impact on HRQOL and functional status. Knowledge of pretreatment HRQOL and functional status levels is useful for better understanding the impact of treatment on these outcomes over time. PMID:17273840

Borggreven, Pepijn A.; Muller, Martin J.; Heiligers, Milou L. C. H.; de Bree, Remco; Aaronson, Neil K.; Leemans, C. René

2007-01-01

132

Impact of Different Partition Values on Prevalences of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Concentric Geometry in a Large Hypertensive Population The LIFE Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and concentric remodeling have been defined by using a variety of indexation methods and partition values (PVs) for LV mass and relative wall thickness (RWT). The effects of these methods on the distribution of LV geometric patterns in hypertensive subjects remain unclear. Echocardiograms were obtained in 941 patients with stage I to III hypertension and LV

Kristian Wachtell; Jonathan N. Bella; Philip R. Liebson; Eva Gerdts; Bjorn Dahlof; Tapio Aalto; Mary J. Roman; Vasilios Papademetriou; Hans Ibsen; Jens Rokkedal; Richard B. Devereux

2010-01-01

133

The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

Balch, Stephen H.

2006-01-01

134

The Value Relevance of Fair Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the value relevance of revalued tangible assets and its variation depending on industry, size of the\\u000a firm and age of revalued amounts. It examines the reaction of investors on the Romanian market, a developing market, in the\\u000a period of economic growth between 2003 and 2007, before Romania’s adherence to the European Union. Also, it suggests a model

Adela Deaconu; Anu?a Buiga; Cristina Silvia Nistor

2010-01-01

135

Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’  

PubMed Central

In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

2015-01-01

136

Health policy approaches to measuring and valuing human life: conceptual and ethical issues.  

PubMed Central

To achieve more cost-effective and equitable use of health resources, improved methods for defining disease burdens and for guiding resource allocations are needed by health care decision makers. Three approaches are discussed that use indicators that combine losses due to disability with losses due to premature mortality as a measure of disease burden. These indicators can also serve as outcome measures for health status in economic analyses. However, their use as tools for measuring and valuing human life raises important questions concerning the measurement of mortality and the multidimensions of morbidity; valuing of life, particularly regarding weighting productivity, dependency, age, and time-preference factors; and conflicts between equity and efficiency that arise in allocation decisions. Further refinement of these tools is needed to (1) incorporate national and local values into weighting; (2) elaborate methods for disaggregating calculations to assess local disease patterns and intervention packages; and (3) develop guidelines for estimating marginal effects and costs of interventions. Of utmost importance are methods that ensure equity while achieving reasonable efficiency. PMID:7573617

Morrow, R H; Bryant, J H

1995-01-01

137

Multiple origins of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

1983-01-01

138

Service system fundamentals: Work system, value chain, and life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Service systems produce all services of significance and scope, yet the concept of service system is not well articulated in the service literature. This paper presents three interrelated frameworks as a first cut at the fundamentals of service systems. These frameworks identify basic building blocks and organize important attributes and change processes that apply across all service systems. Although relevant

Steven Alter

2008-01-01

139

Value of Information References  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

140

Value of Information References  

SciTech Connect

This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

Morency, Christina

2014-12-12

141

World and Life or Education and the Question of Meaning (of Life).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines whether the human world is threatened by a decline in respect for life, questioning some of the convictions and assumptions which underlie this diagnosis and the concomitant demand for an education in the value of life. The paper discusses the meaning of life, human existence, the sacredness of life, and the question of meaning and…

Masschelein, Jan

1998-01-01

142

Are physicians' estimations of future events value-impregnated? Cross-sectional study of double intentions when providing treatment that shortens a dying patient's life.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to corroborate or undermine a previously presented conjecture that physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions. We used questionnaire based cross-sectional design and described a situation where an imminently dying patient was provided with alleviating drugs which also shortened life and, additionally, were intended to do so. We asked what would happen to physicians' own trust if they took the action described, and also what the physician estimated would happen to the general publics' trust in health services. Decrease of trust was used as surrogate for an undesirable action. The results are presented as proportions with a 95 % Confidence Interval (CI). Statistical analysis was based on inter-rater agreement (Weighted Kappa)-test as well as ? (2) test and Odds Ratio with 95 % CI. We found a moderate inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.552) between what would happen with the physicians' own trust in healthcare and their estimations of what would happen with the general population's trust. We identified a significant difference between being pro et contra the treatment with double intentions and the estimation of the general population's trust (?(2) = 72, df = 2 and p < 0.001). Focusing on either decreasing or increasing own trust and being pro or contra the action we identified a strong association [OR 79 (CI 25-253)]. Although the inter-rater agreement in the present study was somewhat weaker compared to a study about the explicit use of the term 'physicians assisted suicide' we found that our hypothesis-physicians' estimations of others' opinions are influenced by their own opinions-was corroborated. This might have implications in research as well as in clinical decision-making. We suggest that Merton's ideal of disinterestedness should be highlighted. PMID:24449290

Rydvall, Anders; Juth, Niklas; Sandlund, Mikael; Lynøe, Niels

2014-08-01

143

Value of Information spreadsheet  

DOE Data Explorer

This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

144

Value of Information spreadsheet  

SciTech Connect

This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

2014-05-12

145

Value of space defenses  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

Canavan, G.H.

1992-10-29

146

Comparing the effectiveness of acceptance-based behavior therapy and applied relaxation on acceptance of internal experiences, engagement in valued actions and quality of life in generalized anxiety disorder  

PubMed Central

Background: Acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) was developed based on the theory that generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is maintained through a reactive and fused relationship with internal experiences and a tendency toward experiential avoidance and behavioral restriction. ABBT specifically targets these elements. Here, we aimed to compare ABBT to the applied relaxation (AR), which is the most utilized psychological therapy for GAD. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial study. The sample included 18 GAD patients who were referred by an expert psychiatrist to Psychosomatic Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Patients were assigned into two groups (ABBT and AR group). Both groups received routine drug therapies by psychiatrists. The ABBT and AR were applied in 12 weekly sessions. The instruments used in the study included Valued Living Questionnaire, Action, and Acceptance Questionnaire, and Short-Form Health Survey-12 revised Version (SF-12V2). The data were analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance. Results: No significant differences were found between ABBT and AR groups in their acceptance of internal experiences, engagement in meaningful activities and quality of life (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The current study compared ABBT to the most utilized psychological therapy for GAD; i.e., AR. ABBT and AR have similar efficacy on acceptance of internal experiences, valued actions and quality of life. PMID:23914213

Zargar, Fatemeh; Farid, Ali Asghar Asgharnejad; Atef-Vahid, Mohammad-Kazem; Afshar, Hamid; Omidi, Abdollah

2013-01-01

147

Definition of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The definition of life is a long-standing debate with no general scientific consensus to be expected any time soon. The underlying problem is that living systems use compounds that are abundant in the surrounding environment and processes that are not intrinsically different from reactions that occur abiologically. There does not appear to exist a single characteristic property that is both intrinsic and unique to life. Rather we have to argue that life meets certain standards, or that it qualifies by the collective presence of a certain set of characteristics. The threshold for meeting this standard sounds arbitrary, and may well be arbitrary in the sense that life presumably arose through a long sequence of "emergent events", each at a greater level of molecular complexity and order (Hazen 2002). If that notion is correct, any rigid distinction between life and non-life is a matter of subjective judgment. While our everyday experience with life on Earth makes the distinction between the living and non-living for the most part unambiguous, a consideration of life on other worlds, where conditions may be different, and/or where life may have evolved from its inorganic precedents to a lesser degree, requires us to formulate a more formal and objective definition for life. Before doing so, we will first address the limitations of commonplace assumptions about what constitutes life.

Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

148

The Quality of Life in South Korea  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life

Park, Chong-Min

2009-01-01

149

The value of values Birmingham's got talent  

E-print Network

to learn about the University's research into character and values (page 40). I have also learnt about the wonderful new Bramall Music Building in all its splendour. This completes the Aston Webb semicircle-new sports centre which will be a fitting home for the University's participatory and elite sport. When

Birmingham, University of

150

The value of certification.  

PubMed

Certification is defined in the nursing literature in several ways; no one consistent definition of certification exists. Nursing specialty certification programs are intended for consumer protection. Certification protects the public by enabling consumers to identify competent people more readily. However, benefits for stakeholders other than patients and families are also described in the literature. This article describes the value of specialty certification from the perspective of the patient and family, nurse, and employer. PMID:21297389

Kaplow, Roberta

2011-01-01

151

The structure of value.  

PubMed

Keys to success in developing the right framework for delivering greater value in an era of reform include the following: Have a compelling vision. In evaluating potential partnerships, carefully consider the extent to which the organizations' cultures are aligned. Ensure that initiatives stay on course. Develop sustainable energy among leaders and staff through early wins. Measure patient, physician, and employee satisfaction before and after initiatives are implemented and respond accordingly. PMID:24511778

Daly, Rich

2014-01-01

152

The Life of Suggestions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

Pearce, Cathie

2010-01-01

153

The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of

Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

2008-01-01

154

Origin of Life  

E-print Network

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the fields of biochemistry, astrobiology, and astrophysics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle has been as mind-boggling as the riddle relating to evolution of Universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the Earth and elsewhere in the Universe, the issue remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life like abiogenesis, RNA World, Iron-sulphur World, and panspermia; and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the Earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Ashwini Kumar Lal

2012-01-16

155

Origin of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

Lal, Ashwini Kumar

2008-10-01

156

The value of reputation  

PubMed Central

Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

2012-01-01

157

Census of Marine Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Census of Marine Life is an initiative to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of marine life in the oceans in the past, present, and future. Materials available at the census site include news articles, press releases, and other media resources such as images and video. There is an overview of the project, information on partners and sponsors, and searchable databases of publications and participants. The educational materials page features illustrated articles on marine life discoveries, the use of research techniques and technology, and links to education and outreach programs of related organizations.

158

Quality of life: Its definition and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of quality of life is proposed that integrates objective and subjective indicators, a broad range of life domains, and individual values. It takes account of concerns that externally derived norms should not be applied without reference to individual differences. It also allows for objective comparisons to be made between the situations of particular groups and what is normative.

David Felce; Jonathan Perry

1995-01-01

159

Quantum Game of Life  

E-print Network

We introduce a quantum version of the Game of Life and we use it to study the emergence of complexity in a quantum world. We show that the quantum evolution displays signatures of complex behaviour similar to the classical one, however a regime exists, where the quantum Game of Life creates more complexity, in terms of diversity, with respect to the corresponding classical reversible one.

D. Bleh; T. Calarco; S. Montangero

2012-01-23

160

Every sign of life  

E-print Network

Every Sign of Life introduces an approach to and motivational schema for personal health monitoring. It is an exploration of how to make information collected by personal health-monitoring devices fun and engaging, and ...

Gerasimov, Vadim, 1969-

2003-01-01

161

End of Life Issues  

MedlinePLUS

... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

162

Life Cycle of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. In this lesson, students analyze characteristics that indicate human life cycles, then apply these principles to various NASA images of stars to synthesize patterns of stellar life cycles. This lesson contains expected outcomes for students, materials, background information, follow-up questions, and assessment procedures.

George Tuthill

163

Effects of carbon black on the fatigue life, critical J-value and fracture morphology and a new estimated equation for natural rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the fatigue lives and mechanical properties of the carbon black filled natural rubber for the vibration-proof\\u000a parts of the railway vehicle and automobile. The carbon blacks were one of the sources of crack nucleation and crack propagation\\u000a in the rubber matrix, like the cementite and the maganese sulfide in iron matrix. Different kinds of carbon blacks resulted

Jae-Hoon Kim; Hyun-Yong Jeong

2004-01-01

164

Quality of life : does measurement help?  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Quality of life’ is a very frequently applied concept nowadays. One may doubt whether everyone has the same connotation in mind while using this expression and why ‘quality of life’ attracts so much attention. Is the idea a very old one or is it a new and noble value? It is argued here that changes such as in the number

J. Bergsma; G. L. Engel

2006-01-01

165

Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

Bohn, Annette

2011-01-01

166

Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

2012-01-01

167

The Value Relevance of Equity Method Fair Value Disclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess the valuation implications of the fair value disclosures made for publicly traded securities accounted for under the equity method. We test the association between investors' stock price metrics and fair value disclosures while controlling for book values on a sample of 172 investor firm-years during 1993–1997. Our results indicate that the information in the fair value disclosures is

Roger C. Graham; Craig E. Lefanowicz; Kathy R. Petroni

2003-01-01

168

Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fun Web site is part of OLogy, where kids can collect virtual trading cards and create projects with them. Here, they explore the Tree of Life cladogram. The site begins with a brief explanation of cladograms and how the Tree of Life shows the relationship of all living things on Earth. A cladogram of fruit is used to demonstrate on a small scale how scientists use this tool to understand how things are similar and different. A portion of the Tree of Life cladogram is included, showing true bacteria, arthropods, mammals, and 11 other important groups of species. Students can mouse over the branching points to see what the subsets have in common. The site also includes a pie chart view that compares the relative size of the most important groups of species. Students can click on each group to learn its characteristics, known species, size range, and other important details.

169

Elderly people's definitions of quality of life.  

PubMed

The subject of this paper is the definition and measurement of the concept of quality of life, and questions the operationalization of quality of life simply in terms of health status measures and scales of functional ability. It is based on a review of the literature, and the initial analyses of the first stage of a study designed to identify individual's views of the quality of their lives and to test the relevance of various scales used to measure quality of life. The study focuses on older people living at home in two contrasting areas of south east England, and demonstrates not only that older people can talk about, and do think about, quality of life, but also highlights how quality of life varies for different age groups of the elderly population living at home, in different geographical areas. In addition, early conclusions also indicate that there is more to quality of life than health; indeed, social contacts appear to be as valued components of a good quality of life as health status. This study deals with issues high on the agenda of the current debate on quality of life and its measurement; it has implications for those involved in both quality of life research and in health and social service policy for older people. PMID:8560312

Farquhar, M

1995-11-01

170

Life of A Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is geared for a second grade class as it follows the second grade core. Part of the second grade core states: Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. This particular lesson investigates the life of a butterfly, from caterpillar to cocoon, to a butterfly. .:LiFe oF a ButTeRflY:. OBJECTIVES: Standard 3: Students will develop and understand of their environment. Objective 1: Investigate relationships between plants and animals and how living things change during their lives. Through this activity students will use ...

Miss. Watterson

2010-04-30

171

Traits of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Traits of Life, a new collection of exhibits and demonstrations at San Francisco's Exploratorium, offers a fascinating look at the "fundamental elements common to all living things." Culminating from 3 years of research and development, the Traits of Life collection follows four themes: cells and DNA; reproduction; evolution; and energy consumption. This companion Web site offers cool interactive features for each theme, as well as articles, movies, interviews with experts, and more. Overall, this well-designed site offers a engaging way to "see past the diversity of living things to the underlying unity connecting us all."

172

The Logic of Values Clarification  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

Kazepides, A. C.

1977-01-01

173

Capacity Value of Solar Power  

SciTech Connect

Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

2012-11-10

174

Geography of European Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

2011-01-01

175

Life Cycles of Stars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Powerpoint presentation inroduces younger students to the life cycles of stars. Topics include stellar nurseries, types of stars, supernovae, the fates of stars of either high or low mass, and the creation of heavier elements by continued fusion of successively heavier elements.

176

The Business of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

Dunski, Jonathan F.

1997-01-01

177

Thermodynamic Origin of Life  

E-print Network

Understanding the thermodynamic function of life may shed light on its origin. Life, as are all irreversible processes, is contingent on entropy production. Entropy production is a measure of the rate of the tendency of Nature to explore available microstates. The most important irreversible process generating entropy in the biosphere, and thus facilitating this exploration, is the absorption and transformation of sunlight into heat. Here we hypothesize that life began, and persists today, as a catalyst for the absorption and dissipation of sunlight at the surface of shallow seas. The resulting heat is then efficiently harvested by other irreversible processes such as the water cycle, hurricanes, and ocean and wind currents. RNA and DNA are the most efficient of all known molecules for absorbing the intense ultraviolet light that could have penetrated the dense early atmosphere, and are remarkably rapid in transforming this light into heat in the presence of liquid water. From this perspective, the origin and evolution of life, inseparable from water and the water cycle, can be understood as resulting from the natural thermodynamic imperative of increasing the entropy production of the Earth in its interaction with its solar environment. A mechanism is proposed for the reproduction of RNA and DNA without the need for enzymes, promoted instead through UV light dissipation and the ambient conditions of prebiotic Earth.

K. Michaelian

2010-09-08

178

Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.  

PubMed

Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values. PMID:21697380

Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

2011-06-22

179

The Cycle of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The growing of rapid cycling Brassica rapa, Rbr, through a life cycle from seed to seed can provide the basis for learning many aspects of biology that are relevant to the students? understanding of themselves as individual organisms among themany others inhabiting the Earth.

The Wisconsin Fast Plants Program

180

Milstein Hall of Ocean Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site, created to complement the Hall of Ocean Life, looks at the cradle of life for our planet, along with its key to our future. It includes an in-depth look at the Hall of Ocean Life's dioramas, an exploration of the ocean's diverse communities and examines some of the ways in which life in water is different from life on land.

181

Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

182

Realms of Value: Conflicting Natural Resource Values and Incommensurability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Divergent values are often at the heart of natural resource conflict. Using discord over the Grand Staircase-Escalante National Monument in southern Utah, U.S.A. as a case study, I propose that values are perceived as incommensurate because they reflect different realms, with which there exist distinct concepts of what it means to value and distinct, irreducible forms of value expression. I

Sarah Fleisher Trainor

2006-01-01

183

The Life of a Butterfly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What are the butterfly's stages of life? 1. The Life of a Butterfly Organizer 2. The Monarch Butterfly 3. Voicethread on Monarch Butterfly life cycle 4. A video on how Monarch Butterflies flock together after migrating. 5. Another video on the life cycle of the Monarch Buttefly. 6. A fun game where you catch the butterfly! Now you should know the stages of life for the butterfly! Come see me for project instructions. Hope you enjoyed! ...

Logan Greene

2011-04-06

184

The Half-Life of Actinouranium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Values of the half-life of actinouranium are obtained from data on a Morogoro pitchblende and a uraninite from Great Bear Lake, analyzed by von Grosse and Marble, respectively. Computations were made with two extreme values, 0.03 and 0.04, for the actinium \\

Arthur E. Ruark

1934-01-01

185

Web Of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a simulation game where students represent plants and animals living in a forest habitat. Sitting in a circle, they connect themselves using string to represent the ways they depend on each other. As they make connections, the string forms a web of life. They will also learn what occurs when an invasive species enters their environment.

Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

2012-05-12

186

The Value of Cocurriculars  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

Paterson, Jim

2012-01-01

187

The value of place  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

Dentzau, Michael W.

2014-03-01

188

Calorific Values of Microcrustacea.  

PubMed

The heat content of copepods and other microcrustaceans and two species of algae in calories per gram varied from 4427 for immature crayfish to 5643 for the female Diaptomus siciloides. The algae, cladoceran, anostracan, conchostracan, and immature crayfish were all below 5000, whereas all the copepods were above 5300 (x 5467); thus copepods may contribute more energy to the food chain on a weight basis than other lower forms of crustacea. PMID:17799841

Comita, G W; Schindler, D W

1963-06-28

189

Marx's "Phenomenology" Of Value  

E-print Network

into three stages by which he discusses that emergence (Mercantilism, the Physiocrats, and Adam Smith) led me to suspect that there was something of an Hegelian dialectic at work here, and, more specifically, that an analogy could be drawn to Hegel's use... theory, and 2) they were aware of the role of labor in producing wealth but did not fully understand it. Adam Smith, then, would correspond to the third general position in Hegel's Phenomenology, "reason," in that he was fully aware of labor...

Main, Edward

190

The Value of Wetlands  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video segment adapted from Texas Parks and Wildlife Department explores the role of the wetlands in our environment, including providing habitats for wildlife, acting as natural water filters, and playing a part in the greater water cycle.

2007-08-09

191

Value Segmentation: A Model for the Measurement of Values and Value Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a model for the measurement of human values that, rather than obtain aggregate measurements, identifies distinct value systems within a population and classifies individuals according to them. These value systems are inferred from the stated priority rankings, obtained from each individual via the Rokeach value survey. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.

Wagner A. Kamakura; Jose Afonso Mazzon

1991-01-01

192

The Value of Video  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Video connects sight and sound, creating a composite experience greater than either alone. More than any other single technology, video is the most powerful way to communicate with others--and an ideal medium for sharing with others the vital learning occurring in music classrooms. In this article, the author leads readers through the process of

Thompson, Douglas E.

2011-01-01

193

Substantial life extension and quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) are emerging biotechnologies that promise to substantially enhance human lifespan. CRMs like resveratrol, metformin and rapamycin have been extensively tested in animals and have undergone clinical trials in humans, with positive indications for extended lifespan. This raises important questions for individuals and society: Is it really better to have a longer life? Would life-extending biotechnologies contribute

Christopher Wareham

2012-01-01

194

Tissues of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web site from the Science Museum of Minnesota offers a fun and interactive way to learn about the structure and function of the body's tissues. While some activities provided are designed to complement an on-site visit to the Tissues of Life exhibit, the Web site also includes many stand-alone Web-based features. For example, with Explore Body Tissues, students can take a look at cross-sections of actual human bodies, browse through a gallery of scar photos (and perhaps add a photo of their own!), explore parts of the human body at 30X actual size, or play a game while learning about the different cells involved in wound healing. Tissues of Life does not include Web-based lesson plans, but this engaging Web site would be a great addition to related classroom activities for a range of grade levels.

195

The Value of Information Visualization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers and users of Information Visualization are convinced that it has value. This value can easily be communicated\\u000a to others in a face-to-face setting, such that this value is experienced in practice. To convince broader audiences, and also,\\u000a to understand the intrinsic qualities of visualization is more difficult, however. In this paper we consider information visualization\\u000a from different points of

Jean-Daniel Fekete; Jarke van Wijk; John Stasko; Chris North

2008-01-01

196

The Value of Healthy Estuaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Healthy estuaries are critical to humans and wildlife. They provide food, supporting both commercial and recreational fisheries, treat waste and runoff to maintain water quality, protect coastal areas from natural hazards, connect bodies of water for transportation and marine operations, and nurture a balance of the food web upon which all life depends.

Robert Christian (Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences; )

2009-03-22

197

Asynchronous game of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes the 8-state asynchronous equivalence of the well-known game of life (GL). Our cellular automaton, called asynchronous game of life, simulates exactly the behavior of the GL, such as universal computation and self-organization, no matter whether the update of cells is simultaneous or independent according to some updating scheme, like a step-driven or time-driven method [see BioSystems 51 (1999) 123]. We employ the updating scheme of Blok and Bergersen [Phys. Rev. E 59 (1999) 3876] such that at every time step each cell has a certain probability to be updated, and investigate the statistical properties of our model through power spectral analyses.

Lee, Jia; Adachi, Susumu; Peper, Ferdinand; Morita, Kenichi

2004-07-01

198

The medicalization of life  

PubMed Central

Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

Illich, Ivan

1975-01-01

199

322 n BEST VALUE COLLEGES University of California--Riverside  

E-print Network

322 n BEST VALUE COLLEGES University of California--Riverside CAMPUS LIFE Quality of Life Rating 75 women join) 20 (7) % African American 7.1 % Asian 38.8 % Caucasian 15.1 % Hispanic 34.3 % Native system, the University of California--Riverside (UCR) has much to boast about. For starters

200

End of life care.  

PubMed

End of life care is challenging, rewarding and a privileged experience, irrespective of where death occurs - in a hospital, care home, hospice, prison or at home. The CPD article was a reminder that death is a deeply personal and social experience, and one where individuals must be afforded dignity and respect. People who are dying should be referred to as individuals or persons, and not as patients. PMID:25758520

Gallacher, Rose

2015-03-11

201

Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?  

PubMed

We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

Skeggs, Bev

2014-03-01

202

Direct measurement of the half-life of (223)Ra.  

PubMed

Radioactive decay half-life measurements of (223)Ra, a member of the (235)U naturally occurring radioactive decay series, have been performed of a radiochemically pure solution with an ionisation chamber. The radioactive decay of (223)Ra was followed for 50 days, approximately 4.4 half-lives. The deduced half-life of (223)Ra was found to be 11.4358 (28) days, supporting the other published direct measurements. A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. A new evaluation of the published half-life values was performed, indicating significant variation across the existing published values, suggesting that further measurements of the half-life of (223)Ra are required. A new evaluated half-life has been calculated using a power moderated weighted mean of selected experimental values, with a new value of the recommended half-life for (223)Ra of 11.4354 (17) days. PMID:25699667

Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Ferreira, K M; Fenwick, A J; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

2015-05-01

203

Quality of life issues in psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health-related quality of life (HRQOL), has been defined as “peoples’ subjective evaluation of the influences of their current\\u000a health status... on their ability to achieve and maintain a level of overall functioning that allows them to pursue valued\\u000a life goals and that is reflected in general wellbeing” [1, 2]. Psoriasis is a chronic disease with physical, psychosocial, and economic implications

Amanda B. Sergay; Matthew Silvan; Jeffrey M. Weinberg

204

Evolution of Life on Earth EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH  

E-print Network

Evolution of Life on Earth #12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Earth ~4.5 billion years ago A bad day .... #12;Old (Archean) Rocks #12;4.4 Billion year old Zircon Earth was temperate and had water 4.4 billion years ago! #12;#12;EVOLUTION OF LIFE ON EARTH #12;Making Organic Molecules : Miller & Urey Famous

Shirley, Yancy

205

Examining the value of commercially supported CME.  

PubMed

Commercial support of continuing medical education/continuing professional development (CME/CPD) is a fact of life currently, though under attack from several sources. Does it have a positive or negative value to industry, to physicians, to society, and to CME professionals? There is sufficient evidence to support positive value to industry. There is insufficient evidence to support positive or negative value to physicians or society. There is reason to continue commercial support while broadening the base of support beyond the pharmaceutical industry, not only to avoid perception of bias but also to address CME/CPD needs that do not fit in therapeutic categories. CME professionalism does not depend on commercial support. PMID:19288557

Miller, Lewis A

2009-01-01

206

The Value of Megan Oakleaf  

E-print Network

and the Academic Library. Library Quarterly. In press. 2011. Create or adopt systems for assessment management management. © Oakleaf 2011 #12;Determine what libraries enable students, faculty, student affairsThe Value of Academic Libraries Megan Oakleaf Lisa Janicke Hinchliffe Value of Academic Libraries

Oakleaf, Megan

207

Occupational Values of Rural Eskimo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares occupational values of 232 rural Eskimo secondary students with those of 117 urban white adolescents from Fairbanks. Shows Eskimo adolescents resemble white counterparts in their work values but significant cultural differences appear in extent to which each group seeks intrinsic satisfactions from wage work. (NEC)

McDiarmid, G. Williamson; Kleinfeld, Judith S.

1986-01-01

208

End of Life: An Overview  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

2012-01-01

209

Some facts of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the statistics of the time evolution of the Game of Life. We recognize three different time regimes of which the most interesting one is the long time glider regime, which has properties typical of a critical state. We introduce mean field approximations able to give some insights on the time evolution of the density of the density of living cells. Extended simulations are reported which deal with the evolution of the density, damage spreading and the measurements of a finite size exponent. A simple dynamical model explains some aspects of the asymptotic glider regime. We study also the dependence of the asymptotic density on the initial density both analytically and numerically.

Bagnoli, Franco; Rechtman, Raúl; Ruffo, Stefano

1991-02-01

210

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-2013  

E-print Network

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

A. S. Barabash

2013-11-11

211

Half-life measurement of 124Sb.  

PubMed

The half-life of (124)Sb was determined experimentally by following the decay of a source from a radiopure solution with a Centronic IG12 ionisation chamber. Thousands of measurements were performed over a period of 358 days, i.e. about six half-life periods. However, the data analysis was restricted to the first 221 days, in order to limit the dominant uncertainty component associated with the hypothetical possibility of a systematic error on background subtraction. The resulting value for the (124)Sb half-life, 60.212 (11) days, is found to be in very good agreement with published values, but carries a lower uncertainty. Major uncertainty contributions pertain to possible systematic errors in background correction, long-term changes in source-detector geometry and medium- and long-term instability of the instrument. Additional measurements were performed with a high-purity germanium detector to confirm the above value. PMID:20044262

Paepen, J; Altzitzoglou, T; Van Ammel, R; Sibbens, G; Pommé, S

2010-01-01

212

Communicating the Value of Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quality of life Americans enjoy today and the United States's ability to compete in the global economy have many of their roots in the country's long history of leadership in scientific research and discovery. Federally supported basic research has led to innovations such as GPS, earthquake hazard mapping, and hundreds of technological spinoffs from the space program, including heart monitors and material that protects us from fire.

McEntee, Chris

2014-07-01

213

The beginning of human life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beginning of human life is seen differently by different individuals, groups, cultures, and religions. Embryonic and fetal life are a continuum, within which are time sequences and points—birth of a newborn, viability, neuromaturation, implantation, and conception—that may be declared as the beginning of human life. For each of these there are ethical and legal implications and considerations. Abortion laws

Fritz K. Beller; Gail P. Zlatnik

1995-01-01

214

Half-life of 52V  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the half life of the ? decay of 52V was measured by following the activity of 32 samples of 50 ?g each after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. The results were then fitted using a non-paralizable dead time correction to the regular exponential decay and the individual half-life values obtained were then analyzed using different statistical methods (Weighted Average, Normalized Residuals and Rajeval Technique), resulting in a value of 3.733(4) min. The obtained result is somewhat smaller than tabulated one but the difference does not surpass two standard deviations.

Oliva, Jefferson W. M.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.

2011-08-01

215

Web of Life Game  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offline OLogy game is a fun way to illustrate how all the organisms in an ecosystem are connected and depend on one another to survive. To play this game, you'll need at least six students and index cards, a marker/pen, and a ball of twine. A list of organisms to connect is included. As students toss the ball of twine to each other, they make connections between the organisms they are linking. The game ends with a discussion about what would happen to the "web of life" that's been created if an organism left the ecosystem.

216

Triumph of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web companion to the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television series features essays, video clips, and special interactive features that explore the story of life on Earth. Additional features include an animated evolutionary timeline and a set of links to related materials including lesson plans and instructor's guides. PBS is a non-profit media enterprise owned and operated by the nation's 348 public television stations which uses the power of noncommercial television, the Internet and other media to enrich the lives of all Americans through quality programs and education services that inform, inspire and delight.

217

End-of-Life Decisions: Honoring the Wishes of the Person with Alzheimer's Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... definitions of quality of life and death, including: › Cultural background. › Spirituality. › Religious beliefs. › Family values. Be aware of the differences between your values and beliefs and those of ...

218

Life Products of Stars  

E-print Network

We attempt to document complete energetic transactions of stars in their life. We calculate photon and neutrino energies that are produced from stars in their each phase of evolution from 1 to 8 M_sun, using the state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, tracing the evolution continuously from pre-main sequence gravitational contraction to white dwarfs. We also catalogue gravitational and thermal energies and helium, and heavier elements that are stored in stars and those ejected into interstellar space in each evolutionary phase.

Aldo M. Serenelli; Masataka Fukugita

2006-06-27

219

The formation of life  

E-print Network

The formation of life is an automatic stage in the consolidation of rocky or "terrestrial" planets. The organic (=carbonaceous) matter, light elements, gases, and water must "float" toward the surface and the heavier metals must sink toward the center. Random processes in the molecular soup that fills microfractures in unmelted crust eventually produce self-replicating microtubules. In an appendix I suggest that some primordial crust remains because there is not enough consolidation energy to melt the whole planet. Energy is lost when iron planetesimals first partially melt and then coalesce to form the molten iron planetary core. Stony planetesimals accrete onto the surface of an already consolidated core.

Robert L. Kurucz

2000-11-10

220

Business Value of Solution Architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory and especially the practice of IT architecture have been developed quite vigorously the last years. However, hardly\\u000a any quantitative data about the value of IT architecture is available. This paper presents the results of a study, which measures\\u000a the value of IT solution architecture for software development projects. The study identifies ten architecture-related project-variables\\u000a and correlates these with

Raymond Slot; Guido Dedene; Rik Maes

2010-01-01

221

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video-enhanced lesson, students will explore Florida’s springs using video segments from the NATURE film “Springs Eternal: Florida’s Fountain of Youth” and related activities and discussions. Students will learn about how the springs are formed and will explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students will also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs. At the end of the lesson, students will conduct research and give a presentation about one species that lives in and/or around the springs.

2010-01-01

222

End of life care.  

PubMed

The Healthcare Innovation Exchange (HELIX) Centre, at www.helixcentre.com , has released apps on the iTunes ( tinyurl.com/nzt2xd5 ) and Google Play ( tinyurl.com/n2safby ) stores to provide end of life care guidance to nurses, doctors and carers working on the front line. The apps are in response to work that the HELIX Centre has undertaken for the NHS Leadership Alliance for the Care of Dying People (LACDP), which wrote the new guidelines to replace the Liverpool Care Pathway. The app is based around the five LACDP priorities for care and includes a short training quiz. PMID:25428322

2014-11-27

223

The relative value of growth.  

PubMed

Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043

Mass, Nathaniel J

2005-04-01

224

Lifing of Engine Components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

2005-01-01

225

The intrinsic value of nature and moral education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many environmental, humane and character educators try to foster a belief in the intrinsic value of nature and a respect for non?human life among students. Marangudakis argues that Christianity advocates anthropocentrism and opposes belief in the intrinsic value of nature. If Marangudakis is correct, then a goal of many environmental and humane educators may conflict with some of their students'

William S. Helton; Nicole D. Helton

2007-01-01

226

Comparison of three methods for estimating complete life tables  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A question of interest in the demographic and actuarial fields is the estimation of the complete sets of qx values when the data are given in age groups. When the complete life tables are not available, estimating it from abridged life tables is necessary. Three methods such as King's Osculatory Interpolation, Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation and Heligman-Pollard Model are compared using data on abridged life tables for Malaysian population. Each of these methods considered was applied on the abridged data sets to estimate the complete sets of qx values. Then, the estimated complete sets of qx values were used to produce the estimated abridged ones by each of the three methods. The results were then compared with the actual values published in the abridged life tables. Among the three methods, the Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation method produces the best estimates of complete life tables from five-year abridged life tables.

Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

2013-04-01

227

Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013  

SciTech Connect

All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo?{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd?{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

Barabash, A. S. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-12-30

228

Analysis of value creation and value capture in microfluidics market  

E-print Network

Advances in microfluidics in the last two decade have created a tremendous technological value which is shaping genomics; drug discovery; proteomics; and point-of-care diagnostics. The positive impact has resulted in faster ...

Yadav, Shailendra

2010-01-01

229

CONTESTING THE VALUE OF THE SHARED VALUE Andrew Crane  

E-print Network

whilst simultaneously driving greater profitability. In the words of Porter and Kramer3 , CSV `can give biannual, global, company-wide `Creating Shared Value' (CSV) reports. Eventually, some five years after

Sheldon, Nathan D.

230

Preparing for the End of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... version of this page please turn Javascript on. End of Life Preparing For The End of Life Few of us are comfortable talking ... will face it at some point. Defining the End of Life The end of life and how ...

231

Methods of valuing environmental externalities  

SciTech Connect

Estimating a monetary value for environmental externalities provides an approximation of the societal value of reducing impacts on human health and the environment from electrical energy supply. This method can be used for comparison of resources, including utility and nonutility generation, demand-side management and off-system power purchases. A dollar estimate of the full societal cost of the supply option is established by placing a value on its air, water and terrestrial effects and adding these costs to the option's capital, operating and maintenance costs. This article provides a rationale for monetizing externalities and addresses the strengths and weaknesses of four techniques for monetizing, with examples of the application of each method. The authors preferred technique for incorporating externalities into utility planning in the near term - implied valuation through the estimation of the marginal cost of abatement - is discussed in detail. 2 tabs.

Chernick, P.; Caverhill, E. (Resource Insight, Boston, MA (USA))

1991-03-01

232

The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

2013-01-01

233

The Origin of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In modern organisms, there is a division of labor between two kinds of molecule: DNA, which stores and transmits genetic information, and proteins, which do all the work. They are connected by the genetic code, whereby DNA specifies what kinds of proteins can be made. This process of translation is well understood, but it is far too complicated to have arisen by chance in the primitive oceans. This video lecture explores how this apparent paradox can be resolved. The video explains: the importance of heredity to the definition of life; how nucleotides pair and transfer information; how tRNA is used to transfer a message to enzymes; and how evolution consists of several major changes in the way information is stored, transmitted, and used. The video is 1 hour in length.

234

Evolution of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A number of groups are celebrating the 150th anniversary of the publication of "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection" by Charles Darwin. This educational site, created with funds provided by VolkswagenStiftung, celebrates this anniversary by offering videos, animations, and documents for teachers that explore the origins of life and evolution. The materials here are divided into three sections: "Observe", "Explore", and "Teach". In the "Observe" area, visitors can watch several short films, including the "O as Origin" movie, which follows a water molecule named "Piccolina" as she moves forward through time and becomes more and more complex along the way. There's also another film here that follows Darwin as he works on some of his discoveries and theories. Visitors can also elect to listen to these videos in French, English, and German, and they will also want to sign up to receive email updates when new material is added to the site.

235

POV: Steam of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Among many hallmarks of Finnish life is the world of the sauna and its informal rituals. It is a place for men to explore their feelings, emotions, and their hopes and dreams. It is also the subject of this fascinating film presented as part of the POV series on PBS. Created by filmmakers Joonas Bergh'll and Mika Hotakainen, this 60-minute film looks into this rather fascinating aspect of Finnish culture. Visitors can watch the entire program here, and there are a host of additional features that round out the site. On the left-hand side, visitors will find additional photo galleries, a background essay, and a helpful "Are You Pronouncing Sauna Correctly?" primer. In the "Take Action" area, visitors can learn how to plan an event around this film and download a discussion guide. Teachers shouldn't miss the "For Educators" area, which includes a lesson plan and a reading list.

236

Game of Life Music  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

237

Vision and quality-of-life.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of visual acuity loss to quality of life. DESIGN: Three hundred twenty-five patients with visual loss to a minimum of 20/40 or greater in at least 1 eye were interviewed in a standardized fashion using a modified VF-14, questionnaire. Utility values were also obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods of utility assessment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Best-corrected visual acuity was correlated with the visual function score on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as well as with utility values obtained using both the time trade-off and standard gamble methods. RESULTS: Decreasing levels of vision in the eye with better acuity correlated directly with decreasing visual function scores on the modified VF-14 questionnaire, as did decreasing utility values using the time trade-off method of utility evaluation. The standard gamble method of utility evaluation was not as directly correlated with vision as the time trade-off method. Age, level of education, gender, race, length of time of visual loss, and the number of associated systemic comorbidities did not significantly affect the time trade-off utility values associated with visual loss in the better eye. The level of reduced vision in the better eye, rather than the specific disease process causing reduced vision, was related to mean utility values. The average person with 20/40 vision in the better seeing eye was willing to trade 2 of every 10 years of life in return for perfect vision (utility value of 0.8), while the average person with counting fingers vision in the better eye was willing to trade approximately 5 of every 10 remaining years of life (utility value of 0.52) in return for perfect vision. CONCLUSIONS: The time trade-off method of utility evaluation appears to be an effective method for assessing quality of life associated with visual loss. Time trade-off utility values decrease in direct conjunction with decreasing vision in the better-seeing eye. Unlike the modified VF-14 test and its counterparts, utility values allow the quality of life associated with visual loss to be more readily compared to the quality of life associated with other health (disease) states. This information can be employed for cost-effective analyses that objectively compare evidence-based medicine, patient-based preferences and sound econometric principles across all specialties in health care. PMID:10703139

Brown, G C

1999-01-01

238

The Value of Environmental Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the views of environmentalists toward the study of environmental ethics. Addresses the problem that environmental ethics literature is difficult to read and argues that certain opinions about the value of the study of environmental ethics are rooted in misconceptions. (TW)

Hargrove, Eugene C.

1987-01-01

239

Econometrics of Fair Values1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Properties of many important valuation rules can be quantified, examined and compared in a unified framework to assist policy decisions. Valuation rules can be viewed as econometric estimators. Which valuation rule has minimum mean squared error (relative to the unobserved economic value of bundles of resources) is a matter of econometrics, not of theory or principle; it depends on the

Shyam Sunder

240

The Value of the Arts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

Tubbs, Nigel

2013-01-01

241

Half life of /sup 26/Al  

SciTech Connect

The half-life of /sup 26/Al has been redetermined because of suggestions of an error in the accepted value based on its use in calculating /sup 21/Ne production rates from cosmic rays in meteorites. Two solutions of /sup 26/Al were analyzed for the specific radioactivity and mass spectrometric determination of the /sup 26/Al concentration. The half-life obtained for /sup 26/Al was 7.05 x 10/sup 5/ years +- 3.7% at the two sigma level. This is identical to the accepted value of 7.16 x 10/sup 5/ years and indicates that problems with the /sup 21/Ne production rate is not due to an erroneous half-life.

Norris, T.L.; Gancarz, A.J.; Rokop, D.J.; Thomas, K.W.

1983-01-01

242

Camp Teaches Life Lessons: A Director's Commentary on Camp's Lasting Educational Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At camp, children learn values and skills that are seldom included in school curricula. The community-based environment of camps is conducive to learning self-assurance, community respect, and healthy competition, and to understanding diversity. Exposure to Nature promotes an infectious enthusiasm for the wilderness and for learning outdoor…

Gucker, Peter L.

2001-01-01

243

The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

Hung, Marianne Andrews

244

The Value of Value Stream Mapping to Students  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This paper provides a discussion of the value of teaching the lean manufacturing topic of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) to senior students in engineering. Value Stream Mapping is a technique that is used to view, on a broad level, a company's manufacturing of a part family. The technique is used to identify possible improvement areas within the manufacturing plant. Once identified, the appropriate Lean Manufacturing technique is used to meet specific improvement metrics. These techniques include visual systems, 5S, TPM, cellular layout, work balancing, JIT, etc. Engineering students in college typically do not have an extensive understanding, or the experience, in a manufacturing environment. Unless the topic of value stream mapping is presented correctly the student may not be able to properly use the technique in an actual applied situation. One method of re-enforcing the technique is to have the students working in teams to perform an actual analysis of a manufacturing system and present appropriate and realistic opportunities for improvement. In order to organize this paper, an overview of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) technique will be discussed first. The primary section of the paper will be on the method of incorporating active learning in the presentation of VSM to engineering students.

Lobaugh, Michael

245

Children's Judgments of Expected Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

1994-01-01

246

Quantifying the value of information  

SciTech Connect

Every oil and gas company frequently makes decisions in situations where the result is not directly measurable in terms of impact on costs and revenue. This article presents the concept of Value of Information and discusses how this approach can assist in the decision process, using a simple example and a more realistic case.

Riis, T. [Caesar Petroleum Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

1999-06-01

247

Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

Bertka, Constance M.

2009-09-01

248

The value of percutaneous cholangiography  

PubMed Central

Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

1973-01-01

249

Forecasting the Value of Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

Basarab, Dave

2011-01-01

250

The Epistemic Value of Curiosity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

2008-01-01

251

Quality of life in dermatomyositis  

PubMed Central

Background Quality of life (QoL) for patients with inflammatory skin disease can be significant, but has been evaluated in just one study in dermatomyositis (DM). Objective To examine the relationship between the Cutaneous Disease and Activity Severity Index (CDASI), a DM-specific cutaneous severity instrument, and various QoL study instruments and to determine the impact of DM on QoL. Methods Skin-specific QoL instruments, the Skindex and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and global medical QoL instruments, the SF-36 and the HAQ-DI, were used. Pruritus was evaluated by a visual analogue scale (VAS) and a 0–10 scale in DM and CLE populations, respectively. Results There was a significant correlation between the CDASI and all skin-specific QoL scores (lowest p=0.0377). Using the SF-36, DM was found to have significantly worse QoL scores than the general population with the exception of bodily pain (all subscore p values <0.01). Furthermore, DM had a significantly lower vitality score, representing energy level, compared to CLE, HTN, diabetes, and recent MI scores (lowest p=0.003). There was a significantly lower mental health score, representing overall mood, to all compared diseases except CLE and clinical depression (p values < 0.01 when significant). We found that DM produces more pruritus than CLE (p < 0.0001). Limitations A larger patient population needs to be studied to further assess QoL in DM patients. Conclusion We conclude that DM has a large impact on QoL, even when compared to other diseases, and that DM skin disease activity correlates with a poorer QoL. PMID:21722989

Goreshi, Renato; Chock, Monika; Foering, Kristen; Feng, Rui; Okawa, Joyce; Rose, Matt; Fiorentino, David; Werth, Victoria

2010-01-01

252

Life of a Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from the National Arbor Day Foundation, take a sixty-two-year journey observing the inner layers, rings, and environmental factors that affect a tree's growth and life cycle.

2007-08-09

253

A Blizzard of a Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

Bostic, Jonathan D.

2015-01-01

254

Enduring values of municipal utilities  

SciTech Connect

The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

1981-05-01

255

Folktales and Education: Role of Bhutanese Folktales in Value Transmission  

E-print Network

, entertainment and communication, as repository of history, language, culture and values, and their spiritual functions. Some common features and their relation to every day life of the people are discussed next. 1. Education of children Of many functions... , the most important one is the education of children. Poet Schiller wrote "Deeper meaning resides in the fairy tales told to me in my childhood than in any truth that is taught in life." The Bhutanese extended family system functions as a school where...

Penjore, Dorji

2005-01-01

256

About Various Definitions of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The old question of a definition of minimal life is taken up again at the aim of providing a forum for an updated discussion. Briefly discussed are the reasons why such an attempt has previously encountered scepticism, and why such an attempt should be renewed at this stage of the inquiry on the origin of life. Then some of the

Pier Luigi Luisi

1998-01-01

257

Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.  

PubMed

Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909

Edgar, Andrew

2011-05-01

258

The Meaning of Academic Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This address reports the findings of a survey of higher education colleagues on the degree of happiness associated with personal definitions of "meaning of life" and "purpose in life." Using a unique sliding scale, the survey draws items from the Oxford Happiness Project among other sources and began with all ASHE members (N = 1,904) with a final…

Hagedorn, Linda Serra

2012-01-01

259

Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

Dierking, Lynn D.

2010-01-01

260

What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

Scherrer, Jimmy

2012-01-01

261

The Value of a Garden  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson engages students in critical thinking about the value of botanical, community, and other gardens in preserving biodiversity and in contributing to sustainable communities. It introduces several concepts drawn from system dynamics, including feedback loops, behavior-over-time graphsand more! It includes a PowerPoint presentation, Feedback Loops in Flower Gardening,of 29 slides that will guide teachers and students through activities that generate feedback loops.

M.E. Krasny, P. Newton, and L. Tompkins (Cornell University; )

2004-11-05

262

[Quality of life and transplantation].  

PubMed

With the recent development of surgical techniques and other treatments of transplanted patients the increase in survival is not anymore the unique objective of the intervention. Nowadays, increase in quality of life is a very important aim. The instruments that assess quality of life can be multi/unidimensional, specific/nonspecific. One of the most important instruments to evaluate quality of life in all kinds of patients is the MOS-SF36, validated to Portuguese population. According to most published studies, there is an improvement in quality of life dimensions after transplantation. In some prospective studies it is shown that quality of life after transplantation is determined by some pre-transplantation factors such as medical factors (severity of illness) and psychiatric factors (personality, depression, coping strategies). PMID:21627885

Telles-Correia, Diogo; Barbosa, António; Mega, Inês

2010-01-01

263

The Quality of Working Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Defines the concept "quality of working life," why interest in this has increased, and why guidance counselors and students should understand it. Quality of working life means more than job satisfaction or flexible working hours. It helps guidance teachers understand attitudes and expectations of students embarking on their first job. (Author/BEF)

Burke, Ronald J.

1979-01-01

264

THE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE  

E-print Network

have changed over the years, many of our alumni don't know who we are or what we are doing. This newTHE SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 FAMILY CONNECTIONS CO-PLAY: THE LATEST VIDEO UNIQUE PROJECT FAMILY CONNECTIONS BYU SCHOOL OF FAMILY LIFE ALUMNI MAGAZINE SPRING 2011 #12;1 BYU SCHOOL

Martinez, Tony R.

265

The Systematic Unity of Value  

E-print Network

­ tinue to write and lecture, though I am increasingly aware of the subtle intricacy and elusiveness of the ideas and argumenta­ tions that it involves. This venture is what Husserl called the constitution of a value-cosmos-a venture he mentioned but did... that in every sphere the arbitrary, the empirical, the con­ tingent, necessarily nests in a comprehensive framework of what is absolute, of what must obtain, of what cannot be other­ wise, of what holds whatever is the case or whatever we like to choose...

Findlay, J.N.

1968-01-01

266

Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

Tierney, William G.

2010-01-01

267

Principles of Life Principles of Life  

E-print Network

Cloning 2) The Polymerase Chain Reaction 3) Gene Sequencing and Genome Projects 4) RNA Inhibition of Gene Function 10) Stem Cells and Animal Cloning The Past and Future in Molecular Genetics 11) Yeast and Cell Biology 12) Drosophila and Developmental Biology 13) Vertebrates as Human Models 14) Complex

Takahashi, Ryo

268

Evolution of Rotifer Life Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

When compared to most other multicellular animals, rotifers are all relatively small, short-lived and fast-reproducing organisms. However among and within different rotifer species there is a large variation in life history patterns. This review accounts for such variation in rotifers, with a strong focus on monogonont rotifers. As the life cycle of monogonont rotifers involves both asexual and sexual reproduction,

Claus-Peter Stelzer

2005-01-01

269

Life Cycles of Animals  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

After a brief introduction, the page is divided into Places to go, People to see, Things to do, Teacher resources and a Bibliography. Each division has several links. For example the Places to go division has links to frog, ant, coral reef, and American bald eagle life cycles.

2010-01-01

270

Springs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students learn about how springs are formed and explore the Florida springs ecosystem, with particular focus on the manatees, fish, birds and alligators that live there. Students also learn about red tide and its threat to the life in the springs.

WNET

2010-11-05

271

Values and the quantum conception of man  

SciTech Connect

Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

Stapp, H.P.

1995-06-01

272

Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

2009-01-01

273

Life of Pi and the moral wound.  

PubMed

The "moral wound," rendered symbolically in the form of the tiger in Life of Pi, is a complex trauma in which the victim, in order to survive in life-threatening circumstances, commits an ethical transgression against his or her deeply held values. Pi experiences such a trauma and deals with it by dissociating it in the form of the tiger and then has to simultaneously both preserve the tiger and wish it to disappear. Jonathan Shay's work relating the experiences of returning Vietnam veterans to Homer's Odyssey is used to further an understanding of both Life of Pi and American soldiers returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Reasons are considered for the possible delayed effect of trauma as a factor in the increased suicide rate of older veterans. Finally, the concept of the "moral wound" is discussed, with an eye to its treatment. PMID:25503752

Allen, Thomas E

2014-12-01

274

Hippie Life Style: An Extension of Previous Life Styles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The literature cited suggests that the hippie life style is an extension of life styles of vagabonds, hermits, or ascetics. This style is gaining popularity and helping professionals must recognize that ususally it is the small radical groups who are first to articulate ideas later common to more people. (Author)

Penner, Wes

1971-01-01

275

Reference values for isometric muscle force among workers for the Netherlands: a comparison of reference values  

PubMed Central

Background Muscle force is important for daily life and sports and can be measured with a handheld dynamometer. Reference values are employed to quantify a subject’s muscle force. It is not unambiguous whether reference values can be generalized to other populations. Objectives in this study were; first to confirm the reliability of the utilization of hand-held dynamometers for isometric strength measurement; second to determine reference values for a population of Dutch workers; third to compare these values with those of a USA population. Methods 462 Healthy working subjects (259 male, 203 female) were included in this study. Their age ranged from 20 to 60 years with a mean (sd) of 41 (11) years. Muscle force values from elbow flexion and extension, knee flexion and extension, and shoulder abduction were measured with the break method using a MicroFet 2 hand-held dynamometer. Reliability was analyzed by calculating ICC’s and limits of agreement. Muscle force expressed in Newton, means, and confidence intervals were determined for males and females in age groups ranging from twenty to sixty years old. Regression equations and explained variances were calculated from weight, height, age, and gender. The mean values and 95% CI were compared to the results from other studies. Results Reliability was good; the ICC ranged between 0.83 to 0.94. The explained variance ranged from 0.25 to 0.51. Comparison of data for the Dutch population mean muscle force values with those from the USA revealed important differences between muscle force reference values for the American and Dutch populations. Conclusions Muscle force measurements demonstrate a sound reliability. Reference values and regressions equations are made available for the Dutch population. Comparison with other studies indicates that reference values differ between countries. PMID:24568140

2014-01-01

276

Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?  

PubMed Central

In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

2013-01-01

277

Life Domain Satisfactions as Predictors of Overall Life Satisfaction Among Workers: Evidence from Chile.  

PubMed

This article examines the subjective antecedents of life satisfaction of workers. Adopting a 'bottom-up' perspective, we assessed the unique influence that satisfaction with multiple life domains have on evaluative judgments of overall life satisfaction. Based on a nationwide sample of 530 Chilean workers, we simultaneously tested the effects of seven life domain satisfactions that have been consistently included in extant models of life satisfaction and subjective well-being. These were satisfaction with health, financial situation, social relationships, one's self-worth, leisure-time, family, and work. Having controlled for age and gender, results showed that satisfaction with one's financial situation was the dominant predictor of overall life satisfaction of workers, with a weight of .36. Satisfaction with family, work, and health had effects of .25, .14, and .14, respectively. Interestingly, satisfaction with one's self-worth, leisure-time, and social relationships did not have statistically significant effects on life satisfaction, although the first two showed t values near the critical value. PMID:25018580

Loewe, Nicolas; Bagherzadeh, Mehdi; Araya-Castillo, Luis; Thieme, Claudio; Batista-Foguet, Joan Manuel

2014-01-01

278

Clinical value of bone densitometry.  

PubMed

The purpose of this article is to provide insight into the long-standing controversy over the clinical value of noninvasive measurement of bone mass. Results of recent studies have increasingly supported the judicious use of bone densitometry as a clinical tool [1]. These reports contradict editorials on the limitations of bone densitometry that have appeared in a variety of subspecialty publications [2,3]. The importance of bone mass measurement is underscored by the lack of success in predicting bone density from various combinations of anthropometric and historical variables. Growing evidence suggests that densitometry is a useful tool for determining which women near menopause are at risk for osteoporosis and, therefore, are candidates for estrogen-replacement therapy. This article summarizes current concepts on the subject and attempts to prove that bone densitometry is a beneficial and indicated procedure for selected patients. PMID:8010199

Sartoris, D J

1994-07-01

279

Life on Titan: Theorem of existance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic

O. Potashko

2004-01-01

280

QUALITY of LIFE 2009 Report  

E-print Network

of Business, Economic Development & Tourism #12;2 QUALITY OF LIFE IN HAWAI`I The QOL framework Development & Tourism (DBEDT). Three decades later, in 2005, the University of Hawai`i Center on the Family

281

The Half Life of 193Os ?-decay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the half life of the ?- decay of 193Os was measured by following the activity of 25 5 mg 192Os-enriched samples for 20-60 h after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. Three different transitions associated with this ? decay were analyzed, and the results were then processed using three different statistical methods; the resulting values were compatible with the tabulated value, with an uncertainty of the same order of magnitude.

Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Oliva, Jefferson W. M.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

2010-05-01

282

Water, a host of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

2012-04-01

283

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

284

A Rooted Net of Life  

E-print Network

Phylogenetic reconstruction using DNA and protein sequences has allowed the reconstruction of evolutionary histories encompassing all life. We present and discuss a means to incorporate much of this rich narrative into a ...

Williams, David

285

The Changing Attitudes and Values of the Workforce.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author, in examining the changing attitudes and values of the work force, asserts that the American worker is dissatisfied with the job, the workplace, and the method of payment. She states that any effort to enhance the quality of work will improve the quality of life overall. (CT)

Mortimer, Jeylan T.

1979-01-01

286

Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

1987-01-01

287

Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course  

PubMed Central

We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263

Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

2013-01-01

288

A loaf of bread: Price and value.  

PubMed

In the Western world, the basic staple of nutrition is bread. It evolved, from Neolithic times in Mesopotamia and the Levant, from flour made from natural hybrids of emmer and einkorn. Its form has changed from that of a dark, coarse and heavy loaf, baked in the ashes, to the enriched artistic breads of the late twentieth century. Its variety of forms conferred status on those who ate its refined and whitened form. The wheel of fashion and nutrition has turned full circle to the quality-controlled, vitamin and mineral-enriched wholemeal loaf of the new millennium to come. Bread has changed from a staple not simply of nutrition itself, but to that of a 'functional food' whose fibre confers protection against preventible disease. The bread of the new century thus will be both a food and a medicine. So fundamental to Western life is bread, that its price has long been the last item to remain controlled, when all else is left to the dictates of a free market economy. Bread is the fundamental unit of exchange and forms the last link in a chain of commodities which starts from items of luxury to those of survival itself. The price of bread can thus be used as a currency datum. As such, the price of a loaf of bread, and the minutes of labour needed to produce it, can be used to measure the economy, and to give a measured perspective of its influence on a community's history. Costs, throughout history, can be expressed in 'bread units'. As such, the latter forms an absolute index of the worth of other items, particularly a person's labour. As such, bread and its value forms a partly independent measure of inflationary and other social influences. Bread remains a fundamental part not only of nutrition, but of life itself. PMID:24394891

Pearn, J

1998-03-01

289

Life of a Gypsy Moth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will enable students to identify the gypsy moth and understand its life cycle and habitat needs. There is a link to information on the history and profile of the gypsy moth and a related quiz.

290

Half-life of {sup 66}Ga  

SciTech Connect

We measured the half-life of {sup 66}Ga by observing positrons from the {beta}{sup +} branch to the ground state of {sup 66}Zn with a superconducting Wu-type beta spectrometer. Our result is t{sub 1/2}=9.304(8)hours, which is the highest-precision measurement to date and disagrees with the Nuclear Data Sheets (NDS) value by over 6{sigma}.

Severin, G. W.; Knutson, L. D.; Voytas, P. A.; George, E. A. [Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Physics Department, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio 45501 (United States)

2010-12-15

291

The Game of Life at finite temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we propose a cellular array model whose transition function is based on a continuously valued expression that includes a temperature parameter T and two shift parameters E0 and x0. This transition function coincides with the transition function of the Game of Life cellular automaton model when the temperature approaches the limit T?0. States in this model are continuously valued for T>0, and cell state transitions, though deterministic, are affected by thermal fluctuation. Spectral analysis of the cell state’s time series shows a 1/f spectrum in the low temperature region, as in the Game of Life, and a Lorentzian spectrum in the high temperature region. Analysis of the average entropy shows a division along approximately the same critical point into a low temperature region indicative of the Game of Life and a high temperature region with different behavior. We show that the model is robust to deviations in the values of parameters E0 and x0, but that the robustness declines with an increase in temperature, up to a critical temperature at which all robustness is lost.

Adachi, Susumu; Peper, Ferdinand; Lee, Jia

2004-11-01

292

Quality of Life and the Migration of the College-Educated: A Life-Course Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines how the college-educated population-segmented into selective demographic groups, from young adults to the elderly-differentially values quality-of-life (QOL) indicators of metropolitan areas in the United States. Using data from the 2000 Census and the 1997 \\

RONALD L. WHISLER; BRIGITTE S. WALDORF; GORDON F. MULLIGAN; DAVID A. PLANE

2008-01-01

293

Quality of Life Theory II. Quality of Life as the Realization of Life Potential: A Biological Theory of Human Being  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review presents one of the eight theories of the quality of life (QOL) used for making the SEQOL (self-evaluation of quality of life) questionnaire or the quality of life as realizing life potential. This theory is strongly inspired by Maslow and the review furthermore serves as an example on how to fulfill the demand for an overall theory of

Soren Ventegodt; Joav Merrick; Niels Jorgen Andersen

2003-01-01

294

29 CFR 4044.72 - Form of annuity to be valued.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...i) If the form was a single or joint life annuity...participant who was in pay status at the date of termination...i) If the form was a single life annuity, no benefit...a participant in pay status at the date of termination...form to be valued is a single life annuity...

2011-07-01

295

29 CFR 4044.72 - Form of annuity to be valued.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...i) If the form was a single or joint life annuity...participant who was in pay status at the date of termination...i) If the form was a single life annuity, no benefit...a participant in pay status at the date of termination...form to be valued is a single life annuity...

2012-07-01

296

29 CFR 4044.72 - Form of annuity to be valued.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...i) If the form was a single or joint life annuity...participant who was in pay status at the date of termination...i) If the form was a single life annuity, no benefit...a participant in pay status at the date of termination...form to be valued is a single life annuity...

2010-07-01

297

29 CFR 4044.72 - Form of annuity to be valued.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...i) If the form was a single or joint life annuity...participant who was in pay status at the date of termination...i) If the form was a single life annuity, no benefit...a participant in pay status at the date of termination...form to be valued is a single life annuity...

2013-07-01

298

29 CFR 4044.72 - Form of annuity to be valued.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...i) If the form was a single or joint life annuity...participant who was in pay status at the date of termination...i) If the form was a single life annuity, no benefit...a participant in pay status at the date of termination...form to be valued is a single life annuity...

2014-07-01

299

VideoProbe: Sharing Pictures of Everyday Life S. Conversy  

E-print Network

life does not involve goals and views of success may differ. For ex- ample, parents may highly value a system that tracks their teenage son, but he may find it oppressive. So we need ways to evaluate systems

300

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences  

E-print Network

College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Alumni Organization With a special presentation. Agricultural Research and Extension Center With updates from: Alan Grant, Dean, College of Agriculture and Life

Buehrer, R. Michael

301

The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger.  

PubMed

Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother's life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of "double effect," while Islamic law cites the maq??id, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I

2010-11-01

302

Exploring the fit of real brands in the Second Life virtual world  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online virtual worlds are rapidly becoming recognised as an important new channel for marketing and brand building. This paper examines the brand value of real-life brands that have moved to the virtual world of Second Life. Using axiology, we assess the value of real-life brands in the virtual world and test an exploratory model of brand fit to the virtual

Stuart J. Barnes; Jan Mattsson

2011-01-01

303

Measuring Work Values of Public School Administrators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents the results of research investigating (1) the reliability and validity of the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) when used with public school administrators; (2) the work values of public school administrators; (3) differences in work values of male and female administrators; and (4) differences in work values of individuals at…

Hales, Loyde W.; Waggoner, Jacqueline

304

Life in an unjust community: a Hollywood view of high school moral life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article analyses the film Mean girls (2004) as a window on popular notions of the moral life of American high schools, which straddles Kohlberg's Stage 2 and 3. The film presents loyalty to peer group cliques as a key value, even as it offers an individualist, relativist critique of that loyalty. Gossip is the main transgression in this tale

David Resnick

2008-01-01

305

Life in an Unjust Community: A Hollywood View of High School Moral Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article analyses the film "Mean girls" (2004) as a window on popular notions of the moral life of American high schools, which straddles Kohlberg's Stage 2 and 3. The film presents loyalty to peer group cliques as a key value, even as it offers an individualist, relativist critique of that loyalty. Gossip is the main transgression in this…

Resnick, David

2008-01-01

306

Valuation of Metropolitan Quality of Life in Wages and Rents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This analysis uses intermetropolitan differences in quality of life to estimate the value that residents place on metropolitan amenities and disamenities in land and labor markets. Using individual-level data from the 1980 and 1990 Census of Popu­ lation and Housing merged with metropolitan-level economic, social, and environ­ mental factors, it estimates hedonic wage and rent equations to derive the value

Roxanne Ezzet-Lofstrom

307

The value of snow cover  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

Sokratov, S. A.

2009-04-01

308

The algorithmic origins of life  

PubMed Central

Although it has been notoriously difficult to pin down precisely what is it that makes life so distinctive and remarkable, there is general agreement that its informational aspect is one key property, perhaps the key property. The unique informational narrative of living systems suggests that life may be characterized by context-dependent causal influences, and, in particular, that top-down (or downward) causation—where higher levels influence and constrain the dynamics of lower levels in organizational hierarchies—may be a major contributor to the hierarchal structure of living systems. Here, we propose that the emergence of life may correspond to a physical transition associated with a shift in the causal structure, where information gains direct and context-dependent causal efficacy over the matter in which it is instantiated. Such a transition may be akin to more traditional physical transitions (e.g. thermodynamic phase transitions), with the crucial distinction that determining which phase (non-life or life) a given system is in requires dynamical information and therefore can only be inferred by identifying causal architecture. We discuss some novel research directions based on this hypothesis, including potential measures of such a transition that may be amenable to laboratory study, and how the proposed mechanism corresponds to the onset of the unique mode of (algorithmic) information processing characteristic of living systems. PMID:23235265

Walker, Sara Imari; Davies, Paul C. W.

2013-01-01

309

The Financial Value of the Teacher Librarian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper addresses the financial value of the teacher librarian, outlines areas in which this value can be identified, and indicates measures that can be used to demonstrate this value. The four major financial areas in which the value of the teacher librarian can be assessed are: (1) capital investment, made up of the building, stock, and…

Nicholson, Fay

310

[End of life in France].  

PubMed

Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

Vacheron, André

2013-01-01

311

Alzheimer's Disease and the Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

he concept of quality of life plays a controversial role in the care of patients with Alzheimer's disease. In general, the notion of one's quality of life is something that should be defined by the person to whom it applies. When others make a judgment of quality of life they are exercising power (because quality of life judgments have consequences

Bruce Jennings

312

Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.  

PubMed

This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

Macdermott, Alexandra J

2012-09-01

313

Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

Veisson, Marika

2009-01-01

314

The Value of English Picture Story Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents a study investigating EFL teachers' views on the educational values of English picture story books in Taiwan. Ten teachers with experience of using the books with primary school children participated in this study. The results suggest three main educational values perceived by the teachers: (1) linguistic value, (2) the value

Hsiu-Chih, Sheu

2008-01-01

315

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.  

PubMed

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

2010-01-01

316

Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life  

PubMed Central

Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

2010-01-01

317

A New Form of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This news article introduces the discovery of a new extreme-loving microorganism, Spirochaeta americana, in California's exotic Mono Lake. It compares the geology of Mono Lake to the Gusev Crater on Mars and discusses the implications for finding organisms in extreme environments on Earth when speculating about life on other planets. It also offers a description of tufa formation and explains why the discovery of tufa on Mars would be indicative of microbial life. The resource includes a downloadable audio file of the author reading the article and links to more information.

Tony Phillips

318

Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

1971-01-01

319

Dynamics Of The Fair Value In Accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until now, the historical cost principle has dominated accountancy. At this time, another princi-ple seems to operate: the fair value principle. The discussion will gravitate around the questions: What is fair value? How has concept of fair value evolved? How much is the fair value used as the ba-sis for measurement in IFRS? Are we moving towards a full fair

Mihai Ristea; Ionel Jianu

2010-01-01

320

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION  

E-print Network

THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 sequestration and between 1 and 49 percent for forest based carbon sequestration. Value adjustments offsets. Net present value analysis reveals value reductions between 0 and 62 percent for soil carbon

McCarl, Bruce A.

321

Health-Related Quality of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter provides an overview of the nature and status of quality of life evaluations of new medicines and other treatments\\u000a in clinical trials. There are two major aspects of quality of life: The environmental aspect of quality of life and health-related\\u000a quality of life. The environmental aspect of quality of life is often evaluated by organizations outside the medical

Bert Spilker

322

Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

2012-01-01

323

Optimization of data life cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

2014-06-01

324

The Economic Consequences of Fair Value Accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two fatal intrinsic flaws of fair-value accounting are found and mathematically proved by this paper. One flaw concerns its non-complete existence, that is, the required fair value may not exist under certain conditions. One direct consequence of the flaw is that a huge fair value trap may be created by fair-value accounting when the fair value does not exist. Another

Mingzhe Yuan; Huifeng Liu

2011-01-01

325

Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

Knauth, Paul

2000-01-01

326

Fossil evidence of Archaean life  

PubMed Central

Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500?Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500?Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500?Myr ago. PMID:16754604

Schopf, J. William

2006-01-01

327

21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting...Commissioner will classify an implant or life-supporting or...

2012-04-01

328

21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting...Commissioner will classify an implant or life-supporting or...

2011-04-01

329

21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting...Commissioner will classify an implant or life-supporting or...

2013-04-01

330

21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting...Commissioner will classify an implant or life-supporting or...

2010-04-01

331

21 CFR 860.93 - Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining devices.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... false Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...860.93 Classification of implants, life-supporting or life-sustaining...classification into class III of any implant or life-supporting...Commissioner will classify an implant or life-supporting or...

2014-04-01

332

Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

2008-01-01

333

An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

Bedau, Mark A.

2010-12-01

334

The Social Life of Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new field of positive organizational studies (POS) aims to enlarge inquiry in organizations to address neglected aspects of social life such as resilience, spontaneity, flow, courage, thriving, and virtue. In this article, we take seriously the promise and the challenge of this expanded realm of research in organization studies. We find that this nascent research field has come up

Lloyd E. Sandelands; Monica C. Worline

2008-01-01

335

Tautologies of work life balance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This conceptual contribution resembles the central theme of the 2002 SUSTAIN meeting and is about tautologies of Work Life Balance. It will be argued, that in Open- Systems Thinking the tautological character of work and non-work is obscured because the system and its environment are defined in an inclusive way (the system is part of the environment). When we observe

Frans M. van Eijnatten; Jan-Peter Vos

2002-01-01

336

A Two-Player Game of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a new extension of Conway's game of life for two players, which we call ``p2life''. P2life allows one of two types of token, black or white, to inhabit a cell and adds competitive elements into the birth and survival rules of the original game. We solve the mean-field equation for p2life and determine, using simulation, that the asymptotic density of p2life approaches 0.0362.

Levene, Mark; Roussos, George

337

Game of life on phyllosilicates: Gliders, oscillators and still life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A phyllosilicate is a sheet of silicate tetrahedra bound by basal oxygens. A phyllosilicate automaton is a regular network of finite state machines - silicon nodes and oxygen nodes - which mimics structure of the phyllosilicate. A node takes states 0 and 1. Each node updates its state in discrete time depending on a sum of states of its three (silicon) or six (oxygen) neighbours. Phyllosilicate automata exhibit localisations attributed to Conway's Game of Life: gliders, oscillators, still lifes, and a glider gun. Configurations and behaviour of typical localisations, and interactions between the localisations are illustrated.

Adamatzky, Andrew

2013-10-01

338

The Life of Liberty Project - Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As part of the The Life of Liberty Project , this page is part of a larger effort to educate students on the values and lifestyles of the 1700s as compared to today. This page will demonstrate how education was and now is... What was good then? What is good today? Does today\\'s method really provide a life education or something else? Have you ever wondered what school was like in 1700? Keep wondering, because nobody knows, right? Wrong. There are quite a few different systems of education that existed before our current system that is in the brick and mortar around the country. Let\\'s take a brief tour of the history ...

Dr. Liberty

2005-11-23

339

A Woman's Life Before Serving Life: Examining the Negative Pre-Incarceration Life Events of Female Life-Sentenced Inmates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the increase in the number of females incarcerated, there is a paucity of research concerning female life-sentenced inmates in the United States. Using a nationally representative data set containing the largest known sample of this population, the present research examines the pre-incarceration traumatic experiences of female life-sentenced inmates. The results indicate that these women are more likely to experience

Margaret E. Leigey; Katie L. Reed

2010-01-01

340

The Early History of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly

E. G. Nisbet; C. M. R. Fowler

2003-01-01

341

Wolbachia pipientis - Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Encyclopedia of Life species page offers a comprehensive summary of the biology, ecology, evolution and relevance of Wolbachia pipientis. It includes an interactive media panel with images, videos and distribution maps, as well as a navigable classification structure. The page is supplemented with links to literature references, educational opportunities and additional research links.

Encyclopedia of Life

342

Asthma Outcomes: Quality of Life  

PubMed Central

Background “Asthma-related quality of life” refers to the perceived impact that asthma has on the patient’s quality of life. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to recommend standardized measures of the impact of asthma on quality of life for use in future asthma clinical research. Methods We reviewed published documentation regarding the development and psychometric evaluation; clinical research use since 2000; and extent to which the content of each existing quality of life instrument provides a unique, reliable, and valid assessment of the intended construct. We classified instruments as core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to the study’s aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop convened in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Eleven instruments for adults and 6 for children were identified for review. None qualified as core instruments because they predominantly measured indicators of asthma control (symptoms and/or functional status); failed to provide a distinct, reliable score measuring all key dimensions of the intended construct; and/or lacked adequate psychometric data. Conclusions In the absence of existing instruments that meet the stated criteria, currently available instruments are classified as either supplemental or emerging. Research is strongly recommended to develop and evaluate instruments that provide a distinct, reliable measure of the patient’s perception of the impact of asthma on all of the key dimensions of quality of life, an important outcome that is not captured in other outcome measures. PMID:22386511

Wilson, Sandra R.; Rand, Cynthia S.; Cabana, Michael D.; Foggs, Michael B.; Halterman, Jill S.; Olson, Lynn; Vollmer, William M.; Wright, Rosalind J.; Taggart, Virginia

2014-01-01

343

Impact frustration of the origin of life.  

PubMed

One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr. PMID:11536595

Maher, K A; Stevenson, D J

1988-02-18

344

Impact frustration of the origin of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One possible definition for the origin of life on Earth is the time at which the interval between devastating environmental insults by impact exceeded the timescale for establishing self-replicating proto-organisms. A quantitative relationship for the Hadean (pre-3,800 Myr ago) and Early Archean (3,800 to 3,400 Myr) impact flux can be derived from the lunar and terrestrial impact records. Also, the effects of impact-related processes on the various environments proposed for abiogenesis (the development of life through chemical evolution from inorganic materials) can be estimated. Using a range of plausible values for the timescale for abiogenesis, the interval in time when life might first have bootstrapped itself into existence can be found for each environment. We find that if the deep marine hydrothermal setting provided a suitable site, abiogenesis could have happened as early as 4,000 to 4,200 Myr ago, whereas at the surface of the Earth abiogenesis could have occurred between 3,700 and 4,000 Myr.

Maher, Kevin A.; Stevenson, David J.

1988-02-01

345

The value of medical and pharmaceutical interventions for reducing obesity.  

PubMed

This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small. The net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H

2012-07-01

346

Cosmology and the Origin of Life  

E-print Network

We discuss some of the cosmological constraints on the evolution and persistence of life in the Universe and in hypothetical universes other than our own. We highlight the role played by the age and size of the universe, and discuss the interplay between the main-sequence stellar lifetime and the biological evolution time scale. The consequences of different versions of the inflationary universe scenario are briefly described in the light of limits on the possible variation in the values of the constants of Nature.

John D. Barrow

1998-11-30

347

The Tree of Animal Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

Braude, Stan

2007-01-01

348

The Tree of Life Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

Milbrath, Sherry

2009-01-01

349

Life Cycle of a Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive slide show explores the journey of a single snowflake onto and through a glacier. This journey, which can take as much as 30,000 years to complete, shows that the life cycle of a glacier can be more complex than originally perceived.

350

The Chemistry of Life's Origin.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

Ferris, James P.

1984-01-01

351

University of Sussex School of Life Sciences  

E-print Network

University of Sussex School of Life Sciences Brighton BN1 9QG T +44 (0)1273 678057 F +44 (0 of Life Sciences This brochure provides an overview of current research activities, thumbnail sketches. Interdisciplinarity does not stop at the gates of the School of Life Sciences, and many of our research goals

Sussex, University of

352

LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.  

PubMed

Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10?? in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

2012-08-01

353

Nature and value of knowledge : epistemic environmentalism   

E-print Network

My thesis examines the nature and value of knowledge and normative implications of its value. With this in mind I examine Greco’s account of knowledge in detail and consider whether it convinces. I argue against the ...

Ryan, Shane Gavin

2013-11-27

354

IMPORTANCE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. CA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so mater...

355

Larger than Life: threshold-range scaling of Life’s coherent structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Game of Life has many coherent structures known as still lifes, oscillators, and spaceships. The most intriguing of these structures are the spaceships due to their ability to carry information across long spatial distances. Similar structures are supported by Larger than Life (LtL), which is a four-parameter family of two-dimensional cellular automata that generalizes the Game of Life to large neighborhoods and general birth and survival thresholds. Numerous examples of large range versions of Life’s spaceships are provided along with descriptions of the experimental methods used to find these objects. The empirical work illustrates that these structures are quite common, scale in a fairly coherent manner, and have a distinct geometry. A mix of rigorous results, questions, and conjectures are made about the existence of the generalized spaceships and other coherent structures for LtL rules with arbitrarily large neighborhoods as well as the convergence of such rules to “Euclidean automata”. Euclidean automata are deterministic rules that have Euclidean, rather than discrete universes.

Evans, Kellie Michele

2003-09-01

356

Two Essays on the Value of Cash  

E-print Network

In the first essay, "The Source of Cash and Its Marginal Value," we study the relation between the source of firms' cash holdings and the value of the cash to shareholders. The marginal value of a dollar of cash holdings depends on the source...

Tippens, Timothy

2012-10-19

357

Race, ethnicity, and patterns of values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The principle question of this study was whether racial or ethnic classifications could be used to identify dominant values profiles descriptive of most members of the classification and distinct from the values profiles of other classifications. Cluster analysis was chosen as a data analysis method allowing respondents to be classified into groups based on the similarity of their values profiles.

Ann Barrett

1998-01-01

358

Value of Major League Baseball Ownership  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unwillingness of team owners to share their data prohibits a direct assessment of the value of professional team sports ownership. But insights into that value can be gleaned from actual team sale prices. First, throughout the entire modern history of Major League Baseball (MLB), the average real growth in team sale prices is twice the usual comparison value of

Rodney Fort

2006-01-01

359

The Impact of Life Role Salience on Life Satisfaction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationships among life role salience, role strain, coping efficacy, and life satisfaction for adults (N = 125) who combine multiple life roles. Causal modeling procedures were used to test hypotheses based on D. E. Super's (1980, 1990) life-span, life-space theory and the social cognitive career theory (R. W. Lent, S. D.…

Perrone, Kristin M.; Civiletto, Christine L.

2004-01-01

360

Absolute Planck Values: Moving Beyond the Arbitrary Assignment of Unity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Planck Values provide a valuable tool in efforts to understand basic universal relationships; however, they fall short of having any truly intrinsic value. Planck Values come with the assumption that unity can be assigned to up to five of the fundamental universal constants. While constraining these values to unity may be convenient, it by no means ensures that intelligent life anywhere in the universe would make the same assumptions. Further, the peculiar value of the inverse fine structure constant of 137 suggests that it is naive to assume that any of the physical constants are equal to unity or any other simplistic value. Through an analysis of gravitation and electrostatic force, the IWPD Research Center has derived a logical argument for a revised set of Planck Values that represent absolute values with true universal significance. Of greatest importance, is a recalculated Planck Mass that serves as a truly fundamental unit of mass at the quantum scale. This finding contrasts with the significantly large value associated with the current Planck Mass and provides new information that may be critical in the search to unify General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics.

Laubenstein, John

2008-03-01

361

The body as site of pleasure and surplus value  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation is part of the Value and the Body track.\\u000aNatural sciences and epistemologies are narrations about nature and knowledge, especially about the knowledge of nature and the nature of knowledge. In these narrations we are also told about the nature and meaning of social relations. Biology as the science of life, most prominently, tells about the function of

Waltraud Ernst

2010-01-01

362

Tree of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All cells, organs and tissues of a living organism are built of molecules. Some of them are small, made from only a few atoms. There is, however, a special class of molecules that make up and play critical roles in living cells. These molecules can consist of many thousands to millions of atoms. They are referred to as macromolecules (or large biomolecules).

2012-07-19

363

Osteology of Mesozoic Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity explores vertebrate paleontology/paleobiology of the Mesozoic. It focuses on dinosaur osteology using skeletons and models at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University in Philadelphia. Students will compare the morphology of several types of bones between a variety of ornithischian and saurischian dinosaurs.

Allison Tumarkin-Deratzian, Temple University, altd@temple.edu

364

The Promise of Quality of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little has been written in the career development literature about quality of life, even though this concept is implied in all counselor interventions. In this article, the author suggests that the broad and subjective nature of quality of life, rather than a liability, is its very strength. Quality of life is presented as an important holistic…

Peruniak, Geoffrey S.

2008-01-01

365

The Community of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), delivered this address before the Annual Meeting of The Humane Society of the United States, Newport, Rhode Island, October, 1971. Reviewing the philosophy and activities of the NPCA, he discloses how the wildlife preservation movement of the NPCA needs the help of

Smith, Anthony Wayne

366

Periodic decomposition of integer valued Gyula Karolyi  

E-print Network

Periodic decomposition of integer valued functions Gyula K´arolyi , Tam´as Keleti , G´eza K prove that the existence of a real valued periodic decomposition of a Z Z function implies the existence of an integer valued periodic decomposition with the same periods. This result depends

Károlyi, Gyula

367

Information: currency of life?  

PubMed Central

In biology, the exception is mostly the rule, and the rule is mostly the exception. However, recent results indicate that known universal concepts in biology such as the genetic code or the utilization of ATP as a source of energy may be complemented by a large class of principles based on Shannon’s concept of information. The present position paper discusses various promising pathways toward the formulation of such generic informational principles and their relevance for the realm of biology. PMID:20357888

Polani, Daniel

2009-01-01

368

Constructor Theory of Life  

E-print Network

Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the sophisticated adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, and has not been developed, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end I apply Constructor Theory's new mode of explanation to provide an exact formulation of the appearance of design, of no-design laws, and of the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection, within fundamental physics. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterisation in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a "vehicle" constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer.

Chiara Marletto

2014-11-04

369

Origin of life: Cold-hearted RNA heats up life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An RNA replicase ribozyme has long been sought by chemists interested in the origin of life. Now, a selection strategy employing a low-temperature water-ice mixture as the medium has led to discovery of a ribozyme that can catalyse polymerization of an RNA chain greater than its own length.

Lehman, Niles

2013-12-01

370

The Life and Times of Dick Ruggles: Village Life  

E-print Network

returned with stories. Dick Ruggles is both. He is a keeper and custodian of the inherited tradition of his area (called Seanachie in Ireland).His stories are as passed on (some from his mother etc and some are folk tales) or from his experience of life...

Lanham, Neil

371

Conceiving of Human Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this Chapter I am going to trace back some developments in mutual relations between culture, on one side, and scientific and technological advances, on the other side. To my mind, these observations could help us to understand some aspects of current debates on goals, possibilities and limitations of extensive use of biological and medical sciences for the sake of

Boris Yudin

372

Value of Water in Non-Extractive Uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter has the same structure and purpose as the preceding chapter but its attention is directed at examining the value\\u000a of water employed in non-extractive uses. Examples of this type of use are the production of hydroelectricity, transportation,\\u000a recreation, and the use of water to support aquatic life and perform other ecological functions. In addition, households may\\u000a also have

Steven Renzetti

373

Constructor theory of life  

PubMed Central

Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

Marletto, Chiara

2015-01-01

374

Constructor theory of life.  

PubMed

Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a 'vehicle' constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

Marletto, Chiara

2015-03-01

375

End of Life Care  

MedlinePLUS

... implications of using physical or chemical restraint. Active Euthanasia Euthanasia (also called mercy killing) is the act of ... non-voluntary (where consent is not possible) involuntary. Euthanasia is illegal and not practiced in the United ...

376

Signs of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This computer activity has students use data to locate the planet Jupiter and determine if there is a nearby planet with an atmosphere habitable for humans. Data includes mass, surface temperature, composition of atmosphere, and number of satellites.

377

The Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners examine ways that Native Americans of the Southwest express their relationship with nature through art. Learners cooperate to create a large weaving and individual rug designs. This activity is featured on pp.30-31 of the "One With the Earth: Native Americans and the Natural World" multidisciplinary unit of study for kindergarten through third grade.

2014-04-30

378

Game of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What does over-fishing mean? What are the effects of over-fishing on fish stocks? Through the game in this lesson, students will understand the effects of over-fishing on the sustainability of fish stocks and, thus, the ability to meet the human demand for seafood.

379

The Ladder of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners identify the DNA base bars guanine, cytosine, thymine and adenine. Learners create a DNA model using colored paper clips to resemble these base pairs. This activity is featured on pp.19-20 (part of a lesson that begins on p.18) of the "Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow: Agricultural Biology" unit of study for grades 6-8.

The Children's Museum of Indianapolis

2007-01-01

380

The Web of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan helps students understand the interdependence of organisms in an ecosystem through five activities. From these activities, students will understand that an animal's needs determine its preferred habitat, the concept of ecosystems and interdependence, and that interrelating communities are components of an ecosystem.

2012-05-09

381

The Molecules of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

Weinberg, Robert A.

1985-01-01

382

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture  

E-print Network

The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture Gregory Graff, Ryan Mortenson, Rebecca Goldbach, Dawn citation: Graff, Mortenson, Goldbach, et al, The Value Chain of Colorado Agriculture, Department. © 2013 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 USA #12;iThe Value Chain of Colorado

383

Work Values of Mortuary Science Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

2005-01-01

384

The Life of Birds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This companion to a new PBS series featuring renowned wildlife documentary host Sir David Attenborough is not as feature-rich as some comparable sites but deserves a visit nonetheless. Essentially a collection of five thoughtful illustrated essays, the site explores bird evolution, intelligence, songs (with RealPlayer examples), parenting, and several superlative birds. Additional contents include classroom resources (currently only two lessons), an essay on the making of the series, and a selection of annotated online resources.

Attenborough, David, 1926-.

385

Phylogeny of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this site, students browse through University of California at Berkeley's musuem exhibits relating to phylogeny. The exhibits explore the ancestor/descendant relationships which connect all organisms, past and present. Search by taxonomy, time period, or topic. Site also includes information on how scientists systematically approach diversity and patterns of events that have led to it.

Allen Collins

2007-12-12

386

The Staff of Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some children have chronic illnesses that require diet modifications as part of their medical treatment. Advises school districts to hire a registered dietitian or look for resources at a local hospital or public health office. In addition, schools should work with parents, improve staff training, and conduct spot checks of school cafeterias. (MLF)

Jones, Rebecca

1994-01-01

387

Realities of Irish Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

First published in 1868, this book provides an intriguing memoir of Irish culture and society during and after the Potato Famine. W. Steuart Trench (1808–72) studied agriculture with a view to becoming a land agent: having taken on this role for the Shirley estate in Monaghan in 1843, he eventually managed Irish estates for the Marquess of Lansdowne in County

W. Steuart Trench

388

Continuity of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This self-contained module on classification of organisms, reproduction, cell structure and function includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. The activities impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.

Houghton Mifflin Science

389

Some New Facts of Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the asymptotic density of living cells as dependent on an initial density, the results of scattering of gliders on small stable configurations and the damage spreading in an open system, subjected to a stream of gliders with the rules of the cellular automaton "Game of Life." We find that a damage increases approximately with the second power of time through about the first ten steps; later its time dependence becomes almost linear.

Malarz, K.; Kulakowski, K.; Antoniuk, M.; Grodecki, M.; Stauffer, D.

390

Origins of Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

This addresswas presented by Freeman J. Dyson as the NishinaMemorial Lecture at the University of Tokyo, on October 17, 1984,\\u000a and at Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, on October 23, 1984.

Freeman Dyson

1985-01-01

391

First Day of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... want to share your good news with the world, a good rule of thumb is to keep ... Is the Apgar Score? Your Child's Checkup: Newborn Communication and Your Newborn Contact Us Print Additional resources ...

392

Encyclopedia of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A webpage for every organism on earth is the goal of this site, which was initially funded in 2007 by the MacArthur Foundation and the Sloan Foundation. To "learn how to navigate EOL, search for content, customize your experience, and explore pages..." visitors can start with the tab "Using the Site" at the top of the page. Here, there is a video tour on general "Navigation" of the site and instructions on how specifically to use the "Species Pages". Users can check out the FAQs section under the same tab for more help. Visitors can select the "Language" tab at the top of the page to view the site in English, Spanish, Russian, Ukranian, German, or French. In the "About EOL" tab on the far upper right hand side of the page, visitors can check out the "Content Partners" link about halfway down the menu. There are over two dozen partners and links to their websites listed, including the Nearctic Spider Database, Mushroom Observer, FishBase, and AntWeb.

393

`Bringing Vision and Values to Life' www.birmingham.ac.uk/education  

E-print Network

Assurance and Enhancement: Dr Celia Greenway Head of Student Support and Development: Dr Tracy Whatmore/Deputy Head of School: Professor Peter Davies Director for Strategic Development/Deputy Head of School reminds us that we will be entering a new phase of our development as a School of Education

Heinke, Dietmar

394

The Life of Art  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When some look at art, they might just see a beautiful vase or a well-done etching of a street scene from 19th century Salamanca. But look closely: every work of art reveals something about the world in which it was made, from ancient Egypt to 21st century Detroit. This rather engaging interactive exhibit from the Getty Museum invites visitors to look at four items from this collection for just such a close look. The items here include a silver fountain, a wall light, a side chair, and a lidded bowl. Each item will give visitors the opportunity to learn about a unique period in human history by looking at the various tools and technologies used to create it. Additionally, curious parties can view a collection of links that will encourage further exploration.

2012-02-07

395

`Bringing Vision and Values to Life' www.birmingham.ac.uk/education  

E-print Network

Doctorates: Professor Ann-Marie Bathmaker Head of Quality Assurance and Enhancement: Dr Celia Greenway Head of Student Support and Development: Dr Tracy Whatmore Director of BA in Education: Dr Janette Ryan Deputy

Heinke, Dietmar

396

The Structures of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

2007-01-01

397

The Value ofThe Value of EntrepreneurshipEntrepreneurship  

E-print Network

, or an established businessbusiness.."" ""A way of thinking and acting that isA way of thinking and acting that engineers and scientists need entrepreneurial skills to be successful at all levels within an organization. The program prepares students for leadership positions in industry, academics, and society. STVP Motivation

Prinz, Friedrich B.

398

THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF FAIR VALUE DISCLOSURES IN AUSTRALIAN FIRMS IN THE EXTRACTIVE INDUSTRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate whether fair value information is value relevant within Australian firms in the extractive industries. The Australian accounting standard on financial instruments AASB 139 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement requires measurement of financial instruments based on fair values. This study provides evidence that net fair value information is value relevant. However, the significance of net fair value is limited

Mohamat Sabri Hassan; Majella Percy; Jenny Stewart

2006-01-01

399

Half-Life of $^{14}$O  

E-print Network

We have measured the half-life of $^{14}$O, a superallowed $(0^{+} \\to 0^{+})$ $\\beta$ decay isotope. The $^{14}$O was produced by the $^{12}$C($^{3}$He,n)$^{14}$O reaction using a carbon aerogel target. A low-energy ion beam of $^{14}$O was mass separated and implanted in a thin beryllium foil. The beta particles were counted with plastic scintillator detectors. We find $t_{1/2} = 70.696\\pm 0.052$ s. This result is $1.5\\sigma$ higher than an average value from six earlier experiments, but agrees more closely with the most recent previous measurement.

J. T. Burke; P. A. Vetter; S. J. Freedman; B. K. Fujikawa; W. T. Winter

2006-07-27

400

The Dawn of Animal Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Miller Museum Online Exhibit, the Dawn of Animal Life, is provided by the Miller Museum of Geology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Patrons can explore the evolution of life from three billion to about 500 million years ago by clicking on the various links, which include the formation of the earth, eukaryotic cells, the oldest known animal fossils, the ediacarian fauna, the mistaken point fossil assemblage, and the world's oldest complex animal fossils found in Newfoundland called Charnia. The site offers non-technical descriptions of where the fossils were found, what their significance is, and a host of very interesting photographs of the fossils themselves. Although the fossils presented are limited to certain locations, the site does a good job of explaining how they help researchers learn about the past around the globe.

401

VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*  

PubMed Central

Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings. PMID:20052402

House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

2009-01-01

402

Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"  

PubMed Central

Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

Durzan, Don J

2009-01-01

403

Relationships between attitudes toward women's roles in society, and work and life values  

Microsoft Academic Search

This exploratory study examined the relationships between attitudes toward women's roles in society, as measured by the six sub-scales on ward Women Scale (AWS: Spence, J. T., & Helmreich, R. L. (1972). The Attitudes Towards Women Scale: An objective instrument to measure attitudes towards the rights and roles of women in contemporary society. JSAS Catalog of Selected Documents in Psychology,

Robert Loo; Karran Thorpe

2005-01-01

404

Value of Topics in Consumer Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports preliminary findings from students who have completed a course in consumer education which address this question: What value do you now place on selected topics in consumer education? Topics with the greatest value were budgeting, dishonest and deceptive sales schemes, automobile insurance, principles of wise buying, and value comparison.…

Garman, E. Thomas; Gummerson, Ronald R.

1977-01-01

405

Life Cycle of a Glacier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This slide show follows a snowflake through its life in a glacier. The path of the ice crystal is traced from its incorporation in the zone of accumulation, through the zone of ablation to its final departure, whether being calved as an iceberg or melting or sublimated. There is also information on the speed of the glacier and the difference between a cold and a warm glacier.

406

Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility\\u000a is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary\\u000a valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal data on well-being and\\u000a informal care provision. The choice of well-being

Emmanouil MentzakisPaul; Paul McNamee; Mandy Ryan; Matthew Sutton

2012-01-01

407

The origin of cellular life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

Ingber, D. E.

2000-01-01

408

The Secret Life of Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have learned much about galaxy evolution since z = 2, and something to even higher redshifts. How can it be that we know so little about! the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies? Although great progress has been made accumulating huge samples with only rudimentary properties, progress in galaxy evolution means connecting what we've learned to detailed measurements of the life-histories of specific - not just representative - systems.

Dressler, Alan; Abramson, Louis

2015-04-01

409

26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2011-04-01

410

26 CFR 20.2031-7T - Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary... Valuation of annuities, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...valuations. The present value of annuities, life estates, terms of years,...

2010-04-01

411

The Amenity Value of Wetlands  

E-print Network

and sufficient. Wetland amenities have negative impacts on the sales price of nearby single family homes. Forested wetlands, the size of the nearest wetland, and wetland proximity negatively impact the sales price of the properties. In an urban setting where...

Gao, Shan

2010-07-14

412

Life after survival: long-term daily life functioning and quality of life of patients with hypoxic brain injury as a result of a cardiac arrest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives : To determine the level of daily functioning and quality of life of patients with hypoxic brain injury after a cardiac arrest and to investigate the predictive value of the duration of coma and post-traumatic amnesia in long-term functioning. Design : A retrospective cohort study. Setting : A Dutch rehabilitation centre. Subjects : Thirty-two patients with hypoxic brain injury

Wietske Middelkamp; Veronique RMP Moulaert; Jeanine A Verbunt; Caroline M van Heugten; Wilbert G. Bakx; Derick T. Wade

2007-01-01

413

Maximizing the Value of Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presents comments on selected findings of the Business Information Resources Survey 2004 in light of the experiences of Euromonitor plc, covering the selected issues of: site licences anduser licences; usage analysis and what to measure; pay per view versus subscription; and promoting information and the information service. A major problem is that vendors fail to appreciatethat, whereas a company may

David Gudgin

2004-01-01

414

Threshold values of autoresonant pumping  

E-print Network

There exists stable growing solution of primary resonant equation for a autoresonant pumping with decreasing amplitude. The primary term of asymptotics is $O(\\sqrt{t})$ and does not depend on order of the force from some interval. We point to the interval for the amplitude of the pumping for which the growing stable solution exists.

O. M. Kiselev

2013-03-19

415

The Chemical Value of Pi  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an indirect laboratory method of calculating pi by using circular aluminum foil pieces as reactants with sodium hydorxide solution in a eudiometer, and indicates the presence of errors ranging from +0.05 percent of 3.1416 to +0.5 percent of 3.142. (CC)

Young, Jay A.

1973-01-01

416

"Living theatre, theatre of life".  

PubMed

Young people love to play theatre--in one way or another. They like to play with behaviours, costumes, words, communication patterns, etc.; they like to disguise themselves, to create certain spheres and scenes of drama and tragedy, excitement and extacy, satire and irony, morals and decadence. Due to the particular uncertainties of the adolescent passage, youth oscillates between taking life both, too seriously and easy. Searching for identity and integration, they tend to experiment with styles of behaviour and culturally defined patterns of lifestyles conductive to well-being. Sometimes, life is perceived as pure entertainment, and sometimes as pure drama. It's living theatre and theatre of life. On the one hand it is "acting out", on the other hand it is playing precisely defined roles. And, in-between, it is always the question: Who am I? They tend to slip into roles in order to check out whether they are willing to accept their implications with regard to the priorities they have set so far. PMID:3679228

Wenzel, E

1987-09-01

417

The value of asking questions  

PubMed Central

Science begins by asking questions and then seeking answers. Young children understand this intuitively as they explore and try to make sense of their surroundings. However, science education focuses upon the end game of “facts” rather than the exploratory root of the scientific process. Encouraging questioning helps to bring the true spirit of science into our educational system, and the art of asking good questions constitutes an important skill to foster for practicing scientists. PMID:23486404

Vale, Ronald D.

2013-01-01

418

Serpentinite and the dawn of life  

PubMed Central

Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO2 atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO2 dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ? 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9–11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO2 in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily C.

2011-01-01

419

[Food value of cichorium intybus].  

PubMed

Cichorium intybus is an herbaceous perennial, known as a coffee substitute. It possesses a wide range of healing characteristics particularly due to inulin, one of its components. Inulin is a natural polysaccharide, a polyfructosane containing 27-35 fructose residues in furanose form and glucose residue. When inulin is in the alimentary tract it passes to the stomach and the small intestine unchangeable. In large intestine inulin is fermented by bifidobacteria and then converted in to a great number of short-chain fatty acids. Due to the process it stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria population and reduces that of pathogenic microorganisms. The increase of pool of healthy intestinalflora normalizes the passage of fieces masses through the intestine, improves immunologic status, regulates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The paper presents experimental and clinic studies confirming bifidogenic, immunogenic, anticancerous, hepatoprotective characteristics of inulin and cichorium intybus. PMID:24000703

Luzina, E V

2013-01-01

420

Black Colleges: Something of Value.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the early stages of higher education desegregation, there was a disproportionate shifting of black students to historically white institutions. Today, it is estimated that about 82% of all black students in colleges and universities are enrolled in traditionally white institutions. As desegregation proceeded, the conviction grew that it was to…

Whiting, Albert N.

1989-01-01

421

The value of care algorithms.  

PubMed

The use of protocols or care algorithms in medical facilities has increased in the managed care environment. The definition and application of care algorithms, with a particular focus on the treatment of acute bronchospasm, are explored in this review. The benefits and goals of using protocols, especially in the treatment of asthma, to standardize patient care based on clinical guidelines and evidence-based medicine are explained. Ideally, evidence-based protocols should translate research findings into best medical practices that would serve to better educate patients and their medical providers who are administering these protocols. Protocols should include evaluation components that can monitor, through some mechanism of quality assurance, the success and failure of the instrument so that modifications can be made as necessary. The development and design of an asthma care algorithm can be accomplished by using a four-phase approach: phase 1, identifying demographics, outcomes, and measurement tools; phase 2, reviewing, negotiating, and standardizing best practice; phase 3, testing and implementing the instrument and collecting data; and phase 4, analyzing the data and identifying areas of improvement and future research. The experiences of one medical institution that implemented an asthma care algorithm in the treatment of pediatric asthma are described. Their care algorithms served as tools for decision makers to provide optimal asthma treatment in children. In addition, the studies that used the asthma care algorithm to determine the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide and levalbuterol in children with asthma are described. PMID:16945065

Myers, Timothy

2006-09-01

422

The Value of School Locations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a method for assessing schools' performance in relation to socioeconomic indicators of their location. Such indicators include, the percentage of owner-occupied houses, car ownership, unemployment, and overcrowding. Discusses the process of indexing these indicators and their relation to school performance. (MJP)

Conduit, E.; And Others

1996-01-01

423

Traumatic haemobilia: value of ultrasonography.  

PubMed Central

A case of post-traumatic haemobilia treated by right hepatic artery ligation is described. The role of 'B'-mode grey-scale ultrasonography in the investigation of hepatic trauma is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:984693

Archer, D. J.

1976-01-01

424

Improving Health and Quality of Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Improving Health and Quality of Life On this Page Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) Support ... and improve their ability to function and their quality of life. Doctors may refer some of their CFS patients ...

425

Exobiology and the origin of life  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

1976-01-01

426

Possible origin of life between mica sheets: does life imitate mica? Helen Greenwood Hansma*  

E-print Network

Possible origin of life between mica sheets: does life imitate mica? Helen Greenwood Hansma of life proposes that life originated between the sheets of muscovite mica. This paper elaborates on two ways that life resembles what might have originated between mica sheets. First, enzymes: The config

Hansma, Helen

427

The Therapeutic Value of Pets  

PubMed Central

While domestic pets are capable of transmitting disease and inflicting injury, they may also be of benefit to human health. Studies suggest that companion animals, in addition to their well-known role as helpers to the handicapped, may alleviate depression, solace the lonely, facilitate psycho-therapy, socialize criminals, lower blood pressure, increase survivorship from myocardial infarction and ease the social pain of aging in our society. PMID:3953064

Fitzgerald, Faith T.

1986-01-01

428

The Economic Value of Teeth  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

2010-01-01

429

The value of birth control  

Microsoft Academic Search

When econometric simulation is employed as a tool of national policy analysis, a persuasive argument can be made for including demographic elements in the models. In the short run, changes in birth rates alter female labour force participation rates and hence affect the size of the labour force. Also, changes in birth rates influence investment rates even in the short

Paul M. Sommers

1980-01-01

430

The Value of Imperfect Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This essay illustrates a technique for reducing the risks of capital investment decisions involving considerable sums for advanced technologies by considering its application to a problem that arises frequently in selection of automated library systems. Incomplete information, using available information, selecting a system, and consultants are…

Malinconico, S. Michael

1985-01-01

431

Value of Wind Power Forecasting  

SciTech Connect

This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

2011-04-01

432

Quality of life in older ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The quality of life of elderly people has become relevant with the demographic shift that has resulted in greying of population. There are indications that concepts and concerns related to quality of life in older ages are different from the general population. Methods: A narrative review of selected literature. Results: Quality of life is described often with both objective

Gopalakrishnan Netuveli; David Blane

2008-01-01

433

The Values of Negative Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Advocates introducing high school literature classes by analyzing the serious flaws in an important work such as Edgar Alan Poe's poem, "The Raven," in order to increase student involvement in evaluating literature, strengthen student trust of the teacher's judgment, and motivate students for positive criticism. (MM)

Bier, Jesse

1983-01-01

434

Therapists Value of Interprofessional Collaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The work of occupational (OT), physical (PT), and recreational therapists (RT), as well as speech- language pathologists (SLP), is interrelated and requires effective teamwork and collaboration to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. Literature shows that health care professionals are ill prepared to work in an interprofessional manner due…

De Vries, Dawn R.

2012-01-01

435

NET ECONOMIC VALUES OF RECREATIONISTS  

E-print Network

Management Consultants Ltd. 975-1500 West Georgia St. Vancouver, B.C. V6G 2Z6 December, 1992 #12 with its author, Crane Management Consultants Ltd. Environment Canada reviewed this report and approved an activity highlights the flow of money between activities. If there are fewer sport fishing experiences

436

Value of global weather sensors  

SciTech Connect

Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

Canavan, G.H.

1998-12-23

437

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2013-04-01

438

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2014-04-01

439

26 CFR 25.2512-5 - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2012-04-01

440

26 CFR 25.2512-5T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2011-04-01

441

26 CFR 25.2512-5T - Valuation of annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...annuities, unitrust interests, interests for life or term of years, and remainder or reversionary...value of annuities, unitrust interests, life estates, terms of years,...

2010-04-01

442

Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life  

MedlinePLUS

... Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly PDF Click here ...

443

Enhance End-of-Life Care  

MedlinePLUS

... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... taken the lead in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. ...

444

The Value of DNA Sequencing  

Cancer.gov

This video is one in a series of videos from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project explaining TCGA’s approach to determining the important genomic changes that lead to cancer. TCGA researchers, Drs. Richard Gibbs, Lynda Chin, Stacey Gabriel and Paul Spellman, explain DNA sequencing and what it tells us about DNA changes in cancer, how looking across many tumors will help us to find which changes are meaningful and identify potential drug targets, and how genomics is changing how we think about cancer.

445

The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*  

PubMed Central

A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

Edwards, Ryan D.

2012-01-01

446

Quality of life and the competent community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quality of life is presented as an important and useful concept for community psychology. Factor analysis of data collected in a household survey provides evidence that quality of life can be thought of as spanning a lifespace continuum with three basic levels: intimate life-space, social functioning, and community functioning. Separate factor analyses were performed for each of three income levels.

Deborah L. Rhoads; Jonathan S. Raymond

1981-01-01

447

The Origin of Life Darwin (1871)  

E-print Network

System Long Term Stability of Planets in a Habitable Zone (HZ) Right Kind of Star Right Kind of Planet. Definitions of Life. I. Conditions for the "life-conditions"/ "Warm Little Pond" as we know it. Habitability;Definitions of Life. As we know it, it will have: Genetic Material Metabolism Cell membrane More Earth centred

Goldschmidt, Christina

448

The Life of Roger Langdon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Preface H. Clifton Lambert; 1. 'Why was I born?'; 2. Childhood's days; 3. Starting in life; 4. My secret departure; 5. Life in Jersey; 6. Return and marriage; 7. Scientific achievements; 8. Closing years; Appendices.

Langdon, Roger; Langdon, Ellen

2010-11-01

449

Expectancy–Value Theory of Achievement Motivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We discuss the expectancy–value theory of motivation, focusing on an expectancy–value model developed and researched by Eccles, Wigfield, and their colleagues. Definitions of crucial constructs in the model, including ability beliefs, expectancies for success, and the components of subjective task values, are provided. These definitions are compared to those of related constructs, including self-efficacy, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and interest.

Allan Wigfield; Jacquelynne S. Eccles

2000-01-01

450

Health values of patients with bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite a growing number of studies of patients' health values (utilities), little is known about health values of patients\\u000a with mental illness, particularly bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder. Methods: We administered a computerized rating scale, time tradeoff, and standard gamble to 53 patients. Patients were asked to rate\\u000a or value their current state of health overall and then their current mental

Joel Tsevat; Paul E. Keck; Richard W. Hornung; Susan L. McElroy

2000-01-01

451

Stochastic game of life in one dimension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic game of life (SGL) which simulates the dynamic evolution of a society of living organisms in the presence of noise is introduced. The SGL exhibits a very rich critical behavior with many critical edges at the irreversible phase transitions: extinction-life and life-overcrowding. Furthermore, within the living phase, critical edges at transitions between chaotic and frozen life are also found.

Monetti, Roberto A.; Albano, Ezequiel V.

1997-02-01

452

UNDERSTANDING QUALITY OF LIFE IN ASSISTED LIVING  

E-print Network

UNDERSTANDING QUALITY OF LIFE IN ASSISTED LIVING: INFLUENCE OF THE BUILT AND ORGANIZATIONAL- institutional environment who do not need 24/7 nursing care Focus on quality of life (QoL) 194 registered ALs 6 features play in influencing how QoL is experienced? #12;Understanding Quality of Life QoL is a broad

453

Accelerated Life Testing of Flexible Printed Circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I of this paper describes a facility which has recently been developed to conduct accelerated life tests on-printed wiring products. Procedures developed for the evaluation of flexible printed circuits are outlined, and a representative set of life test data is reviewed to illustrate the kinds of information obtainable with this facility. In conducting accelerated life tests on fineline flexible

P. J. Boddy; R. H. Delaney; J. N. Lahti; E. F. Landry; R. C. Restrick

1976-01-01

454

A theory of the value of children  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses a non-standard value assumption—uncertainty reduction—to explain parenthood. We begin by reviewing the inadequacies\\u000a of normative and standard rational choice explanations of shifts in fertility behavior. Then we propose a theory of the value\\u000a of children based on the uncertainty-reduction assumption. Next we generate a range of hypotheses that follow both from this\\u000a assumption and from a subsidiary

Debra Friedman; Michael Hechter; Satoshi Kanazawa

1994-01-01

455

Nationality and espoused values of managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

372 24-45 yr old middle-level managers from 40 nationalities who attended resident management development programs in Lausanne, Switzerland, scored their espoused values on 2 paper-and-pencil values tests, L. V. Gordon's Surveys of Personal and of Interpersonal Values. All used the English language form. Scores differentiated meaningfully by the age group of respondents. For the 15 nationalities represented by at least

Geert Hofstede

1976-01-01

456

Space Biology: Patterns of Life  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

Salisbury, Frank B.

1971-01-01

457

Uses, values, and use values of the Sundarbans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decimation of the Sundarbans has resulted from attempts to satisfy short-term demands by exhausting the chances of satisfying future demands. The forest cannot be preserved by a policy that under-valorizes the urgency of the short-term needs or by a policy that is imposed from above, but it may be by social forestry. Social forestry augments the supply of forest

Jnanabrata Bhattacharyya

1990-01-01

458

The social value of clinical research  

PubMed Central

Background International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature and is used in numerous ways in the research ethics literature. Because social value justifies involving human participants, especially in early human trials, this is problematic. Discussion Our analysis and interpretation of the concept social value has led to three proposals. First, as no direct benefits are expected for the research participants in first-in-human trials, we believe it is better to discuss a risk- value assessment instead of a risk - benefit assessment. This will also make explicit the necessity to have a clear and common use for the concept social value. Second, to avoid confusion we propose to limit the concept social value to the intervention tested. It is the expected improvement the intervention can bring to the wellbeing of (future) patients or society that is referred to when we speak about social value. For the sole purpose of gaining knowledge, we should not expose humans to potential harm; the ultimate justification of involving humans in research lies in the anticipated social value of the intervention. Third, at the moment only the validity of the clinical research proposal is a prerequisite for research to take place. We recommend making the anticipated social value a prerequisite as well. Summary In this paper we analyze the use of the concept social value in research ethics. Despite its unavoidable ambiguity, we aim to find a best use of the concept, subject to its role in justifying involving humans in first-in-human research. PMID:25189994

2014-01-01

459

ORIGINAL PAPER Language Metaphors of Life  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Language Metaphors of Life Anton Markos & Dan Faltýnek Received: 10 January 2009 be gained, by such an approach, in order to understand the phenomenon of life. Keywords Language . Formal and natural . Interpretative abilities of life Language speaks. This means at the same time and before all

Markos, Anton

460

Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

2011-06-01

461

Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.  

PubMed

A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887

Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

2003-08-15

462

Human Values and the Prisoner of War  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares a group of 80 former prisoners of war (POWs) with a matched comparison group to determine whether or not the experience of long-term deprivation of basic needs affected the value framework of the POW. This investigation also examines the relationship between the POWs value systems after release and (a) the period of time spent in captivity (captured

Howard E. Rutledge; Edna J. Hunter; Barbara B. Dahl

1979-01-01

463

Early Predictors of Alcohol Abuse: A Study of the Relationships Between Interests, Values and Personality Variables From the 1960 TALENT Data Base and Alcohol Abuse in Later Life. Final Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1960, Project TALENT gathered demographic, cognitive, and socio-pyschological data from a nationwide sample of high school students. In addition, responses from a saturation sample of 16,000 cases in Knox County, Tennessee were collected. The relationships between attitudes, personality traits, and subsequent alcohol abuse (as shown by Knox…

Bond, Richard A.

464

A Consideratlon of Life Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a record of Special Lecture at the awarding ceremony of the 22nd “Niwa Prize”. Lecturer describes the mechanism in biology, taking a biology as an information system. For instance, when we make a protain by genes, every substance like hormones and nezymes, which were made by genes, has information. The system of biology moves by the fact that an gene dose not move itself, but substances with information go around in the body. From the viewpoint of life sciences, lecturer proposes the necessity to reconsider information as a linkage of heart and substance.

Nakamura, Keiko

465

[Otoplasty and quality of life].  

PubMed

The main aim of every aesthetic surgery is to offer patients a subjective benefit. Today, the construct "health-related quality of life" (HRQOL) is considered one of the most important parameters in the evaluation of treatment. Several recent studies using validated tools to measure HRQOL show that otoplasty leads to a significant and long-lasting increase in the HRQOL of children and adults suffering from protruding ears. However, irreversible auricular deformities after failed otoplasty can be more emotionally draining for the patient than the preoperative state. The respective risk is higher when using cartilage rasping or cutting techniques compared with pure suture techniques. PMID:25527381

Braun, T; Berghaus, A

2015-01-01

466

Relative Theory of Utility and Value  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is justified in a previous paper published in Economic Thought Journal that along with the theory of marginal utility, which is dominating the contemporary economic thought, a theory of marginal value, of equal worth to it, should be developed, and its starting points have been outlined. This paper proposes the development of a relative theory of utility and value,

Kamen Mirkovich

2005-01-01

467

Multicellular life cycle of magnetotactic prokaryotes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most multicellular organisms, prokaryotes as well as animals, plants, and algae have a unicellular stage in their life cycle. Here, we describe an uncultured prokaryotic magnetotactic multicellular organism that reproduces by binary fission. It is multicellular in all the stages of its life cycle, and during most of the life cycle the cells organize into a hollow sphere formed by

Carolina N. Keim; Juliana L. Martins; Fernanda Abreu; Alexandre Soares Rosado; Henrique Lins de Barros; Radovan Borojevic; Ulysses Lins; Marcos Farina

2004-01-01

468

Nova Online: Odyssey of Life  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a companion to its NOVA Odyssey of Life series, PBS has created a fascinating web site that is highlighted by a morphing embryos section that allows the viewer (with the proper software) to see the development of fish, chicken, pig, and human embryos. Also at the site are a virtual tour of the microscopic animals that live on you, your furniture, clothes, and books; an interview with Lennart Nilsson, the famous endoscope photographer; a cyberdebate between a creationist and an evolutionist; and a teacher's guide for both parts of the series (under Learn).

469

Life Story of an Art Therapist of Color  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this narrative, the author relates her experiences as an art therapist of color, and describes the impact of cultural beliefs and values on her life from childhood, through education, and into the workplace. She contends that incidents of conflicts between cultures in the community, in education, and in the workplace reflect the continuing need…

Boston, Charlotte G.

2005-01-01

470

The value of information technology in healthcare.  

PubMed

Not only will healthcare investments in information technology (IT) continue, they are sure to increase. Just as other industries learned over time how to extract more value from IT investments, so too will the healthcare industry, and for the same reason: because they must. This article explores the types of business value IT has generated in other industries, what value it can generate in healthcare, and some of the barriers encountered in achieving that value. The article ends with management principles for IT investment. PMID:12645778

Skinner, Richard I

2003-01-01

471

Increment–Decrement Life Table Estimates of Happy Life Expectancy for the U.S. Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using large nationally representative longitudinal data on changes in happiness and mortality and multivariate increment–decrement\\u000a life tables, we assess length of quality life through cohort estimates of happy life expectancies. We examine population-based\\u000a and status-based life expectancies in absolute term of years and relative term of proportions. We find that happy life expectancies\\u000a exceed unhappy life expectancies in both absolute

Yang Yang; Muhammad Waliji

2010-01-01

472

The Many Perspectives of Valuing Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Valuing Learning is the process of promoting participation in and outcomes of (formal or non-formal) learning and as such the organising principle for lifelong learning strategies. It aims at the recognition and validation of prior learning (VPL) and further development. Four main models of Valuing Learning can be distinguished: (1) the…

Duvekot, Ruud

2009-01-01

473

Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

Bagnell, Rhea

2012-01-01

474

Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

Moosmayer, Dirk

2011-01-01

475

The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values

Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

2010-01-01

476

Rock surfaces as life indicators: new ways to demonstrate life and traces of former life.  

PubMed

Life and its former traces can only be detected from space when they are abundant and exposed to the planetary atmosphere at the moment of investigation by orbiters. Exposed rock surfaces present a multifractal labyrinth of niches for microbial life. Based upon our studies of highly stress-resistant microcolonial fungi of stone monument and desert rock surfaces, we propose that microbial biofilms that develop and become preserved on rock surfaces can be identified remotely by the following characteristics: (1) the existence of spectroscopically identifiable compounds that display unique adsorption, diffraction, and reflection patterns characteristic of biogenerated organic compounds (e.g., chlorophylls, carotenes, melanins, and possibly mycosporines), (2) demonstrably biogenic geomorphological features (e.g., biopitting, biochipping, and bioexfoliation), and (3) biominerals produced in association with biofilms that occupy rock surfaces (e.g., oxalates, forsterite, and special types of carbonates, sulfides, and silicates). Such traces or biosignatures of former life could provide macroscopically visible morphotypes and chemically identifiable products uniquely indicative of life. PMID:12469369

Gorbushina, Anna A; Krumbein, Wolfgang E; Volkmann, Marc

2002-01-01

477

Fingerprints of Life CD and Website  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher resource on astrobiology and life in extreme environments contains classroom activities, presentation-ready slideshows with scripts and many other resources. It shows how NASA research on microbial life on Earth helps identify possible signs of life on Martian meteorites.

2004-01-01

478

On the definition of life: taking the Aristotelian approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite numerous attempts, we still do not have a satisfactory definition of life. It is generally accepted that one of the essential features of life is the ability of an organism to reproduce. This implies that mules, workers ants, and other sterile individuals are not alive. To correct this apparent problem, we suggest that life should be defined in two ways. In the first way life is defined as a phenomenon, for which the reproduction of some, but not all individuals is essential. In the second way, life is defined as a set of characteristics of an individual organism, among which the reproduction is not essential. We explore Aristotle's classifications of things that exist, in which he placed individual living beings as primary substances, above their species and genera, which are secondary substances. Definition of life as a phenomenon needs to link life to its origins. Life presumably emerged from abiotic matter via chemical evolution. We have examined Aristotle's concept of change in which potentiality goes to actuality, and its variant, Kauffman's concept of adjacent possible, for their possible application in the prebiotic chemical evolution. We have found that these principles are somewhat useful in the back engineering process, but that they have very little predictive value.

Kolb, Vera M.

2006-08-01

479

The value of privacy Marc van Lieshout  

E-print Network

and international Privacy related research - User perception studies 2008/2009 - Privacy impact assessment - UseThe value of privacy Marc van Lieshout Informatics, University of Nijmegen, 14 March 2014 #12 and Technology Organisation March 14, 2014 Marc van Lieshout The value of privacy 1 #12;2 March 14, 2014 Marc van

Hoepman, Jaap-Henk

480

The Myth of Value Free Counseling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A counselor's values are inherent in all that he does with a client, ranging from selection of the counseling modality to the decision to terminate facilitative intervention. Value-free counseling is a myth, and recognition of this fact is the first step in arriving at a clear conception of what counseling can, or should, be. A counselor can be…

Kegley, John F.

481

Feeding value of pastures for horses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding value of fresh pasture grazed in situ is determined by animal performance or productivity and could be relatively easily established for growing and lactating horses. Despite this, there is a lack of published information on the relative feeding value of different pastures and forages grazed by horses in New Zealand and the world. In addition, for adult breeding

SO Hoskin; EK Gee

2004-01-01

482

The Work Values of Japanese Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

Engel, John W.

483

Life on Titan: Theorem of existance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanoes engender life on heavenly bodies; they are pacemakers of life[1]. All planets during their period of formation pass through volcanism hence - all planets and their satellites pass through life. Tracks of life If we want to find tracks of life -- most promising places are places with volcanic activity, current or past. In the case of just-in-time volcanic activity we have 100% probability to find a life. Therefore the most perspective ``search for life'' are Io and comets, further would be Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, their satellites and first of all -- Titan. Titan has atmosphere. It might be result of high volcanic activity -- from one side, from other side atmosphere is a necessary condition development life from procaryota to eucaryota. Existence of a planet means that all its elements after hydrogen formed just there inside a planet. The forming of the elements leads to the formation of mineral and organic substances and further to the organic life. Development of the life depends upon many factors, e.g. the distance from star/s. The intensity of the processes of the element formation is inversely to the distance from the star. Therefore we may suppose that the intensity of the life in Mercury was very high. Hence we may detect tracks of life in Mercury, particularly near volcanoes. The distance from the star is only one parameter and now Titan looks very active -- mainly due to interior reason. Its atmosphere compounds are analogous to comet tail compounds. Their collation may lead to interesting result as progress occurs at one of them. Volcanic activity is as a source of life origin as well a reason for a death of life. It depends upon the thickness of planet crust. In the case of small thickness of a crust the probability is high that volcanoes may destroy a life on a planet -- like Noachian deluge. Destroying of the life under volcano influences doesn't lead to full dead. As result we would have periodic Noachian deluge or nuclear winter. These events are known as extinctions or ice ages. Huygens considered that God's wisdom and providence is clearest in the creation of life, and Earth holds no privileged position in the heavens that life must be universal. He is right. Huygens helps find life on Titan. 1. Potashko, O.S. (2003) Volcano activity as transformers from mineral to organic. III European Workshop on Exo-Astrobiology - Mars: Search for Life, Madrid, Nov. 18-20, 2003, p.197.

Potashko, O.

484

Quality of life and chronotherapy.  

PubMed

The importance of evaluating patient's quality of life (QoL) in clinical practice and research is recognized clearly in oncology. In the advanced phase of disease such an evaluation represents an endpoint as important as survival. Quality of life is both a subjective and multidimensional concept evaluated mainly by validated questionnaires. In colorectal trials involving advanced stage disease the effects of different chemotherapy treatments on QoL were evaluated. Almost all the studies found no deterioration in QoL during chemotherapy. The European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Chronotherapy Study Group utilized three different approaches to assess QoL. The first centered on the stability of QoL during a 6mon treatment period in patients undergoing chronotherapy. The second centered on research of the biological and clinical determinants of QoL involving features of the circadian activity rhythm and patient survival and the relationship between QoL and patient performance status, response to therapy, and psychosocial variables as well as drug-induced toxicity. The third centered on the clinical effectiveness of psychological intervention on patients undergoing chronotherapy to improve psychosocial status during treatment. This papers reviews the results of EORTC Chronotherapy Group studies on QoL. PMID:11962683

Pugliese, P; Garufi, C; Perrone, M; Aschelter, A M; Zappalà, A; Terzoli, E

2002-01-01

485

The Origins of Cellular Life  

PubMed Central

Understanding the origin of cellular life on Earth requires the discovery of plausible pathways for the transition from complex prebiotic chemistry to simple biology, defined as the emergence of chemical assemblies capable of Darwinian evolution. We have proposed that a simple primitive cell, or protocell, would consist of two key components: a protocell membrane that defines a spatially localized compartment, and an informational polymer that allows for the replication and inheritance of functional information. Recent studies of vesicles composed of fatty-acid membranes have shed considerable light on pathways for protocell growth and division, as well as means by which protocells could take up nutrients from their environment. Additional work with genetic polymers has provided insight into the potential for chemical genome replication and compatibility with membrane encapsulation. The integration of a dynamic fatty-acid compartment with robust, generalized genetic polymer replication would yield a laboratory model of a protocell with the potential for classical Darwinian biological evolution, and may help to evaluate potential pathways for the emergence of life on the early Earth. Here we discuss efforts to devise such an integrated protocell model. PMID:20484387

Schrum, Jason P.; Zhu, Ting F.; Szostak, Jack W.

2010-01-01

486

Habitable worlds with no signs of life  

E-print Network

'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in studies of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided) and planets with life, where the concentration of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pi...

Cockell, Charles S

2013-01-01

487