Science.gov

Sample records for value of life

  1. Life devoid of value?

    PubMed

    Rapp, M S

    1977-03-19

    6 arguments arise in response to Dr. Baunemann's letter to the Canadian Medical Association Journal: 1) defenders of abortion do not recommend abortion for fetuses that "may be deprived" of physical and emotional support; 2) a developing embryo is not a "human being" but rather a "potential" human being; 3) the concepts of Hoche and Binding did not directly lead to Nazi-inspired sterilizations and murders; 4) Hitler and Mussolini were staunch antiabortionists as well as proponents of euthanasia; 5) the recent drives for abortions and euthanasia derive from different sources; and 6) the term "proabortion" is misleading, as no supporter of abortion considers it a desirable act. This letter is then answered by Dr. Baunemann, who points out that Dr. Rapp has himself used the strawman argument, that a fetus is a human being with "potential", that Hitler's antiabortion stand stemmed from a desire for population increase, and that there is a connection between abortion and euthanasia. PMID:608155

  2. The value and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Downie, R S

    1999-01-01

    A medical view on 'the value of life' can be inferred from medical accounts of the quality of life: a life has value if it embodies certain qualities. Scales have been developed to quantify quality of life. While the term 'quality of life', is used frequently in everyday discourse, perceptions of what it might actually mean differ greatly and are often incompatible. This incompatibility can be illustrated through an examination and development of the Greek myth of Sisyphus. The different models that the author explores rest on 'significant toil', 'choice', 'happiness or well-being', or 'social factors' being the prerequisite for quality of existence. These models are incommensurable and, as intangible concepts, cannot be quantified. Decision-making in medicine does not require a complex evaluation of quality of life: it consists of the doctor's offer of treatment based on the best evidence, and the patient's consent to, or refusal of, that offer. Apart from the need to obtain consent, the main ethical constraint on the doctor is equity. PMID:10472028

  3. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-01

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822

  4. Abortion, value and the sanctity of life.

    PubMed

    Belshaw, Christopher

    1997-04-01

    In Life's Dominion Dworkin argues that the debate about abortion is habitually misconstrued. Substantial areas of agreement are overlooked, while areas of disagreement are, mistakenly, seen as central. If we uncover a truer picture, then hope of a certain accord may no longer seem vain. I dispute many of these claims. Dworkin argues that both sides in the debate are united in believing that life is sacred, or intrinsically valuable. I disagree. I maintain that only in a very attenuated sense of intrinsic value will this be agreed upon. I consider how an account of such value might be further fleshed out, but suggest, if this is done on any plausible lines, agreement will fall away. Dworkin argues, also, that the issue of personhood, does not, contrary to widespread belief, keep the parties apart. Again I disagree. We need to distinguish the question of whether there is in fact dispute over this issue from that of whether there is, in truth, good reason for dispute. And I argue that, rightly or wrongly, the issue of personhood remains central. Dworkin suggests that the purported proximity between the two sides offers some hope of an eventual reconciliation. At least, they will agree to differ, accepting that in this area freedom of choice is paramount. I am sceptical. Even this measure of reconciliation depends upon conservatives giving up positions which, I argue, they will continue to maintain. There is a further point. Dworkin appears to be, in many ways, cautiously optimistic. I appear, in contrast, to be pessimistic. I argue, however, that only so long as we do disagree over matters of substance is there much hope that our differences might be resolved. PMID:11654792

  5. Frederick Douglass & the Value of My Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adisa, Opal Palmer

    1996-01-01

    Describes how Frederick Douglass's "Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave" can be used to explore differences between biography and autobiography, and how a personal account can be used to change attitudes of others. Presents poems written by 10th- and 11th-grade students composed after reading Douglass's "Narrative."…

  6. The value of a statistical life: theoretical and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Per-Olov

    2002-01-01

    The value of a statistical life is an important concept in health and environmental economics. This paper provides definitions of the value of a statistical life, and considers single-period and life cycle models. It shows how the value of a statistical life can be measured simply in empirical studies, and addresses the important age profile issue. Available empirical evidence is briefly presented, and recent studies are included that use meta-analysis to determine which variables are appropriate to explain the variance of estimates of the value of statistical life. PMID:14618746

  7. Death and the value of life.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    1988-10-01

    The Epicurean argument that death cannot be a misfortune for the person who dies because, when death occurs, there is no longer a person to whom any misfortune can befall, fails to establish the conclusions which its defenders have sought from it. Beginning with the premise that death can be bad, either for the victim or in quasi-impersonal terms, the author seeks to define that badness through philosophical analysis. The belief that to have more life than is worth living is always better than to have less is reconciled with the notion that the badness of death increases with the degree of psychological connectedness, using the examples of the deaths of an unborn fetus and of a 35-year-old woman. The author contends it can be better for a person to suffer a worse death at 35 than never to have lived at all. PMID:11653818

  8. Life and Work Values of Counselor Trainees: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busacca, Louis A.; Beebe, Ronald S.; Toman, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    This national web-based study used the Schwartz Value Survey (Schwartz, 1994) and Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (Zytowski, n.d.) to identify general life and work value orientations of 674 female and male entry-level counselor trainees residing in 27 states. In general, trainees emphasized benevolence, self-direction, and achievement and…

  9. Are estimates of the value of a statistical life exaggerated?

    PubMed

    Doucouliagos, Chris; Stanley, T D; Giles, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of the value of a statistical life (VSL) is critical to the evaluation of many health and safety initiatives. To date, the large and rigorous VSL research literature has not explicitly accommodated publication selectivity bias (i.e., the reduced probability that insignificant or negative VSL values are reported). This study demonstrates that doing so is essential. For studies that employ hedonic wage equations to estimate VSL, correction for selection bias reduces the average value of a statistical life by 70-80%. Our meta-regression analysis also identifies several sources for the wide heterogeneity found among reported VSL estimates. PMID:22079490

  10. The economic value of life: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed Central

    Landefeld, J S; Seskin, E P

    1982-01-01

    Human capital estimates of the economic value of life have been routinely used in the past to perform cost-benefit analyses of health programs. Recently, however, serious questions have been raised concerning the conceptual basis for valuing human life by applying these estimates. Most economists writing on these issues tend to agree that a more conceptually correct method to value risks to human life in cost-benefit analyses would be based on individuals.' "willingness to pay" for small changes in their probability of survival. Attempts to implement the willingness-to-pay approach using survey responses or revealed-preference estimates have produced a confusing array of values fraught with statistical problems and measurement difficulties. As a result, economists have searched for a link between willingness to pay and standard human capital estimates and have found that for most individuals a lower bound for valuing risks to life can be based on their willingness to pay to avoid the expected economic losses associated with death. However, while these studies provide support for using individual's private valuation of forgone income in valuing risks to life, it is also clear that standard human capital estimates cannot be used for this purpose without reformulation. After reviewing the major approaches to valuing risks to life, this paper concludes that estimates based on the human capital approach--reformulated using a willingness-to-pay criterion--produce the only clear, consistent, and objective values for use in cost-benefit analyses of policies affecting risks to life. The paper presents the first empirical estimates of such adjusted willingness-to-pay/human capital values. PMID:6803602

  11. The Transformation of the Value of Life: Dispossession as Torture.

    PubMed

    Abadía-Barrero, César E

    2015-01-01

    Workers at the oldest maternity hospital in Colombia experienced the privatization of health care and the flexibilization of their labor. Drawing on their experience, I illustrate how neoliberalism transforms the value of life. This transformation occurs first in terms of its moral worth: the worth of life changes over time, as people and public hospitals are stigmatized as the 'living memory' of the old. Second, the hospital buildings, the land on which they sit, and the roles of workers within the hospital are all transformed. Both similarities and differences emerge between a type of systemic or chronic violence that is inherent to the capitalist system and modern practices of torture. Examining how capitalist forces transform the value of life opens up new fields of inquiry to study links between critical political economy and subjectivity. PMID:26131618

  12. Defining the value of a statistical life: a comment.

    PubMed

    Blomqvist, Ake

    2002-01-01

    In a recent paper [J. Hlth. Econom. 20 (2001) 131] Per-Olov Johansson claims to demonstrate that a commonly used intuitive definition of the value of a statistical life (VSL) is wrong, and that empirical estimates of VSLs are biased estimators of what he defines as the theoretically correct concept of the value of saving a life. In this comment I first argue in favor of a theoretically correct concept that is different from Johansson's because it incorporates the risk of death into the individual's lifetime budget constraint. I then show that the common intuitive definition of a VSL in fact is consistent with the theoretically correct concept and thus, provides an appropriate empirical basis for estimating the value to society of mortality-reducing projects. PMID:11845923

  13. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.

  14. Immigrant Status and the Value of Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersch, Joni; Viscusi, W. Kip

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the Current Population Survey and the New Immigrant Survey, this paper examines the common perception that immigrants are concentrated in high-risk jobs for which they receive little wage compensation. Compared to native U.S. workers, non-Mexican immigrants are not at higher risk and have substantial values of statistical life.…

  15. The congruence of personal life values and work attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Rachel E; Weathington, Bart L

    2006-05-01

    The authors examined the congruence between an individual's personal-life value placement and attitudes at work. Specifically, they examined how people place value on work, family, religion, and themselves (the personal life values), respectively, and how that choice influences affect, commitment, conscientiousness, and honesty in the workplace (attitudes at work). The authors also examined and tested exploratory hypotheses by using both simple correlations and multiple linear regression analyses. Results suggested varying relationships between value placement and work attitudes. The authors discussed implications and directions for future research. PMID:17663357

  16. The Value of Analog Research in the Search for Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voytek, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    All we know about life and our understanding of its distribution throughout the Universe is based on our understanding of how life originated and evolved, and how it has persisted here on Earth. As we have refined our list of requirements for earth-like organisms and explored the limits of our biosphere, a variety of possible extraterrestrial habitats that could support life have emerged. Although our access to other potentially habitable worlds is limited, we continue to increase our understanding of the environmental conditions on bodies in our solar system which can inform our search for appropriate analogue sites. There is no perfect analogue for other planetary habitable environments on Earth. Earth is a planet with plate tectonics, a hydrological cycle, a thick atmosphere and stronger gravity than most candidate systems. Moreover, present day Earth is a verdant, interconnected system resulting from billions of years of biosphere evolution. Such differences pose a challenge to analogue research and in particular limit the interpretation of the environment under study in important ways. Earth's extreme environments have been proposed as analogues of planetary environments. A common error is to assume if an environment is extreme or it is cold and dry it will make an excellent analogue site. The value of an analogue site is measured by a good assessment of the relevance of a site with rigorous attention to its Earth-based limitations is necessary and it will have different impacts depending on the question under study. Additionally, modern and ancient systems on earth can also be investigated in order to target a future search for as yet undetected terrestrial features and processes that preserve or indicate signs of past life. Despite any limitations, analogue research is essential and field research at these terrestrial sites represents a growing aspect of planetary science. Those relevant to the search for life are supported by NASA's Planetary Science, Technology through Analog Research (PSTAR).

  17. Down's syndrome: cost, quality and value of life.

    PubMed

    Alderson, P

    2001-09-01

    Routine prenatal screening is based on the assumption that it is reasonable for prospective parents to choose to prevent a life with Down's syndrome. This paper questions whether Down's syndrome necessarily involves the costs, limitations and suffering which are assumed in the prenatal literature, and examines the lack of evidence about the value and quality of life with Down's syndrome. Tensions between the aims of prenatal screening policies to support women's personal choices, prevent distress, and reduce the suffering and costs of disability, versus the inadvertent effects of screening which can undermine these aims, are considered. Strengths and weaknesses in medically and socially based models of research about disability, and their validity and reliability are reviewed. From exploratory qualitative research with 40 adults who have congenital conditions which are tested for prenatally, interviews with five adults with Down's syndrome are reported. Interviewees discuss their relationships, education and employment, leisure interests, hopes, aspects of themselves and of society they would like to change, and their views on prenatal screening. They show how some people with Down's syndrome live creative, rewarding and fairly independent lives, and are not inevitably non-contributing dependents. Like the other 35 interviewees, they illustrate the importance of social supports, and their problems with excluding attitudes and barriers. Much more social research with people who have congenital conditions is required, if prenatal screening policies and counselling are to be evidence based. PMID:11478542

  18. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  19. Life Plans and Values of High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tittle, Carol Kehr

    Theories of career decision-making and occupational choice have not been well-related to the life course of the majority of women. The relationship between career and life planning variables in the areas of education, marriage, parenthood, and work were examined through interviews with urban white, black, and Hispanic eleventh grade students

  20. The Added Value of Medical Testing in Underwriting Life Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Bronsema, Jan; Brouwer, Sandra; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2015-01-01

    Background In present-day life-insurance medical underwriting practice the risk assessment starts with a standard health declaration (SHD). Indication for additional medical screening depends predominantly on age and amount of insured capital. From a medical perspective it is questionable whether there is an association between the level of insured capital and medical risk in terms of mortality. The aim of the study is to examine the prognostic value of parameters from the health declaration and application form on extra mortality based on results from additional medical testing. Methods A history register-based cohort study was conducted including about 15.000 application files accepted between 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, lipids, cotinine and glucose levels were used as dependent variables in logistic regression models. Resampling validation was applied using 250 bootstrap samples to calculate area under the curves (AUC’s). The AUC was used to discriminate between persons with and without at least 25% extra mortality. Results BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration by an insurance physician or medical underwriter showed the strongest discrimination in multivariable analysis. Including all variables at minimum cut-off levels resulted in an AUC of 0.710 while by using a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and gender, the AUC was 0.708. Including all variables at maximum cut-off levels lead to an AUC of 0.743 while a model with BMI, the assessment of the health declaration and age resulted in an AUC of 0.741. Conclusions The outcome of this study shows that BMI and the overall assessment of the health declaration were the dominant variables to discriminate between applicants for life-insurance with and without at least 25 percent extra mortality. The variable insured capital set by insurers as factor for additional medical testing could not be established in this study population. The indication for additional medical testing at underwriting life-insurance can possibly be done on limited variables instead of the obligatory medical testing based on age and the amount of insured capital. PMID:26716827

  1. Pathways From Religion to Advance Care Planning: Beliefs About Control Over Length of Life and End-of-Life Values

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: To evaluate the extent to which religious affiliation and self-identified religious importance affect advance care planning (ACP) via beliefs about control over life length and end-of-life values. Design and Methods: Three hundred and five adults aged 55 and older from diverse racial and socioeconomic groups seeking outpatient care in New Jersey were surveyed. Measures included discussion of end-of-life preferences; living will (LW) completion; durable power of attorney for healthcare (DPAHC) appointment; religious affiliation; importance of religion; and beliefs about who/what controls life length, end-of-life values, health status, and sociodemographics. Results: Of the sample, 68.9% had an informal discussion and 46.2% both discussed their preferences and did formal ACP (LW and/or DPAHC). Conservative Protestants and those placing great importance on religion/spirituality had a lower likelihood of ACP. These associations were largely accounted for by beliefs about Gods controlling life length and values for using all available treatments. Implications: Beliefs and values about control account for relationships between religiosity and ACP. Beliefs and some values differ by religious affiliation. As such, congregations may be one nonclinical setting in which ACP discussions could be held, as individuals with similar attitudes toward the end of life could discuss their treatment preferences with those who share their views. PMID:23161430

  2. Life Values, Regular Educators, and Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Karen Derk

    1986-01-01

    Rokeach's Value Survey (1973) was used to assess possible differences in the life values of special education (N=133) and regular (N=128) classroom teachers . Generally, their value systems were not significantly different; however, 18 values (10 defining personal life goals and 8 defining self conduct and others' conduct) differentiated one group…

  3. The Impact of a Sport-Based Life Skill Program on Adolescent Prosocial Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunelle, John; Danish, Steven J.; Forneris, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the implementation and evaluation of a sport-based life skills and community service program. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the impact of a combined life skills and community service program on adolescents' prosocial values. The program was part of a national golf and life skills enrichment academy for…

  4. The Dynamics of the Life Values of Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikheev, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    What kind of impact have the last decade's radical changes in types of economic systems, property ownership, and opportunities for employment had on the rural youth of Russia? This paper examines this topic by presenting a survey of upper-grade students in rural schools in a region of Saratov Oblast in 1994, 1997, and 2004, using the same…

  5. Personal spiritual values and quality of life: evidence from Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kaili Chen; Hui, C Harry; Lam, Jasmine; Lau, Esther Yuet Ying; Cheung, Shu-Fai; Mok, Doris Shui Ying

    2014-08-01

    Values are guiding principles in our life. While some studies found spiritual values to be "healthier," Sagiv and Schwartz (Eur J Soc Psychol 30:177-198, 2000) showed that people holding non-spiritual values were higher on affective well-being. We examined the predictive power of these two types of values with a longitudinal data set collected from Chinese students mainly in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling revealed that spiritual values (as well as family income) positively predicted quality of life a year later. Non-spiritual, self-enhancement values, did not show any association. Results suggest that developing spiritual values may promote well-being through enabling individuals to find meaning and purpose in life. PMID:23460460

  6. Estimates and Projections of Value of Life Lost From Cancer Deaths in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Cathy J.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Brown, Martin L.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Value-of-life methods are increasingly used in policy analyses of the economic burden of disease. The purpose of this study was to estimate and project the value of life lost from cancer deaths in the United States. Methods We estimated and projected US age-specific mortality rates for all cancers and for 16 types of cancer in men and 18 cancers in women in the years 2000–2020 and applied them to US population projections to estimate the number of deaths in each year. Cohort life tables were used to calculate the remaining life expectancy in the absence of cancer deaths—the person-years of life lost (PYLL). We used a willingness-to-pay approach in which the value of life lost due to cancer death was calculated by multiplying PYLL by an estimate of the value of 1 year of life ($150 000). We performed sensitivity analyses for female breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers using varying assumptions about future cancer mortality rates through the year 2020. Results The value of life lost from all cancer deaths in the year 2000 was $960.6 billion; lung cancer alone represented more than 25% of this value. Projections for the year 2020 with current cancer mortality rates showed a 53% increase in the total value of life lost ($1472.5 billion). Projected annual decreases of cancer mortality rates of 2% reduced the expected value of life lost in the year 2020 from $121.0 billion to $80.7 billion for breast cancer, $140.1 billion to $93.5 billion for colorectal cancer, from $433.4 billion to $289.4 billion for lung cancer, and from $58.4 billion to $39.0 billion for prostate cancer. Conclusions Estimated value of life lost due to cancer deaths in the United States is substantial and expected to increase dramatically, even if mortality rates remain constant, because of expected population changes. These estimates and projections may help target investments in cancer control strategies to tumor sites that are likely to result in the greatest burden of disease and to interventions that are the most cost-effective. PMID:19066267

  7. The Dynamic and Correlation of the Value Orientations and Life Goals of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivanova, Z. K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the scientific techniques in the study of value orientations and preferences consists of determining adolescents' attitudes toward personality qualities. It is well known that the model of a personality as an ideal construct formed in a person's consciousness correlates with value orientations and life goals. Its study permits us…

  8. The Dynamic and Correlation of the Value Orientations and Life Goals of Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selivanova, Z. K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the scientific techniques in the study of value orientations and preferences consists of determining adolescents' attitudes toward personality qualities. It is well known that the model of a personality as an ideal construct formed in a person's consciousness correlates with value orientations and life goals. Its study permits us

  9. The Effect of Urban Life on Traditional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Claude S.

    1975-01-01

    Three models are elaborated that predict an association between urbanism and nontraditional behavior. Secondary analysis of American survey data on religiosity, church attendance, and attitudes toward alcohol and birth control confirm the general urbanism-deviance association and suggest the accuracy of the model which regards such behavior as due…

  10. Valuing end-of-life care in the United States: the case of new cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Sorenson, Corinna

    2012-10-01

    New cancer therapies offer the hope of improved diagnosis to patients with life-threatening disease. Over the past 5-10 years, a number of specialty drugs have entered clinical practice to provide better systemic therapy for advanced cancers that respond to few therapeutic alternatives. To date, however, such advances have been only modestly effective in extending life and come with a high price tag, raising questions about their value for money, patient access and implications for health care costs. This article explores some of the key issues present in valuing end-of-life care in the United States in the case of advanced cancer drugs, from the difficult trade-offs between their limited health benefits and high costs to the technical, political and social challenges in assessing their value and applying such evidence to inform policy and practice. A number of initial steps are discussed that could be pursued to improve the value of advanced cancer care. PMID:23079300

  11. The fatality and morbidity components of the value of statistical life.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Elissa Philip; Viscusi, W Kip

    2016-03-01

    The fatality risk-money tradeoff that is the value of a statistical life (VSL) may vary with the nature of the fatality event. While all fatalities involve loss of future life expectancy, the morbidity effects and their duration may differ. This article analyzes fatality risks accompanied by morbidity effects of different duration to disentangle the mortality and morbidity components of VSL using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI). The VSL is comprised of the sum of the value of the fatality risk and the value of the morbidity risk. Labor market valuations of morbidity risks are positive, even for fatalities that are caused by traumatic injuries. The value of the fatality risk is the dominant component of VSL, rather than the value of the morbidity risk. PMID:26896740

  12. The effect of values and culture on life-support decisions.

    PubMed Central

    Klessig, J

    1992-01-01

    Withdrawing life support is always difficult. When patients and health professionals are from different ethnic backgrounds, value systems that form the basis for such decisions may conflict. Many cultural groups do not place the same emphasis on patient autonomy and self-determination that Western society does and find the idea of terminating life support offensive. Although physicians should never assume patients will respond in a particular way because of their ethnic background, issues of life support should be discussed in a culturally sensitive way. African-American, Chinese, Jewish, Iranian, Filipino, Mexican-American, and Korean patients were surveyed about their views on life support. The findings reported here, although not meant to be definitive, should add to health professionals' understanding about diverse beliefs around life-and-death issues. By becoming aware of this diversity of beliefs, health professionals can avoid the damage to the physician-patient relationship caused by conflicting value systems. PMID:1413777

  13. Publication selection and the income elasticity of the value of a statistical life.

    PubMed

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Stanley, T D; Viscusi, W Kip

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) establish the price government agencies use to value fatality risks. Transferring these valuations to other populations often utilizes the income elasticity of the VSL, which typically draw on estimates from meta-analyses. Using a data set consisting of 101 estimates of the income elasticity of VSL from 14 previously reported meta-analyses, we find that after accounting for potential publication bias the income elasticity of value of a statistical life is clearly and robustly inelastic, with a value of approximately 0.25-0.63. There is also clear evidence of the importance of controlling for levels of risk, differential publication selection bias, and the greater income sensitivity of VSL from stated preference surveys. PMID:24300998

  14. The Influence of Value Orientations and Demographics on Quality-of-Life Perceptions: Evidence from a National Survey of Singaporeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Kau, Ah Keng

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the linkages between value orientations, demographics and the quality of life perceptions for Singaporeans based on a nationwide values and lifestyles study conducted in 2001. The quality of life perception is assessed using cognitive evaluations of satisfaction with life in general (subjective personal well-being) and with…

  15. The Influence of Value Orientations and Demographics on Quality-of-Life Perceptions: Evidence from a National Survey of Singaporeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Soo Jiuan; Tambyah, Siok Kuan; Kau, Ah Keng

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the linkages between value orientations, demographics and the quality of life perceptions for Singaporeans based on a nationwide values and lifestyles study conducted in 2001. The quality of life perception is assessed using cognitive evaluations of satisfaction with life in general (subjective personal well-being) and with

  16. Is the value of a life or life-year saved context specific? Further evidence from a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mortimer, Duncan; Segal, Leonie

    2008-01-01

    Background A number of recent findings imply that the value of a life saved, life-year (LY) saved or quality-adjusted life year (QALY) saved varies depending on the characteristics of the life, LY or QALY under consideration. Despite these findings, budget allocations continue to be made as if all healthy life-years are equivalent. This continued focus on simple health maximisation is partly attributable to gaps in the available evidence. The present study attempts to close some of these gaps. Methods Discrete choice experiment to estimate the marginal rate of substitution between cost, effectiveness and various non-health arguments. Odds of selecting profile B over profile A estimated via binary logistic regression. Marginal rates of substitution between attributes (including cost) then derived from estimated regression coefficients. Results Respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions with a strong evidence base where the beneficiary did not contribute to their illness. Results also suggest that respondents preferred prevention over cure. Interventions for young children were most preferred, followed by interventions for young adults, then interventions for working age adults and with interventions targeted at the elderly given lowest priority. Conclusion Results confirm that a trade-off exists between cost, effectiveness and non-health arguments when respondents prioritise health programs. That said, it is true that respondents were more likely to select less costly, more effective interventions – confirming that it is an adjustment to, rather than an outright rejection of, simple health maximisation that is required. PMID:18489787

  17. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA TO EARLY LIFE STAGES OF THE SMALLMOUTH BASS AT FOUR PH VALUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early life stages of smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui Lacepede) were exposed to ammonia concentrations at four different pH values (from 6.5 to 8.7). Acute lethal tests were conducted with juveniles, and partial chronic tests were initiated at the late embryo stage and exte...

  18. Prediction of Drug Abuse by the Life Values Questionnaire: Interim Report, May 1973-February 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Joseph L.; And Others

    Three experimental psychological tests were investigated to determine if they added significantly to the prediction of eight drug abuse criteria when combined with a basic predictor set consisting of background variables only. Of the four tests investigated, only one, the Life Values Questionnaire appeared to add any significant unique variance to…

  19. Nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to assess the nutritive value and display-life attributes of selenium-enriched beef-muscle foods. Samples of foreshank and short loin subprimals were excised from chilled carcasses (n = 20) of beef steers that were individually finished (120 days) on either supranutritional seleni...

  20. Development and Application of the Life Roles Inventory-Values Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Robert; Thorpe, Karran

    2000-01-01

    Study uses sample of management and nursing undergraduates (N=202) to provide psychometric evaluation of the Life Roles Inventory-Values Scale (LRI-VS). Results from internal-consistency reliability analyses, factor analyses, and gender analyses provided qualified support for the scale. The usefulness of the LRI-VS as a tool for self-discovery,…

  1. The value of human life in contemporary society. The global biography project.

    PubMed

    Nary, G

    1997-12-01

    The closing address at the 1997 First International Conference on Healthcare Resource Allocation for HIV/AIDS and Other Life-Threatening Illnesses is presented. The address discusses the extrinsic value of life and the three forms of material value: spiritual, economic, and political, placed on life by an outside source. It is argued that if spiritual currency, rather than economic or political currency, drove public policy there would be greater progress in reducing the global rate of HIV and more options for care. Further, lack of identity of those afflicted with HIV reduces them to mere statistics, thus decreasing their economic and political clout. Giving identities to people who are sick not only increases empathy but also increases their survivability. The establishment of the Global Biography Project seeks to reestablish spiritual currency as the international currency that underlies every nation's healthcare policies. PMID:11364946

  2. What Is the Value of Life? … and Other Socratic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuny, Casey

    2014-01-01

    Casey Cuny was frustrated with the lack of depth in his high school English students' writing. He'd heard about Socratic seminars but was reluctant to try them until he saw them in action. He decided to conduct Socratic seminars with his students centered on the question, What is the value of life? In past years, student papers on this…

  3. Micromanaging Death: Process Preferences, Values, and Goals in End-of-Life Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nikki Ayers; Ditto, Peter H.; Danks, Joseph H.; Smucker, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined patients' and surrogates' attitudes about using advance directives to manage end-of-life medical care. It also explored process preferences, or how patients want decisions to be made. Design and Methods: Data come from the third wave of the Advance Directives, Values Assessment, and Communication Enhancement project, a…

  4. Examining the Relationships among Coaching Staff Diversity, Perceptions of Diversity, Value Congruence, and Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, George B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among coaching staff diversity, perceptions of diversity, value congruence, and life satisfaction. Data were collected from 71 coaching staffs (N = 196 coaches). Observed path analysis was used to examine the study predictions. Results indicate that actual staff diversity was positively…

  5. Assessing whether there is a cancer premium for the value of a statistical life.

    PubMed

    Viscusi, W Kip; Huber, Joel; Bell, Jason

    2014-04-01

    This article estimates whether there is a cancer risk premium for the value of a statistical life using stated preference valuations of cancer risks for a large, nationally representative US sample. The present value of an expected cancer case that occurs after a one decade latency period is $10.85m, consistent with a cancer premium that is 21% greater than the median value of a statistical life estimates for acute fatalities. This cancer premium is smaller than the premium proposed for policy analyses in the UK and the USA. There is also a greater premium for policies that reduce cancer risks to zero and for risk reductions affecting those who perceive themselves to have a greater than average probability of having cancer. PMID:23520055

  6. Value of a statistical life estimation of carcinogenic chemicals for socioeconomic analysis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Geonwoo; Lee, Yongjin; Lee, Hanseul; Hong, Jiyeon; Yang, Jiyeon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To protect public health from risk, the Minister of Environment in Korea legislated an act concerning the registration and evaluation of chemical substances. In this study, we estimated the value of a statistical life (VSL) of carcinogenic chemicals to evaluate the socioeconomic analysis in Korea. Methods The estimation of the health benefit can be calculated through an individuals VSL and willingness to pay (WTP). To estimate the VSL and WTP, we used a contingent valuation method through a web-based survey. Results The survey is conducted with 1434 people living in Seoul and six large cities. An analysis of the survey is essential to review the distribution of the characteristics of the target population. The statistically significant variables affecting the WTP are location, age, household income, quality of life. Through the review of data, we secured statistical validity. The WTP was estimated as 41205 Korean won (KRW)/person, and the estimated VSL appeared as 796 million KRW/person. Conclusions There is a case in which the amount of statistical life value is estimated in connection with domestic environmental policy, fine dust, etc. However, there are no cases of evaluation for chemical. The utilization of this result is possible for conducting other study with chemicals. PMID:26206366

  7. The value of a statistical life: a meta-analysis with a mixed effects regression model.

    PubMed

    Bellavance, François; Dionne, Georges; Lebeau, Martin

    2009-03-01

    The value of a statistical life (VSL) is a very controversial topic, but one which is essential to the optimization of governmental decisions. We see a great variability in the values obtained from different studies. The source of this variability needs to be understood, in order to offer public decision-makers better guidance in choosing a value and to set clearer guidelines for future research on the topic. This article presents a meta-analysis based on 39 observations obtained from 37 studies (from nine different countries) which all use a hedonic wage method to calculate the VSL. Our meta-analysis is innovative in that it is the first to use the mixed effects regression model [Raudenbush, S.W., 1994. Random effects models. In: Cooper, H., Hedges, L.V. (Eds.), The Handbook of Research Synthesis. Russel Sage Foundation, New York] to analyze studies on the value of a statistical life. We conclude that the variability found in the values studied stems in large part from differences in methodologies. PMID:19100640

  8. Valuing quality of life and improvements in glycemic control in people with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Testa, M A; Simonson, D C; Turner, R R

    1998-12-01

    Outcomes research is used increasingly for assessing the health economic benefits of new therapeutic programs and interventions. The measurement properties of the outcomes assessment tools are important. If overlooked, they can mislead health care administrators and caregivers regarding the importance and value of these programs and interventions. We reviewed the literature and conducted two analyses to determine the absolute, relative, and operative quality-of-life ranges for people with type 2 diabetes. Quality of life and fasting blood glucose and HbA1c concentrations were measured at baseline and at 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment in 569 men and women randomized to either glipizide gastrointestinal therapeutic system (GITS) or placebo in a double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. A subgroup of 290 patients completed a diabetes-specific health states questionnaire at endpoint (week 12 or early termination) rating 10 health-state descriptions on a health thermometer scale ranging from 0 (death) to 100 (full health). Health losses at the higher end of the scale had a greater negative utility than did comparable losses at lower health states, indicating patients' strong preferences for maintaining asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic conditions. Patients rated their current health state at 83.4 +/- 0.8% of full health and indicated that a loss of 27 points below this value would prevent them from living and working as they currently do. The calibration analysis applied to the quality-of-life scales suggested that the targeted range for clinical investigation and quality-of-care evaluation must be more narrowly focused. Effect sizes as seemingly small as 2% (0.25 responsiveness units) on the absolute scale can correspond to quality-of-life losses of 15-20% on the personal operative scale. Differences in glycemic control clearly affected quality of life. Those patients with the best HbA1c responses (decreasing 1.5% or more from baseline) versus those with the worst responses (increasing 1.5% or more from baseline) were separated by 0.6 responsiveness units for the overall quality-of-life summary measure. The calibration analysis suggested that this degree of better glycemic control provides a nearly 50% gain in quality of life according to personal expectations within the operative range. In conclusion, general measures of quality of life may be too crude and insensitive to capture the important gains in health outcomes due to new therapeutic interventions and programs in diabetes. Quality-of-care evaluations for diabetes are at risk of favoring inferior programs with lower costs simply because gains or losses in health outcomes go undetected. PMID:9850489

  9. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict…

  10. The Relationship of Value Orientations, Self-Control, Frequency of School-Leisure Conflicts, and Life-Balance in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnle, Claudia; Hofer, Manfred; Kilian, Britta

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this self-report study is to analyze proposed interrelations between value orientations, self-control, frequency of school-leisure conflicts, and life-balance in adolescence. Life-balance is defined as satisfying time investment in different life areas. The tested model posits that self-control is negatively related to conflict

  11. Estimating the Value of Life, Injury, and Travel Time Saved Using a Stated Preference Framework.

    PubMed

    Niroomand, Naghmeh; Jenkins, Glenn P

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of fatality over the period 2010-2014 from automobile accidents in North Cyprus is 2.75 times greater than the average for the EU. With the prospect of North Cyprus entering the EU, many investments will need to be undertaken to improve road safety in order to reach EU benchmarks. The objective of this study is to provide local estimates of the value of a statistical life and injury along with the value of time savings. These are among the parameter values needed for the evaluation of the change in the expected incidence of automotive accidents and time savings brought about by such projects. In this study we conducted a stated choice experiment to identify the preferences and tradeoffs of automobile drivers in North Cyprus for improved travel times, travel costs, and safety. The choice of route was examined using mixed logit models to obtain the marginal utilities associated with each attribute of the routes that consumers choose. These estimates were used to assess the individuals' willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid fatalities and injuries and to save travel time. We then used the results to obtain community-wide estimates of the value of a statistical life (VSL) saved, the value of injury (VI) prevented, and the value per hour of travel time saved. The estimates for the VSL range from €315,293 to €1,117,856 and the estimates of VI from € 5,603 to € 28,186. These values are consistent, after adjusting for differences in incomes, with the median results of similar studies done for EU countries. PMID:27015226

  12. Associations Between Human Values and Alcohol Consumption Among Norwegians in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating human values and alcohol consumption have focused on adolescents, so the current study examined associations between human values and alcohol consumption in a cohort of Norwegians in the second half of life (40 years and above). Human values were studied within Schwartz' theory.(1) A survey was conducted in 2002/2003 among Norwegians aged 40 to 79 years (n = 4 149). The respondents completed measures of human values, drinking frequency and typical drinking quantity. Females (9%) were more likely to report abstinence than males (3%). Males also reported a higher consumption level. Individuals with high education had lower levels of abstinence (4%) than those with basic education (7%), and high education was also related to more consumption. People aged 40-60 years were less likely to abstain from alcohol (3%) than individuals aged 61 years and above (10%). Unmarried individuals were more likely to report abstinence, but also reported somewhat higher consumption than married individuals. Multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics as well as somatic and mental health showed that hedonistic values were related to lower probability of abstaining, while Conformity and Universalism values were associated with a higher probability of abstaining. Achivement and Hedonism values were associated with more alcohol consumption, whereas Universialism, Tradition, and Conformity were related to lower alcohol consumption. PMID:25603494

  13. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    PubMed

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk? PMID:10289283

  14. Double impact of sterilizing pathogens: added value of increased life expectancy on pest control effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Berec, Lud?k; Maxin, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sterilizing pathogens are commonly assumed not to affect longevity of infected individuals, and if they do then negatively. Examples abound, however, of species in which the absence of reproduction actually increases life expectancy. This happens because by decreasing the energy outlay on reproduction individuals with lowered reproduction can live longer. Alternatively, fertile individuals are more susceptible to predators or parasitoids if the latter can capitalize on mating signals of the former. Here we develop and analyze an SI epidemiological model to explore whether and to what extent does such a life expectancy prolongation due to sterilizing pathogens affect host dynamics. In particular, we are interested in an added value of increased life expectancy on the possibility of successful pest control, that is, the effect of increased lifespan and hence increased potential of the infected individuals to spread the disease on pest control effectiveness. We show that although the parameter range in which we observe an effect of increased lifespan of the sterilized individuals is not large, the effect itself can be significant. In particular, the increase in pest control effectiveness can be very dramatic when disease transmission efficiency is close to birth rate, mortality rate of susceptibles is relatively high (i.e.,the species is relatively short-lived), and sterilization efficiency is relatively high. Our results thus characterize pathogens that are promising candidates for an effective pest control and that might possibly be engineered if not occurring naturally. PMID:21710138

  15. Multivariate Meta-Analysis of Preference-Based Quality of Life Values in Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Stevanović, Jelena; Pechlivanoglou, Petros; Kampinga, Marthe A.; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.

    2016-01-01

    Background There are numerous health-related quality of life (HRQol) measurements used in coronary heart disease (CHD) in the literature. However, only values assessed with preference-based instruments can be directly applied in a cost-utility analysis (CUA). Objective To summarize and synthesize instrument-specific preference-based values in CHD and the underlying disease-subgroups, stable angina and post-acute coronary syndrome (post-ACS), for developed countries, while accounting for study-level characteristics, and within- and between-study correlation. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify studies reporting preference-based values in CHD. A multivariate meta-analysis was applied to synthesize the HRQoL values. Meta-regression analyses examined the effect of study level covariates age, publication year, prevalence of diabetes and gender. Results A total of 40 studies providing preference-based values were detected. Synthesized estimates of HRQoL in post-ACS ranged from 0.64 (Quality of Well-Being) to 0.92 (EuroQol European”tariff”), while in stable angina they ranged from 0.64 (Short form 6D) to 0.89 (Standard Gamble). Similar findings were observed in estimates applying to general CHD. No significant improvement in model fit was found after adjusting for study-level covariates. Large between-study heterogeneity was observed in all the models investigated. Conclusions The main finding of our study is the presence of large heterogeneity both within and between instrument-specific HRQoL values. Current economic models in CHD ignore this between-study heterogeneity. Multivariate meta-analysis can quantify this heterogeneity and offers the means for uncertainty around HRQoL values to be translated to uncertainty in CUAs. PMID:27011260

  16. Mentors in Life and at School: Impact on Undergraduate Protege Perceptions of University Mission and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2004-01-01

    University undergraduates (84 women, 80 men: M age=19.1 years old) reported school mission and value perceptions, life and/or school mentor relationships, and social desirability tendencies. No significant social desirability effect was obtained. Proteges with mentors at school and in life (n=52) reported greater cognitive and informational…

  17. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  18. The picture of happiness in Alzheimer's disease: living a life congruent with personal values.

    PubMed

    Shell, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    It is generally understood that happiness is an important goal of dementia care, though evaluation has been challenging. Concerns about cognitive and communicative limitations have led to the use of proxy reports to assess positive affect. However, proxy reports have been shown to differ from appraisals obtained by the person with Alzheimer's disease (AD). This article reports on a qualitative study of happiness in a sample of 12 persons with mild to moderate AD using photo-elicitation and individual interviews for data collection. Results demonstrate people with mild to moderate AD can provide meaningful evaluations of happiness, and that lifelong values continue to be important in the presence of AD. This study suggests photographs may offer a novel approach to obtain a contextualized understanding of happiness and other values in this population which may lead to the development of person centered interventions aimed to improve the individual's quality of life. PMID:25771956

  19. The enduring value of Gánti's chemoton model and life criteria: Heuristic pursuit of exact theoretical biology.

    PubMed

    Griesemer, James

    2015-09-21

    Gánti's chemoton model of the minimal chemical organization of living systems and life criteria for the living state and a living world are characterized. It is argued that these are better interpreted as part of a heuristic pursuit of an exact theoretical biology than as a "definition of life." Several problems with efforts to define life are discussed. Clarifying the proper use of Gánti's ideas to serve constructive engineering idealizations helps to show their enduring value. PMID:25997793

  20. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship of Valued Activities to the Life Satisfaction of Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Gail Hills

    1983-01-01

    Describes a survey that collected information about perceived activity participation levels, health status, income, social supports, and life satisfaction of participants in a nutritional lunch program for the elderly. Results showed that perceptions of the above factors were significant predictors of life satisfaction. (NJ)

  1. The accountant as triage master: an economist's perspective on voluntary euthanasia and the value of life debate.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J

    1987-07-01

    The author, an economist, rebuts the contention that human life cannot and should not be economically evaluated and argues that such evaluations are made implicitly and inconsistently, resulting in a reduction of human welfare. He presents an economic framework for the analysis of costs and benefits in which the focal point, as in most value systems, is the tradeoff between life and quality of life. Therefore, as the quality of life decreases, society's efforts to preserve life should decrease. If the valuation of life includes self evaluation, then there should be less effort to preserve the life of an individual who wishes to die. Richardson concludes that voluntary euthanasia is a limiting case in which society accepts the individual's valuation of life. PMID:11651869

  2. Economic value of disability-adjusted life years lost to violence: estimates for WHO Member States.

    PubMed

    Brown, David W

    2008-09-01

    Violence is an important public health challenge with substantial economic consequences for the affected individuals, families, and communities. Using data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, the economic value of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost due to violence in 2002 was estimated for WHO Member States and presented as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Results indicated an estimated 48.4 million DALYs were lost as a result of 1.6 million deaths due to violence in 2002, for a total estimated economic value of US$ 151 billion (in constant US$ for the year 2000). Expressed as a percentage of GDP, the economic value of DALYs lost due to violence ranged from 0.04% to 5.1% across the 193 Member States. Much more is needed in terms of quantifying the economic burden of violence globally, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, where the burden of violence is greatest. PMID:19115548

  3. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have reached a consensus. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is then set accordingly. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, [SVM + TRL]/ESM, with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is the sum of SVM and TRL. Cost is represented by ESM. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of the suggested System Value Metric.

  4. Advanced Life Support System Value Metric

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Life Support (ALS) Program is required to provide a performance metric to measure its progress in system development. Extensive discussions within the ALS program have led to the following approach. The Equivalent System Mass (ESM) metric has been traditionally used and provides a good summary of the weight, size, and power cost factors of space life support equipment. But ESM assumes that all the systems being traded off exactly meet a fixed performance requirement, so that the value and benefit (readiness, performance, safety, etc.) of all the different systems designs are considered to be exactly equal. This is too simplistic. Actual system design concepts are selected using many cost and benefit factors and the system specification is defined after many trade-offs. The ALS program needs a multi-parameter metric including both the ESM and a System Value Metric (SVM). The SVM would include safety, maintainability, reliability, performance, use of cross cutting technology, and commercialization potential. Another major factor in system selection is technology readiness level (TRL), a familiar metric in ALS. The overall ALS system metric that is suggested is a benefit/cost ratio, SVM/[ESM + function (TRL)], with appropriate weighting and scaling. The total value is given by SVM. Cost is represented by higher ESM and lower TRL. The paper provides a detailed description and example application of a suggested System Value Metric and an overall ALS system metric.

  5. Subjective Values of Quality of Life Dimensions in Elderly People. A SEM Preference Model Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula

    2011-01-01

    This article proposes a Thurstonian model in the framework of Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to assess preferences among quality of life dimensions for the elderly. Data were gathered by a paired comparison design in a sample comprised of 323 people aged from 65 to 94 years old. Five dimensions of quality of life were evaluated: Health,…

  6. Dementia and its influence on quality of life and what it means to be valued: family members' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Moyle, Wendy; Murfield, Jenny; Venturto, Lorraine; Griffiths, Susan; Grimbeek, Peter; McAllister, Margaret; Marshall, Jenni

    2014-05-01

    This pragmatic, exploratory qualitative study, as part of a larger funded research project, sought to explore families' perspectives on what it means to value a person with dementia and how this value might influence the quality of life of people with dementia. In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 family members who used one long-term care service provider in Australia. Families described the factors influencing a positive quality of life for the person with dementia as being related to the environment and, in particular, to the resident's room, supportive staff and individualised care that valued the person's life experience. Family also reported a negative impact on quality of life when staff and the care facility neglected to provide an individualised approach. This study highlights the importance of demonstrating the value of the person with dementia, the family role and partnerships of care. PMID:24339065

  7. Playing God and the intrinsic value of life: moral problems for synthetic biology?

    PubMed

    Link, Hans-Jrgen

    2013-06-01

    Most of the reports on synthetic biology include not only familiar topics like biosafety and biosecurity but also a chapter on 'ethical concerns'; a variety of diffuse topics that are interrelated in some way or another. This article deals with these 'ethical concerns'. In particular it addresses issues such as the intrinsic value of life and how to deal with 'artificial life', and the fear that synthetic biologists are tampering with nature or playing God. Its aim is to analyse what exactly is the nature of the concerns and what rationale may lie behind them. The analysis concludes that the above-mentioned worries do not give genuine cause for serious concern. In the best possible way they are interpreted as slippery slope arguments, yet arguments of this type need to be handled with care. It is argued that although we are urged to be especially vigilant we do not have sufficiently cogent reasons to assume that synthetic biology will cause such fundamental hazards as to warrant restricting or refraining from research in this field. PMID:22389208

  8. Evidence and values: paying for end-of-life drugs in the British NHS.

    PubMed

    Chalkidou, Kalipso

    2012-10-01

    In January 2009, Britain's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), following a very public debate triggered by its decision, six months earlier, provisionally to rule against the adoption by the National Health Service (NHS) of an expensive drug for advanced renal cancer, introduced a new policy for evaluating pharmaceuticals for patients nearing the end of their lives. NICE's so-called end-of-life (EOL) guidance for its Committees effectively advises them to deviate from the Institute's threshold range and to value the lives of (mostly) dying cancer patients more than the lives of those suffering from other, potentially curable, chronic or acute conditions. This article tells the story of the EOL guidance. Through looking at specific EOL decisions between 2009 and 2011 and the reactions by stakeholders to these decisions and the policy itself, it discusses the triggers for NICE's EOL guidance, the challenges NICE faces in implementing it and the policy's putative implications for the future role of NICE in the NHS, especially in the context of value-based reforms in the pricing and evaluation of pharmaceuticals, currently under consideration. PMID:23079299

  9. Value attainment: an explanation for the negative effects of work-family conflict on job and life satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Perrewé, P L; Hochwarter, W A; Kiewitz, C

    1999-10-01

    Perceptions of work interfering with family life and family issues interfering with work are examined as 2 distinct constructs representing work-family conflict. Experienced work-family conflict is argued to reduce one's value attainment which, in turn, lowers both job and life satisfaction. This study examines value attainment as a mediating variable in the work-family conflict and satisfaction relationship. Responses from 270 hotel managers indicate that value attainment either partially or fully mediates the relationship between work interference with family and family interference with work and both job and life satisfaction. Value attainment is argued to be a meaningful explanatory variable for the negative relationship between work-family conflict and job-life satisfaction. PMID:10526836

  10. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect

    McIntyre, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  11. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  12. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge of collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.

  13. Modeling the value recovery of rare earth permanent magnets at end-of-life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g., ferrite and AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore » collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  14. Modeling the Value Recovery of Rare Earth Permanent Magnets at End-of-Life

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cong, Liang; Jin, Hongyue; Fitsos, Pete; McIntyre, Timothy; Yih, Yuehwern; Zhao, Fu; Sutherland, John W.

    2015-05-21

    Permanent magnets containing rare earth elements (REEs) such as Dysprosium and Neodymium offer an advantage over non-REE containing magnets (e.g. ferrite or AlNiCo) in terms of power relative to size. However, REE availability has varied significantly in recent years leading to volatility in the cost of rare earth permanent magnets (REPMs). The supply of REEs can be increased by recycling consumer products and industrial machinery that contain REPMs at product end-of-life (EOL). This paper discusses the REE recovery process for EOL products. The optimal dismantling of products is examined with an emphasis placed on obtaining used REPMs. The challenge ofmore » collecting, managing, transporting, and processing used products is addressed through the development of a cost model for REPM recovery. This model is used to investigate several EOL strategies for recovering REPMs. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to identify the key factors that influence value recovery economics. A hard disk drive serves as a case study for model demonstration.« less

  15. Quality of Life, Values, and Teamwork in Geriatric Care: Do We Communicate What We Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Philip G.

    1995-01-01

    Outlines a framework for organizing discussions of quality of life for elderly persons with disabilities, reviews relevant empirical research, and develops a framework for understanding the different interpretations of quality of life as it is used in communication among health care providers, elderly patients, and their families. New models of…

  16. Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa: valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment

    PubMed Central

    Bor, Jacob; Herbst, Abraham J; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is expected to raise adult life expectancy in populations with high HIV prevalence. Using data from a population cohort of over 101,000 individuals in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, we measured changes in adult life expectancy for 2000–2011. In 2003, the year before ART became available in the public sector health system, adult life expectancy was 49.2 years; by 2011, adult life expectancy had increased to 60.5 years – an 11.3-year gain. Based on standard monetary valuation of life, the survival benefits of ART far outweigh the costs of providing treatment in this community. These gains in adult life expectancy signify the social value of ART and have implications for investment decisions of individuals, governments, and donors. PMID:23430655

  17. The adaptive value of morphological, behavioural and life-history traits in reproductive female wolves.

    PubMed

    Stahler, Daniel R; MacNulty, Daniel R; Wayne, Robert K; vonHoldt, Bridgett; Smith, Douglas W

    2013-01-01

    Reproduction in social organisms is shaped by numerous morphological, behavioural and life-history traits such as body size, cooperative breeding and age of reproduction, respectively. Little is known, however, about the relative influence of these different types of traits on reproduction, particularly in the context of environmental conditions that determine their adaptive value. Here, we use 14 years of data from a long-term study of wolves (Canis lupus) in Yellowstone National Park, USA, to evaluate the relative effects of different traits and ecological factors on the reproductive performance (litter size and survival) of breeding females. At the individual level, litter size and survival improved with body mass and declined with age (c. 4-5 years). Grey-coloured females had more surviving pups than black females, which likely contributed to the maintenance of coat colour polymorphism in this system. The effect of pack size on reproductive performance was nonlinear as litter size peaked at eight wolves and then declined, and litter survival increased rapidly up to three wolves, beyond which it increased more gradually. At the population level, litter size and survival decreased with increasing wolf population size and canine distemper outbreaks. The relative influence of these different-level factors on wolf reproductive success followed individual > group > population. Body mass was the primary determinant of litter size, followed by pack size and population size. Body mass was also the main driver of litter survival, followed by pack size and disease. Reproductive gains because of larger body size and cooperative breeding may mitigate reproductive losses because of negative density dependence and disease. These findings highlight the adaptive value of large body size and sociality in promoting individual fitness in stochastic and competitive environments. PMID:23043440

  18. Mortality in Appalachian coal mining regions: the value of statistical life lost

    SciTech Connect

    Hendryx, M.; Ahern, M.M.

    2009-07-15

    We examined elevated mortality rates in Appalachian coal mining areas for 1979-2005, and estimated the corresponding value of statistical life (VSL) lost relative to the economic benefits of the coal mining industry. We compared age-adjusted mortality rates and socioeconomic conditions across four county groups: Appalachia with high levels of coal mining, Appalachia with lower mining levels, Appalachia without coal mining, and other counties in the nation. We converted mortality estimates to VSL estimates and compared the results with the economic contribution of coal mining. We also conducted a discount analysis to estimate current benefits relative to future mortality costs. The heaviest coal mining areas of Appalachia had the poorest socioeconomic conditions. Before adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual age-adjusted deaths in coal mining areas ranged from 3,975 to 10,923, depending on years studied and comparison group. Corresponding VSL estimates ranged from $18.563 billion to $84.544 billion, with a point estimate of $50.010 billion, greater than the $8.088 billion economic contribution of coal mining. After adjusting for covariates, the number of excess annual deaths in mining areas ranged from 1,736 to 2,889, and VSL costs continued to exceed the benefits of mining. Discounting VSL costs into the future resulted in excess costs relative to benefits in seven of eight conditions, with a point estimate of $41.846 billion.

  19. The value and use of 'quality of life' measures in the primary dental care setting.

    PubMed

    McGrath, C; Bedi, R

    1999-04-01

    General dental practitioners are used to taking a dental history and carrying out an examination. The history and examination invariably form the basis of the patient-dentist dialogue with regard to the treatment to be provided and the financial costs involved. The dialogue between patient and dentist is complex, and the importance of 'quality of life' for the patient is now emerging as a central focus of this dialogue. This paper explores the concept of 'quality of life'. In terms of oral health, and considers the potential of 'oral health-related quality of life' measures for general dental practice. Examples of their use in general dental practice are considered, in relation to marketing dental services, improving compliance in treatment plans, assessing the quality of care and improving communications between the patient and the dental team. Quality of life indicators are being used in the healthcare sector for commissioning, planning and evaluating services. In addition, primary care researchers are using these indicators as part of their evidence-based treatment approaches. As general dental practitioners become more involved in planning services and research, it is important they understand the impact of 'quality of life' indicators have on their treatment and practice management. PMID:11819881

  20. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, β-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  1. The value of 'life at any cost': Talk about stopping kidney dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Russ, Ann J.; Shim, Janet K.; Kaufman, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    With the trend toward an older, sicker dialysis population in the USA, discussions of ethical issues surrounding dialysis have shifted from concerns about access to and availability of the therapy, to growing unease about non-initiation and treatment discontinuation. Recent studies report treatment withdrawal as the leading cause of death among elderly dialysis patients. Yet, the actual activities that move patients toward stopping treatment often remain obscure, even to clinicians and patients themselves. This paper explores that paradox, drawing on anthropological research among patients over age 70, their families, and clinicians in two California renal dialysis units. It concludes that many older patients sacrifice a sense of choice about dialysis in the present to maintain “choice” as both value and possibility for the future. Yet, patients desire more information and communication, provided earlier in their illness, about prognosis, how long they can expect to be on dialysis, and what the impact of the treatment will be on their daily lives. That, with time, there is a transition to be made from dialysis as “treatment” to end of life care could be better explained and managed to alleviate patients’ confusion and unneeded isolation. PMID:17418924

  2. Quantifying the Economic Value and Quality of Life Impact of Earlier Influenza Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Brown, Shawn T.; Cooley, Philip; Wheaton, William D.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza vaccination is administered throughout the influenza disease season, even as late as March. Given such timing, what is the value of vaccinating the population earlier than currently being practiced? Methods We used real data on when individuals were vaccinated in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, and the following 2 models to determine the value of vaccinating individuals earlier (by the end of September, October, and November): Framework for Reconstructing Epidemiological Dynamics (FRED), an agent-based model (ABM), and FluEcon, our influenza economic model that translates cases from the ABM to outcomes and costs [health care and lost productivity costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs)]. We varied the reproductive number (R0) from 1.2 to 1.6. Results Applying the current timing of vaccinations averted 223,761 influenza cases, $16.3 million in direct health care costs, $50.0 million in productivity losses, and 804 in QALYs, compared with no vaccination (February peak, R0 1.2). When the population does not have preexisting immunity and the influenza season peaks in February (R0 1.2–1.6), moving individuals who currently received the vaccine after September to the end of September could avert an additional 9634–17,794 influenza cases, $0.6–$1.4 million in direct costs, $2.1–$4.0 million in productivity losses, and 35–64 QALYs. Moving the vaccination of just children to September (R0 1.2–1.6) averted 11,366–1660 influenza cases, $0.6–$0.03 million in direct costs, $2.3–$0.2 million in productivity losses, and 42–8 QALYs. Moving the season peak to December increased these benefits, whereas increasing preexisting immunity reduced these benefits. Conclusion Even though many people are vaccinated well after September/October, they likely are still vaccinated early enough to provide substantial cost-savings. PMID:25590676

  3. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing.

    PubMed

    Maree, Jacobus G; Twigge, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of "emerging adults" and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  4. Career and Self-Construction of Emerging Adults: The Value of Life Designing

    PubMed Central

    Maree, Jacobus G.; Twigge, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a potential way of counseling emerging adults from a life design perspective to construct a self that could enable them to be agents of both their own development and the development of others. Theoretical issues relating to a dynamic, developmental and systems framework of the understanding of wellbeing are described and the process involved is delineated. The research design was qualitative and comprised case studies. Six participants who subscribed to the definition of “emerging adults” and were comparatively representative of the ethnic diversity of South Africa, were selected purposively from a group of individuals who applied for career counseling in a private practice context. The intervention involved life design counseling and occurred over a period of 6 weeks. Information related to participants' self-construction was gathered using qualitative techniques, including the Career Interest Profile, the Career Construction Interview, a timeline, video clips, a collage, and semi-structured interviews. Following the intervention, the participants revealed heightened insights with regard to aspects of their sense of a relational-moral self. Results indicated that life design counseling could enhance elaborative personal development (enhancing self-awareness and reaping the benefits of developing an improved relational-moral self) and the promotion of an awareness of the importance to promote social justice in work-related contexts. PMID:26793152

  5. How to Shape Children's Value Attitudes toward the Rural Way of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur'ianova, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    The crisis of rural life in Russia involves a declining and aging population, emigration of rural young people to urban areas, lack of employment, and farms in urgent need of modernization. Programs in rural schools can be used more deliberately to encourage young people to remain in the village and to equip them to be agents of rural…

  6. Exploring Work Values: Helping Students Articulate Their Good (Work) Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.; Hughey, Kenneth F.

    2014-01-01

    The current article builds on "Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values" (Carlstrom, 2011) by presenting ways to address work values in career advising. The following questions are addressed in the current article: When should students explore work values in career advising? What career development and…

  7. Implications of Life Style Preferences and Work Values on Careers for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ronald J.

    1980-01-01

    Examines new attitudes and explores impact on career development and life-style preferences of high school students. Data reveal a picture not unlike the present. There are indications that the lot of working women may be easier but some husbands will find the prospect of a working wife difficult to handle. (Author/BEF)

  8. Representations of everyday life: a proposal for capturing social values from the Marxist perspective of knowledge production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cássia Baldini; Santos, Vilmar Ezequiel Dos; Campos, Célia Maria Sivalli; Lachtim, Sheila Aparecida Ferreira; Campos, Fernanda Cristina

    2011-12-01

    We propose from the Marxist perspective of the construction of knowledge, a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding social values by capturing everyday representations. We assume that scientific research brings together different dimensions: epistemological, theoretical and methodological that consistently to the other instances, proposes a set of operating procedures and techniques for capturing and analyzing the reality under study in order to expose the investigated object. The study of values reveals the essentiality of the formation of judgments and choices, there are values that reflect the dominant ideology, spanning all social classes, but there are values that reflect class interests, these are not universal, they are formed in relationships and social activities. Basing on the Marxist theory of consciousness, representations are discursive formulations of everyday life - opinion or conviction - issued by subjects about their reality, being a coherent way of understanding and exposure social values: focus groups show is suitable for grasping opinions while interviews show potential to expose convictions. PMID:22569667

  9. Relationships between the Life Values of U. S. College Students and their Cognitive/Affective Responses to the Threat of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Scott B.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationships between life values of 399 American college students and their nuclear war-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Subjects completed four scales from Life Values Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale, four scales from Nuclear War Inventory, and single behavioral measure of approach toward information concerning nuclear…

  10. Measuring the Value of Statistical Life: Estimating Compensating Wage Differentials among Workers in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madheswaran, S.

    2007-01-01

    Policy makers confronted with the need to introduce health and safety regulations often wonder how to value the benefits of these regulations. One way that a monetary value could be placed on reductions in health risks, including risk of death, is through understanding how people are compensated for the different risks they take. While there is an…

  11. Outcome measures for clinical rehabilitation trials: impairment, function, quality of life, or value?

    PubMed

    Wade, Derick T

    2003-10-01

    Choosing outcome measures in rehabilitation research depends on the standard research skills of clear thinking, attention to detail, and minimizing the amount of data collected. In rehabilitation, outcome is more difficult to measure because (1) usually several outcomes are relevant, (2) relevant outcomes are affected by multiple factors in addition to treatment, and (3) even good measures rarely reflect the specific interest of any individual patient or member of the rehabilitation team, leading to some dissent. Measurement of general quality of life is not possible because there is little agreement as to the nature of the construct; moreover, measurement of relevant aspects of quality of life would probably give similar results. Cost in terms of resources can be estimated, but there is no validated or even widely accepted method of relating this to benefit in a fair, open, and rational way. Outcome is best measured at the level of behavior (activities), with other measures being used to aid interpretation. PMID:14502036

  12. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    PubMed Central

    Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Taylor, Amanda C.; Inui, Thomas S.; Ivy, Steven S.; Frankel, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs) about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values) and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values), using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values. PMID:23908820

  13. EFFECTS OF A TRANSIENT CANCER SCARE ON PROPERTY VALUES: IMPLICATIONS FOR RISK VALUATION AND THE VALUE OF LIFE. (R825173)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A transient cancer scare is presented as a rare opportunity to observe the effect of a perceived increase in risk on the price of residential property. The temporary nature of the perceived excess risk allows for the isolation of a risk premium from the change...

  14. [The value of using administrative data in public health research: the Continuous Working Life Sample].

    PubMed

    López, María Andrée; Benavides, Fernando G; Alonso, Jordi; Espallargues, Mireia; Durán, Xavier; Martínez, José Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The use of administrative data is common practice in public health research. The present field note describes the Continuous Working Life Sample (CWLS) and its use in health research. The CWLS is built on records generated by all contacts with the social security system (work contracts, disability, etc.), plus tax data (monetary gains, income, etc.) and census data (level of education, country of birth, etc.), but does not allow individuals to be identified. The CWLS was started in 2004 with 4% (1.1 million persons) of the total population who were either contributors to or beneficiaries of the social security system. The information on the individuals in the CWLS is updated annually and lost individuals are replaced. This continuous design allows the construction of a cohort with information on working life and financial status and evaluation of their relationship with work disability. Future connection with clinical records would enable analysis of other health-related outcomes. PMID:24698033

  15. Modelling the life insurance needs using the human life value revision method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashim, Haslifah; Service, David

    2013-04-01

    There are numerous methods to determine the appropriate amount of life insurance a person needs - it can be scientific or simplistic. Many life insurance agents and financial advisors simply rely on traditional rules of thumb using the multiple of income method. The more scientific methods are the needs analysis and the human life value. The needs analysis is regarded as the most commonly used sales tool and the human life value is the most agreed academic expression for the purpose of life insurance. However, there are several weaknesses of using both methods. By using needs analysis as a sales tool, the recommendation amount of life insurance would leave a person underinsured. Similar goes to the human life value method. Nevertheless, both methods can be improved with a few revisions. The post-death needs under the needs analysis must be revised to incorporate the reality that the family's standard of living changes over time. The projection of a changing standard of living is a part of human life value analysis. Therefore, this research looked into both methods and combines both concept of needs analysis and human life value to create a powerful methodology that provide adequate life insurance protection - a method we name it as 'the Human Life Value Revision Method'.

  16. Matters of the Heart: Bringing the Values to Life at Eastman Kodak Company.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tette, Rick; Murray, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Describes the rationale and implementation of the Eastman Kodak Company's "Fundamentals for Kodak Renewal" employee program. Using adventure activities, employees move through awareness, agreement, and alignment stages to integrate the company's basic values of respect for the dignity of the individual, uncompromising integrity, trust,…

  17. Humangrowth: An Essay on Growth, Values and the Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Harlan; Wilson, Thomas W., Jr.

    Five essays analyze human needs and values in relation to population and economic growth. The first, "The Trouble With Growth," discusses current problems: the benefits of growth are unfairly distributed; growth can damage the environment and waste resources; unproductive and dysfunctional growth is not distinguished from productive and socially…

  18. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and

  19. Cultural Values, Life Experiences, and Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Thao N.

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom is considered one ideal endpoint of human development across cultures. Studies have provided evidence for certain facilitating conditions such as challenging and stressful life events because they increase differentiation through accommodative changes, resulting in greater tolerance for uncertainty, and less projection tendencies and…

  20. Is valuing positive emotion associated with life satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Bastian, Brock; Kuppens, Peter; De Roover, Kim; Diener, Ed

    2014-08-01

    The experience of positive emotion is closely linked to subjective well-being. For this reason, campaigns aimed at promoting the value of positive emotion have become widespread. What is rarely considered are the cultural implications of this focus on happiness. Promoting positive emotions as important for "the good life" not only has implications for how individuals value these emotional states, but for how they believe others around them value these emotions also. Drawing on data from over 9,000 college students across 47 countries we examined whether individuals' life satisfaction is associated with living in contexts in which positive emotions are socially valued. The findings show that people report more life satisfaction in countries where positive emotions are highly valued and this is linked to an increased frequency of positive emotional experiences in these contexts. They also reveal, however, that increased life satisfaction in countries that place a premium on positive emotion is less evident for people who tend to experience less valued emotional states: people who experience many negative emotions, do not flourish to the same extent in these contexts. The findings demonstrate how the cultural value placed on certain emotion states may shape the relationship between emotional experiences and subjective well-being. PMID:24749643

  1. Using Mandated Speed Limits to Measure the Value of a Statistical Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley; Greenstone, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In 1987 the federal government permitted states to raise the speed limit on their rural interstate roads, but not on their urban interstate roads, from 55 mph to 65 mph. Since the states that adopted the higher speed limit must have valued the travel hours they saved more than the fatalities incurred, this institutional change provides an…

  2. [The value of studies of quality of life in chronic respiratory tract diseases in the framework of holistic medicine].

    PubMed

    Farnik-Brodzińska, M; Pierzchała, W

    1998-01-01

    Quality of Life (QOL) is a new area of research evaluating the psychical, functional and psychological components of human life. According to current understanding of health issues the measurement of morbidity or mortality does not estimate the health status and describe the influence of illness on human life. The theoretical framework of Health Related Quality of Life is largely based on a multidimensional perspective of human as physical, psychological and social functioning and well-being, along the WHO definition of health. QOL assessment could be carried out using different psychological methods. There are several questionnaires developed to assess the quality of life in patients. The measurement instruments are generic (used in wide range of health related issues), domain specific (concerning some important outcome such as social support, coping), and disease specific which are used to assess patients with particular health problems. QOL assessment could be used as the measurements in pharmacoeconomics and clinical trials. Polish QOL Initiative Group produce Polish version of existing questionnaires--for example The Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire was registered in Polish language version. Quality of Life researches facilitate doctors to understand patient's perceiving of the health state and help them to live a fulfilling life. PMID:9748885

  3. The Young People of Tula: Value Orientations and the Realities of Everyday Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsonova, E. A.; Efimova, E. Iu.

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, the Laboratory of Sociological Research of the municipal office of the social service Shans Center for Social and Psychological Assistance for Young People carried out a sociological survey titled "Current Problems of Today's Young Person," for the purpose of studying the most urgent problems affecting the social development of Tula's…

  4. [Between sancticity and value of human life: in perspective of human cloning].

    PubMed

    Dyk, W

    2001-01-01

    The more we know, the more duties and greater responsibility we have. The dynamic development of biology carries a lot of hope for the freeing of mankind from genetic diseases. But the introduction of scientific thought necessarily has to be bound with the development of technology. It is wrong when technology dictates science a direction of development; when technique comes before ethics; and when technology does not respect the essence of a human being. The uncritical introduction of eugenics, especially cloning of people and rejecting all moral arguments, recalls inglorious acts of science when the ideology of progress determined the range of problems that researchers focused on. The same ideology of progress, although originating from other sources, pushes science toward a second extreme, into utilitarianism. In the article the author wishes to substantiate the necessity for researchers to respect ethical norms. Recognition of natural laws alone does not provide science with full development if the rights of conscience are violated. PMID:11684766

  5. Threat to Valued Elements of Life: The Experience of Dementia across Three Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Vanessa; Samsi, Kritika; Banerjee, Sube; Morgan, Craig; Murray, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: There is a fundamental knowledge gap regarding the experience of dementia within minority ethnic groups in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. The present study examined the subjective reality of living with dementia from the perspective of people with dementia within the 3 largest ethnic groups in the United Kingdom. Design and Methods:…

  6. Relationships between Psychosocial-Spiritual Well-Being and End-of-Life Preferences and Values in African-American Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Laura C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether psychosocial and spiritual well-being is associated with African-American dialysis patients' end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of potential outcomes of life sustaining treatment. Fifty-one African Americans with end stage renal disease (ESRD) completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and interview with measures of symptom distress, health-related quality of life, psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and preferences and values related to life sustaining treatment choices. The subjects were stratified by end-of-life treatment preferences and by acceptance of life sustaining treatment outcomes and compared for psychosocial and spiritual well-being as well as socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. Individuals who desired continued use of life sustaining treatment in terminal illness or advanced dementia had significantly lower spiritual well-being (p = .012). Individuals who valued four potential outcomes of life sustaining treatment as unacceptable showed a more positive, adaptive well-being score in the spiritual dimension compared to the group who valued at least one outcome as acceptable (p = .028). Religious involvement and importance of spirituality were not associated with end-of-life treatment preferences and acceptance of treatment outcomes. African Americans with ESRD expressed varied levels of psychosocial and spiritual well-being, and this characteristic was associated with life sustaining treatment preferences. In future research, the assessment of spirituality should not be limited to its intensity or degree but extended to other dimensions. PMID:19356896

  7. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; De Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; De Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother's and newborn's perspective. The student's introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient's value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student's interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  8. Life Skills Based in Nation Building Character Value Tauhidullah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yapandi, H.

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the values Tauhidullah as a base in the training process of life skills can be developed in the community to build the character of the nation, by describing and simultaneously evaluate the education and training system that we've experienced. The paper argues that builds the character of the nation through education…

  9. Quality of Life in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Predictive Value of Disability and Support Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renty, J. O.; Roeyers, Herbert

    2006-01-01

    Although the concept of quality of life has increasingly been used in the field of intellectual disabilities over the past three decades, the factors contributing to quality of life of persons with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have received relatively little attention. In this study, disability and support characteristics associated with…

  10. The Interaction between Gender Stereotypes and Life Values as Factors in the Choice of Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razumnikova, O. M.

    2005-01-01

    The author states that, the sex-role identity of both men and women forms and changes as a function of the conditions of upbringing, schooling, and the degree of pressure of sex-role stereotypes that are instilled by the mass media. In spite of the proclaimed "equal opportunities" for men and women when it comes to acquiring some profession,…

  11. Any Added Value? Co-Constructing Life Stories of and with People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Despite considerable achievement in inclusive research, people with intellectual disabilities have been largely excluded from the critical area of data analysis and theory development. Next to the undoubted complexity of these tasks, this can partly be attributed to higher demands of representativeness that are used to judge the validity of

  12. The adaptive value of functional and life-history traits across fertility treatments in an annual plant

    PubMed Central

    Bonser, Stephen P.; Ladd, Brenton; Monro, Keyne; Hall, Matthew D.; Forster, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Plant functional traits are assumed to be adaptive. As selection acts on individuals and not on traits, interpreting the adaptive value of a trait not may be straightforward. For example, productive leaves are associated with fertile environments. However, it is not clear if productive leaves confer an advantage in these habitats, or if they are an advantage as part of a suite of coordinated traits. Methods Genotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana were grown in high and low nutrient treatments and low, neutral and high pH treatments. Nutrient availability is reduced in acidic or basic soils relative to neutral pH soils. pH treatments were used to alter the availability of resources rather than the amount of resources. Key Results Leaf function (specific leaf area, SLA) and life history (size at reproduction, age at reproduction) were variable across genotypes and were plastic. High nutrient availability induced higher SLA and larger size at reproduction. Genotypes that reproduced at large size in high nutrient conditions at neutral pH had the greatest fruit production. SLA was only indirectly related to fruit production through a causal relationship with rosette size; in high nutrient conditions, plants with high SLA were large at reproduction and had higher fruit production. In high nutrient and high pH treatments, plants were large at reproduction, but large size at reproduction was associated with low fecundity. This suggests that large size is adaptive under high nutrient availability. Conclusions Interpreting the adaptive value of functional traits will sometimes only be possible when these traits are considered as a suite of correlated and coordinated traits. Leaf functional traits may be important in defining adaptive strategies in A. thaliana but only through how they affect plant life history. Finally, manipulating soil pH can be a valuable tool in assessing adaptive plasticity on nutrient gradients. PMID:20880932

  13. Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPAs Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

  14. Laughter as Immanent Life-Affirmation: Reconsidering the Educational Value of Laughter through a Bakhtinian Lens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlieghe, Joris

    2014-01-01

    In this article I try to conceive a new approach towards laughter in the context of formal schooling. I focus on laughter in so far as it is a bodily response during which we are entirely delivered to uncontrollable, spasmodic reactions. To see the educational relevance of this particular kind of laughter, as well as to understand why laughter is…

  15. Extrapolation Factors for Derivation of Acute Aquatic Life Screening Values: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    USEPA’s Office of Water (OW) and Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) are both charged with assessing risks of chemicals to aquatic species. The offices have developed scientifically defensible methods to assess chemicals under the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Federal Insecticide...

  16. Life experience and the value-free foundations of Blumer's collective behavior theory.

    PubMed

    Keys, David; Maratea, R J

    2011-01-01

    Herbert Blumer stated throughout his long career that his ideas regarding collective behavior originated with his introduction to pragmatist philosophy under the auspices of G. H. Mead at the University of Chicago. Blumer's biography, however, presents a different picture. Firsthand experiences with mob behavior, collective outrage, and the fallout associated with Blumer's public utterances early in his career may have had significant impact on the eventual corpus of collective behavior. PMID:21462195

  17. The Value of Vitalism and Schrodinger's "What Is Life?" in the Contemporary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2009-01-01

    Classic experiments and novel ideas in the history of science are often mentioned in passing in contemporary college-level science curricula. This study indicates that the detailed and creative recapitulation of a few well-chosen and famous, if well-known, results and ideas has the potential to increase students' understanding and appreciation of…

  18. Nurturing the Life of the Mind: If Schools Don't Value Intellect, Who Will?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    2001-01-01

    If schools were strongholds of intellect, the most academically able would be stars. Gifted kids often have trouble with school; academically uninterested kids enjoy cult-hero status; and the humanities are undervalued. Schools' purpose has been to train future employees and consumers, not create intellectual citizens. (MLH)

  19. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  20. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Grkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This

  1. Love and the Value of Life in Health Care: A Narrative Medicine Case Study in Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Pentiado, Jorge Alberto Martins; de Almeida, Helcia Oliveira; Amorim, Fábio Ferreira; Facioli, Adriano Machado; Trindade, Eliana Mendonça Vilar; de Almeida, Karlo Jozefo Quadros

    2016-01-01

    This case study is an example of narrative medicine applied to promote self-awareness and develop humanistic contents in medical education. The impact and the human appeal of the narrative lie in the maturity and empathy shown by a student when reporting his dramatic experience during the care given to a newborn (with Patau syndrome and multiple malformations diagnosed at birth) and to her mother. The narrative approach helped the student to be successful in bringing out the meaning behind the story and to position himself from the mother’s and newborn’s perspective. The student’s introspection changed a seemingly scary interaction into a positive experience, overcoming many initial negative emotions, such as fear, disappointment, horror, hopelessness, and insecurity in the face of the unexpected. It is uplifting how the student was strengthened by the power of maternal love to the point of overcoming any remaining feelings of eugenics or rejection. Other important lessons emerging from the case study were the art of listening and the value of silence. This narrative shows how the development of narrative competence can help establish a good physician-patient relationship, because the physician or the student with such competence usually confirms the patient’s value and demonstrates concern for them, focusing on what they say and allowing genuine contact to be established, which is necessary for effective therapeutic alliance. The student’s interpretations of the meaning of love and value of life inspired him on his reframing process of a medical practice marked by vicarious suffering. PMID:26901271

  2. Cadmium risks to freshwater life: derivation and validation of low-effect criteria values using laboratory and field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, Christopher A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released updated aquatic life criteria for cadmium. Since then, additional data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life have become available from studies supported by the EPA, Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ), and the U.S. Geological Survey, among other sources. Updated data on the effects of cadmium to aquatic life were compiled and reviewed and low-effect concentrations were estimated. Low-effect values were calculated using EPA's guidelines for deriving numerical national water-quality criteria for the protection of aquatic organisms and their uses. Data on the short-term (acute) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species that were suitable for criteria derivation were located for 69 species representing 57 genera and 33 families. For longer-term (chronic) effects of cadmium on North American freshwater species, suitable data were located for 28 species representing 21 genera and 17 families. Both the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium were dependent on the hardness of the test water. Hardness-toxicity regressions were developed for both acute and chronic datasets so that effects data from different tests could be adjusted to a common water hardness. Hardness-adjusted effects values were pooled to obtain species and genus mean acute and chronic values, which then were ranked by their sensitivity to cadmium. The four most sensitive genera to acute exposures were, in order of increasing cadmium resistance, Oncorhynchus (Pacific trout and salmon), Salvelinus ('char' trout), Salmo (Atlantic trout and salmon), and Cottus (sculpin). The four most sensitive genera to chronic exposures were Hyalella (amphipod), Cottus, Gammarus (amphipod), and Salvelinus. Using the updated datasets, hardness dependent criteria equations were calculated for acute and chronic exposures to cadmium. At a hardness of 50 mg/L as calcium carbonate, the criterion maximum concentration (CMC, or 'acute' criterion) was calculated as 0.75 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CMC = e(0.8403 ? ln(hardness)-3.572) where the 'ln hardness' is the natural logarithm of the water hardness. Likewise, the criterion continuous concentration (CCC, or 'chronic' criterion) was calculated as 0.37 mug/L cadmium using the hardness-dependent equation CCC = (e(0.6247 ? ln(hardness)-3.384)) ? (1.101672 - ((ln hardness) ? 0.041838))). Using data that were independent of those used to derive the criteria, the criteria concentrations were evaluated to estimate whether adverse effects were expected to the biological integrity of natural waters or to selected species listed as threatened or endangered. One species was identified that would not be fully protected by the derived CCC, the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Exposure to CCC conditions likely would lead to population decreases in Hyalella azteca, the food web consequences of which probably would be slight if macroinvertebrate communities were otherwise diverse. Some data also suggested adverse behavioral changes are possible in fish following long-term exposures to low levels of cadmium, particularly in char (genus Salvelinus). Although ambiguous, these data indicate a need to periodically review the literature on behavioral changes in fish following metals exposure as more information becomes available. Most data reviewed indicated that criteria conditions were unlikely to contribute to overt adverse effects to either biological integrity or listed species. If elevated cadmium concentrations that approach the chronic criterion values occur in ambient waters, careful biological monitoring of invertebrate and fish assemblages would be prudent to validate the prediction that the assemblages would not be adversely affected by cadmium at criterion concentrations.

  3. An attempt to estimate the economic value of the loss of human life due to landslide and flood events in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvati, Paola; Bianchi, Cinzia; Hussin, Haydar; Guzzetti, Fausto

    2013-04-01

    Landslide and flood events in Italy cause wide and severe damage to buildings and infrastructure, and are frequently involved in the loss of human life. The cost estimates of past natural disasters generally refer to the amount of public money used for the restoration of the direct damage, and most commonly do not account for all disaster impacts. Other cost components, including indirect losses, are difficult to quantify and, among these, the cost of human lives. The value of specific human life can be identified with the value of a statistical life (VLS), defined as the value that an individual places on a marginal change in their likelihood of death This is different from the value of an actual life. Based on information of fatal car accidents in Italy, we evaluate the cost that society suffers for the loss of life due to landslide and flood events. Using a catalogue of fatal landslide and flood events, for which information about gender and age of the fatalities is known, we determine the cost that society suffers for the loss of their life. For the purpose, we calculate the economic value in terms of the total income that the working-age population involved in the fatal events would have earned over the course of their life. For the computation, we use the pro-capita income calculated as the ratio between the GDP and the population value in Italy for each year, since 1980. Problems occur for children and retired people that we decided not to include in our estimates.

  4. Value stability and change during self-chosen life transitions: self-selection versus socialization effects.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Anat; Buchanan, Kathryn E; Goodwin, Robin; Slabu, Letitia; Robinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Three longitudinal studies examine a fundamental question regarding adjustment of personal values to self-chosen life transitions: Do values fit the new life setting already at its onset, implying value-based self-selection? Or do values change to better fit the appropriate and desirable values in the setting, implying value socialization? As people are likely to choose a life transition partly based on their values, their values may fit the new life situation already at its onset, leaving little need for value socialization. However, we propose that this may vary as a function of the extent of change the life transition entails, with greater change requiring more value socialization. To enable generalization, we used 3 longitudinal studies spanning 3 different life transitions and different extents of life changes: vocational training (of new police recruits), education (psychology vs. business students), and migration (from Poland to Britain). Although each life transition involved different key values and different populations, across all 3 studies we found value fit to the life situation already early in the transition. Value socialization became more evident the more aspects of life changed as part of the transition, that is, in the migration transition. The discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for research on values and personality change, as well as limitations and future directions for research. PMID:24219783

  5. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  6. Paradoxical Neurobehavioral Rescue by Memories of Early-Life Abuse: The Safety Signal Value of Odors Learned during Abusive Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood—in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70–90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation. PMID:25284320

  7. Facilitating forgiveness and peaceful closure: the therapeutic value of psychosocial intervention in end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Baker, Marjorie

    2005-01-01

    The importance of addressing psychosocial concerns with dying patients is pivotal to facilitating peaceful closure in end of- life care. The social worker's role in recognizing and providing skilled, psychosocial intervention with patients and families in hospice programs is significant. In this article, the literature in this area is examined and a case example of a hospice patient's need for closure and the responsive social work intervention for the patient in his moment of death is provided. The case offers social work knowledge and skills and demonstrates the therapeutic benefit of addressing psychosocial needs in end-of-life care. The importance of targeted training and continued skill development for social workers in end-of-life treatment settings is emphasized. PMID:17387076

  8. Quality-of-life measures as providers of information on value-for-money of health interventions. Comparison and recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Hyland, M E

    1997-01-01

    Three different approaches to measuring quality of life have been developed. Global scales (e.g. time trade-off, visual analogue), multi-attribute utility scales and multidimensional scales (which may be generic or disease-specific). Each of these approaches to measurement provides different kinds of information about quality of life and each can be used to provide information to healthcare purchasers concerning the relative value-for-money of health interventions. The value-for-money of health interventions, in terms of quality of life, can be demonstrated in 2 ways: a formula-driven approach based on cost-utility analysis, which uses scales generating the unit of a quality-adjusted life-year (i.e. global and multi-attribute utility); and a non-formula-driven approach, which uses scales generating multidimensional profiles of quality of life (i.e. multi-attribute utility and multidimensional). Analysis shows that no single approach is sufficient, and that healthcare purchasers should use a variety of types of information in their decision-making, including both cost-utility and informal approaches. Healthcare resource allocation is inevitably a value-dependent activity. PMID:10172916

  9. 76 FR 49569 - Use of Actuarial Tables in Valuing Annuities, Interests for Life or Terms of Years, and Remainder...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...: Background On May 7, 2009, the IRS published in the Federal Register (74 FR 21438 and 74 FR 21519) final and... interests. If the interest to be valued is the right of a person to receive the income of certain property.... (iv) Annuities. (A) If the interest to be valued is the right of a person to receive an annuity...

  10. Valuing lives and life years: anomalies, implications, and an alternative.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Metcalfe, Robert; Munro, Vicki; Christensen, Michael C

    2008-07-01

    Many government interventions seek to reduce the risk of death. The value of preventing a fatality (VPF) is the monetary amount associated with each statistical death that an intervention can be expected to prevent. The VPF has been estimated using a preference-based approach, either by observing market behaviour (revealed preferences) or by asking hypothetical questions that seek to replicate the market (stated preferences). The VPF has been shown to differ across and within these methods. In theory, the VPF should vary according to factors such as baseline and background risk, but, in practice, the estimates vary more by theoretically irrelevant factors, such as the starting point in stated preference studies. This variation makes it difficult to choose one unique VPF. The theoretically irrelevant factors also affect the estimates of the monetary value of a statistical life year and the value of a quality-adjusted life year. In light of such problems, it may be fruitful to focus more research efforts on generating the VPF using an approach based on the subjective well-being associated with different states of the world. PMID:18634620

  11. Life satisfaction and life values in people with spinal cord injury living in three Asian countries: A multicultural study

    PubMed Central

    Tasiemski, Tomasz; Priebe, Michael M.; Wilski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the differences in life satisfaction and life values among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) living in three economically similar Asian countries: India, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka. Design Cross-sectional and comparative investigation using the unified questionnaire. Setting Indian Spinal Injuries Centre in New Delhi (India), Spinal Cord Rehabilitation Department of the Bach Mai Hospital in Hanoi (Vietnam), and Foundation for the Rehabilitation of the Disabled in Colombo (Sri Lanka). Participants Two hundred and thirty-seven people with SCI using a wheelchair; 79 from India, 92 from Vietnam, and 66 from Sri Lanka. Outcome measures Life Satisfaction Questionnaire, Chinese Value Survey. Results People with SCI in Vietnam had significantly higher general life satisfaction than participants in India and Sri Lanka. Significant differences were identified in several demographic and life situation variables among the three Asian countries. With regard to “Traditional”, “Universal”, and “Personal” life values significant differences among three participating countries were identified in all domains. No significant relationships were identified between life satisfaction and life values for people with SCI in India, Vietnam, or Sri Lanka. Conclusion It could be presumed that particular demographic and life situation variables are more powerful factors of life satisfaction following SCI than the dominant culture of a country expressed by life values. PMID:23809526

  12. The Metropolitan Life Survey of the American Teacher, 1996. Students Voice Their Opinions On: Learning about Values and Principles in School. Part III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metropolitan Life Insurance Company, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This report, the third in a series of four, reflects MetLife's continued efforts to bring insight and understanding to current issues in education that affect the nation's public schools. The survey sought student information on topics related to values and principles of right and wrong from the perspective of public school students in middle and…

  13. The development of memory efficiency and value-directed remembering across the life span: a cross-sectional study of memory and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Castel, Alan D; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Lee, Steve S; Galván, Adriana; Balota, David A; McCabe, David P

    2011-11-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A selectivity task was used in which participants were asked to study and recall items worth different point values in order to maximize their point score. This procedure allowed for measures of memory quantity/capacity (number of words recalled) and memory efficiency/selectivity (the recall of high-value items relative to low-value items). Age-related differences were found for memory capacity, as young adults recalled more words than the other groups. However, in terms of selectivity, younger and older adults were more selective than adolescents and children. The dissociation between these measures across the life span illustrates important age-related differences in terms of memory capacity and the ability to selectively remember high-value information. PMID:21942664

  14. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Björn K.; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-01

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar–acid–ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

  15. Bee pollination improves crop quality, shelf life and commercial value.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Bjrn K; Holzschuh, Andrea; Westphal, Catrin; Clough, Yann; Smit, Inga; Pawelzik, Elke; Tscharntke, Teja

    2014-01-22

    Pollination improves the yield of most crop species and contributes to one-third of global crop production, but comprehensive benefits including crop quality are still unknown. Hence, pollination is underestimated by international policies, which is particularly alarming in times of agricultural intensification and diminishing pollination services. In this study, exclusion experiments with strawberries showed bee pollination to improve fruit quality, quantity and market value compared with wind and self-pollination. Bee-pollinated fruits were heavier, had less malformations and reached higher commercial grades. They had increased redness and reduced sugar-acid-ratios and were firmer, thus improving the commercially important shelf life. Longer shelf life reduced fruit loss by at least 11%. This is accounting for 0.32 billion US$ of the 1.44 billion US$ provided by bee pollination to the total value of 2.90 billion US$ made with strawberry selling in the European Union 2009. The fruit quality and yield effects are driven by the pollination-mediated production of hormonal growth regulators, which occur in several pollination-dependent crops. Thus, our comprehensive findings should be transferable to a wide range of crops and demonstrate bee pollination to be a hitherto underestimated but vital and economically important determinant of fruit quality. PMID:24307669

  16. Value priorities and their relations with quality of life in the Baby Boomer generation of Lithuanian nurses: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Blazeviciene, Aurelija; Jakusovaite, Irayda

    2007-01-01

    Background The understanding of the values of nurses is especially important, since nurses constitute 80% of workforce in the healthcare system in Lithuania. In addition to that, nursing is one of the major constituents of healthcare. The aim of this study was to determine what values predominate in the cohort of Baby Boomer nurses, and to evaluate the relation of these values with quality of life using M. Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values scale. M.Rokeach distinguished terminal values (such as world peace, wisdom, and happiness), which are preferred end-states of existence, and instrumental values (such as responsibility and cooperation), which are preferred modes of conduct. Methods We performed a representative anonymous questionnaire-based inquiry of nurses working in regional hospitals of Lithuania. The nurses who participated in the study were distributed into four work cohorts: the Veterans, the Baby Boomers, the Generation Xers, and the Generation Nexters. The majority of the nurses belonged to the Baby Boomers and the Generation Xers cohorts. Since in Lithuania, like in the whole Europe, the representatives of the Baby Boomers generation are predominating among working people, we selected this cohort (N = 387) for the analysis. The survey data was processed using the SPSS statistical software package Results The main values in life were family security, tranquility, and a sense of accomplishment. However, such values as true friendship, equality, and pleasurable and leisured life were seen as rather insignificant. The most important instrumental values were honesty, skillfulness, and responsibility. Our study showed a statistically significant (albeit weak) correlation between the QOL and terminal values such as the sense of accomplishment, tranquility, equality, and pleasure, as well as the instrumental value – obedience. We detected a statistically significant relationship between good QOL and satisfaction with oneself, relationships with the surrounding people, and friends' support. Conclusion The findings of our study showed that, although Lithuania was under a totalitarian regime for 50 years, both the terminal and the instrumental values of the Baby Boomers generation are very similar to those of the same generation in other countries. PMID:17996067

  17. A new value for the half-life of 10Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korschinek, G.; Bergmaier, A.; Faestermann, T.; Gerstmann, U. C.; Knie, K.; Rugel, G.; Wallner, A.; Dillmann, I.; Dollinger, G.; von Gostomski, Ch. Lierse; Kossert, K.; Maiti, M.; Poutivtsev, M.; Remmert, A.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of 10Be in different applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is well-known. In this context the half-life of 10Be has a crucial impact, and an accurate and precise determination of the half-life is a prerequisite for many of the applications of 10Be in cosmic-ray and earth science research. Recently, the value of the 10Be half-life has been the centre of much debate. In order to overcome uncertainties inherent in previous determinations, we introduced a new method of high accuracy and precision. An aliquot of our highly enriched 10Be master solution was serially diluted with increasing well-known masses of 9Be. We then determined the initial 10Be concentration by least square fit to the series of measurements of the resultant 10Be/ 9Be ratio. In order to minimize uncertainties because of mass bias which plague other low-energy mass spectrometric methods, we used for the first time Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) for the determination of the 10Be/ 9Be isotopic ratios, a technique which does not suffer from difficult to control mass fractionation. The specific activity of the master solution was measured by means of accurate liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The resultant combination of the 10Be concentration and activity yields a 10Be half-life of T1/2 = 1.388 ± 0.018 (1 s, 1.30%) Ma. In a parallel but independent study (Chmeleff et al. [11]), found a value of 1.386 ± 0.016 (1.15%) Ma. Our recommended weighted mean and mean standard error for the new value for 10Be half-life based on these two independent measurements is 1.387 ± 0.012 (0.87%) Ma.

  18. Broad Themes of Difference between French and Americans in Attitudes to Food and Other Life Domains: Personal Versus Communal Values, Quantity Versus Quality, and Comforts Versus Joys

    PubMed Central

    Rozin, Paul; Remick, Abigail K.; Fischler, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of previous literature on the role of food in life in France and the United States suggests some fundamental differences in attitudes which may generalize outside of the food domain. Questionnaire results from French and American adults suggest that, compared to the French, Americans emphasize quantity rather than quality in making choices, Americans have a higher preference for variety, and Americans usually prefer comforts (things that make life easier) over joys (unique things that make life interesting). The American preference for quantity over quality is discussed in terms of the American focus on abundance as opposed to the French preference for moderation. The American preference for variety is reflective of Americans’ more personal as opposed to communal food and other values. PMID:21845184

  19. Health Professionals’ Assessment of Health-Related Quality of Life Values for Oral Clefting by Age Using a Visual Analogue Scale Method

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To elicit health-related quality of life (HRQL) values associated with oral clefting by age using a visual analogue scale, and to explore the appropriateness of using health professionals as evaluators. Methods A representative group of health professionals working on craniofacial and/or cleft palate teams in the United States was sampled. Values (between 0 and 1) representing the HRQL associated with isolated and nonisolated oral clefting for infants, children, adolescents, and adults were obtained. The relationships between selected evaluator characteristics and values were also assessed. Results Of 330 professionals surveyed, 133 (40%) completed and returned reliable evaluations. Overall, HRQL values were clustered toward the right tail of the scale, indicating modest decreases in HRQL. Most evaluators reported feeling confident in completing the evaluations. HRQL values seemed to vary by team type (cleft palate only versus cleft palate/craniofacial care) and geographic location, but no major differences were found overall for any selected evaluator characteristics. Conclusions This study provides HRQL values for oral clefting based on preferences of health professionals that may be useful in evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies, including those carried out in clinical trial studies. The clustered pattern of HRQL values suggests either a consensus among evaluators of a limited burden of oral clefting or an overall lack of understanding of the evaluation task. PMID:16854194

  20. Pain and difficulties performing valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ahlstrand, Inger; Björk, Mathilda; Thyberg, Ingrid; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to examine the difficulties with performing valued life activities in relation to pain intensity in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In total, 737 persons with RA (73 % women) from three rheumatology units in Sweden responded to a questionnaire measuring performance of 33 valued life activities and self-rated pain. The relationships between performance of valued life activities (VLAs) and pain (measured by visual analogue scale (VAS)) were analysed based on gender. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted with the total VLA score as dependent variable. Women reported more pain and difficulties in performing valued life activities than men. Across genders, 85 % reported at least one valued life activity affected by RA. Significantly more women than men encountered difficulties in performing some activities such as cooking, gardening and meeting new people. Women reported higher pain intensity (35 mm) than men (31 mm). Almost all 33 difficulty ratings for valued life activities were higher among persons with high pain (>40 mm) than persons with lower pain. Difficulty ratings for valued life activities correlated positively with pain in persons with lower pain, but not among those with high pain. The results highlight the importance of addressing pain, especially among women with RA, as they reported pain to impact on their valued life activities. Interestingly, this was evident also in women with lower levels of pain. PMID:25618175

  1. The Development of Memory Efficiency and Value-Directed Remembering across the Life Span: A Cross-Sectional Study of Memory and Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castel, Alan D.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Lee, Steve S.; Galvan, Adriana; Balota, David A.; McCabe, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Although attentional control and memory change considerably across the life span, no research has examined how the ability to strategically remember important information (i.e., value-directed remembering) changes from childhood to old age. The present study examined this in different age groups across the life span (N = 320, 5-96 years old). A…

  2. The value of the qualitative method for adaptation of a disease-specific quality of life assessment instrument: the case of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQoL) in Estonia

    PubMed Central

    Tammaru, Marika; Strömpl, Judit; Maimets, Kadri; Hanson, Ele

    2004-01-01

    Background Due to differences in current socio-economical situation and historically shaped values, different societies have their own concepts of high-quality life. This diversity of concepts interferes with quality of life (Qol) research in health sciences. Before deciding to apply a Qol assessment tool designed in and for another society, a researcher should answer the question: how will this instrument work under the specific circumstances of my research. Our study represents an example of the utilization of qualitative research methods to investigate the appropriateness of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Scale (RAQol) for the assessment of Qol in Estonian patients. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients of Tartu University Hospital and these were analyzed using the principles of the grounded theory. Results We described the significance of the questionnaire's items for our patients and also identified topics that were important for the Qol of Estonian RA patients, but that were not assessed by the RAQol. We concluded that the RAQol can be successfully adapted for Estonia; the aspects of Qol not captured by the questionnaire but revealed during our study should be taken into account in future research. Conclusions Our results show that qualitative research can successfully be used for pre-adaptation assessment of a Qol instrument's appropriateness. PMID:15579209

  3. The turnaround value of values.

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, J

    1991-01-01

    John Thorbeck is an executive with a ten-year career history of successes--and a sense of repeated failure. Just out of business school, he was marketing director at the Aspen Skiing Company for three years and helped to reverse thirteen seasons of decline. At the Timberland shoe company in the mid-1980s, he led a marketing strategy that tripled sales. At the Bass shoe company, where he was CEO from 1987 to 1990, he took the company from big losses to big profits. Now he is president, CEO, and part owner of a third shoe company--Geo. E. Keith--that is surely the oldest, perhaps the smallest, and arguably the finest shoemaker in the United States. But the high points of Thorbeck's résumé conceal a leadership education that led him only slowly to abandon confrontational management in favor of management by history, values, competence, and what he calls organizational coherence. In his first two marketing jobs, he fought wars with his opponents and won. Then at Bass, he tried to recapture the company's proud past. He revived company folklore and history, gave workers back their pride in workmanship, and used this rejuvenated company spirit to meet and win new markets. Yet he was trying to take Bass someplace its owners simply wouldn't let it go, and he left the company profitable but divided, the work force eager to go one way, owenership another. In each of his jobs, Thorbeck overlooked some vital part of the organizational community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10109472

  4. Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students and the profoundly gifted: Developmental changes and gender differences during emerging adulthood and parenthood.

    PubMed

    Ferriman, Kimberley; Lubinski, David; Benbow, Camilla P

    2009-09-01

    Work preferences, life values, and personal views of top math/science graduate students (275 men, 255 women) were assessed at ages 25 and 35 years. In Study 1, analyses of work preferences revealed developmental changes and gender differences in priorities: Some gender differences increased over time and increased more among parents than among childless participants, seemingly because the mothers' priorities changed. In Study 2, gender differences in the graduate students' life values and personal views at age 35 were compared with those of profoundly gifted participants (top 1 in 10,000, identified by age 13 and tracked for 20 years: 265 men, 84 women). Again, gender differences were larger among parents. Across both cohorts, men appeared to assume a more agentic, career-focused perspective than women did, placing more importance on creating high-impact products, receiving compensation, taking risks, and gaining recognition as the best in their fields. Women appeared to favor a more communal, holistic perspective, emphasizing community, family, friendships, and less time devoted to career. Gender differences in life priorities, which intensify during parenthood, anticipated differential male-female representation in high-level and time-intensive careers, even among talented men and women with similar profiles of abilities, vocational interests, and educational experiences. PMID:19686005

  5. Spiritual Meaning in Life and Values in Patients With Severe Mental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Huguelet, Philippe; Mohr, Sylvia Madeleine; Olié, Emilie; Vidal, Sonia; Hasler, Roland; Prada, Paco; Bancila, Mircea; Courtet, Philippe; Guillaume, Sébastien; Perroud, Nader

    2016-06-01

    Spirituality and meaning in life are key dimensions of recovery in psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to explore spiritual meaning in life in relation to values and mental health among 175 patients with schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, bipolar disorder, and anorexia nervosa. For 26% of the patients, spirituality was essential in providing meaning in life. Depending on the diagnosis, considering spirituality as essential in life was associated with better social functioning; self-esteem; psychological and social quality of life; fewer negative symptoms; higher endorsement of values such as universalism, tradition (humility, devoutness), and benevolence (helpfulness); and a more meaningful perspective in life. These results highlight the importance of spirituality for recovery-oriented care. PMID:26955007

  6. The assessment of health-related quality of life in relation to the body mass index value in the urban population of Belgrade

    PubMed Central

    Vasiljevic, Nadja; Ralevic, Sonja; Marinkovic, Jelena; Kocev, Nikola; Maksimovic, Milos; Milosevic, Gorica Sbutega; Tomic, Jelena

    2008-01-01

    Background The association between excess body weight, impairment of health and different co-morbidities is well recognized; however, little is known on how excess body weight may affect the quality of life in the general population. Our study investigates the relationship between perceived health-related quality of life (HRQL) and body mass index (BMI) in the urban population of Belgrade. Methods The research was conducted during 2005 on a sample of 5,000 subjects, with a response of 63.38%. The study sample was randomly selected and included men and women over 18 years of age, who resided at the same address over a period of 10 years. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire and nutritional status was categorized using the WHO classification. HRQL was measured using the SF-36 generic score. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare HRQL between subjects with normal weight and those with different BMI values; we monitored subject characteristics and potential co-morbidity. Results The prevalence of overweight males and females was 46.6% and 22.1%, respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 7.5% in males and 8.5% in females. All aspects of health, except mental, were impaired in males who were obese. The physical and mental wellbeing of overweight males was not significantly affected; all score values were similar to those in subjects with normal weight. By contrast, obese and overweight females had lower HRQL in all aspects of physical functioning, as well as in vitality, social functioning and role-emotional. Conclusion The results of our study show that, in the urban population of Belgrade, increased BMI has a much greater impact on physical rather than on mental health, irrespective of subject gender; the effects were particularly pronounced in obese individuals. PMID:19040759

  7. The necessity of mission integration. A system develops processes to weave values into the life of the organization.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, P; Grant, M K

    1992-10-01

    Essential to the future vitality and viability of a mission-driven organization is the integration of the mission into the organization's programs, policies, practices, and accountability. Holy Cross Health System (HCHS), South Bend, IN, launched an intensive educational effort with managers, staff members, and trustees to reinforce the basic belief that mission permeates all departments. Using the mission statements principles of fidelity, excellence, empowerment, and stewardship, HCHS leaders initiated a systemwide mission assessment and development effort. During assessment, each facilities' ad hoc team addressed and responded to the organization's mission standards on the basis of availability of personnel, size, facility, and particular circumstances. The assessment process called for interdisciplinary, institutional review teams to explore all aspects of mission activity. This process enabled HCHS to launch a systemwide educational effort about the importance and necessity of mission integration. HCHS then used the mission statement elements fidelity, excellence, empowerment, and stewardship to define new relationships of accountability. PMID:10121476

  8. Middle School Students' Perceptions of the Instructional Value of Analogies, Summaries and Answering Questions in Life Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BouJaoude, Saouma; Tamim, Rana

    2008-01-01

    Meaningful learning is the fundamental process that underlies the acquisition of useful information and the construction of new knowledge. By creating meaningful relations, learners are able to organize the information in bigger and more organized chunks of information; an organization that reduces memory overload and increases processing…

  9. Do we have a moral obligation to synthesize organisms to increase biodiversity? On kinship, awe, and the value of life's diversity.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Joachim

    2013-10-01

    Synthetic biology can be understood as expanding the abilities and aspirations of genetic engineering. Nonetheless, whereas genetic engineering has been subject to criticism due to its endangering biodiversity, synthetic biology may actually appear to prove advantageous for biodiversity. After all, one might claim, synthesizing novel forms of life increases the numbers of species present in nature and thus ought to be ethically recommended. Two perspectives on how to spell out the conception of intrinsic value of biodiversity are examined in order to assess this line of thought. At the cost of introducing two separate capacities of human knowledge acquisition, the 'admiration stance' turns out to reject outright the assumption of a synthetic species' intrinsic value and of an imperative to create novel species. The 'kinship stance' by contrast does ascribe value to both synthetic and natural species and organisms. Nonetheless, while from this perspective creating novel species may become an ethical demand under certain conditions, it favours changing organisms by getting in contact with them rather than synthesizing them. It is concluded that neither the admiration nor the kinship stance warrants a supposed general moral obligation to create novel species to increase biodiversity. PMID:24010852

  10. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning About Biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-02-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of fieldwork in a higher education context and present the results of a case study which illustrates its value to student learning and the wider student experience. We used qualitative and quantitative methods to compare the impact of two learning tasks upon the affective and cognitive domains of students. We designed two tasks. One task that included fieldwork, and required students to collect organisms from the field and make labelled drawings of them, and one task that omitted the fieldwork and simply required drawing of specimens that the students had not collected. We evaluated the students' experience through structured and semi-structured questionnaires and written exercises. Students did not perceive the two tasks as being equivalent to one another. They reported that they enjoy fieldwork and value it (in the contexts of their learning at university, life-long learning, and in relation to their career aspirations) and felt that they learn more effectively in the field. Our students were better able to construct a taxonomic list of organisms that they had collected themselves, better able to recall the structural detail of these organisms and were better able to recall the detail of an ecological sampling methodology that they had personally carried out in the field rather than one that a tutor had described to them in a classroom setting. Our case study supports the growing body of evidence that fieldwork is an important way of enhancing undergraduate learning and highlights some key areas for future research.

  11. The Boat People and Achievement in America. A Study of Family Life, Hard Work, and Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan; And Others

    A longitudinal study of the economic self-sufficiency and academic achievement of Indochinese refugees, commonly known as "Boat People," concludes that cultural background and family influence play key roles in achievement in American society. Statistical data were drawn from two surveys of 6,775 individuals in 1,384 Chinese, Laotian, and…

  12. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  13. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  14. What Does "Value" Evoke for Children? A Detection Study as to Transferring Values to Daily Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coskun Keskin, Sevgi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out because of the importance of values education in recent years. The studies have shown their effects on the curriculum of 2005. In many classes it is aimed to provide individuals with the gains kneaded with appropriate values. Social Studies are one of them. However, no satisfactory studies as to whether the…

  15. Debating Propositions of Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlon, Ronald J.

    1978-01-01

    Advances a rationale for debating propositions of value in interscholastic contests. Considers implications for burden of proof, presumption, and the location of issues in value propositions, and proposes a preliminary system for the analysis of value propositions. (JMF)

  16. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Leadership Students: Core Values and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to explore the core values of Colombian college students in a leadership program. The entire class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  17. Life-Metaphors among Colombian Medical Students: Uncovering Core Values and Educational Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Edward; Acosta-Orozco, Catalina; Compton, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized metaphor analysis to examine the core values of Colombian medical students. The entire 9th semester medical class of 60 students was invited to respond to a structured questionnaire. It asked participants to state their preferred life-metaphor, whether they had always preferred this metaphor since childhood or…

  18. Accounting for land use in life cycle assessment: The value of NPP as a proxy indicator to assess land use impacts on ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Taelman, Sue Ellen; Schaubroeck, Thomas; De Meester, Steven; Boone, Lieselot; Dewulf, Jo

    2016-04-15

    Terrestrial land and its resources are finite, though, for economic and socio-cultural needs of humans, these natural resources are further exploited. It highlights the need to quantify the impact humans possibly have on the environment due to occupation and transformation of land. As a starting point of this paper (1(st) objective), the land use activities, which may be mainly socio-culturally or economically oriented, are identified in addition to the natural land-based processes and stocks and funds that can be altered due to land use. To quantify the possible impact anthropogenic land use can have on the natural environment, linked to a certain product or service, life cycle assessment (LCA) is a tool commonly used. During the last decades, many indicators are developed within the LCA framework in an attempt to evaluate certain environmental impacts of land use. A second objective of this study is to briefly review these indicators and to categorize them according to whether they assess a change in the asset of natural resources for production and consumption or a disturbance of certain ecosystem processes, i.e. ecosystem health. Based on these findings, two enhanced proxy indicators are proposed (3(rd) objective). Both indicators use net primary production (NPP) loss (potential NPP in the absence of humans minus remaining NPP after land use) as a relevant proxy to primarily assess the impact of land use on ecosystem health. As there are two approaches to account for the natural and productive value of the NPP remaining after land use, namely the Human Appropriation of NPP (HANPP) and hemeroby (or naturalness) concepts, two indicators are introduced and the advantages and limitations compared to state-of-the-art NPP-based land use indicators are discussed. Exergy-based spatially differentiated characterization factors (CFs) are calculated for several types of land use (e.g., pasture land, urban land). PMID:26808405

  19. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  20. On Improving the World: The Value(s) of WICS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Barry

    2003-01-01

    Models of giftedness are not versions of the way the world is, but programmes for improving the world. They uphold visions of the good life, good society, and worthy character. They are vehicles for values. Sternberg acknowledges this in his conclusion: "The important thing is to work together toward a common good--toward devising the best ways to

  1. Prognostic value of the six-minute walk test in end-stage renal disease life expectancy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes Kohl, Leandro; Signori, Luis Ulisses; Ribeiro, Rodrigo Antonini; Silva, Antonio Marcos Vargas; Moreira, Paulo Ricardo; Dipp, Thiago; Sbruzzi, Graciele; Lukrafka, Janice Luisa; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The six-minute walk test has been widely used to evaluate functional capacity and predict mortality in several populations. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the six-minute walk test for the life expectancy of end-stage renal disease patients. METHODS: Patients over 18 years old who underwent hemodialysis for at least six months were included. Patients with hemodynamic instability, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, physical incapacity and acute myocardial stroke in the preceding three months were excluded. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients (54% males; 36±11 years old) were followed for 144 months. The distance walked in the six-minute walk test was a survival predictor for end-stage renal disease patients. In the multivariate analysis, for each 100 meters walked with a 100-meter increment, the hazard ratio was 0.53, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.37-0.74. There was a positive correlation between the distance walked in the six-minute walk test and peak oxygen consumption (r = 0.508). In the multivariate analysis, each year of dialysis treatment represented a 10% increase in death probability; in the severity index analysis, each point on the scale represented an 11% increase in the death risk. CONCLUSIONS: We observed that survival increased approximately 5% for every 100 meters walked in the six-minute walk test, demonstrating that the test is a viable option for evaluating the functional capacity in patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:22760895

  2. Life Roles, Values, and Careers. International Findings of the Work Importance Study. First Edition. The Jossey-Bass Social and Behavioral Science Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Super, Donald E., Ed.; And Others

    This book answers fundamental questions about the nature of work in modern life based on the research from an innovative, cross-national project of the Work Importance Study (WIS). Part 1 presents the background for WIS. "Studies of the Meaning of Work" (Branimir Sverko, Vlasta Vizek-Vidovic) reviews the current state of understanding of the human…

  3. The Discriminant Value of Phase-Dependent Local Dynamic Stability of Daily Life Walking in Older Adult Community-Dwelling Fallers and Nonfallers

    PubMed Central

    Ihlen, Espen A. F.; Weiss, Aner; Helbostad, Jorunn L.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares phase-dependent measures of local dynamic stability of daily life walking with 35 conventional gait features in their ability to discriminate between community-dwelling older fallers and nonfallers. The study reanalyzes 3D-acceleration data of 3-day daily life activity from 39 older people who reported less than 2 falls during one year and 31 who reported two or more falls. Phase-dependent local dynamic stability was defined for initial perturbation at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of the step cycle. A partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to compare the discriminant abilities of phase-dependent local dynamic stability with the discriminant abilities of 35 conventional gait features. The phase-dependent local dynamic stability λ at 0% and 60% of the step cycle discriminated well between fallers and nonfallers (AUC = 0.83) and was significantly larger (p < 0.01) for the nonfallers. Furthermore, phase-dependent λ discriminated as well between fallers and nonfallers as all other gait features combined. The present result suggests that phase-dependent measures of local dynamic stability of daily life walking might be of importance for further development in early fall risk screening tools. PMID:26491669

  4. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning about Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of

  5. The Value of Fieldwork in Life and Environmental Sciences in the Context of Higher Education: A Case Study in Learning about Biodiversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Graham W.; Goulder, Raymond; Wheeler, Phillip; Scott, Lisa J.; Tobin, Michelle L.; Marsham, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is assumed by most practitioners to be an important if not essential component of a degree level education in the environmental sciences. However, there is strong evidence that as a result of a wide range of pressures (academic, financial and societal) fieldwork is in decline in the UK and elsewhere. In this paper we discuss the value of…

  6. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  7. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without

  8. Value of a statistical life in road safety: a benefit-transfer function with risk-analysis guidance based on developing country data.

    PubMed

    Milligan, Craig; Kopp, Andreas; Dahdah, Said; Montufar, Jeannette

    2014-10-01

    We model a value of statistical life (VSL) transfer function for application to road-safety engineering in developing countries through an income-disaggregated meta-analysis of scope-sensitive stated preference VSL data. The income-disaggregated meta-analysis treats developing country and high-income country data separately. Previous transfer functions are based on aggregated datasets that are composed largely of data from high-income countries. Recent evidence, particularly with respect to the income elasticity of VSL, suggests that the aggregate approach is deficient because it does not account for a possible change in income elasticity across income levels. Our dataset (a minor update of the OECD database published in 2012) includes 123 scope-sensitive VSL estimates from developing countries and 185 scope-sensitive estimates from high-income countries. The transfer function for developing countries gives VSL=1.3732E-4×(GDP per capita)(∧)2.478, with VSL and GDP per capita expressed in 2005 international dollars (an international dollar being a notional currency with the same purchasing power as the U.S. dollar). The function can be applied for low- and middle-income countries with GDPs per capita above $1268 (with a data gap for very low-income countries), whereas it is not useful above a GDP per capita of about $20,000. The corresponding function built using high-income country data is VSL=8.2474E+3×(GDP per capita)(∧).6932; it is valid for high-income countries but over-estimates VSL for low- and middle-income countries. The research finds two principal significant differences between the transfer functions modeled using developing-country and high-income-country data, supporting the disaggregated approach. The first of these differences relates to between-country VSL income elasticity, which is 2.478 for the developing country function and .693 for the high-income function; the difference is significant at p<0.001. This difference was recently postulated but not analyzed by other researchers. The second difference is that the traffic-risk context affects VSL negatively in developing countries and positively in high-income countries. The research quantifies uncertainty in the transfer function using parameters of the non-absolute distribution of relative transfer errors. The low- and middle-income function is unbiased, with a median relative transfer error of -.05 (95% CI: -.15 to .03), a 25th percentile error of -.22 (95% CI: -.29 to -.19), and a 75th percentile error of .20 (95% CI: .14 to .30). The quantified uncertainty characteristics support evidence-based approaches to sensitivity analysis and probabilistic risk analysis of economic performance measures for road-safety investments. PMID:24952315

  9. The welfare costs of HIV/AIDS in eastern Europe: an empirical assessment using the economic value-of-life approach.

    PubMed

    Fimpel, Julia; Stolpe, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Based on the aggregation of individual willingness-to-pay for a statistical life, we calibrate an inter-temporal optimisation model to determine the aggregate welfare loss from HIV/AIDS in 25 Eastern European countries. Assuming a discount rate of 3%, we find a total welfare loss for the whole region that exceeds US $800 billion, approximately 10% of the region's annual GDP between 1995 and 2001. Although prevalence and incidence rates diverge sharply between countries-with central Europe far less affected than major countries in the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltics-the epidemic is likely to spread to all countries unless a coherent strategy of prevention and treatment is backed up by substantial increases in healthcare investments. The sheer size of this task and the international nature of the epidemic render this one of the most important current challenges for all of Europe. PMID:19655183

  10. Predictive value of health-related quality of life in progression of disability and depression in persons with multiple sclerosis: a 3-year study.

    PubMed

    Kisic Tepavcevic, Darija; Pekmezovic, Tatjana; Stojsavljevic, Nebojsa; Kostic, Jelena; Dujmovic Basuroski, Irena; Mesaros, Sarlota; Drulovic, Jelena

    2013-12-01

    In our study, we examined whether health-related quality of life (HRQoL) could predict changes in disability, depression, and fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) over a 3-year follow-up period. A group of 109 consecutive MS patients (McDonald's criteria) referring to the Institute of Neurology, Belgrade were enrolled in the study. At two time points during the study (baseline, and after a 3-year period) an HRQoL (measured by MSQoL-54), EDSS, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) were assessed. At the end of a 3-year follow-up, 12 out of 109 patients (11%) had dropped out. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Physical Health scale of MSQoL-54 is significant independent predictor of change in EDSS after 3 years (p = 0.035). Mental health composite score of MSQoL-54 was predictor of change in HDRS score (p = 0.049). In separate regression analysis, only social function was independent predictor of the development of depression (p = 0.041). None of the HRQoL domains had predictive effect on the change of FSS. Our study suggests that baseline HRQoL scores, measured by MSQoL-54, could be applied as a prognostic marker for progression of both, disability, and severity of depressive symptoms in MS. PMID:23460394

  11. [The concept of dignity and life science law: a symbolic, dynamic value at the heart of the social construction of man].

    PubMed

    Byk, Christian

    2010-12-01

    Included in human rights law just after the Second World War, dignity is the quality common to all people in that it symbolises their human condition. Inherent to each person, it is therefore independent of any other personal and random condition (physical state, origin, colour, religion...) just as it is independent of social conditions (a person's dignity cannot be questioned by society). However, the very context of this recognition--in the aftermath of the defeat of Nazism--emphasises the fact that it was not something evident in human history. So there is in this manifestation of the international community a strong political sign which makes dignity as much a construction of man as a quality consubstantial with his nature. A symbol of the human condition, dignity is therefore also a dynamic value, a combat value. As such, it forces us to wonder about what belongs to the human sphere and also about the particular responsibility which springs for every man and for mankind, from the dignity with which he is invested. PMID:21766723

  12. Exploring the Viability and Perceived Pedagogical Value of the Virtual Interactive Biology Experience (VIBE) Assignment Format in Higher Education Life Science Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klesath, Marta Jean

    The current Net generation has grown up surrounded by technology. Today's technological devices have become integrated in every aspect of our lives, including education. Utilizing design-based research methodology we have developed a unique technology-rich, multimedia embedded 3D virtual assignment format dubbed Virtual Interactive Biology Experiences , or VIBE. The focus of this sequential mixed methods study was to gather empirical data related to the viability and perceived pedagogical value of the VIBE assignment format. Quantitative data was collected on the student's current usage of, and attitudes towards, technology prior to their exposure to the VIBE format. Students' responses to an assignment questionnaire indicated their perceived value of the VIBE assignment format. Student responses were collected immediately following both the first and last (third) exposure to the VIBE format. A repeated T-test indicated that students' attitudes towards the pedagogical value of this format become more positive with increased familiarity. Additionally, specific covariates associated with the students responses on the technology survey were identified as predictive for the students reported values of the VIBE format to varying degrees. Multiple regression predictive models were developed which differed between the initial and repeated measures data. This variation supported the repeated measures finding emphasizing differences in responses associated with the first and subsequent uses of the VIBE format. Future studies are planned in which potential learning gains associated with the use of this format may be evaluated.

  13. Dealing with Life's Dilemmas: Exploring Values through English and Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrim, Sally-Anne

    The nine original one-act plays in this collection are meant to be performed in the classroom or at any social gathering where an informal reading or enactment by a group can take place. The plays touch on a number of conflicts that people may encounter when seeking independence; looking for jobs; trying romance; relating to family members;…

  14. Radionuclide biological half-life values for terrestrial and aquatic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Beresford, N A; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Burgos, J; Cujic, M; Fesenko, S; Kryshev, A; Pachal, N; Real, A; Su, B S; Tagami, K; Vives i Batlle, J; Vives-Lynch, S; Wells, C; Wood, M D

    2015-12-01

    The equilibrium concentration ratio is typically the parameter used to estimate organism activity concentrations within wildlife dose assessment tools. Whilst this is assumed to be fit for purpose, there are scenarios such as accidental or irregular, fluctuating, releases from licensed facilities when this might not be the case. In such circumstances, the concentration ratio approach may under- or over-estimate radiation exposure depending upon the time since the release. To carrying out assessments for such releases, a dynamic approach is needed. The simplest and most practical option is representing the uptake and turnover processes by first-order kinetics, for which organism- and element-specific biological half-life data are required. In this paper we describe the development of a freely available international database of radionuclide biological half-life values. The database includes 1907 entries for terrestrial, freshwater, riparian and marine organisms. Biological half-life values are reported for 52 elements across a range of wildlife groups (marine = 9, freshwater = 10, terrestrial = 7 and riparian = 3 groups). Potential applications and limitations of the database are discussed. PMID:26378959

  15. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  16. The Origin of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents an outline of lectures given on this topic to British secondary students. Man's various ideas about the origin of life are included in three categories: those that consider life to have been created by a Divine Being; those that consider life to have developed from non-living matter; and those that consider life to be eternal. (MLH)

  17. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.

    2015-01-01

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, ‘On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies’, to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental ‘law of mortality’ has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  18. Deciphering death: a commentary on Gompertz (1825) 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies'.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-04-19

    In 1825, the actuary Benjamin Gompertz read a paper, 'On the nature of the function expressive of the law of human mortality, and on a new mode of determining the value of life contingencies', to the Royal Society in which he showed that over much of the adult human lifespan, age-specific mortality rates increased in an exponential manner. Gompertz's work played an important role in shaping the emerging statistical science that underpins the pricing of life insurance and annuities. Latterly, as the subject of ageing itself became the focus of scientific study, the Gompertz model provided a powerful stimulus to examine the patterns of death across the life course not only in humans but also in a wide range of other organisms. The idea that the Gompertz model might constitute a fundamental 'law of mortality' has given way to the recognition that other patterns exist, not only across the species range but also in advanced old age. Nevertheless, Gompertz's way of representing the function expressive of the pattern of much of adult mortality retains considerable relevance for studying the factors that influence the intrinsic biology of ageing. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. PMID:25750242

  19. Combined effects of marinating and γ-irradiation in ensuring safety, protection of nutritional value and increase in shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat for immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Ben Fadhel, Yosra; Leroy, Valentin; Dussault, Dominic; St-Yves, France; Lauzon, Martine; Salmieri, Stéphane; Jamshidian, Majid; Vu, Dang Khanh; Lacroix, Monique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining marinating and γ-irradiation at doses of 1, 1.5 and 3kGy on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium and Clostridium sporogenes in raw meat packed under vacuum and stored at 4°C and to estimate its safety and shelf-life. Further, the effect of combined treatments on sensorial, nutritional values (lipid oxidation, concentration of thiamin and riboflavin) and color was evaluated. The study demonstrated that the use of marinade in combination with a low dose of γ-irradiation (1.5kGy) could act in synergy to reduce to undetectable level of pathogenic bacteria and increase the shelf-life of ready-to-cook meat loin without affecting its sensorial and nutritional quality. PMID:27043970

  20. The Prudential Value of Education for Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A popular justification of education for autonomy is that autonomy possession has intrinsic prudential value. Communitarians have argued, however, that although autonomy may be a core element of a well-lived life in liberal societies, it cannot claim such a prudential pedigree in traditional societies in which the conception of a good life is…

  1. The Teaching of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Gwen C.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Described are reasons and methods for using videotapes to incorporate value-based issues (i.e., honesty, consequences of research, professional responsibility) into college physical science class discussions. (CS)

  2. Effect of Individual Component Life Distribution on Engine Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of individual engine component life distributions on engine life prediction was determined. A Weibull-based life and reliability analysis of the NASA Energy Efficient Engine was conducted. The engine s life at a 95 and 99.9 percent probability of survival was determined based upon the engine manufacturer s original life calculations and assumed values of each of the component s cumulative life distributions as represented by a Weibull slope. The lives of the high-pressure turbine (HPT) disks and blades were also evaluated individually and as a system in a similar manner. Knowing the statistical cumulative distribution of each engine component with reasonable engineering certainty is a condition precedent to predicting the life and reliability of an entire engine. The life of a system at a given reliability will be less than the lowest-lived component in the system at the same reliability (probability of survival). Where Weibull slopes of all the engine components are equal, the Weibull slope had a minimal effect on engine L(sub 0.1) life prediction. However, at a probability of survival of 95 percent (L(sub 5) life), life decreased with increasing Weibull slope.

  3. Biological, Life Course, and Cross-Cultural Studies All point Toward the Value of Dimensional and Developmental Ratings in the Classification of Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Rina; Greene, Talya; Addington, Jean; McKenzie, Kwame; Phillips, Michael; Murray, Robin M.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV1) are based on the premise that it is a discrete illness entity, in particular, distinct from the affective psychoses. This assumption has persisted for more than a century, even though patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia show a wide diversity of symptoms and outcomes, and no biological or psychological feature has been found to be pathognomonic of the disorder. However, there has been sustained, and indeed growing, criticism of the concept. For example, writing about the diagnosis of schizophrenia more than a decade ago,2 one of Britain's most sophisticated nosological experts, Ian Brockington, enjoined “It is important to loosen the grip which the concept of ‘schizophrenia’ has on the minds of psychiatrists. Schizophrenia is an idea whose very essence is equivocal, a nosological category without natural boundaries, a barren hypothesis. Such a blurred concept is ‘not a valid object of scientific enquiry’.”3 Should Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition(DSM-V), persist with the neo-Kraepelinian concept of schizophrenia with all its defects, or should it deconstruct psychosis into its component dimensions? In this article, we will address the question by considering 2 main themes, firstly, the role of culture and ethnicity in the diagnosis of psychosis, and secondly, a life course approach to understanding psychosis. We will then discuss whether more progress would be achieved in DSM-V by abandoning the familiar categorical system and instead moving to a dimensional system which rates both developmental impairment and symptom factor scores. However, we will begin by briefly reviewing the recent history of the classification of the psychoses. PMID:17562692

  4. Defending definitions of life.

    PubMed

    Mix, Lucas John

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, it has become unpopular to talk about definitions of life, under the assumption that attempts at a precise definition are counterproductive. Recent attempts have failed to meet strict philosophical criteria for definitions and have failed to reach consensus. I argue that provisional definitions are necessary for clear communications. Our current knowledge of biology justifies a number of universal claims about the category of life. Whether or not "life" represents a natural category, it maps to a number of important, observable processes. Given the importance of those processes and the extent of our knowledge, plural explicit definitions of life (and related categories) will be necessary for progress in astrobiology and origin-of-life studies as well as biology in general. I propose concrete categories related to, but not necessarily coextensive with, life for clear communication and hypothesis formation: Woese life, Darwin life, Haldane life. PMID:25415254

  5. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  6. Multiple origins of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raup, D. M.; Valentine, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    There is some indication that life may have originated readily under primitive earth conditions. If there were multiple origins of life, the result could have been a polyphyletic biota today. Using simple stochastic models for diversification and extinction, we conclude: (1) the probability of survival of life is low unless there are multiple origins, and (2) given survival of life and given as many as 10 independent origins of life, the odds are that all but one would have gone extinct, yielding the monophyletic biota we have now. The fact of the survival of our particular form of life does not imply that it was unique or superior.

  7. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  8. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  9. The value of uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The author discusses some of the characteristics of Roy Schafer's contributions to psychoanalysis that he finds most valuable, such as his openness to uncertainty, his anti-reductive view of analytic constructions, his unique formulation of the analyst's role, and his close attention to how the patient engenders particular emotional reactions in the analyst. The author also presents a clinical vignette illustrating the value of the analyst's tolerance of uncertainty in the face of the patient's push for interpretations, explanations, and reassurance. PMID:23457099

  10. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  11. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  12. Creating Value with Long Term R&D: The life science industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloman, Darlene J. S.

    2008-03-01

    Agilent Laboratories looks to the future to identify, invest and enable technologies and applications that will nurture the world’s people, environment and economies, and help ensure Agilent’s continuing leadership. Following a brief introduction to Agilent Technologies and Agilent Laboratories, Solomon will discuss how innovation and long-term R&D are transcending traditional boundaries. Focusing on the life sciences industry, she will discuss current trends in R&D and the importance of measurement in advancing the industry. She will describe some of the challenges that are disrupting the pharmaceutical industry where significant and sustained investment in R&D has not translated into large numbers of block-buster therapeutics. Much of this gap results from the profound complexity of biological systems. New discoveries quickly generate new questions, which in turn drive more research and necessitate new business models. Solomon will highlight examples of Agilent’s long-range R&D in life sciences, emphasizing the importance of physics. She’ll conclude with the importance of creating sustainable value with R&D.

  13. Neuronal imprinting of human values.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J M

    2000-03-01

    In the 21st century, psychophysiology will face the challenge of establishing ethical principles and practical means for the genetic and social influencing of the development of human beings. Neuronal imprinting of beliefs and morality within infantile minds will be necessary for the peaceful coexistence of races and cultures. This process requires study and consideration, among others, of the following psychophysiological facts: (1) Genes do not transmit moral values. (2) Material support of physiological activities is necessary for the existence and development of mental functions. (3) Imprinting of human values is based on material changes within neuronal structures. (4) Early neuronal imprinting is performed without personal awareness or consent of the individual and depends on sensory inputs, mainly from the social structure of the group. (5) Biological structures lack values. Personal and social antagonisms do not depend on genes, but on cultural indoctrination. (6) Pleasure and punishment (positive and negative reinforcement) are the two main elements, which regulate animal and human behavior. (7) Values must be chosen by adults, who decide the questions 'why'? 'when'? 'which ones'?, 'who should teach'?, 'what?' and 'how'? (8) Many biological imperatives are shared by all animals and by all people. Human beings may be considered the 'crickets of the Universe', unable to understand the mysteries of nature because of our insufficient neuronal capacity. (9) Our emotional life is mainly related to the structure of the limbic system controlled by the neocortex. (10) New theories based on the integration of physics, chemistry, biology and other specific areas of knowledge, as proposed by the General Theory of Systems, will avoid 'opposites', favoring the acceptance of complementary aspects of reality. (11) Early education will promote preferential learning which depends on both genetic endowment and neuronal development influenced by experience. It is the responsibility of psychophysiology to establish the guidelines for better education, clarifying the material and psychological aspects of the mind. PMID:10677650

  14. New Report Tracks 20 Year Shift in Freshman Attitudes, Values and Life Goals. Cooperative Institutional Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Research Inst., Inc., Los Angeles, CA.

    Findings of a study of the attitudes, values, educational achievements, and life goals of U.S. college freshmen are summarized. The study report, "The American Freshman: Twenty Year Trends, 1966-1985," is based on the Cooperative Institutional Research Program's annual surveys of college freshmen. Major findings from the study point to significant…

  15. The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of

  16. The Value of Non-Work Time in Cross-National Quality of Life Comparisons: The Case of the United States vs. the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verbakel, Ellen; DiPrete, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Comparisons of wellbeing between the United States and Western Europe generally show that most Americans have higher standards of living than do Western Europeans at comparable locations in their national income distributions. These comparisons of wellbeing typically privilege disposable income and cash transfers while ignoring other aspects of…

  17. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  18. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life

  19. The "trophic" value of foods.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J; Heffley, J D; Yew, M L; Bode, C W

    1973-03-01

    Foods must furnish (i) calories, which can readily be measured, and (ii) raw materials necessary for the building and maintenance of metabolic machinery which makes possible fuel utilization. We have called this "beyond-calorie" quality of food its "trophic" value. This concept has more unity than appears on the surface, and is capable of approximate measurement by biological testing as our experiments show. The trophic value of a food cannot be ascertained from food composition tables because only a smattering of the necessary information is commonly furnished. A food cannot support life if it is missing, or deficient with respect to, any one of the necessary nutrients. A tabulation which includes only a few nutrients-e.g., calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, and iron-can be woefully misleading, especially if these individual nutrients have been added by way of fortification. THE MEASUREMENT WE HAVE APPLIED TO A NUMBER OF FOODS IS POTENTIALLY VALUABLE FOR COMPARING SIMILAR FOOD PRODUCTS: two grains, two breads, two milk products, or for comparison of the same food grown, processed, or preserved in different ways. By using essentially this method we have found that barnyard eggs are somewhat superior to battery eggs, but that whether they are fertile or infertile makes no difference. We are of the opinion that extensive biological testing of many commercial food products is highly desirable to help promote human health and better internal environments for our cells and tissues. PMID:4514984

  20. The Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Kenneth E. F.

    1973-01-01

    The origin of our quality of life problems is explained within a historical and international perspective. Two sample problems are analyzed to illustrate the effects of the causes of quality of life problems and to propose solutions to these problems. (KM)

  1. Boundaries of life: estimating the life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franck, S.; Bounama, C.; von Bloh, W.

    We present a minimal model for the global carbon cycle of the Earth containing the reservoirs mantle ocean floor continental crust continental biosphere and the Kerogen as well as the aggregated reservoir ocean and atmosphere and obtain reasonable values for the present distribution of carbon in the surface reservoirs of the Earth The Earth system model for the long-term carbon cycle is specified by introducing three different types of biosphere prokaryotes eucaryotes and complex multicellular life They are characterized by different global temperature tolerance windows prokaryotes 2oC 100oC eucaryotes 5oC 45oC complex multicellular life 0oC 30oC From the Archaean to the future there always exists a prokaryotic biosphere 2 Gyr ago eucaryotic life first appears because the global surface temperature reaches the tolerance window for eucaryotes The emergence of complex multicellular life is connected with an explosive increase in biomass and a strong decrease in Cambrian global surface temperature at about 0 54 Gyr ago In the long-term future the three types of biosphere will die out in reverse sequence of their appearance For realistic values of the biotic enhancement of weathering there is no bistability in the future solutions for complex life Therefore complex organisms will not extinct by an implosion in comparison to the Cambrian explosion Eucaryotes and complex life become extinct because of too high surface temperatures in the future The ultimate life span of the biosphere is defined by the extinction of procaryotes in about 1 6 Gyr

  2. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  3. Emergence of Life.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2011-01-01

    Indeed, even if we know that many individual components are necessary for life to exist, we do not yet know what makes life emerge. One goal of this journal Life is to juxtapose articles with multidisciplinary approaches and perhaps to answer in the near future this question of the emergence of life. Different subjects and themes will be developed, starting of course with the multiple definitions of life and continuing with others such as: life diversity and universality; characteristics of living systems; thermodynamics with energy and entropy; kinetics and catalysis; water in its different physical states; circulation of sap and blood and its origin; the first blood pump and first heart; the first exchange of nutrients between cells, sap and blood; essential molecules of living systems; chirality; molecular asymmetry and its origin; formation of enantiomer excess and amplification; microscopic observations on a micrometer and sub-micrometer scales, at molecular and atomic levels; the first molecules at the origin of genetic information, viroids, circular RNA; regions of space or the area inside membranes and cells capable of initiating and maintaining life; phenomena at the origin of the emergence of life; molecules studied in the traditional field of chemistry and in the recent field of nanoscience governed by new laws; interaction between the individual molecules and components of living systems; interaction between living systems and the environment; transfer of information through generations; continuation of life from one generation to the next; prebiotic chemistry and prebiotic signatures on Earth, on Mars, on other planets; biosignatures of the first forms of life; fossils and pseudofossils dating 3.5 Ga ago and more recent ones; experimental fossilization; pluricellular eukaryotes dating 2.1 Ga ago; sudden increase in oxygen in the atmosphere around 2.0 to 2.5 Ga ago and its relation to geology; shell symmetry; aging with transformation of molecules, of their symmetry, their interactions, their exchanges. [...]. PMID:26791662

  4. Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lal, Ashwini Kumar

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of life has been a big enigma despite rapid advancements in the field of astrobiology, microbiology and genetics in recent years. The answer to this puzzle is as mindboggling as the riddle relating to evolution of the universe itself. Despite the fact that panspermia has gained considerable support as a viable explanation for origin of life on the earth and elsewhere in the universe, the issue, however, remains far from a tangible solution. This paper examines the various prevailing hypotheses regarding origin of life-like abiogenesis, RNA world, iron-sulphur world and panspermia, and concludes that delivery of life-bearing organic molecules by the comets in the early epoch of the earth alone possibly was not responsible for kick-starting the process of evolution of life on our planet.

  5. The Value of Pretending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn; Adcock, Don

    By participating in their children's imaginative play or pretending, parents may be able to understand better their children's feelings, resolve parent-child conflicts, communicate parental values, and build parent-child relationships based on mutual respect. Many people seem to believe that pretending appears automatically in young children, that…

  6. The economic value of stream restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Alan; Rosenberger, Randy; Fletcher, Jerald

    2005-02-01

    The economic value of restoring Deckers Creek in Monongalia and Preston counties of West Virginia was determined from mail, Internet, and personal contact surveys. Multiattribute, choice experiments were conducted and nested logit models were estimated to derive the economic values of full restoration for three attributes of this creek: aquatic life, swimming, and scenic quality. Their relative economic values were that aquatic life > scenic quality ≈ swimming. These economic values imply that respondents had the highest value for aquatic life when fully restoring Deckers Creek to a sustainable fishery rather than a "put and take" fishery that cannot sustain fish populations. The welfare improvement estimates for full restoration of all three attributes ranged between 12 and 16 per month per household. Potential stream users (anglers) had the largest welfare gain from restoration, while nonangler respondents had the lowest. When these estimates were aggregated up to the entire watershed population, the benefit from restoration of Deckers Creek was estimated to be about $1.9 million annually. This benefit does not account for any economic values from partial stream restoration. On the basis of log likelihood tests of the nested logit models, two subsamples of the survey population (the general population and stream users) were found to be from the same population. Thus restoration choices by stream users may be representative of the watershed population, although the sample size of stream users was small in this research.

  7. The Financial Value of a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantrowitz, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Five years have passed since the U.S. Census Bureau published synthetic estimates of work-life earnings by educational attainment. This paper updates those figures with the most recent data from the U.S. Census Bureau's annual Current Population Surveys, and adds net present value analysis of the financial benefit of a college degree to the…

  8. On the Value of Second Life for Students' Engagement in Blended and Online Courses: A Comparative Study from the Higher Education in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellas, Nikolaos; Kazanidis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays three-dimensional (3D) multi-user virtual worlds (VWs) are the most well-known candidate platforms in Higher education. Despite the growing number of notable studies that have presented VWs as valuable platforms for the e-Education, there is still a paucity of a comparative study in order to be determined the degree of the students'…

  9. The feasibility and educational value of Hear My Voice, a chaplain-led spiritual life review process for patients with brain cancers and progressive neurologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Piderman, Katherine M; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki; Jenkins, Sarah M; Lovejoy, Laura A; Dulohery, Yvette M; Marek, Dean V; Durland, Heidi L; Head, Debra L; Swanson, Spence W; Hogg, James T; Evans, John L; Jorgenson, Scott E; Bunkowski, Laura J; Jones, Karl L; Euerle, Terin T; Kwete, Gracia M; Miller, Keith A; Morris, Jacob R; Yoder, Timothy J; Lapid, Maria I; Jatoi, Aminah

    2015-06-01

    Research continues to establish the importance of spirituality for many persons with medical illnesses. This paper describes a pilot study titled, "Hear My Voice," designed to provide an opportunity for persons with progressive neurologic illnesses, including brain tumors and other neurodegenerative diseases, to review and discuss their spirituality with a board-certified chaplain, and to prepare a spiritual legacy document (SLD). First, we provide background information that underscores the importance of such a project for this patient population that is particularly vulnerable to cognitive impairment and communication difficulties. Second, we provide detailed methodology, including the semi-structured interview format used, the development of the SLD, and an overview of responses from participants and investigators. We also describe the quantitative and qualitative approaches to analysis taken with the aim of developing scientific validation in support of the Hear My Voice project. PMID:24952300

  10. [Conditional reimbursement: a tool to reduce uncertainty relating the value of medicines and reinforce their continuous evaluation in real-life].

    PubMed

    Bail, J-N

    2013-09-01

    In order to alleviate the inherent uncertainty that comes with the market access and public funding of new health products, a conditional reimbursement mechanism is proposed. The latter is circumscribed by recommendations regarding its implementation in limited cases in order to allow for a fair access of patients to therapeutic innovations, within economic conditions both optimum and reviewable. PMID:24075702

  11. Choosing a Life One Has Reason to Value: The Role of the Arts in Fostering Capability Development in Four Small Urban High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Cindy; Donovan, Corinne; Mishook, Jacob; de Gaillande, Genevieve; Garcia, Ivonne

    2012-01-01

    A holistic education linked to creativity, innovation, critical thinking and local/global citizenship is increasingly marginalized in the United States as schools continue to struggle with the impact of high-stakes testing regimes. In particular, urban youths' access to an education that furthers their ability to choose lives they have reason to…

  12. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePLUS

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  13. First Day of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  14. Value Orientations and Action Conflicts in Students' Everyday Life: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Sebastian; Hofer, Manfred; Dietz, Franziska; Reinders, Heinz; Fries, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The assumption that today's German students are able to successfully combine synthesis achievement values and well-being values appears to be overly optimistic when regarded from the perspective of motivational psychology. The results of a qualitative-quantitative interview study with 25 students indicate that achievement and well-being values may…

  15. Value Orientations and Action Conflicts in Students' Everyday Life: An Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmid, Sebastian; Hofer, Manfred; Dietz, Franziska; Reinders, Heinz; Fries, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    The assumption that today's German students are able to successfully combine synthesis achievement values and well-being values appears to be overly optimistic when regarded from the perspective of motivational psychology. The results of a qualitative-quantitative interview study with 25 students indicate that achievement and well-being values may

  16. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  17. Capacity Value of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, Roisin; Dent, Chris; Mills, Andrew; Samaan, Nader A.; Milligan, Michael; Keane, Andrew; O'Malley, Mark

    2012-11-10

    Evaluating the capacity value of renewable energy sources can pose significant challenges due to their variable and uncertain nature. In this paper the capacity value of solar power is investigated. Solar capacity value metrics and their associated calculation methodologies are reviewed and several solar capacity studies are summarized. The differences between wind and solar power are examined, the economic importance of solar capacity value is discussed and other assessments and recommendations are presented.

  18. Amenity values of public and private forests: examining the value-attitude relationship.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mihael A; Cordell, H Ken

    2002-11-01

    Public values toward forests have changed since the late 1980s, from a commodity-oriented perspective toward a more inclusive (commodity and non-commodity) orientation. This study examines the influence of four indicators of population diversity (age, ethnic background, place of residence, and gender) on amenity values of forests, environmental attitudes, and forest value-attitude correspondence. Four values of public and private forests were assessed, wood production (utilitarian value), clean air (a life support value), scenic beauty (an aesthetic value), and heritage (a spiritual value). Environmental attitudes were measured using a modified version of the New Environmental Paradigm scale. Five hundred and forty-eight randomly selected residents of households in 13 states of the Southern United States participated in a telephone interview. Age and ethnic background were found to moderate the value-attitude relationship, with the strength of the association being dependent upon the type of forest (i.e., public or private) and the forest value (i.e., utilitarian, life support, spiritual, and aesthetic). Females, younger persons (less than 43 years old), and whites reported lower utilitarian values of forests than their respective counterparts. Results are interpreted within the context of an emerging post-material society, in which a biocentric orientation to forests and the natural environment may be favored more by a younger (versus older) generation and increasingly racially diverse U.S. population. Implications for managing forests using a multiple-values (versus multiple-uses) approach are discussed. PMID:12375089

  19. How to Assess the Value of Medicines?

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Steven

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to discuss approaches to assessing the value of medicines. Economic evaluation assesses value by means of the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Health is maximized by selecting medicines with increasing ICERs until the budget is exhausted. The budget size determines the value of the threshold ICER and vice versa. Alternatively, the threshold value can be inferred from pricing/reimbursement decisions, although such values vary between countries. Threshold values derived from the value-of-life literature depend on the technique used. The World Health Organization has proposed a threshold value tied to the national GDP. As decision makers may wish to consider multiple criteria, variable threshold values and weighted ICERs have been suggested. Other approaches (i.e., replacement approach, program budgeting and marginal analysis) have focused on improving resource allocation, rather than maximizing health subject to a budget constraint. Alternatively, the generalized optimization framework and multi-criteria decision analysis make it possible to consider other criteria in addition to value. PMID:21607066

  20. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect

  1. Normative Ideas of Life and Autobiographical Reasoning in Life Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohn, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Autobiographical reasoning is closely related to the development of normative ideas about life as measured by the cultural life script. The acquisition of a life script is an important prerequisite for autobiographical reasoning because children learn through the life script which events are expected to go into their life story, and when to expect…

  2. Teaching the Value of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors…

  3. Teaching the Value of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors

  4. The Resurrection of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morange, Michel

    2010-04-01

    The question of life was progressively put aside in the second half of the 20th century with the rise of molecular biology, but has recently re-emerged. Many scientists and philosophers consider that there is no place for this question within biology; that the distinction between living and non-living is arbitrary; and that progress in synthetic biology will finally put this question out of people’s minds. I will argue that there is something wrong with the arguments supporting these statements. There are no reasons to exclude the question “What is life?” from biology. But the nature of the question has dramatically changed recently. Instead of being a search for the principles of life, the answer is now sought in the description of the historical process that has coupled the now well-established characteristics of organisms.

  5. The Value of Cocurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in

  6. The Value of Cocurriculars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Most educators support the popular theory that cocurricular activities benefit participants in a number of ways, such as reducing drug and alcohol abuse and crime; raising grades; and improving students' prospects of attending college, finding jobs, and becoming responsible citizens. A multitude of studies shows that students who participate in…

  7. Life Out of Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arrhenius, Gustaf

    2002-01-01

    Doctinary overlays on the definition of life can effectively be avoided by focusing discussion on microorganisms, their vital processes, and their genetic pedigree. To reach beyond these present and highly advanced forms of life and to inquire about its origin it is necessary to consider the requirements imposed by the environment. These requirements include geophysically and geochemically acceptable conjectures for the generation of source compounds, their concentration from dilute solution, and their selective combination into functional biomolecules. For vital function these macromolecules require programming in the form of specific sequence motifs. This critical programming constitutes the scientifically least understood process in the origin of life. Once this stage has been surpassed the laws of Darwinian evolution can operate in ways that are understood and experimentally demonstrated.

  8. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  9. Habitats of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirk, Schulze-Makuch; Irwin, Louis N.

    There are four principal habitats in which life may exist - the surface of a planetary body, its subsurface, its atmosphere and space. From our own experience we know that life does exist on the surface of a planet, in its subsurface, and transiently at least in the atmosphere. Where it is present, it exists in a surprising diversity and in a variety of microhabitats, from deep caverns (Hose et al. 2000, Melim et al. 2001) to hydrothermal fluids and hot springs of various chemistries (Jannasch 1995, Rzonca and Schulze-Makuch 2002), to the frozen deserts of Antarctica (Friedmann 1982, Sun and Friedmann 1999). In this chapter we will elaborate on the principal habitats, the constraints they impose on life, and the possibilities they provide.

  10. RECOVERY OF RUTHENIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Grummitt, W.E.; Hardwick, W.H.

    1961-01-01

    A process is given for the recovery of ruthenium from its aqueous solutions by oxidizing the ruthenium to the octavalent state and subsequently extracting the ruthenium into a halogen-substituted liquid paraffin.

  11. The Value of Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Charles W.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of positive interpersonal relationships in developing an effective leadership style. It provides recommendations for developing effective relations with subordinates, vendors and suppliers, and bosses. Advice for dealing with low self-esteem concludes the article. (GR)

  12. The Value of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Warren

    2013-01-01

    How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)

  13. The Value of Accreditation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Higher Education Accreditation, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Accreditation in the United States is a means to assure and improve higher education quality, assisting institutions and programs using a set of standards developed by peers. An institution or program that has successfully completed an accreditation review has in place the needed instructional, student support and other services to assist students…

  14. The Value of Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Douglas E.

    2011-01-01

    Video connects sight and sound, creating a composite experience greater than either alone. More than any other single technology, video is the most powerful way to communicate with others--and an ideal medium for sharing with others the vital learning occurring in music classrooms. In this article, the author leads readers through the process of

  15. The Value of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Warren

    2013-01-01

    How can a teacher carve out a deeper sense of community in an inexpensive way? Across the nation, many schools have managed to craft creative and inexpensive community-building projects. Perhaps the three projects featured here will spark some new ideas for your own school: (1) The Hunger Games Come to Texas; (2) Tough Mudders in Macungie; and (3)…

  16. The Value of Virginity.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Hymen reconstruction surgery is a simple procedure to repair a woman's hymen, requested by women who, for religious and cultural reasons, believe they must appear to have an intact hymen on their wedding night. Debates surrounding possible ethical justification for the procedure are complex and heated. These articles from the Harvard Ethics Consortium present and explore the case of a young woman who asked a young female physician on call for a referral for the procedure. PMID:26132062

  17. Risk and value analysis of SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper attempts to apply a traditional risk and value analysis to the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence--SETI. In view of the difficulties of assessing the probability of success, a comparison is made between SETI and a previous search for extraterrestrial life, the biological component of Project Viking. Our application of simple Utility Theory, given some reasonable assumptions, suggests that SETI is at least as worthwhile as the biological experiment on Viking.

  18. "Desires" Clarified, Much of "Value": A Plea for Values Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prakash, Madhu Suri

    1988-01-01

    Presents a new perspective from which to reassess the values clarification approach to moral education. In doing so, it locates values clarification within a long and rich tradition of ethical and educational theory. Contends that values clarification does not hold arbitrary or mistaken conceptions of "morality" and education, but merely…

  19. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  20. The Business of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunski, Jonathan F.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a learning game called The Business of Life that demonstrates the cellular processes of photosynthesis and respiration as business transactions. Incorporates the ideas that energy flows through ecosystems as well as through cells of individual organisms. Demonstrates the interdependence of living things and that processes at the cellular…

  1. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... policy on his life but gratuitously transferred all rights in the policy in contemplation of death, the... gross estate of the value of rights in an insurance policy on the life of a person other than the decedent, or the value of rights in a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy on...

  2. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... policy on his life but gratuitously transferred all rights in the policy in contemplation of death, the... gross estate of the value of rights in an insurance policy on the life of a person other than the decedent, or the value of rights in a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy on...

  3. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... policy on his life but gratuitously transferred all rights in the policy in contemplation of death, the... gross estate of the value of rights in an insurance policy on the life of a person other than the decedent, or the value of rights in a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy on...

  4. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... policy on his life but gratuitously transferred all rights in the policy in contemplation of death, the... gross estate of the value of rights in an insurance policy on the life of a person other than the decedent, or the value of rights in a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy on...

  5. 26 CFR 20.2042-1 - Proceeds of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... policy on his life but gratuitously transferred all rights in the policy in contemplation of death, the... gross estate of the value of rights in an insurance policy on the life of a person other than the decedent, or the value of rights in a combination annuity contract and life insurance policy on...

  6. Quality of Life Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. New Mexico Environmental Inst.

    Comments, speeches, and questions delivered at the Quality of Life Symposium are compiled in these proceedings. As an exploratory session, the conference objectives were to (1) become better informed about New Mexico--its resource base, the economy, social and cultural base, and the environment; and (2) to evaluate and discuss the role of New…

  7. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life

  8. Fingerprints of Life?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittman, Cheryl

    Pioneered by NASA-JSC scientists, Marilyn Lindstorm and Jaclyn Allen, the partnering of teachers with scientists has ventured into the realms of the extreme... extreme life, that is. In 1998, two years after the announcement that possible evidence of life had been discovered within a Martian rock, teachers from region served by JSC were brought together with the Mars Meteorite research team. The goal was to familiarize the teachers with research being done in the search for evidence of extra-terrestrial life and Earth analogues. The teachers would then design curriculum to translate the research into a format that could be utilized in the classroom. "Fingerprints of Life", a work-in-progress, is a CD-rom /web-based curriculum derived from that collaboration. Modeling the actual science being done, the CD contains laboratory and classroom activities utilizing Astrobiology as the 'hook' to teach basic science skills of observation, description, communication of ideas and laboratory techniques. In addition, electron microscopy images and video clips give background information for the uninitiated. From "Wold Trap", which is based upon an actual experiment designed for the Mars Viking missions, to "Creature Feature", which deals with observation and communication, the labs and activities are appropriate for multiple grade levels. Designed to be user-friendly and tested in the classroom, "Fingerprints" uses materials that can be purchased inexpensively at the grocery store, or recycled from other sources.

  9. A life of cycles.

    PubMed

    Pycock, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Jonathan Pycock is one of three equine claims consultants with the Veterinary Defence Society. His career in equine reproduction, and lecturing on the same topic, has given him the opportunity to work and travel widely, and ensure his work/life balance stays in sync. PMID:25748201

  10. Lifestyles & Values of College Students: Classes of 1980 through 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    The values and desired lifestyles of college freshmen from the classes of 1980 through 1985 are examined, based on University of Michigan survey results. The following goals were rated by the freshmen: a good marriage and family life, strong friendships, finding purpose and meaning in life, finding steady work, achieving work success, making a

  11. Lifestyles & Values of College Students: Classes of 1980 through 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    The values and desired lifestyles of college freshmen from the classes of 1980 through 1985 are examined, based on University of Michigan survey results. The following goals were rated by the freshmen: a good marriage and family life, strong friendships, finding purpose and meaning in life, finding steady work, achieving work success, making a…

  12. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  13. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  14. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  15. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to

  16. Practical Life: The Keystone of Life, Culture, and Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Uma Ramani's characterization of practical life is philosophical and anthropological, suggesting that "human history is the story of the evolution of our practical life activities." Practical life is a collaborative activity that creates community and culture. One's adaptation to life through the daily work of ordering our environment…

  17. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  18. The medicalization of life

    PubMed Central

    Illich, Ivan

    1975-01-01

    Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

  19. "My life as it is has value": narrating schizophrenia in later years.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Lydia P

    2014-10-01

    I used thematic narrative analysis, informed by the developmental life course perspective, to formulate a line of semistructured questioning for interviews with 6 older adults who experienced ongoing symptoms of schizophrenia. From the 31 resulting interviews and 38 observation points, I developed life history narratives that yielded findings across four shared core themes. In this article I present my findings on the theme of narrative insight into schizophrenia in later years. Whereas only 2 of the participants had clinical insight into their mental illness, all had developed personal stories about their lives with schizophrenia. I discuss the significance of the shared narrative profile and the importance of using narrative insight to develop more effective clinical practices and to focus future research with older adults with schizophrenia. PMID:25186771

  20. Predicting trait values and measuring selection in complex life histories: reproductive allocation decisions in Soay sheep.

    PubMed

    Childs, D Z; Coulson, T N; Pemberton, J M; Clutton-Brock, T H; Rees, M

    2011-10-01

    Accurate prediction of life history phenomena and characterisation of selection in free-living animal populations are fundamental goals in evolutionary ecology. In density regulated, structured populations, where individual state influences fate, simple and widely used approaches based on individual lifetime measures of fitness are difficult to justify. We combine recently developed structured population modelling tools with ideas from modern evolutionary game theory (adaptive dynamics) to understand selection on allocation of female reproductive effort to singletons or twins in a size-structured population of feral sheep. In marked contrast to the classical selection analyses, our model-based approach predicts that the female allocation strategy is under negligible directional selection. These differences arise because classical selection analysis ignores components of offspring fitness and fails to consider selection over the complete life cycle. PMID:21790931

  1. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Gallacher, Rose

    2015-03-11

    End of life care is challenging, rewarding and a privileged experience, irrespective of where death occurs - in a hospital, care home, hospice, prison or at home. The CPD article was a reminder that death is a deeply personal and social experience, and one where individuals must be afforded dignity and respect. People who are dying should be referred to as individuals or persons, and not as patients. PMID:25758520

  2. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  3. Values Added: Some Sociological Interpretations of Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines current British concerns about the need for values education from the perspective of postmodern social theorists. Argues that, viewed sociologically, the current approach to values education is broadly functionalist (and conservative), for it fails to come to terms with the deep structure of contemporary society, specifically consumerism…

  4. Communicating the Value of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEntee, Chris

    2014-07-01

    The quality of life Americans enjoy today and the United States's ability to compete in the global economy have many of their roots in the country's long history of leadership in scientific research and discovery. Federally supported basic research has led to innovations such as GPS, earthquake hazard mapping, and hundreds of technological spinoffs from the space program, including heart monitors and material that protects us from fire.

  5. [Qualities of life and happiness].

    PubMed

    Veenhoven, R

    2011-03-01

    The phrase 'quality of life' is actually misleading. The designation suggests that the issue has to do with 1 quality, whereas in fact more qualities of life are indicated. Four of these qualities are: 1. the 'livability' of the surroundings, 2. the 'life-abilities' of the individual, 3. the 'utility of life' and 4. the subjective 'satisfaction' with a person's own life. The various qualities cannot meaningfully be collected together in an index. The most comprehensive measure of quality of life is how long and happily a person lives. The relationship between that and oral health has still hardly been studied. PMID:21491762

  6. Algebraic values of analytic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldschmidt, Michel

    2003-11-01

    Given an analytic function of one complex variable f, we investigate the arithmetic nature of the values of f at algebraic points. A typical question is whether f(α) is a transcendental number for each algebraic number α. Since there exist transcendental entire functions f such that for any t≥0 and any algebraic number α, one needs to restrict the situation by adding hypotheses, either on the functions, or on the points, or else on the set of values. Among the topics we discuss are recent results due to Andrea Surroca on the number of algebraic points where a transcendental analytic function takes algebraic values, new transcendence criteria by Daniel Delbos concerning entire functions of one or several complex variables, and Diophantine properties of special values of polylogarithms.

  7. Comparative calorie values of nematodes.

    PubMed

    Croll, N A; de Soyza, K

    1980-04-01

    Calorie values for a wide biological selection of nematodes, determined with a microbomb calorimeter, ranged from 3.86 to 6.85 Kcal/g. The mean of 5.095 Kcal from 16 species was lower than means recorded in three previous studies of other invertebrate groups. The nematode values were skewed to the lowest limit. Larvae of Ditylenchus dipsaci showed lower calorie values after storage, and the calorie values of separate tissues of Ascaris lumbricoides were highest for eggs and the intestine and lowest for cuticle and body-wall musculature. No clear calorie distinction exists between nematodes with a parasitic or free-living habit or between large and small nematodes. PMID:19300684

  8. Alerting of Laboratory Critical Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Paik, Hyeon Young; Lee, Chi Woo; Bang, Su Mi; Hong, Joon Seok; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, In-Sook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Yoon

    Critical value is defined as a result suggesting that the patient is in danger unless appropriate action is taken immediately. We designed an automated reporting system of critical values and evaluated its performance. Fifteen critical values were defined and 2-4 doctors were assigned to receive short message service (SMS).Laboratory results in LIS and EMR were called back to the DIA server. The rule engine named U-brain in the CDSS server was run in real-time and decision if the laboratory data was critical was made. The CDSS system for alerting of laboratory critical values was fast and stable without additional burden to the entire EMR system. Continuous communication with clinicians and feedback of clinical performance are mandatory for the refinement and development of user-friendly CDSS contents. Appropriate clinical parameters are necessary for demonstration of the usefulness of the system.

  9. The value of medicines in Canada.

    PubMed

    Han, Donald; Wang, Edward C Y

    2005-01-01

    Spending on drugs has become a target for cost-containment measures because of its continual growth, both in absolute terms and as a proportion of overall healthcare expenditures. However, considering drug spending in isolation from other healthcare components neglects the benefit of drugs to Canada's healthcare system, society and economy. Drugs, when used appropriately as part of overall disease management, have increased life expectancy and quality of life, have avoided more costly alternatives such as hospitalisation and surgery, and have decreased worker absenteeism and increased their productivity. Current evidence suggests that drugs represent good value for money and are an integral part of a cost-effective and sustainable healthcare system. Cost-containment measures should focus on appropriate use of medications and improving adherence to therapeutic regimens for optimal patient outcomes. PMID:16055940

  10. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043

  11. Coleridge's "theory of life".

    PubMed

    Smith, C U

    1999-01-01

    Coleridge has been seen by some not so much as a poet spoiled by philosophy, but as a philosopher who was also a poet. It could be argued that his major endeavor was an attempt to save the life sciences form the mechanistic interpretation which he saw as the outcome of Lockean "mechanico-corpuscularian" philosophy. This contribution describes that endeavour. It shows its connection to the social circumstances of the time. It discusses its relationship to the poetic sensibility of the "Lake poets" and to the German thought which Coleridge absorbed during and after his sojourn in Gottingen in 1798-99. It describes the nature of his "Theory of Life" as seen not only from the posthumous publication itself, but also from the numerous hints and struggles recorded in his voluminous notebooks, letters and lecture notes. It is concluded that, although never adequately assembled, it forms the only serious attempt to construct a profound alternative to the ultimately mechanistic biology of Charles Darwin and the psysiologists of the second half of the century. As such it strongly influenced the young Richard Owen and, as is well known, was eventually overwhelmed by the Darwin-Huxley synthesis of the 1860s. Nevertheless, insofar as Coleridge's concept of life ultimately derived from his ambition to find a way of healing the Cartesian divide, we may wonder whether the recent upsurge in consciousness studies may cause us to look again at his panentheistic ideas and, discarding the obsolete and fanciful metaphysics, recast them into a more acceptable form. PMID:11623814

  12. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the

  13. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  14. Geography of European Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of studies analyze life satisfaction at individual and/or country level. This study contributes with analysis of life satisfaction at the (sub-national) province level across multiple countries. The purpose of this study is to call attention to spatial aspects of life satisfaction. Literature does not discuss the fact that life…

  15. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: Upgrade-2013

    SciTech Connect

    Barabash, A. S.

    2013-12-30

    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of {sup 48}Ca, {sup 76}Ge, {sup 82}Se, {sup 96}Zr, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 100}Mo−{sup 100}Ru (0{sub 1}{sup +}), {sup 116}Cd, {sup 130}Te, {sup 136}Xe, {sup 150}Nd, {sup 150}Nd−{sup 150}Sm (0{sub 1}{sup +}) and {sup 238}U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of {sup 128}Te and {sup 130}Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  16. Lifing of Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The successful development of advanced aerospace engines depends greatly on the capabilities of high performance materials and structures. Advanced materials, such as nickel based single crystal alloys, metal foam, advanced copper alloys, and ceramics matrix composites, have been engineered to provide higher engine temperature and stress capabilities. Thermal barrier coatings have been developed to improve component durability and fuel efficiency, by reducing the substrate hot wall metal temperature and protecting against oxidation and blanching. However, these coatings are prone to oxidation and delamination failures. In order to implement the use of these materials in advanced engines, it is necessary to understand and model the evolution of damage of the metal substrate as well as the coating under actual engine conditions. The models and the understanding of material behavior are utilized in the development of a life prediction methodology for hot section components. The research activities were focused on determining the stress and strain fields in an engine environment under combined thermo-mechanical loads to develop life prediction methodologies consistent with the observed damage formation of the coating and the substrates.

  17. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share of this value, thereby incentivizing innovation, while supporting health-care systems to pursue dynamic allocative efficiency. However, the long-term sustainability of health-care systems must be assessed before this proposal is adopted by policy makers. PMID:27123192

  18. The Value of Certainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms of the entropy which is calculated by creating a set of discrete bins for the value and then using error estimates to assign probabilities, pi, to each bin. The entropy, H, is simply H = ∑i pi log2(1/pi) The value of a new set of observations is the information gain, I, which is I = Hprior - Hposterior The probability distributions that appear in this calculation depend on rigorous evaluation of errors in the observations. While direct estimates of the monetary value of data that could be used in budget prioritizations may not capture the value of data to the scientific community, it appears that the information gain may be a useful start in providing a `common currency' for evaluating projects that serve very different communities. In addition, from the standpoint of governmental accounting, it appears reasonable to assume that much of the expense for scientific data become sunk costs shortly after operations begin and that the real, long-term value is created by the effort scientists expend in creating the software that interprets the data and in the effort expended in calibration and validation. These efforts are the ones that directly contribute to the information gain that provides the value of these data.

  19. Direct measurement of the half-life of (223)Ra.

    PubMed

    Collins, S M; Pearce, A K; Ferreira, K M; Fenwick, A J; Regan, P H; Keightley, J D

    2015-05-01

    Radioactive decay half-life measurements of (223)Ra, a member of the (235)U naturally occurring radioactive decay series, have been performed of a radiochemically pure solution with an ionisation chamber. The radioactive decay of (223)Ra was followed for 50 days, approximately 4.4 half-lives. The deduced half-life of (223)Ra was found to be 11.4358 (28) days, supporting the other published direct measurements. A detailed uncertainty budget is presented. A new evaluation of the published half-life values was performed, indicating significant variation across the existing published values, suggesting that further measurements of the half-life of (223)Ra are required. A new evaluated half-life has been calculated using a power moderated weighted mean of selected experimental values, with a new value of the recommended half-life for (223)Ra of 11.4354 (17) days. PMID:25699667

  20. "Life Values and Adolescent Mental Health," by Patricia Cohen and Jacob Cohen. Book Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Brett; Adams, Ryan

    1997-01-01

    Reviews volume on the role of values in adolescent development, mental health, and psychopathology. Describes and critically evaluates the book's three approaches (theory, science, and social commentary) to data from the longitudinal study "Children in the Community Project." Concludes that regardless of how findings are interpreted, the study's…

  1. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  2. Pheochromocytoma: value of computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, T.J.; Sheedy, P.F. II; van Heerden, J.A.; Sheps, S.G.; Hattery, R.R.; Stephens, D.H.

    1983-08-01

    A review of 60 histologically proven pheochromocytoma confirmed the value of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of this tumor. CT was found to be an accurate means of locating the tumor in 52 patients presented for the first time and 8 patients with evidence of recurrence.

  3. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  4. The Epistemic Value of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic value. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…

  5. The Value of Strategic Partnerships

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, Josh; Narayan, Amit; McNutt, Ty

    2015-02-10

    Strong strategic partnerships can be the difference between those technologies that only achieve success in the lab and those that actually break into the marketplace. Two ARPA-E awardees—AutoGrid and APEI—have forged strategic partnerships that have positioned their technologies to achieve major success in the market. This video features remarks from ARPA-E Technology-to-Market Advisor Josh Gould and interviews with technologists at AutoGrid and APEI, who each tell the story of how their company leveraged relationships with strategic partners to broaden their customer base and bring their technology to life.

  6. Negative Entropy of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2015-10-01

    We modify Newtonian gravity to probabilistic quantum mechanical gravity to derive strong coupling. If this approach is valid, we should be able to extend it to the physical body (life) as follows. Using Boltzmann equation, we get the entropy of the universe (137) as if its reciprocal, the fine structure constant (ALPHA), is the hidden candidate representing the negative entropy of the universe which is indicative of the binary information as its basis (http://www.arXiv.org/pdf/physics0210040v5). Since ALPHA relates to cosmology, it must relate to molecular biology too, with the binary system as the fundamental source of information for the nucleotides of the DNA as implicit in the book by the author: ``Quantum Consciousness - The Road to Reality.'' We debate claims of anthropic principle based on the negligible variation of ALPHA and throw light on thermodynamics. We question constancy of G in multiple ways.

  7. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  8. Graduates: Perceptions of MBA Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Maynard T.; Oatsvall, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    MBA worth--who decides? Much of the current assessment comes from market driven and/or institutional perspectives. This research examines responses from Meredith College MBA graduates to determine their perceptions of the worth and value of their MBA experience.

  9. WORK VALUES OF THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNANE, JOHN F.; SUZIEDELIS, ANTANAS

    TO DETERMINE THE WORK VALUES OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, A WORK MOTIVATION SCHEDULE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 200 NORMAL WHITE MEN AND 200 WOMEN OF REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL AVERAGE AGE AND EDUCATION AND TO CEREBRAL PALSIED, DEAF, 63 RECENT AMPUTEES FROM THE VIETNAM WAR AND NEURO-PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. COMPARISON OF THE TWO GROUPS SHOWED…

  10. The Plantation System in the Ethnic Consciousness of Hawaii (A Rationale for the Study of the Plantation in Values Education) [And] A Day in the Life of Ah Sing Chong [And] A Worker's Daily Round.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Marianne Andrews

    The paper suggests that by studying the Hawaiian plantation system, seventh graders can gain understanding of personal values and ethnic heritage. The current racial and cultural diversity in Hawaii is a result of mass immigration initiated in 1876 by the needs of the sugar and pineapple industries. Over 400,000 field workers from China, Japan,…

  11. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  12. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  13. Game of Life Music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Eduardo R.; Kirke, Alexis

    At the time when the first author was post-graduate student, in the evenings he used to entertain himself with the equipment in the electronic music studio at the University of York until dawn. It must have been around three o'clock in the morning of a rather cold winter night in the late 1980s, when he connected his Atari 1040ST computer to a synthesizer to test the first prototype of a system, which he was developing for his thesis. The system, named CAMUS (short for Cellular Automata Music), implemented a method that he invented to render music from the behaviour of the Game of Life (GoL) cellular automata (CA).

  14. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  15. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  16. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen and purchased a Blizzard?" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task

  17. The Intrinsic Value of Nature and Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helton, William S.; Helton, Nicole D.

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental, humane and character educators try to foster a belief in the intrinsic value of nature and a respect for non-human life among students. Marangudakis argues that Christianity advocates anthropocentrism and opposes belief in the intrinsic value of nature. If Marangudakis is correct, then a goal of many environmental and humane…

  18. The Basic Values of Russian and European Schoolteachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griaznova, O. S.; Magun, V. S.

    2013-01-01

    countries show that the average Russian schoolteacher places a very high value on security and a very low value on the opportunity to enjoy life and have pleasure. Russia's schoolteachers are more often ahead of other Europeans when it comes to the importance of personal success,…

  19. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909

  20. Second Life for Electric Vehicle Batteries: Answering Questions on Battery Degradation and Value

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J. S.; Wood, E.; Pesaran, A.

    2015-05-04

    Battery second use – putting used plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) batteries into secondary service following their automotive tenure – has been proposed as a means to decrease the cost of PEVs while providing low cost energy storage to other fields (e.g. electric utility markets). To understand the value of used automotive batteries, however, we must first answer several key questions related to National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a methodology and the requisite tools to answer these questions, including NREL’s Battery Lifetime Simulation Tool (BLAST). Herein we introduce these methods and tools, and demonstrate their application. We have found that capacity fade from automotive use has a much larger impact on second use value than resistance growth. Where capacity loss is driven by calendar effects more than cycling effects, average battery temperature during automotive service – which is often driven by climate – is found to be the single factor with the largest effect on remaining value. Installing hardware and software capabilities onboard the vehicle that can both infer remaining battery capacity from in-situ measurements, as well as track average battery temperature over time, will thereby facilitate the second use of automotive batteries.

  1. Origins and Evolution of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargaud, Muriel; López-García, Purificación; Martin, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Part I. What Is Life?: 1. Problems raised by a definition of life M. Morange; 2. Some remarks about uses of cosmological anthropic 'principles' D. Lambert; 3. Minimal cell: the biologist point of view C. Brochier-Armanet; 4. Minimal cell: the computer scientist point of view H. Bersini; 5. Origins of life: computing and simulation approaches B. Billoud; Part II. Astronomical and Geophysical Context of the Emergence of Life: 6. Organic molecules in interstellar medium C. Ceccarelli and C. Cernicharo; 7. Cosmochemical evolution and the origin of life: insights from meteorites S. Pizzarello; 8. Astronomical constraints on the emergence of life M. Gounelle and T. Montmerle; 9. Formation of habitable planets J. Chambers; 10. The concept of galactic habitable zone N. Prantzos; 11. The young Sun and its influence on planetary atmospheres M. Güdel and J. Kasting; 12. Climates of the Earth G. Ramstein; Part III. Role of Water in the Emergence of Life: 13. Liquid water: a necessary condition to all forms of life K. Bartik, G. Bruylants, E. Locci and J. Reisse; 14. The role of water in the formation and evolution of planets T. Encrenaz; 15. Water on Mars J. P. Bibring; Part IV. From Non-Living Systems to Life: 16. Energetic constraints on prebiotic pathways: application to the emergence of translation R. Pascal and L. Boiteau; 17. Comparative genomics and early cell evolution A. Lazcano; 18. Origin and evolution of metabolisms J. Peretó; Part V. Mechanisms for Life Evolution: 19. Molecular phylogeny: inferring the patterns of evolution E. Douzery; 20. Horizontal gene transfer: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences D. Moreira; 21. The role of symbiosis in eukaryotic evolution A. Latorre, A. Durbán, A. Moya and J. Peretó; Part VI. Life in Extreme Conditions: 22. Life in extreme conditions: Deinococcus radiodurans, an organism able to survive prolonged desiccation and high doses of ionising radiation S. Sommer and M. Toueille; 23. Molecular effects of UV and ionizing radiations on DNA J. Cadet and T. Douki; 24. Molecular adaptations to life at high salt: lessons from Haloarcula marismortui G. Zaccai; Part VII. Traces of Life and Biosignatures: 25. Early life: nature, distribution and evolution F. Westall; 26. Early eukaryotes in precambrian oceans E. Javaux; 27. Biomineralisation mechanisms K. Benzerara and J. Miot; 28. Limits of life and biosphere: lesson from detection of microorganisms in deep sea and deep subsurface in the Earth K. Takai; Part VIII. Life Elsewhere?: 29. Titan and the Cassini-Huygens mission J. Lunine and F. Raulin; 30. The role of terrestrial analogue environments in astrobiology R. Léveillé; Index.

  2. What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

  3. Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

  4. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blumberg, Bruce; Chapin, Robert E.; Cote, Ila; Graziano, Joseph H.; Janesick, Amanda; Lane, Robert; Lillycrop, Karen; Myatt, Leslie; States, J. Christopher; Thayer, Kristina A.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Rogers, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events. Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from early-life exposures in order to identify in utero and postnatal indicators of later-life diseases, develop an agenda for future research, and consider the risk assessment implications of this emerging knowledge. Methods: This review was developed based on our participation in a National Research Council workshop titled “Use of in Utero and Postnatal Indicators to Predict Health Outcomes Later in Life: State of the Science and Research Recommendations.” We used a case study approach to highlight the later-life consequences of early-life malnutrition and arsenic exposure. Discussion: The environmental sensitivity of the epigenome is viewed as an adaptive mechanism by which the developing organism adjusts its metabolic and homeostatic systems to suit the anticipated extrauterine environment. Inappropriate adaptation may produce a mismatch resulting in subsequent increased susceptibility to disease. A nutritional mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environments, or early-life obesogen exposure, may explain at least some of the recent rapid increases in the rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Early-life arsenic exposure is also associated with later-life diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Conclusions: With mounting evidence connecting early-life exposures and later-life disease, new strategies are needed to incorporate this emerging knowledge into health protective practices. PMID:22672778

  5. [Quality of life and fate].

    PubMed

    Spaemann, C

    1992-01-01

    While the term "happiness of life", the "eudaimonia" of the greek philosophers, includes the good as such and therefore a metaphysical and moral component, the modern term of the "quality of life" is wholly defined by the criteria of a person's functional capacity and subjective wellbeing. The doctor's orientation by these criteria meets its limits, where he is confronted with fatality. This shows that we cannot really comprehend the quality of life without man's fundamental task of mastering his fate. PMID:1296397

  6. Comparison of three methods for estimating complete life tables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty

    2013-04-01

    A question of interest in the demographic and actuarial fields is the estimation of the complete sets of qx values when the data are given in age groups. When the complete life tables are not available, estimating it from abridged life tables is necessary. Three methods such as King's Osculatory Interpolation, Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation and Heligman-Pollard Model are compared using data on abridged life tables for Malaysian population. Each of these methods considered was applied on the abridged data sets to estimate the complete sets of qx values. Then, the estimated complete sets of qx values were used to produce the estimated abridged ones by each of the three methods. The results were then compared with the actual values published in the abridged life tables. Among the three methods, the Six-point Lagrangian Interpolation method produces the best estimates of complete life tables from five-year abridged life tables.

  7. The origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClendon, John H.

    1999-07-01

    Microfossil finds have been firmly established at about 3.5 Ga (giga annee=10 9 years), but no rocks older than about 4.0 Ga have been demonstrated, leaving the history of the first 0.6 Ga missing. This gap has been filled by models of the solar system. The origin of the ocean, atmosphere, and much crustal material apparently lies in a heavy rain of comets, subsequent to the catastrophic Moon-forming event. The earliest microfossils are those of the Apex chert in Australia, about 3.5 Ga old. `Prebiotic' simulations of possible biochemistry have made some progress in recent years, but many obstacles remain, and there is no agreement as to the course of development. The `ribose nucleic acid (RNA) World', aboriginal `clay genes', and catalysis on iron-sulfide precipitates are not ruled out. The search for the `last common ancestor' has reached a point between the Bacteria and the Archaea. It is possible that this organism may have been a thermophile, similar to many modern hot spring organisms. But it is likely to have been an autotroph, and a late development after the true origin of life. Even more speculative are suggestions about the origins of metabolic sequences, in particular the origin of the genetic code. Since all modern organisms share this code (and many other things), there had to be a long history of development during the blank period of Earth history.

  8. 20 CFR 416.1230 - Exclusion of life insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spouse, if any) will be considered to the extent of its cash surrender value. If, however, the total face... (and spouse, if any). In determining the face value of life insurance on the individual (and spouse, if.... (6) Face value. Face value is the basic death benefit of the policy exclusive of dividend...

  9. Life Cycle of Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this stunning picture of the giant galactic nebula NGC 3603, the crisp resolution of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope captures various stages of the life cycle of stars in one single view. To the upper left of center is the evolved blue supergiant called Sher 25. The star has a unique circumstellar ring of glowing gas that is a galactic twin to the famous ring around the supernova 1987A. The grayish-bluish color of the ring and the bipolar outflows (blobs to the upper right and lower left of the star) indicates the presence of processed (chemically enriched) material. Near the center of the view is a so-called starburst cluster dominated by young, hot Wolf-Rayet stars and early O-type stars. A torrent of ionizing radiation and fast stellar winds from these massive stars has blown a large cavity around the cluster. The most spectacular evidence for the interaction of ionizing radiation with cold molecular-hydrogen cloud material are the giant gaseous pillars to the right of the cluster. These pillars are sculptured by the same physical processes as the famous pillars Hubble photographed in the M16 Eagle Nebula. Dark clouds at the upper right are so-called Bok globules, which are probably in an earlier stage of star formation. To the lower left of the cluster are two compact, tadpole-shaped emission nebulae. Similar structures were found by Hubble in Orion, and have been interpreted as gas and dust evaporation from possibly protoplanetary disks (proplyds). This true-color picture was taken on March 5, 1999 with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2.

  10. The Meaning of Academic Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2012-01-01

    This address reports the findings of a survey of higher education colleagues on the degree of happiness associated with personal definitions of "meaning of life" and "purpose in life." Using a unique sliding scale, the survey draws items from the Oxford Happiness Project among other sources and began with all ASHE members (N = 1,904) with a final…

  11. Effect of Gender on the Value Perception of the Young: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmete, Emine

    2007-01-01

    This article evaluates the young's perception of the values with consideration of the gender factor. The study covered a total of 240 young, consisting of 100 girls and 140 boys continuing high school education in Ankara. The values of young were assessed with scales such as "terminal values", "instrumental values" and "values making life

  12. Life Cycle of a Pencil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeske, Mike

    2000-01-01

    Explains a project called "Life Cycle of a Pencil" which was developed by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Describes the life cycle of a pencil in stages starting from the first stage of design to the sixth stage of product disposal. (YDS)

  13. The value of preoperative planning.

    PubMed

    Graves, Matt L

    2013-10-01

    "Better to throw your disasters into the waste paper basket than to consign your patients to the scrap heap" has been a proverb of Jeff Mast, one of the greatest fracture and deformity surgeons in the history of our specialty. Stated slightly more scientifically, one of the major values of simulation is that it allows one to make mistakes in a consequence-free environment. Preoperative planning is the focus of this article. The primary goal is not to provide you with a recipe of how to steps. Rather, the primary goal of this article is to explain why preoperative planning should be standard, to clarify what should be included, and to provide examples of what can happen when planning is ignored. At the end of this, we should all feel the need to approach fracture care more intellectually with forethought, both in our own practices and in our educational system. PMID:23880563

  14. The School and the Articulation of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovin, Robin W.

    1988-01-01

    Value neutrality and values clarification fail to foster critical thinking about values. The values articulation approach identifies the rationality that is applied to value claims. It avoids noncognitivism and moral relativism and suggests ways the discussion of values in the classroom prepares students to deal with broader moral issues. (VM)

  15. The evolution of complex life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1985-01-01

    The emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments, and space events is investigated. The application of data on biological evolution, climatology, and the chemical and physical environments of the earth's surface, to explain the development of extraterrestrial life is described and an example is provided. The possibility of extraplanetary disturbances such as, meteorite and comet bombardments, and supernova explosions, causing the elimination of preexisting life and allowing advanced life development is analyzed. The possible existence of different life cycles (genetic and reproductive strategies) on other planets is studied. The GAIA hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979) which states living things modify the global environment to their own advantage is examined. The improved identification of habitable planetary environments and the possible existence of a form of extraterrestrial intelligent life is discussed.

  16. Values and the quantum conception of man

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  17. [Depression and quality of life].

    PubMed

    Zaratiegui, Rodolfo

    2007-01-01

    A narrative review is made on the subject, highlighting the research conducted in our country under the direction and support of FUNDONAR Foundation, by the use of the World Health Organization transcultural quality of life measure (WHOQOL). Quality of life measurements have shown the strong impact of depression on people's well being, and also on all life aspects that they believe important, depending on their personal and cultural expectations. Quality of life was considerably poorer in depressed persons than in individuals with some other frequent chronic diseases. This underscores that its assessment can be used in health care decision making and resource allocation. The impact of depression was also found to be related to the seriousness of the episode. Quality of life measurements could be useful to assess the effectiveness of different mood disorder interventions, beyond symptomatology, with focus on individuals' main subjective opinions and concerns. PMID:18273452

  18. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  19. The Evolution of Complex Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, John

    1989-01-01

    In considering the probabilities that intelligent life might exist elsewhere in the Universe, it is important to ask questions about the factors governing the emergence of complex living organisms in the context of evolutionary biology, planetary environments and events in space. Two important problems arise. First, what can be learned about the general laws governing the evolution of complex life anywhere in space by studying its history on the Earth? Second, how is the evolution of complex life affected by events in space? To address these problems, a series of Science Workshops on the Evolution of Complex Life was held at the Ames Research Center. Included in this paper are highlights of those workshops, with particular emphasis on the first question, namely the evolution of complex extraterrestrial life.

  20. Wild Beasts of Still Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a project with a transformative approach to color theory and still life. Students' use of an arbitrary color scheme can open their eyes, push their creativity and produce exciting paintings. Ordinary still-life objects will be transformed into dramatic, vibrant visuals. The Fauve style of painting is a great art history…

  1. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  2. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material…

  3. Globalization and Life History Research: Fragments of a Life Foretold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tierney, William G.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to understand, by way of a life history of one low-income working-class youth, how globalization impacts the working class in a developing nation. The concept of globalization and the method of life history seem diametrically opposed. Globalization is an idea about large social forces that impact the economic and material

  4. The value of microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Hunter-Cevera, J C

    1998-06-01

    In the past few years, due to the use of molecular methods, our knowledge of microbial diversity has increased dramatically, not only from a phylogenetic and taxonomic perspective but also from an ecological basis. We now know that microorganisms exist in every conceivable place on Earth, even in extreme environments. Temperature may be the only limitation as to where they can and cannot exist and/or function. As more small subunit rDNA sequence information becomes available there is a real need to start turning the information into knowledge that can be applied to better elucidate and understand structure-function relationships within ecosystems, develop new culturing methods, and discover new products and processes. It has been stated on numerous occasions that the 21(st) century is the century for biology. Within that context, we must address the real value of microbial diversity. PMID:10066499

  5. Personal Values as Mitigating Factors in the Link between Income and Life Satisfaction: Evidence from the European Social Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgellis, Yannis; Tsitsianis, Nicholas; Yin, Ya Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the first two rounds of the European Social Survey, we examine the link between income, reference income and life satisfaction across Western Europe. We find that whilst there is a strong positive relationship between income and life satisfaction, reference or comparison income exerts a strong negative influence. Interestingly, our…

  6. Value: Changes in the Detection and Recognition Thresholds of Three Basic Tastes in Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Cisplatin and Paclitaxel and Its Association with Nutritional and Quality of Life Parameters.

    PubMed

    Turcott, Jenny G; Juárez-Hernández, Eva; De la Torre-Vallejo, Martha; Sánchez-Lara, Karla; Luvian-Morales, Julissa; Arrieta, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of cisplatin and paclitaxel on taste acuity and their associations with nutritional and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Forty chemotherapy (CT)-naïve patients were assessed at baseline and after two cycles of paclitaxel and cisplatin. The taste evaluation was performed using a rinsing technique to identify detection and recognition thresholds (DT and RT) of bitter, sweet, and umami tastes. At baseline, 37.5% of the patients reported dysgeusia. After CT, the patients showed lower medians DT (p = 0.017) and RT (p = 0.028) for umami taste. These decreases were associated with clinical neuropathy, worse HRQL, and a tendency toward increased appetite loss. Additionally, CT did not significantly reduce the median DT for sweet (p = 0.09), which is associated with lower intake of protein (p = 0.015), animal protein (p = 0.010), fat (p = 0.004), and iron (p = 0.047). CT decreased the median DT for bitter (p = 0.035); however, this decrease was not associated with nutritional parameters or with HRQL. Sensitivity to taste increased with paclitaxel and cisplatin CT, making foods more unpleasant, and it was associated with neuropathy, worse HRQL, and reduced nutrient intake in advanced NSCLC patients. The protocol was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01540045). PMID:26943275

  7. [The quality of life in schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Lecardeur, L

    2015-09-01

    The World Health Organization defines quality of life as individuals' perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards, and concerns. Quality of life (QoL) is a concept, which reflects multiple as well subjective as objective dimensions. In patients with schizophrenia, quality of life has been negatively correlated with depressive and anxiety symptoms (results seem more unconvincing concerning positive symptoms and cognitive deficits); the remission of positive and negative symptoms has been associated with a better quality of life, but the persistence of depressive symptoms decreases quality of life even when patients were or not in remission; second generation antipsychotics significantly increase more quality of life than first generation antipsychotics; and psychotherapies (rehabilitation, case management...) improve quality of life. Several general and disease-specific QoL scales have been developed and successfully tested in patients with schizophrenia. The most appropriate disease-specific scale is the Quality of Life Scale (Heinrichs et al., 1984) since it takes patients' cognitive deficits into account and because it allows to subtly measuring the patients' subjective feeling during a hetero-evaluation. The Quality of Life Scale is a 21-item scale based on a semi-structured interview, which is comprised of four subscales: interpersonal relations, instrumental role functioning, intra-psychic foundations, and use of common objects and activities. It has been designed initially to assess deficit symptoms in schizophrenia. It is a simple and quite short tool, which is intended for the use as an outcome criterion, a measure of change and an indicator of the efficacy of therapeutic interventions. Convincing metrological qualities have been described: content, construct and nomological validities; inter-raters and test-retest fidelities; it is sensitive to change and to treatments and negatively correlated with symptoms (PANSS) and with clinical state (CGI). Two of the recent major antipsychotic efficacy trials, CATIE and CUtLASS, both adopted the Quality of Life Scale as a measure of quality of life. PMID:26341538

  8. The Quality of Life over the Family Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldous, Joan; And Others

    Studies conducted in the 1960s (Aldous and Hill, 1969) examining the quality of life in families based on their affective and financial resources identified the childbearing stage and the stage when adolescents were present as especially stressful periods. Findings from the 1978 Quality of American Life survey (Campbell and Converse, 1980) were…

  9. The “Trophic” Value of Foods

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Roger J.; Heffley, James D.; Yew, Man-Li; Bode, Charles W.

    1973-01-01

    Foods must furnish (i) calories, which can readily be measured, and (ii) raw materials necessary for the building and maintenance of metabolic machinery which makes possible fuel utilization. We have called this “beyond-calorie” quality of food its “trophic” value. This concept has more unity than appears on the surface, and is capable of approximate measurement by biological testing as our experiments show. The trophic value of a food cannot be ascertained from food composition tables because only a smattering of the necessary information is commonly furnished. A food cannot support life if it is missing, or deficient with respect to, any one of the necessary nutrients. A tabulation which includes only a few nutrients—e.g., calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, and iron—can be woefully misleading, especially if these individual nutrients have been added by way of fortification. The measurement we have applied to a number of foods is potentially valuable for comparing similar food products: two grains, two breads, two milk products, or for comparison of the same food grown, processed, or preserved in different ways. By using essentially this method we have found that barnyard eggs are somewhat superior to battery eggs, but that whether they are fertile or infertile makes no difference. We are of the opinion that extensive biological testing of many commercial food products is highly desirable to help promote human health and better internal environments for our cells and tissues. PMID:4514984

  10. Effects of Fraternity Membership on Interpersonal Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Michael J.; Winston, Roger B., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Examined interpersonal values of fraternity pledges and members, and independents, using the Survey of Interpersonal Values. Students who joined a fraternity came to value independence less and to value leadership more than did nonmembers and, as a group, attained more homogeneous values regarding benevolence and independence. (Author/KS)

  11. The pro-life argument from substantial identity and the pro-choice argument from asymmetric value: a reply to Patrick Lee.

    PubMed

    Reiman, Jeffrey

    2007-07-01

    Lee claims that foetuses and adult humans are phases of the same identical substance, and thus have the same moral status because: first, foetuses and adults are the same physical organism, and second, the development from foetus to adult is quantitative and thus not a change of substance. Versus the first argument, I contend that the fact that foetuses and adults are the same physical organism implies only that they are the same thing but not the same substance, much as living adults and their corpses are the same thing (same body) but not the same substance. Against Lee's second argument, I contend that Lee confuses the nature of a process with the nature of its result. A process of quantitative change can produce a change in substance. Lee also fails to show that foetuses are rational and thus have all the essential properties of adults, as required for them to be the same substance. Against the pro-choice argument from asymmetric value (that only the fact that a human has become conscious of its life and begun to count on its continuing can explain human life's asymmetric moral value, i.e. that it is vastly worse to kill a human than not to produce one), Lee claims that foetus's lives are asymmetrically valuable to them before consciousness. This leads to counterintuitive outcomes, and it confuses the goodness of life (a symmetric value that cannot account for why it is worse to kill a human than not produce one) with asymmetric value. PMID:17845457

  12. Melasma quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Lieu, Tiffany J; Pandya, Amit G

    2012-04-01

    The Melasma Quality of Life scale (MELASQOL) is a useful tool in assessing quality of life in patients with melasma. Initially developed in English, it has recently been translated into Spanish, Brazilian Portuguese, French, and Turkish. Development of a validated, translated, disease-specific quality of life questionnaire is a complex process which is further discussed in this article. When developing the MELASQOL in other languages, careful attention must be paid to cross-cultural adaptation and proper methods of translation and validation to have an accurate instrument. This article addresses these methods, which could be useful to those desiring to develop the MELASQOL in other languages. PMID:22284141

  13. The beginning of human life

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The Jewish religion is characterized by a strict association between faith and practical precept. Jewish law has two sections, the written and the oral tradition. The foundation of the written law and the origin of authority is the Torah, the first five books of the Scripture. It is an expression of God’s revelation, teaching and guiding humanity. The oral laws interpret, expand, and elucidate the written Torah and behavior patterns regulate new rules and customs. The main parts of the oral law are as follows: the Mishnah, the Talmud, Post-Talmudic Codes and. Responsa Literature. Discussion Life is a process that has a beginning and an end. The consensus about the time when human life really begins is still not reached among scientists, philosophers, ethicists, sociologists and theologizes. The scientific data suggested that a single developmental moment marking the beginning of human life does not exist. Current biological perspectives on when human life begins range through fertilization, gastrulation, to birth and even after. The development of a newborn is a smoothly continuous process. Results Procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The (Halachic) Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from procreation is acknowledged in the Bible to be the gift of God. The Jewish interpretation of when human life begins is extracted predominantly from The Halachic sources. The Bible does not make any other direct references regarding the beginning of human life. Conclusion While the Talmud gives the full status of humanness to a child at birth, the rabbinical writings have partially extended the acquisition of humanness to the 13th postnatal day of life for full-term infants. The Babylonian Talmud Yevamot 69b states that: “the embryo is considered to be mere water until the fortieth day.” Afterwards, it is considered subhuman until it is born. The issues of abortion, embryo research, multifetal reduction and cloning will be discussed according to Jewish Law perspectives. Life is a process that has a beginning and an end. The consensus about the time when human life really begins is still not reached among scientists, philosophers, ethicists, sociologists and theologizes. The scientific data suggested that a single developmental moment marking the beginning of human life does not exist. Current biological perspectives on when human life begins range through fertilization, gastrulation, to birth and even after. The development of a newborn is a smoothly continuous process. PMID:18551364

  14. Life of Pi and the moral wound.

    PubMed

    Allen, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    The "moral wound," rendered symbolically in the form of the tiger in Life of Pi, is a complex trauma in which the victim, in order to survive in life-threatening circumstances, commits an ethical transgression against his or her deeply held values. Pi experiences such a trauma and deals with it by dissociating it in the form of the tiger and then has to simultaneously both preserve the tiger and wish it to disappear. Jonathan Shay's work relating the experiences of returning Vietnam veterans to Homer's Odyssey is used to further an understanding of both Life of Pi and American soldiers returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Reasons are considered for the possible delayed effect of trauma as a factor in the increased suicide rate of older veterans. Finally, the concept of the "moral wound" is discussed, with an eye to its treatment. PMID:25503752

  15. Quality of life: does measurement help?

    PubMed

    Bergsma, J; Engel, G L

    1988-01-01

    'Quality of life' is a very frequently applied concept nowadays. One may doubt whether everyone has the same connotation in mind while using this expression and why 'quality of life' attracts so much attention. Is the idea a very old one or is it a new and noble value? It is argued here that changes such as in the number of aged people and of chronically disabled people, combined with spectacular developments in medical technology and with a rise in knowledge and assertivity, created an increased awareness of 'quality of life' and its interaction with medicine. Moreover, limitations to budgets and technological developments trigger an interest in new arguments. 'Quality of life' plays an increasing role in all sorts of medical decisions, be it in policy decisions or in individual clinical decisions, be it formally assessed or implicitly weighted. A number of examples is briefly described to illustrate the very broad and diffuse use of quality of life as a criterion. Subsequently we have tried to operationalize the concept on 4 levels: macro, meso, personal and physical. The macro level applies to the meaning of life in a society; assessments of quality of life play a role, for instance, in discussions on euthanasia and in political decisions on medical investments. Examples of the meso level are the hospital, with its internal processes and its ties to the rest of the world, but also the patient in his social environment. On the personal level the individual's frames of reference on health, illness, future, pain and hope - both of the patient and the doctor - are being considered. It is argued that legitimation of important decisions, investments and interventions requires measurement of quality of life in an objective way and on different levels. Quantifying quality, however, appears hardly feasible. Therefore 'quality of life' is frequently measured at the fourth level only, the level of physical activities. Confining measurement to the measurable induces the question of whether it really is 'quality of life' that is being quantified. Still, results from such measurements can be of help in decision making. Who decides in clinical situations and in what way should 'quality of life' be involved in decision making? In one solution, perhaps the old fashioned one, the doctor takes all responsibility, possibly from a paternalistic ideal. Conversely, should the doctor behave in a completely non-directive way, full autonomy is given to the patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:10291118

  16. A loaf of bread: Price and value.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1998-03-01

    In the Western world, the basic staple of nutrition is bread. It evolved, from Neolithic times in Mesopotamia and the Levant, from flour made from natural hybrids of emmer and einkorn. Its form has changed from that of a dark, coarse and heavy loaf, baked in the ashes, to the enriched artistic breads of the late twentieth century. Its variety of forms conferred status on those who ate its refined and whitened form. The wheel of fashion and nutrition has turned full circle to the quality-controlled, vitamin and mineral-enriched wholemeal loaf of the new millennium to come. Bread has changed from a staple not simply of nutrition itself, but to that of a 'functional food' whose fibre confers protection against preventible disease. The bread of the new century thus will be both a food and a medicine. So fundamental to Western life is bread, that its price has long been the last item to remain controlled, when all else is left to the dictates of a free market economy. Bread is the fundamental unit of exchange and forms the last link in a chain of commodities which starts from items of luxury to those of survival itself. The price of bread can thus be used as a currency datum. As such, the price of a loaf of bread, and the minutes of labour needed to produce it, can be used to measure the economy, and to give a measured perspective of its influence on a community's history. Costs, throughout history, can be expressed in 'bread units'. As such, the latter forms an absolute index of the worth of other items, particularly a person's labour. As such, bread and its value forms a partly independent measure of inflationary and other social influences. Bread remains a fundamental part not only of nutrition, but of life itself. PMID:24394891

  17. Water, a host of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, E.; Maghiar, R.

    2012-04-01

    An interdisciplinary study of water realized in High Schools of Bucharest and Oradea The paper studies the importance and the properties of water from different points of view. In the curricula the water is studied by sciences as Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Geography and Environmental Sciences, but the water is important also for History, Economy, Sociology, Religion, Arts, Sport, and so on. The students from "C.A.Rosetti High-school" from Bucharest and "Mihai Viteazul" from Oradea, guided by their teachers realized some interesting studies about water as physical, biological and chemical properties but also about economical importance of the water in our life, or about the aesthetic value of the water. The final products (CD-s, PowerPoint presentations, movies, drawings, posters and so on) are realized during the lessons from the curricula but also in non-formal education activities. So the students accomplished some research about water in specialised institutes, but also in the middle of nature. They studied the plants, insects and animals living in wetland areas. The students went to the springs, rivers , lakes, the Danube Delta and to the Black Sea and after that they organised workshops and seminars in order to disseminate their work.

  18. A new archival approach to the study of values and value--behavior relations: validation of the value lexicon.

    PubMed

    Bardi, Anat; Calogero, Rachel M; Mullen, Brian

    2008-05-01

    The present effort employs a new archival approach to study values and value- behavior relations, which is likely to be particularly useful in applied settings. A value lexicon was developed on the basis of the Schwartz (1992) value theory to extract lexical indicators of values from texts. The convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity of this measure was established using American newspaper content from 1900 to 2000 vis-à-vis existing self-report measures of values and objective indicators of value-expressive behaviors. Results provide empirical support for the use of the value lexicon to study values and value- behavior relations. First, the value lexicon demonstrated convergence with self-report responses of values. Second, values in American newspapers were associated with objective indicators of their corresponding value-expressive behaviors compared with noncorresponding value- expressive behaviors. Third, patterns of values over this 101-year period exhibited meaningful fluctuations with major historical and political events. The discussion describes new possibilities for future research on values in many applied settings with the value lexicon. The discussion also suggests that the principles of the value lexicon could be adopted to measure other psychological constructs of interest to applied psychology. PMID:18457482

  19. The Biological Value of Protein.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel R; Soeters, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    The biological value of a protein extends beyond its amino-acid composition and digestibility, and can be influenced by additional factors in a tissue-specific manner. In healthy individuals, the slow appearance of dietary amino acids in the portal vein and subsequently in the systemic circulation in response to bolus protein ingestion improves nitrogen retention and decreases urea production. This is promoted by slow absorption when only protein is ingested (e.g. casein). When a full meal is ingested, whey achieves slightly better nitrogen retention than soy or casein, which is very likely achieved by its high content of essential amino acids (especially leucine). Elderly people exhibit 'anabolic resistance' implying that more protein is required to reach maximal rates of muscle protein synthesis compared to young individuals. Protein utilization in inflammatory or traumatic conditions increases substantially in the splanchnic tissues containing most of the immune system, and in wounds and growing tissues. This happens especially in the elderly, which often suffer from chronic inflammatory activity due to disease, physical inactivity and/or the aging process itself. Consequently, the proportion of protein absorbed in the gut and utilized for muscle protein synthesis decreases in these situations. This compromises dietary-protein-induced stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and ultimately results in increased requirements of protein (∼1.2 g/kg body weight/day) to limit gradual muscle loss with age. To optimally preserve muscle mass, physical exercise is required. Exercise has both direct effects on muscle mass and health, and indirect effects by increasing the utilization of dietary protein (especially whey) to enhance rates of muscle protein synthesis. PMID:26545252

  20. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  1. Quality of life in vitiligo patients.

    PubMed

    Teovska Mitrevska, Natasa; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Guarneri, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Quality of life is defined by the World Health Organization as "individuals' perceptions of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." Often overlooked in the past, it is nowadays considered, in a more holistic view of medicine, a decisive factor to understand the impact of diseases and improve the quality of medical care. Such evaluation is particularly relevant for dermatological diseases, because visibility of the lesions can significantly affect self-esteem and social relationships. Vitiligo represents an emblematic case: often disfiguring and located in visible areas, confused in the past (and, in many world regions, even in the present) with leprosy, often perceived by physicians as a harmless, purely cosmetic problem, it significantly decreases the quality of life of affected persons. After a brief overview on definition, usefulness and methods for the assessment of quality of life, the authors examine the peculiarities of its relationship with skin diseases, particularly vitiligo. The state of the art of knowledge and research in this field is presented, together with data showing usefulness and positive results of a multidisciplinary approach, which adequately keeps into account perceived quality of life, on patient's satisfaction, adherence to treatment protocols and, ultimately, better outcome of treatments. In this context, an important role can be played by support communities, groups of patients and dedicated associations and societies, connected through modern communication networks like the Internet. PMID:23237035

  2. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Snow is the natural resource, like soil and water. It has specific properties which allow its use not just for skiing but also for houses cooling in summer (Swedish experience), for air fields construction (Arctic and Antarctic), for dams (north of Russia), for buildings (not only snow-houses of some Polar peoples but artistic hotel attracting tourists in Sweden), and as art material (Sapporo snow festival, Finnish events), etc. "Adjustment" of snow distribution and amount is not only rather common practice (avalanche-protection constructions keeping snow on slopes) but also the practice with long history. So-called "snow irrigation" was used in Russia since XIX century to protect winter crop. What is now named "artificial snow production", is part of much larger pattern. What makes it special—it is unavoidable in present climate and economy situation. 5% of national income in Austria is winter tourism. 50% of the economy in Savoy relay on winter tourism. In terms of money this can be less, but in terms of jobs and income involved this would be even more considerable in Switzerland. As an example—the population of Davos is 14000 in Summer and 50000 in Winter. Skiing is growing business. In present time you can find ski slopes in Turkey and Lebanon. To keep a cite suitable for attracting tourists you need certain amount of sunny days and certain amount of snow. The snow cannons are often the only way to keep a place running. On the other hand, more artificial snow does not necessary attract more tourists, while heavy natural snowfall does attract them. Artificial snow making is costly and requires infrastructure (ponds and electric lines) with very narrow range of weather conditions. Related companies are searching for alternatives and one of them can be "weather regulation" by distribution of some chemical components in clouds. It did not happen yet, but can happen soon. The consequences of such interference in Nature is hardly known. The ski tourism is not the only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  3. Teaching of space life sciences.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, D A; Françon, P; Lee, P H

    1999-01-01

    Space life sciences is not really a new life sciences discipline such as immunology was some decades ago and it may never be so. Rather it is a field that will provide each existing life sciences discipline with new and more information gathered from space research. In fact, the danger is that space research will be confined in a separate discipline, and thus it will be cut off from classical ground research. Conversely, scientists should increasingly consider spaceflight as a tool and should integrate the findings of space research into their traditional disciplines. A brief survey of topics and main findings in the various subdisciplines of space life sciences is provided. This is followed by a discussion of typical problems encountered such as access to space, controls, ground-based simulations, medical care in space, extravehicular activity, and environmental control and life support. As many space life sciences courses are initiated around the world either by space agencies or universities or jointly, there is a need to consider the international, intercultural, and interdisciplinary aspects of such programs. It is argued that the growing knowledge derived from space research should be integrated into the regular teaching of life sciences rather than leaving it confined to a separate field. Teaching of space life sciences is a prime candidate for the application of the new techniques of "cyberspace education", where interactive learning and globalization of the learning process will take a leading place. The experts and student body are dispersed over many nations, research is of necessity conducted on a basis of international cooperation. The conduct of tele-education is discussed and existing information sources and courses are listed. PMID:10660777

  4. Inversion Concept of the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompanichenko, V. N.

    2012-06-01

    The essence of the inversion concept of the origin of life can be narrowed down to the following theses: 1) thermodynamic inversion is the key transformation of prebiotic microsystems leading to their transition into primary forms of life; 2) this transformation might occur only in the microsystems oscillating around the bifurcation point under far-from-equilibrium conditions. The transformation consists in the inversion of the balance "free energy contribution / entropy contribution", from negative to positive values. At the inversion moment the microsystem radically reorganizes in accordance with the new negentropy (i.e. biological) way of organization. According to this approach, the origin-of-life process on the early Earth took place in the fluctuating hydrothermal medium. The process occurred in two successive stages: a) spontaneous self-assembly of initial three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems composed mainly of hydrocarbons, lipids and simple amino acids, or their precursors, within the temperature interval of 100-300°C (prebiotic stage); b) non-spontaneous synthesis of sugars, ATP and nucleic acids started at the inversion moment under the temperature 70-100°C (biotic stage). Macro- and microfluctuations of thermodynamic and physico-chemical parameters able to sustain this way of chemical conversion have been detected in several contemporary hydrothermal systems. A minimal self-sufficient unit of life on the early Earth was a community of simplest microorganisms (not a separate microorganism).

  5. The Changing Attitudes and Values of the Workforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1979-01-01

    The author, in examining the changing attitudes and values of the work force, asserts that the American worker is dissatisfied with the job, the workplace, and the method of payment. She states that any effort to enhance the quality of work will improve the quality of life overall. (CT)

  6. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of 'artificial life,' and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  7. Is the creation of artificial life morally significant?

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Thomas; Powell, Russell; Savulescu, Julian

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the derivation of organisms from existing life and clarify what we mean in asking whether the creation of artificial life has moral significance. We then articulate and evaluate three attempts to establish that the creation of artificial life is morally significant. These appeal to (1) the claim that the creation of artificial life involves playing God, as expressed in three distinct formulations; (2) the claim that the creation of artificial life will encourage reductionist attitudes toward the living world that undermine the special moral value accorded to life; and (3) the worry that artificial organisms will have an uncertain functional status and consequently an uncertain moral status. We argue that all three attempts to ground the moral significance of the creation of artificial life fail, because none of them establishes that the creation of artificial life is morally problematic in a way that the derivation of organisms from existing life forms is not. We conclude that the decisive moral consideration is not how life is created but what non-genealogical properties it possesses. PMID:23810562

  8. Measuring Work Values of Public School Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde W.; Waggoner, Jacqueline

    This paper presents the results of research investigating (1) the reliability and validity of the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) when used with public school administrators; (2) the work values of public school administrators; (3) differences in work values of male and female administrators; and (4) differences in work values of individuals at…

  9. Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsanullah, M.

    The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably good…

  10. The Financial Value of the Teacher Librarian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Fay

    This paper addresses the financial value of the teacher librarian, outlines areas in which this value can be identified, and indicates measures that can be used to demonstrate this value. The four major financial areas in which the value of the teacher librarian can be assessed are: (1) capital investment, made up of the building, stock, and…

  11. Family, money, and health: Regional differences in the determinants of life satisfaction over the life course

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Rachel; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2013-01-01

    We examine how family, money, and health explain variation in life satisfaction over the life cycle across seven global regions using data from the World Values Survey. With a life domain approach, we study whether the importance of the life domains varies by region and age groups and whether the variation explained by each factor is due to the magnitude or prevalence of each factor. Globally, family, money, and health explain a substantial fraction of life satisfaction, increasing from 12 percent in young adulthood to 15 percent in mature adulthood. Health is the most important factor, and its importance increases with age. Income is unimportant above age 50. Remarkably, the contribution of family is small across ages. Across regions health is most important in the wealthier, and income in the poorer regions of the world. Family explains a substantial fraction of life satisfaction only in Western Europe and Anglophone countries. Findings highlight that the population-level importance of family, money, and health in explaining variation in life satisfaction across regions is mainly attributable to the individual-level life satisfaction differences between people of different statuses rather than differences in the distribution of various states such as poor health across regions. PMID:24796263

  12. Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Allen

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

  13. Sources of Teachers' Values and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers have written extensively about values and have long understood that internalized values define character and decisions. However, scholarship on sources of values, particularly for teachers, remains relatively unexplored. Sources of teachers' values are usually mentioned only in passing in books or articles dealing with other aspects…

  14. The Impact of Discovering Life beyond Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, Steven J.

    2015-10-01

    Introduction: astrobiology and society Steven J. Dick; Part I. Motivations and Approaches. How Do We Frame the Problems of Discovery and Impact?: Introduction; 1. Current approaches to finding life beyond earth, and what happens if we do Seth Shostak; 2. The philosophy of astrobiology: the Copernican and Darwinian presuppositions Iris Fry; 3. History, discovery, analogy: three approaches to the impact of discovering life beyond earth Steven J. Dick; 4. Silent impact: why the discovery of extraterrestrial life should be silent Clément Vidal; Part II. Transcending Anthropocentrism. How Do We Move beyond our Own Preconceptions of Life, Intelligence and Culture?: Introduction; 5. The landscape of life Dirk Schulze-Makuch; 6. The landscape of intelligence Lori Marino; 7. Universal biology: assessing universality from a single example Carlos Mariscal; 8. Equating culture, civilization, and moral development in imagining extraterrestrial intelligence: anthropocentric assumptions? John Traphagan; 9. Communicating with the other: infinity, geometry, and universal math and science Douglas Vakoch; Part III. Philosophical, Theological, and Moral Impact. How Do We Comprehend the Cultural Challenges Raised by Discovery?: Introduction; 10. Life, intelligence and the pursuit of value in cosmic evolution Mark Lupisella; 11. 'Klaatu barada nikto' - or, do they really think like us? Michael Ruse; 12. Alien minds Susan Schneider; 13. The moral subject of astrobiology: guideposts for exploring our ethical and political responsibilities towards extraterrestrial life Elspeth Wilson and Carol Cleland; 14. Astrobiology and theology Robin Lovin; 15. Would you baptize an extraterrestrial? Guy Consolmagno, SJ; Part IV. Practical Considerations: How Should Society Prepare for Discovery - and Non-Discovery?: Introduction; 16. Is there anything new about astrobiology and society? Jane Maienschein; 17. Evaluating preparedness for the discovery of extraterrestrial life: considering potential risks, impacts and plans Margaret Race; 18. Searching for extraterrestrial intelligence: preparing for an expected paradigm break Michael A. G. Michaud; 19. SETI in non-western perspective John Traphagan and Julian W. Traphagan; 20. The allure of alien life: public and media framings of extraterrestrial life Linda Billings; 21. Internalizing null extraterrestrial 'signals': an astrobiological app for a technological society Eric Chaisson; Index.

  15. Teaching Time Value of Money Using an Excel Retirement Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Fernando; Mulig, Liz; Rhame, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The time value of money (TVM) is required knowledge for all business students. It is traditionally taught in finance and accounting classes for use in various applications in the business curriculum. These concepts are also very useful in real life situations such as calculating the amount to save for retirement. This paper details a retirement…

  16. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal

  17. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  18. The Bioethical Concept of Life for Life in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam: Abortion When the Mother's Life is in Danger.

    PubMed

    Khorfan, Rhami; Padela, Aasim I

    2010-11-01

    Modern secular bioethics has focused on developing a set of universal principles to guide clinical decision making. However, this ignores the important role of religion in resolving bioethical questions. It is imperative that health-care providers understand these belief systems in order to traverse value conflicts and provide the highest quality care to a diverse population. This paper focuses on the process of bioethical deliberation in Judaism, Catholicism, and Islam. Abortion is normatively prohibited in each faith and through examining how each ethical code allows for abortion when the mother's life is in peril due to the fetus, we highlight the value of unborn life in each faith. Orthodox Judaism uses the concept of rodef, or pursuer, to permit abortion in this scenario, Catholicism uses the moral concept of "double effect," while Islamic law cites the maqāṣid, higher objectives of the law, to permit abortion in this scenario. PMID:23864760

  19. Psoriasis and the life cycle of persistent life effects.

    PubMed

    Garshick, Marisa Kardos; Kimball, Alexa Boer

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is associated with significant physical, social, and behavioral comorbidities that create a substantial burden. We outline herein that these comorbidities start early in life and persist for decades, ultimately impacting the entire life course of patients with psoriasis. By highlighting the ages that psoriasis patients are affected with physical, social, behavioral and emotional comorbidities, we demonstrate the age-appropriate considerations for psoriasis patients. PMID:25412781

  20. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

  1. Three Methods of Assessing Values for Advance Care Planning

    PubMed Central

    Karel, Michele J.; Moye, Jennifer; Bank, Adam; Azar, Armin R.

    2016-01-01

    Advance care planning ideally includes communication about values between patients, family members, and care providers. This study examined the utility of health care values assessment tools for older adults with and without dementia. Adults aged 60 and older, with and without dementia, completed three values assessment tools—open-ended, forced-choice, and rating scale questions—and named a preferred surrogate decision maker. Responses to forced-choice items were examined at 9-month retest. Adults with and without dementia appeared equally able to respond meaningfully to questions about values regarding quality of life and health care decisions. People with dementia were generally as able as controls to respond consistently after 9 months. Although values assessment methods show promise, further item and scale development work is needed. Older adults with dementia should be included in clarifying values for advance care planning to the extent that they desire and are able. PMID:17215205

  2. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services - Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support. PMID:26938447

  3. Uncertainty of Monetary Valued Ecosystem Services – Value Transfer Functions for Global Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Stefan; Manceur, Ameur M.; Seppelt, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Growing demand of resources increases pressure on ecosystem services (ES) and biodiversity. Monetary valuation of ES is frequently seen as a decision-support tool by providing explicit values for unconsidered, non-market goods and services. Here we present global value transfer functions by using a meta-analytic framework for the synthesis of 194 case studies capturing 839 monetary values of ES. For 12 ES the variance of monetary values could be explained with a subset of 93 study- and site-specific variables by utilizing boosted regression trees. This provides the first global quantification of uncertainties and transferability of monetary valuations. Models explain from 18% (water provision) to 44% (food provision) of variance and provide statistically reliable extrapolations for 70% (water provision) to 91% (food provision) of the terrestrial earth surface. Although the application of different valuation methods is a source of uncertainty, we found evidence that assuming homogeneity of ecosystems is a major error in value transfer function models. Food provision is positively correlated with better life domains and variables indicating positive conditions for human well-being. Water provision and recreation service show that weak ownerships affect valuation of other common goods negatively (e.g. non-privately owned forests). Furthermore, we found support for the shifting baseline hypothesis in valuing climate regulation. Ecological conditions and societal vulnerability determine valuation of extreme event prevention. Valuation of habitat services is negatively correlated with indicators characterizing less favorable areas. Our analysis represents a stepping stone to establish a standardized integration of and reporting on uncertainties for reliable and valid benefit transfer as an important component for decision support. PMID:26938447

  4. Europa: Prospects for Life and for the Origin of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chyba, C. F.

    2002-12-01

    Life as we know it could exist on Europa as we know it. That is, our current understanding of Europa seems to allow the existence of certain microorganisms that we know on Earth. Europa almost certainly has an ocean of liquid water and a supply of biogenic elements sufficient for a biosphere. Potential sources of free energy that could fuel a europan microbial ecosystem can be identified, but several of them depend on the extent to which Europa's crust communicates with its ocean (Chyba and Hand, Science 292, 2026-2027 (2001); Chyba and Phillips, Origins of Life 32, 47-68 (2002)). This communication seems possible in both thin-ice and thick-ice scenarios, but it may require another mission before we are confident about which geophysical models are in fact correct. The prospects for the origin of life on Europa are much trickier to evaluate. If the origin of life had to occur under the present ice cover, the abundant energy of the Sun's ultraviolet light would not have been available to drive prebiotic chemistry. Some current models for the origin of life on Earth would seem not to be troubled by this, but recent experimental results suggest that the concentration of salts in the early terrestrial ocean could have been an important impediment to the polymerization of early organic monomers and the formation of prebiotic vesicles-implying that life may have originated in freshwater environments on early Earth. The implications of these results for the origin of life in Europa's ocean will be discussed.

  5. Refining the theory of basic individual values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Cieciuch, Jan; Vecchione, Michele; Davidov, Eldad; Fischer, Ronald; Beierlein, Constanze; Ramos, Alice; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Demirutku, Kursad; Dirilen-Gumus, Ozlem; Konty, Mark

    2012-10-01

    We propose a refined theory of basic individual values intended to provide greater heuristic and explanatory power than the original theory of 10 values (Schwartz, 1992). The refined theory more accurately expresses the central assumption of the original theory that research has largely ignored: Values form a circular motivational continuum. The theory defines and orders 19 values on the continuum based on their compatible and conflicting motivations, expression of self-protection versus growth, and personal versus social focus. We assess the theory with a new instrument in 15 samples from 10 countries (N = 6,059). Confirmatory factor and multidimensional scaling analyses support discrimination of the 19 values, confirming the refined theory. Multidimensional scaling analyses largely support the predicted motivational order of the values. Analyses of predictive validity demonstrate that the refined values theory provides greater and more precise insight into the value underpinnings of beliefs. Each value correlates uniquely with external variables. PMID:22823292

  6. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  7. Life in an Unjust Community: A Hollywood View of High School Moral Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the film "Mean girls" (2004) as a window on popular notions of the moral life of American high schools, which straddles Kohlberg's Stage 2 and 3. The film presents loyalty to peer group cliques as a key value, even as it offers an individualist, relativist critique of that loyalty. Gossip is the main transgression in this…

  8. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly installments. Effective January 1, 1971, in lieu of payment of cash value in one sum, the insured may elect...

  9. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly installments. Effective January 1, 1971, in lieu of payment of cash value in one sum, the insured may elect...

  10. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly installments. Effective January 1, 1971, in lieu of payment of cash value in one sum, the insured may elect...

  11. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly installments. Effective January 1, 1971, in lieu of payment of cash value in one sum, the insured may elect...

  12. 38 CFR 6.16 - Payment of cash value in monthly installments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Payment of cash value in... AFFAIRS UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT LIFE INSURANCE Cash Value § 6.16 Payment of cash value in monthly installments. Effective January 1, 1971, in lieu of payment of cash value in one sum, the insured may elect...

  13. Optimization of data life cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C.; Gasthuber, M.; Giesler, A.; Hardt, M.; Meyer, J.; Rigoll, F.; Schwarz, K.; Stotzka, R.; Streit, A.

    2014-06-01

    Data play a central role in most fields of science. In recent years, the amount of data from experiment, observation, and simulation has increased rapidly and data complexity has grown. Also, communities and shared storage have become geographically more distributed. Therefore, methods and techniques applied to scientific data need to be revised and partially be replaced, while keeping the community-specific needs in focus. The German Helmholtz Association project "Large Scale Data Management and Analysis" (LSDMA) aims to maximize the efficiency of data life cycles in different research areas, ranging from high energy physics to systems biology. In its five Data Life Cycle Labs (DLCLs), data experts closely collaborate with the communities in joint research and development to optimize the respective data life cycle. In addition, the Data Services Integration Team (DSIT) provides data analysis tools and services which are common to several DLCLs. This paper describes the various activities within LSDMA and focuses on the work performed in the DLCLs.

  14. Contemporary psychological approaches to life at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Brian D

    2014-01-01

    When people have a serious life-limiting illness, physical symptoms are often prominent, both in the experience of the illness and in its treatment. No less important, however, are psychological symptoms. A holistic, bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to quality of life near the end of life must address psychological distress of all types, including frank psychopathology, more moderate problems with living, and existential distress. Responding to mental health issues at the end of life requires (1) systematic and careful assessment, and (2) deployment of evidence-based treatments. In recent years, standardized assessment tools have been adapted or developed for use with people who have serious illness, and the same has happened with psychological treatments. Practitioners have several resources available to them. Given their practice orientation centered on meaningful engagement, occupational therapists can play an important role in responding to mental distress in patients with serious illness whose lives are becoming more circumscribed because of their medical condition or because of the mental distress itself. High-quality end-of-life care depends on scrupulous attention to the full spectrum of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that unfold as death draws near. PMID:24354330

  15. Fossil evidence of Archaean life.

    PubMed

    Schopf, J William

    2006-06-29

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200-3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  16. Fossil evidence of Archaean life

    PubMed Central

    Schopf, J. William

    2006-01-01

    Evidence for the existence of life during the Archaean segment of Earth history (more than 2500 Myr ago) is summarized. Data are presented for 48 Archaean deposits reported to contain biogenic stromatolites, for 14 such units reported to contain 40 morphotypes of putative microfossils, and for 13 especially ancient, 3200–3500 Myr old geologic units for which available organic geochemical data are also summarized. These compilations support the view that life's existence dates from more than or equal to 3500 Myr ago. PMID:16754604

  17. The Detection of Individual and Group Values in Young People: Relevant Methodological Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geger, A. E.

    2011-01-01

    Life values, value orientations, social attitudes, and other corresponding social collisions have been the object of many studies. Research on the values of youth in Russia is marred by methodological problems that have not been adequately addressed, and more careful approaches show that there may not be a finite list of values that are held and…

  18. Chiroptical signatures of life and fundamental physics.

    PubMed

    Macdermott, Alexandra J

    2012-09-01

    This paper aims to inspire experimentalists to carry out proposed new chiroptical experiments springing from the theoretical study of the role of parity violation in the origin of biomolecular homochirality and to provide a brief update on the current status of calculations of the electroweak parity-violating energy difference (PVED) between enantiomers. If the PVED did select life's handedness, we would expect to find life on other planets consistently using the same hand as terrestrial biochemistry. Much more importantly, even finding the "wrong" hand (rather than a racemic mixture) on another planet could be the homochiral signature of life, and we discuss our proposal for chiroptical detection of life on extra-solar planets. The PVED may also have an exciting future as a "molecular footprint" of fundamental physics: comparison of calculated PVEDs with measured values could one day allow chemists to do "table-top particle physics" more cheaply with improved chiroptical techniques instead of ever larger particle accelerators. We discuss our proposed chiroptical method to measure the PVED by using molecular beams. To our knowledge, optical rotation has not yet been measured in molecular beams, but the rewards of doing so include a host of other "first ever" results in addition to measurement of the PVED. PMID:22730157

  19. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time. We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

  20. Psychosomatic medicine and the philosophy of life.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michael A; Wiggins, Osborne P

    2010-01-01

    Basing ourselves on the writings of Hans Jonas, we offer to psychosomatic medicine a philosophy of life that surmounts the mind-body dualism which has plagued Western thought since the origins of modern science in seventeenth century Europe. Any present-day account of reality must draw upon everything we know about the living and the non-living. Since we are living beings ourselves, we know what it means to be alive from our own first-hand experience. Therefore, our philosophy of life, in addition to starting with what empirical science tells us about inorganic and organic reality, must also begin from our own direct experience of life in ourselves and in others; it can then show how the two meet in the living being. Since life is ultimately one reality, our theory must reintegrate psyche with soma such that no component of the whole is short-changed, neither the objective nor the subjective. In this essay, we lay out the foundational components of such a theory by clarifying the defining features of living beings as polarities. We describe three such polarities: 1) Being vs. non-being: Always threatened by non-being, the organism must constantly re-assert its being through its own activity. 2) World-relatedness vs. self-enclosure: Living beings are both enclosed with themselves, defined by the boundaries that separate them from their environment, while they are also ceaselessly reaching out to their environment and engaging in transactions with it. 3) Dependence vs. independence: Living beings are both dependent on the material components that constitute them at any given moment and independent of any particular groupings of these components over time.We then discuss important features of the polarities of life: Metabolism; organic structure; enclosure by a semi-permeable membrane; distinction between "self" and "other"; autonomy; neediness; teleology; sensitivity; values. Moral needs and values already arise at the most basic levels of life, even if only human beings can recognize such values as moral requirements and develop responses to them. PMID:20089202

  1. The Labor Values of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khlopova, T. V.; Ozernikova, T. G.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the labor values of young people. The problem of the transformation of labor values occupies a special place in the transition economy of Russia. In this article, the authors look at labor values as an element of the motivation mechanism. Furthermore, the authors examine the the term "motivation" in its content sense and…

  2. The value of nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Horton, Khim; Tschudin, Verena; Forget, Armorel

    2007-11-01

    This article is part of a wider study entitled Value of Nursing, and contains the literature search from electronic databases. Key words for the search included 'values of nursing', 'values in nursing', 'organisational values' and 'professional identity'. Thirty-two primary reports published in English between 2000 and 2006 were identified. The findings highlight the importance of understanding values and their relevance in nursing and how values are constructed. The value of nursing is seen to be influenced by cultural change, globalization, and advancement in technology and medicine. These factors are crucial in providing a more structured and measured view of what nursing is, which will result in greater job satisfaction among nurses, better nurse retention and enhanced patient care within a supportive and harmonious organization. The findings of this review have implications for policy makers in recruitment and retention in determining the global value of nursing. PMID:17901183

  3. Breaking the Bread of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mineo, Thomas M.; Royce, Christine A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes Bishop Hannan High School's (Pennsylvania) retreat program, in which students learn to develop a spiritual element in their lives. Discusses the theme, "The Bread of Life," and how the process of baking bread for communion helped unite and nourish students. Reports that, through a variety of fellowship activities, students gained a sense…

  4. The Quality Of School Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Joyce Levy, Ed.

    This is a collection of articles about student attitudes toward schools. Articles include: (1) a foreward by Philip W. Jackson; (2) "Patterns of Classroom Participation, Student Attitudes, and Achievements," and "Developing a Research Agenda on the Quality of School Life(QSL)," by Joyce L. Epstein; (3) "QSL School Problem Behavior, and Juvenile…

  5. What Is Quality of Life?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Dale; Sneed, Joseph D.

    Is the concept of "quality of life" potentially an important one for public policy analysis, or must it remain forever vague and controversial, resisting clear definition and scientific measurement? Everyday usage of the phrase is examined as well as its relation to other terms like "happiness" and "welfare." It is concluded that one reason for…

  6. The Community of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA), delivered this address before the Annual Meeting of The Humane Society of the United States, Newport, Rhode Island, October, 1971. Reviewing the philosophy and activities of the NPCA, he discloses how the wildlife preservation movement of the NPCA needs the help of…

  7. Development and validation of the Perceived Life Significance Scale.

    PubMed

    Hibberd, Rachel; Vandenberg, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A recent literature review of meaning and bereavement suggests a conceptual distinction between sense-making, or the integration of a loss with beliefs and narratives, and life significance, or perception of value associated with an aspect of one's life experience. The present study aims to develop and validate a new measure: the Perceived Life Significance Scale (PLSS). Exploratory (n = 353) and confirmatory (n = 483) factor analyses support three factors: active pursuit of goals and activities; emptiness/insignificance (reverse-scored); and receptivity to beauty in everyday life. The PLSS demonstrates convergent and discriminant validity with respect to general measures of meaning, negative affect, depression, and sense-making. PMID:25679540

  8. Constructor theory of life

    PubMed Central

    Marletto, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory explains how the appearance of purposive design in the adaptations of living organisms can have come about without their intentionally being designed. The explanation relies crucially on the possibility of certain physical processes: mainly, gene replication and natural selection. In this paper, I show that for those processes to be possible without the design of biological adaptations being encoded in the laws of physics, those laws must have certain other properties. The theory of what these properties are is not part of evolution theory proper, yet without it the neo-Darwinian theory does not fully achieve its purpose of explaining the appearance of design. To this end, I apply constructor theory's new mode of explanation to express exactly within physics the appearance of design, no-design laws, and the logic of self-reproduction and natural selection. I conclude that self-reproduction, replication and natural selection are possible under no-design laws, the only non-trivial condition being that they allow digital information to be physically instantiated. This has an exact characterization in the constructor theory of information. I also show that under no-design laws an accurate replicator requires the existence of a ‘vehicle’ constituting, together with the replicator, a self-reproducer. PMID:25589566

  9. The Molecules of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    New advances in molecular biology have established a biotechnology industry and have changed ways people think about living things. In support of this theme, a discussion on historical development and current practice of gene cloning is presented. The role of nucleic acids, viruses, and therapeutic intervention is also considered. (DH)

  10. The cradle of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.; Tarter, Jill C.; Wilner, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The emerging field of bioastronomy is beginning to address one of the oldest questions in science and philosophy: Are we alone? By virtue of its sheer sensitivity, high frequency coverage, and long baselines, the SKA will play a pivotal role in bioastronomical studies. It will be a unique instrument with the capability to image proto-planetary disks in nearby star-forming regions and monitor the evolution of structures within those disks ("movies of planetary formation"). It will also be able to assess the extent to which interstellar molecules are incorporated into proto-planetary disks. It will also be able to reach qualitatively new levels of sensitivity in the search for intelligence elsewhere in the Galaxy, including for the first time the realistic possibility of detecting unintentional emissions or "leakage" (such as from TV transmitters) from nearby stars.

  11. The Logic of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascal, Robert; Pross, Addy

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we propose a logical connection between the physical and biological worlds, one resting on a broader understanding of the stability concept. We propose that stability manifests two facets - time and energy, and that stability's time facet, expressed as persistence, is more general than its energy facet. That insight leads to the logical formulation of the Persistence Principle, which describes the general direction of material change in the universe, and which can be stated most simply as: nature seeks persistent forms. Significantly, the principle is found to express itself in two mathematically distinct ways: in the replicative world through Malthusian exponential growth, and in the `regular' physical/chemical world through Boltzmann's probabilistic considerations. By encompassing both `regular' and replicative worlds, the principle appears to be able to help reconcile two of the major scientific theories of the 19th century - the Second Law of Thermodynamics and Darwin's theory of evolution - within a single conceptual framework.

  12. Fossil Record of Precambrian Life on Land

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauth, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The argument that the earth's early ocean was up to two times modern salinity was published in 'Nature' and presented at the 1998 Annual Meeting of the Geological Society of America in Toronto. The argument is bolstered by chemical data for fluid inclusions in Archean black smokers. The inclusions were 1.7 times the modern salinity causing the authors to interpret the parent fluids as evaporite brines (in a deep marine setting). I reinterpreted the data in terms of the predicted value of high Archean salinities. If the arguments I presented are on track, early life was either halophilic or non-marine. Halophiles are not among the most primitive organisms based on RNA sequencing, so here is an a priori argument that non-marine environments may have been the site of most early biologic evolution. This result carries significant implications for the issue of past life on Mars or current life on the putative sub-ice oceans on Europa and possibly Callisto. If the Cl/H2O ratio on these objects is similar to that of the earth, then oceans and oceanic sediments are probably not the preferred sites for early life. On Mars, this means that non-marine deposits such as caliche in basalt may be an overlooked potential sample target.

  13. Virtues, Values, and the Good Life: Alasdair MacIntyre's Virtue Ethics and Its Implications for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart-Sicking, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    The philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's critique of modern ethics and his virtue-centered alternative suggest that counseling can be considered a form of applied virtue ethics, helping clients cultivate the qualities necessary to live the good life. Although similar to developmental theory and positive psychology, this perspective also questions…

  14. The Tree of Life Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbrath, Sherry

    2009-01-01

    Middle-school students are just beginning to recognize their place in the world. That is why this author believes it is important to incorporate their world into their art. In this article, the author discusses the "Tree of Life" project, which she developed for her students in order to make them aware of various environmental issues, and how to…

  15. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal…

  16. The Tree of Animal Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braude, Stan

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a short activity which introduces third- to fifth-grade students to animal classification. The Tree of Animal Life activity is a simple, sorting exercise that can help them see a bigger picture. The activity sets the stage for learning about animal taxonomy and introduces the characteristics of various animal

  17. The Chemistry of Life's Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, James P.

    1984-01-01

    From an understanding of how the solar system was formed, scientists have determined the conditions under which life probably originated on earth and, by experiment, have demonstrated a number of possible theories. These conditions, experiments, theories, and related topics are discussed. (JN)

  18. Temporal Aspects of Life Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eriksson, Lina; Rice, James Mahmud; Goodin, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Time pressure is a familiar phenomenon. The quantity of spare time people have clearly effects their satisfaction with their leisure and with their life as a whole. But so too, we show, does how much control people have over how much spare time they have. We measure this through an indicator of "discretionary time", which proves to be equally or…

  19. The Value of Natural History Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allmon, Warren D.

    1994-01-01

    Presents research and public values of natural history museum collections. Research values include documenting biotas no longer available and serving as inspiration for scientific discovery. Public values include servings as resources for identification of unknown specimens, hands-on education, and depositories for evidence of the history and…

  20. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  1. The Poet as Creator of Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sonia

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

  2. Work Values of Mortuary Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

  3. Integrating Varieties of Life Course Concepts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A body of work referred to as the “life course” framework (also known as “life course theory,” the “life course paradigm,” and the “life course perspective”) has been increasingly used to motivate and justify the examination of the relationships among variables in social and behavioral science, particularly in the study of population health and aging. Yet, there is very little agreement on what some of these concepts mean, and there is hardly any agreement on what the “life course” is. This article focuses on the different ways in which the concept oflife course” is used in the contemporary study of aging and human development, particularly with regard to health and well-being. Clarification is given for how “life course” is distinguished from “life span” and “life cycle,” among other “life” words. This work reviews the conceptual literature on the life course, beginning with its formative years in the 1960s and 1970s, through to the present time. Detailed research of several literatures across disciplines revealed five different uses of the term “life course”: (a) life course as time or age, (b) life course as life stages, (c) life course as events, transitions, and trajectories, (d) life course as life-span human development, and (e) life course as early life influences (and their cumulation) on later adult outcomes. To the extent the concept of life course has a multiplicity of meanings that are at variance with one another, this is problematic, as communication is thereby hindered. On the other hand, to the extent the concept of life course involves a rich tapestry of different emphases, this is a good thing, and the diversity of meanings should be retained. This paper proposes a conceptual integration based in part on Riley’s age stratification model that resolves the various meanings of life course into one general framework. Coupled with a demographic conceptualization of the life course, this framework embeds the concept oflife course” within a broader perspective of life-span development. This framework is proposed as an integrated perspective for studying the causes and consequences oflife course events and transitions” and understanding the manner by which “life events” and the role transitions they signify influence the life-span development of outcomes of interest across stages of the life cycle. PMID:22399576

  4. Extinctions of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Sepkoski JJ, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    This meeting presentation examines mass extinctions through earth's history. Extinctions are charted for marine families and marine genera. Timing of marine genera extinctions is discussed. Periodicity in extinctions during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras is plotted and compared with Paleozoic extinction peaks. The role of extinction in evolution and mankind's role in present extinctions are examined.

  5. Towards a definition of life.

    PubMed

    Macklem, Peter T; Seely, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a new definition of life as a "self-contained, self-regulating, self-organizing, self-reproducing, interconnected, open thermodynamic network of component parts which performs work, existing in a complex regime which combines stability and adaptability in the phase transition between order and chaos, as a plant, animal, fungus, or microbe." Open thermodynamic networks, which create and maintain order and are used by all organisms to perform work, import energy from and export entropy into the environment. Intra- and extracellular interconnected networks also confer order. Although life obeys the laws of physics and chemistry, the design of living organisms is not determined by these laws, but by Darwinian selection of the fittest designs. Over a short range of normalized energy consumption, open thermodynamic systems change from deeply ordered to chaotic, and life is found in this phase transition, where a dynamic balance between stability and adaptability allows for homeokinesis. Organisms and cells move within the phase transition with changes in metabolic rate. Seeds, spores and cryo-preserved tissue are well within the ordered regime, while health probably cannot be maintained with displacements into the chaotic regime. Understanding life in these terms may provide new insights into what constitutes health and lead to new theories of disease. PMID:20639603

  6. Remeasurement of (234)U Half-Life.

    PubMed

    Varga, Zsolt; Nicholl, Adrian; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The half-life of (234)U has been measured using a novel approach. In this method, a uranium material was chemically purified from its thorium decay product at a well-known time. The ingrowth of the (230)Th daughter product in the material was followed by measuring the accumulated (230)Th daughter product relative to its parent (234)U nuclide using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Then, the (234)U decay constant and the respective half-life could be calculated using the radioactive decay equations based on the n((230)Th)/n((234)U) amount ratio. The obtained (234)U half-life is 244 900 ± 670 years (k = 1), which is in good agreement with the previously reported results in the literature with comparable uncertainty. The main advantages of the proposed method are that it does not require the assumption of secular equilibrium between (234)U and (238)U. Moreover, the calculation is independent from the (238)U half-life value and its uncertainty. The suggested methodology can also be applied for the remeasurement of the half-lives of several other long-lived radionuclides. PMID:26823129

  7. Quality of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... can even participate in competitive sports. However, rough contact sports such as football may not be a good idea. Talk to the transplant team about which sports are safe and what precautions you might want to take. EMOTIONAL ASPECTS OF ...

  8. The Structures of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of General Medical Sciences (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet, geared toward an advanced high school or early college-level audience, explains how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. This publication contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on…

  9. The Structures of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This booklet reveals how structural biology provides insight into health and disease and is useful in developing new medications. It contains a general introduction to proteins, coverage of the techniques used to determine protein structures, and a chapter on structure-based drug design. The booklet features "Student Snapshots," designed to…

  10. Value Differentiation in Adolescence: The Role of Age and Cultural Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Ella; Schiefer, David; Mollering, Anna; Benish-Weisman, Maya; Boehnke, Klaus; Knafo, Ariel

    2012-01-01

    Living in complex social worlds, individuals encounter discordant values across life contexts, potentially resulting in different importance of values across contexts. Value differentiation is defined here as the degree to which values receive different importance depending on the context in which they are considered. Early and mid-adolescents (N…

  11. The Value of English Picture Story Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiu-Chih, Sheu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study investigating EFL teachers' views on the educational values of English picture story books in Taiwan. Ten teachers with experience of using the books with primary school children participated in this study. The results suggest three main educational values perceived by the teachers: (1) linguistic value, (2) the value…

  12. The Quality of Life in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoguchi, Takashi; Fujii, Seiji

    2009-01-01

    This study is part of a collaborative project examining the quality of life in Confucian societies in Asia. Our major findings suggest that, when our sixteen specific life domains are grouped into three life spheres, namely, material, post-material, and public, the Japanese people tend to be most satisfied with the post-material sphere of life and…

  13. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Peter; Brownlee, Donald E; McKay, Christopher P; Anbar, Ariel D; Yano, Hajime; Altwegg, Kathrin; Beegle, Luther W; Dissly, Richard; Strange, Nathan J; Kanik, Isik

    2012-08-01

    Life Investigation For Enceladus (LIFE) presents a low-cost sample return mission to Enceladus, a body with high astrobiological potential. There is ample evidence that liquid water exists under ice coverage in the form of active geysers in the "tiger stripes" area of the southern Enceladus hemisphere. This active plume consists of gas and ice particles and enables the sampling of fresh materials from the interior that may originate from a liquid water source. The particles consist mostly of water ice and are 1-10 μ in diameter. The plume composition shows H(2)O, CO(2), CH(4), NH(3), Ar, and evidence that more complex organic species might be present. Since life on Earth exists whenever liquid water, organics, and energy coexist, understanding the chemical components of the emanating ice particles could indicate whether life is potentially present on Enceladus. The icy worlds of the outer planets are testing grounds for some of the theories for the origin of life on Earth. The LIFE mission concept is envisioned in two parts: first, to orbit Saturn (in order to achieve lower sampling speeds, approaching 2 km/s, and thus enable a softer sample collection impact than Stardust, and to make possible multiple flybys of Enceladus); second, to sample Enceladus' plume, the E ring of Saturn, and the Titan upper atmosphere. With new findings from these samples, NASA could provide detailed chemical and isotopic and, potentially, biological compositional context of the plume. Since the duration of the Enceladus plume is unpredictable, it is imperative that these samples are captured at the earliest flight opportunity. If LIFE is launched before 2019, it could take advantage of a Jupiter gravity assist, which would thus reduce mission lifetimes and launch vehicle costs. The LIFE concept offers science returns comparable to those of a Flagship mission but at the measurably lower sample return costs of a Discovery-class mission. PMID:22970863

  14. School Prayer and the Politics of Life-Style Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moen, Matthew C.

    1984-01-01

    School prayer is a "politics of life-style concern" issue, i.e., a group of traditionalists is attempting to reinstate prayer as an affirmation of their cherished and once dominate values, and a group of modernists is attempting to maintain the ban on prayer as an affirmation of their cherished, contemporary values. (RM)

  15. The Value of Medical and Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana; Lakdawalla, Darius; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small while the net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

  16. The value of medical and pharmaceutical interventions for reducing obesity.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Pierre-Carl; Goldman, Dana P; Lakdawalla, Darius N; Zheng, Yuhui; Gailey, Adam H

    2012-07-01

    This paper attempts to quantify the social, private, and public-finance values of reducing obesity through pharmaceutical and medical interventions. We find that the total social value of bariatric surgery is large for treated patients, with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios typically under $10,000 per life-year saved. On the other hand, pharmaceutical interventions against obesity yield much less social value with incremental social cost-effectiveness ratios around $50,000. Our approach accounts for: competing risks to life expectancy; health care costs; and a variety of non-medical economic consequences (pensions, disability insurance, taxes, and earnings), which account for 20% of the total social cost of these treatments. On balance, bariatric surgery generates substantial private value for those treated, in the form of health and other economic consequences. The net public fiscal effects are modest, primarily because the size of the population eligible for treatment is small. The net social effect is large once improvements in life expectancy are taken into account. PMID:22705389

  17. An Aristotelian Account of Minimal Chemical Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedau, Mark A.

    2010-12-01

    This paper addresses the open philosophical and scientific problem of explaining and defining life. This problem is controversial, and there is nothing approaching a consensus about what life is. This raises a philosophical meta-question: Why is life so controversial and so difficult to define? This paper proposes that we can attribute a significant part of the controversy over life to use of a Cartesian approach to explaining life, which seeks necessary and sufficient conditions for being an individual living organism, out of the context of other organisms and the abiotic environment. The Cartesian approach contrasts with an Aristotelian approach to explaining life, which considers life only in the whole context in which it actually exists, looks at the characteristic phenomena involving actual life, and seeks the deepest and most unified explanation for those phenomena. The phenomena of life might be difficult to delimit precisely, but it certainly includes life's characteristic hallmarks, borderline cases, and puzzles. The Program-Metabolism-Container (PMC) model construes minimal chemical life as a functionally integrated triad of chemical systems, which are identified as the Program, Metabolism, and Container. Rasmussen diagrams precisely depict the functional definition of minimal chemical life. The PMC model illustrates the Aristotelian approach to life, because it explains eight of life's hallmarks, one of life's borderline cases (the virus), and two of life's puzzles.

  18. Max Ernst: "Tree of Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Pam

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan introducing K-3 grade students to visual elements in art and the idea that artists use dreams and fantasies as subjects for their art using Max Ernst's "Tree of Life." Outlines instructional strategies and lesson objectives. (GEA)

  19. IMPORTANCE OF LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as a tool to assist the waste professional with integrated waste management. CA can be the connection between the waste professional and designer/producer to permit the waste professional to encourage the design of products so mater...

  20. Generation of Finite Life Distributional Goodman Diagrams for Reliability Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kececioglu, D.; Guerrieri, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The methodology of developing finite life distributional Goodman diagrams and surfaces is described for presenting allowable combinations of alternating stress and mean stress to the design engineer. The combined stress condition is that of an alternating bending stress and a constant shear stress. The finite life Goodman diagrams and surfaces are created from strength distributions developed at various ratios of alternating to mean stress at particular cycle life values. The conclusions indicate that the Von Mises-Hencky ellipse, for cycle life values above 1000 cycles, is an adequate model of the finite life Goodman diagram. In addition, suggestions are made which reduce the number of experimental data points required in a fatigue data acquisition program.

  1. The Value of Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradfield, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers the perspectives of a veteran in the field of sustainability. The author shares the steps in the development, evolution, and management of sustainability and sustainable practices at a leading flooring manufacturer. The author leverages over 20 years of experience in industry to discuss the necessary skills and mindsets to…

  2. The Value of Sustainability Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradfield, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers the perspectives of a veteran in the field of sustainability. The author shares the steps in the development, evolution, and management of sustainability and sustainable practices at a leading flooring manufacturer. The author leverages over 20 years of experience in industry to discuss the necessary skills and mindsets to

  3. The Value of Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schejbal, David; Wilson, David

    2008-01-01

    Higher education--and continuing education as one arm of that enterprise--is not just an economic engine; it contributes directly and in a multifaceted fashion to the common good. It generates and makes accessible a great deal of the knowledge that drives the economy; it helps develop an understanding of the society and the world for millions of

  4. The Representational Value of Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Jane M.; Fitzallen, Noleine E.; Wilson, Karen G.; Creed, Julie F.

    2008-01-01

    The literature that is available on the topic of representations in mathematics is vast. One commonly discussed item is graphical representations. From the history of mathematics to modern uses of technology, a variety of graphical forms are available for middle school students to use to represent mathematical ideas. The ideas range from algebraic…

  5. The value of asking questions

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Science begins by asking questions and then seeking answers. Young children understand this intuitively as they explore and try to make sense of their surroundings. However, science education focuses upon the end game of “facts” rather than the exploratory root of the scientific process. Encouraging questioning helps to bring the true spirit of science into our educational system, and the art of asking good questions constitutes an important skill to foster for practicing scientists. PMID:23486404

  6. The Practical Value of Honors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnsen, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Alaska (UA) serves the diverse peoples of Alaska through three separately accredited universities and their community campuses. The system's three universities at Fairbanks (UAF), Anchorage (UAA), and Juneau (UAS) differ greatly. Within each of these universities, the faculty developed honors programs that fit the context and…

  7. Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to…

  8. Estimation of Half-Life for Single Compartmental Elimination Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickens, R. E.; Rucker, S.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented to calculate accurate approximations to the half-life values of elimination systems modelled by one compartment. The major advantage of this method is that only algebraic mathematical operations are required. The results will be of value not only to students beginning the study of elimination kinetics, but also to

  9. Quality of life in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cristiana; Almeida, Isabel; Vasconcelos, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic multi-system autoimmune disease associated with disability and reduced quality of life. There is no effective treatment or cure to SSc, so it is important improve global health of these patients and reduce morbidity and mortality associated with SSc. It was made a literature review about quality of life in patients with SSc, regarding the several factors that should be considered and evaluated when attending to SSc patients. It was also considered the validated scales and questionnaires used to measure outcomes in patients with SSc. We concluded that it is important to have an interdisciplinary approach to SSc patients considering the patient's cognitive representations of the disease and what they value most like mobility and hand function, pain, fatigue, sleep, depression and body image. PMID:26212726

  10. The Therapeutic Value of Pets

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Faith T.

    1986-01-01

    While domestic pets are capable of transmitting disease and inflicting injury, they may also be of benefit to human health. Studies suggest that companion animals, in addition to their well-known role as helpers to the handicapped, may alleviate depression, solace the lonely, facilitate psycho-therapy, socialize criminals, lower blood pressure, increase survivorship from myocardial infarction and ease the social pain of aging in our society. PMID:3953064

  11. Value of IDEA Ratings Questioned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Just as it has every June since 2006, the U.S. Department of Education last month delivered a rating to each state and territory based on the performance of its special education programs. The ratings, intended to fulfill the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act's requirement that "measurable" and "rigorous" targets be met on the 6.7…

  12. The Value of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern; Vogel, Paul

    This booklet summarizes results of research and literature reviews that had been collected in a source book titled "Physical Activity & Well-Being" and published in 1986 by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. The evidence presented suggests that exercise can reduce or delay the undesirable effects of many degenerative…

  13. The Economic Value of Teeth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases…

  14. The Economic Value of Teeth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glied, Sherry; Neidell, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of oral health on labor market outcomes by exploiting variation in fluoridated water exposure during childhood. The politics surrounding the adoption of water fluoridation by local governments suggests exposure to fluoride is exogenous to other factors affecting earnings. Exposure to fluoridated water increases

  15. Value of Wind Power Forecasting

    SciTech Connect

    Lew, D.; Milligan, M.; Jordan, G.; Piwko, R.

    2011-04-01

    This study, building on the extensive models developed for the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS), uses these WECC models to evaluate the operating cost impacts of improved day-ahead wind forecasts.

  16. METHOD OF PREPARING PROTACTINIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Katzin, L.I.; Larson, R.G.; Thompson, R.C.; Van Winkle, Q.

    1959-05-19

    Separation and purification from initial acid leaches of pitchblende of Pa is described. This supernatant acid solution is treated with alkali metal carbonates to precipitate Pa. Silica is removed from the precipitate by hydroxide treatment. The Pa residue is dissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and Pa is concentrated by cyclic precipitations with MnO/sub 2/. The last solution is hydrolyzed to precipitate Pa. The Pa precipitate contains Ti and Zr which are removed by ion exchange. (T.R.H.)

  17. An Examination of Personal Values and Value Systems of Chinese and U.S. Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacomino, Don E.; Li, Xin; Michael D. Akers,

    2013-01-01

    Using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke typology this paper examines the personal values and value systems of business students in China and compares the results with the results of a recent study that used similar methodology to examine the values and value systems of U.S. students. The study also examines the differences in values…

  18. The value of active followership.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Joy

    2013-05-01

    Followership is an emerging concept based on human factors science. It describes a set of skills and behaviours that help improve team performance. An effective leader creates vision, sets direction and enables a culture in which others can thrive and work together to deliver the goals. Like leadership, good followership is increasingly being recognised as an important component for high performance. Good followership is based on good communication and 'upward influencing' (Willson 2012). This article discusses the concept arid provides scenarios to illustrate examples of good and poor followership, and how they affect care. PMID:23734416

  19. The Value of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and…

  20. The Value of Work Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahooty, David; Rainer, Lillian

    1999-01-01

    Internships enable secondary and college students to gain experience, learn how an agency functions, and establish a network of contacts within organizations. Thirty-two summer internships, co-ops, and minority school programs are listed alphabetically. Each entry contains a brief program description, prerequisites, deadline for applications, and

  1. The Values of Negative Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bier, Jesse

    1983-01-01

    Advocates introducing high school literature classes by analyzing the serious flaws in an important work such as Edgar Alan Poe's poem, "The Raven," in order to increase student involvement in evaluating literature, strengthen student trust of the teacher's judgment, and motivate students for positive criticism. (MM)

  2. The Educational Value of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alger, Jonathan R.

    1997-01-01

    If colleges and universities want to avoid a relapse into increased racial segregation in light of current political and legal pressures against affirmative action, they must make the case for the need for racial diversity to further their core educational purposes. They must also enlist faculty help in identifying and articulating its educational…

  3. The Value of Professional Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madsen, Clifford K.

    2010-01-01

    This article begins with the author's personal experience within The National Association for Music Education (MENC) and stresses the importance of professional organizations by addressing issues that have a consequential benefit to both students and teachers. Additionally, issues are addressed that seem problematic for some individuals within…

  4. Therapists Value of Interprofessional Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Vries, Dawn R.

    2012-01-01

    The work of occupational (OT), physical (PT), and recreational therapists (RT), as well as speech- language pathologists (SLP), is interrelated and requires effective teamwork and collaboration to optimize patient outcomes and satisfaction. Literature shows that health care professionals are ill prepared to work in an interprofessional manner due…

  5. Value of global weather sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-12-23

    Long-range weather predictions have great scientific and economic potential, but require precise global observations. Small balloon transponders could serve as lagrangian trace particles to measure the vector wind, which is the primary input to long-range numerical forecasts. The wind field is difficult to measure; it is at present poorly sampled globally. Distance measuring equipment (DME) triangulation of signals from roughly a million transponders could sample it with sufficient accuracy to support {approximately} two week forecasts. Such forecasts would have great scientific and economic potential which is estimated below. DME uses small, low-power transmitters on each transponder to broadcast short, low-power messages that are detected by several small receivers and forwarded to the ground station for processing of position, velocity, and state information. Thus, the transponder is little more than a balloon with a small radio, which should only weigh a few grams and cost a few dollars.

  6. "Something" Clarified, Nothing of "Value": A Rhetorical Critique of Values Clarification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Dwight; Bogdan, Deanne

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the validity of values clarification as an approach to values education. Several passages from "Values and Teaching: Working with Values in the Classroom" (1966 and 1978, Raths, Harmin, and Simon) are used in a discussion of criticisms leveled against values clarification. (DF)

  7. The Promise of Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peruniak, Geoffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Little has been written in the career development literature about quality of life, even though this concept is implied in all counselor interventions. In this article, the author suggests that the broad and subjective nature of quality of life, rather than a liability, is its very strength. Quality of life is presented as an important holistic…

  8. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

    1960-09-13

    Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

  9. Quality of Life in Acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Webb, Susan M; Badia, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Available disease-specific questionnaires like the Acromegaly Quality of Life questionnaire have confirmed that quality of life (QoL) is impaired in acromegaly, especially in active disease. Successful therapy improves QoL, but it may not normalize completely even after endocrine cure; furthermore, there is not always a correlation between growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 and subjective health perception of QoL. Appearance is the dimension most affected and has the highest impact on the patient's QoL. Worse QoL is associated with the presence of musculoskeletal pain, headache (if only medical therapy, not surgery, has been provided), having required treatment with radiotherapy, being older, of female gender, with a longer disease duration, coexisting diabetes mellitus, a higher BMI or becoming GH deficient after treatment for acromegaly. PMID:25661974

  10. The origin of cellular life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingber, D. E.

    2000-01-01

    This essay presents a scenario of the origin of life that is based on analysis of biological architecture and mechanical design at the microstructural level. My thesis is that the same architectural and energetic constraints that shape cells today also guided the evolution of the first cells and that the molecular scaffolds that support solid-phase biochemistry in modern cells represent living microfossils of past life forms. This concept emerged from the discovery that cells mechanically stabilize themselves using tensegrity architecture and that these same building rules guide hierarchical self-assembly at all size scales (Sci. Amer 278:48-57;1998). When combined with other fundamental design principles (e.g., energy minimization, topological constraints, structural hierarchies, autocatalytic sets, solid-state biochemistry), tensegrity provides a physical basis to explain how atomic and molecular elements progressively self-assembled to create hierarchical structures with increasingly complex functions, including living cells that can self-reproduce.

  11. Ontogeny of Early Life Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dowling, David J.; Levy, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    The human immune system is comprised of cellular and molecular components designed to coordinately prevent infection while avoiding potentially harmful inflammation and auto-immunity. Immunity varies with age, reflecting unique age-dependent challenges including fetal gestation, the neonatal phase and infancy. Herein, we review novel mechanistic insights into early life immunity, with emphasis on emerging models of human immune ontogeny, which may inform age-specific translational development of novel anti-infectives, immunomodulators and vaccines. PMID:24880460

  12. The Dual Life of RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, M.; Maurel, M.-C.

    2004-06-01

    Molecular biology techniques have enabled us to prepare and select RNA aptamers that can bind specifically to small targets. RNA oligonucleotides can also be used as fluorescent probes. We have combined the two approaches to obtain Aptamer Beacons, in which molecular recognition is linked to the emission of an optical signal. These RNA biosensors could be used to detect directly the signatures of life in samples of mineral and extra-terrestrial material.

  13. The Secret Life of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressler, Alan; Abramson, Louis

    2015-04-01

    We have learned much about galaxy evolution since z = 2, and something to even higher redshifts. How can it be that we know so little about! the star formation histories (SFHs) of individual galaxies? Although great progress has been made accumulating huge samples with only rudimentary properties, progress in galaxy evolution means connecting what we've learned to detailed measurements of the life-histories of specific - not just representative - systems.

  14. VALUING LOST HOME PRODUCTION OF DUAL EARNER COUPLES*

    PubMed Central

    House, Christopher L.; Laitner, John; Stolyarov, Dmitriy

    2009-01-01

    Using a life-cycle model in which women divide their time between home and market work, we establish a link between retirement wealth and the value of forgone home production. We use data from the Health and Retirement Study to estimate the model’s parameters and adjust the growth rate of GDP to reflect reductions in non-market output. We find that the value of forgone home production is modest – about 25 percent of women’s measured earnings. PMID:20052402

  15. Marginalization and Precariat: The Challenge of Intensifying Life Construction Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the case study of a graduate student who, at the time of the study, was doing an internship, considered in the literature as a new form of precariat (temporary or insecure employment). The student participated in a life construction intervention during which he completed two new qualitative instruments: the Life Adaptability Qualitative Assessment (LAQuA) and the Career Counseling Innovative Outcomes (CCIO) before and after the life construction intervention. The results are discussed in the article. The life construction intervention helped the participant understand himself better, develop his life and career paths, and construct his identity. The study confirmed the value of enhancing life construction interventions using a preventive approach, particularly for precarious people (people in temporary or unstable jobs), with early interventions starting with young internees in organizations. PMID:27065914

  16. Marginalization and Precariat: The Challenge of Intensifying Life Construction Intervention.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Palazzeschi, Letizia

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the case study of a graduate student who, at the time of the study, was doing an internship, considered in the literature as a new form of precariat (temporary or insecure employment). The student participated in a life construction intervention during which he completed two new qualitative instruments: the Life Adaptability Qualitative Assessment (LAQuA) and the Career Counseling Innovative Outcomes (CCIO) before and after the life construction intervention. The results are discussed in the article. The life construction intervention helped the participant understand himself better, develop his life and career paths, and construct his identity. The study confirmed the value of enhancing life construction interventions using a preventive approach, particularly for precarious people (people in temporary or unstable jobs), with early interventions starting with young internees in organizations. PMID:27065914

  17. Effects of coal oxidation on calorific value

    SciTech Connect

    Uenal, S.; Yalcin, Z.G.; Piskin, S.

    1999-04-01

    A brief investigation of the effects of oxidation on the calorific values of three Turkish lignite samples has been made. The lignite samples have been vacuum dried and oxidized in pure oxygen at 35, 45, and 55 C at 100 kPa for 10 days. The calorific values of the oxidized and unoxidized samples have been measured. A relation has been observed between the extent of oxidation and decrease in calorific value. Various possibilities of modeling the relation have been explored.

  18. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  19. A dynamic architecture of life

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Beatrix P.; Brockes, Jeremy; Galliot, Brigitte; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Lobo, Daniel; Mainardi, Marco; Mirouze, Marie; Prochiantz, Alain; Steger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, a profound conceptual transformation has occurred comprising different areas of biological research, leading to a novel understanding of life processes as much more dynamic and changeable. Discoveries in plants and animals, as well as novel experimental approaches, have prompted the research community to reconsider established concepts and paradigms. This development was taken as an incentive to organise a workshop in May 2014 at the Academia Nazionale dei Lincei in Rome. There, experts on epigenetics, regeneration, neuroplasticity, and computational biology, using different animal and plant models, presented their insights on important aspects of a dynamic architecture of life, which comprises all organisational levels of the organism. Their work demonstrates that a dynamic nature of life persists during the entire existence of the organism and permits animals and plants not only to fine-tune their response to particular environmental demands during development, but underlies their continuous capacity to do so. Here, a synthesis of the different findings and their relevance for biological thinking is presented. PMID:26949518

  20. Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

    2014-07-01

    Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys. PMID:24931555

  1. The genetics of neuroticism and human values.

    PubMed

    Zacharopoulos, George; Lancaster, Thomas M; Maio, Gregory R; Linden, David E J

    2016-04-01

    Human values and personality have been shown to share genetic variance in twin studies. However, there is a lack of evidence about the genetic components of this association. This study examined the interplay between genes, values and personality in the case of neuroticism, because polygenic scores were available for this personality trait. First, we replicated prior evidence of a positive association between the polygenic neuroticism score (PNS) and neuroticism. Second, we found that the PNS was significantly associated with the whole human value space in a sinusoidal waveform that was consistent with Schwartz's circular model of human values. These results suggest that it is useful to consider human values in the analyses of genetic contributions to personality traits. They also pave the way for an investigation of the biological mechanisms contributing to human value orientations. PMID:26915771

  2. Early Predictors of Alcohol Abuse: A Study of the Relationships Between Interests, Values and Personality Variables From the 1960 TALENT Data Base and Alcohol Abuse in Later Life. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Richard A.

    In 1960, Project TALENT gathered demographic, cognitive, and socio-pyschological data from a nationwide sample of high school students. In addition, responses from a saturation sample of 16,000 cases in Knox County, Tennessee were collected. The relationships between attitudes, personality traits, and subsequent alcohol abuse (as shown by Knox…

  3. [Between the poles of life and death].

    PubMed

    Conti, Marco; Merlani, Paolo

    2015-04-22

    Sometimes, conditions of critically ill patients unable to communicate, force us to decide whether or not to continue treatment. The most frequent elements we have to consider in individual patients, are survival at any cost and reduced future physical functioning and quality of life. In this article, we highlight existing literature's inability to precisely determine a given patient's preferences or to guess what they might be. Confronted with this crucial decision, the intensivist must therefore avoid the misstep of imposing their own values and expectations upon the patients. Patients even when unable to communicate must remain the master of their own destiny through their health care surrogate. If the question of their values and expectations, their advanced directives or their health care surrogate have been addressed or evoked beforehand by the family doctor, the chosen treatment modalities taken by the parties involved at a critical moment will thus allow the patient to remain the main actor of his care and destiny. PMID:26072604

  4. Life assessments of a boiler economizer unit

    SciTech Connect

    Lichti, K.A.; Thomas, C.W.; Wilson, P.T.; Julian, W.

    1997-09-01

    An economizer which experienced pitting corrosion during a cleaning accident was subject to recurring corrosion fatigue failures. A condition assessment was undertaken to assess the risk of further failures through metallurgical assessment, extreme value pitting assessments, and on-site NDT condition assessment with on-site extreme value pitting analysis. This was followed by a fatigue life assessment in accordance with PD6493. Condition assessment work and lifetime prediction progressed from initial failure investigation through to final recommendations in a stepwise process. Each stage of the work was followed by a review of the findings and an economic assessment of the alternative options i.e. continue with assessment, full economizer replacement or partial replacement. Selective replacement of a portion of the economizer was recommended.

  5. Arginine, scurvy and Cartier's "tree of life"

    PubMed Central

    Durzan, Don J

    2009-01-01

    Several conifers have been considered as candidates for "Annedda", which was the source for a miraculous cure for scurvy in Jacques Cartier's critically ill crew in 1536. Vitamin C was responsible for the cure of scurvy and was obtained as an Iroquois decoction from the bark and leaves from this "tree of life", now commonly referred to as arborvitae. Based on seasonal and diurnal amino acid analyses of candidate "trees of life", high levels of arginine, proline, and guanidino compounds were also probably present in decoctions prepared in the severe winter. The semi-essential arginine, proline and all the essential amino acids, would have provided additional nutritional benefits for the rapid recovery from scurvy by vitamin C when food supply was limited. The value of arginine, especially in the recovery of the critically ill sailors, is postulated as a source of nitric oxide, and the arginine-derived guanidino compounds as controlling factors for the activities of different nitric oxide synthases. This review provides further insights into the use of the candidate "trees of life" by indigenous peoples in eastern Canada. It raises hypotheses on the nutritional and synergistic roles of arginine, its metabolites, and other biofactors complementing the role of vitamin C especially in treating Cartier's critically ill sailors. PMID:19187550

  6. The social value of clinical research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background International documents on ethical conduct in clinical research have in common the principle that potential harms to research participants must be proportional to anticipated benefits. The anticipated benefits that can justify human research consist of direct benefits to the research participant, and societal benefits, also called social value. In first-in-human research, no direct benefits are expected and the benefit component of the risks-benefit assessment thus merely exists in social value. The concept social value is ambiguous by nature and is used in numerous ways in the research ethics literature. Because social value justifies involving human participants, especially in early human trials, this is problematic. Discussion Our analysis and interpretation of the concept social value has led to three proposals. First, as no direct benefits are expected for the research participants in first-in-human trials, we believe it is better to discuss a risk- value assessment instead of a risk - benefit assessment. This will also make explicit the necessity to have a clear and common use for the concept social value. Second, to avoid confusion we propose to limit the concept social value to the intervention tested. It is the expected improvement the intervention can bring to the wellbeing of (future) patients or society that is referred to when we speak about social value. For the sole purpose of gaining knowledge, we should not expose humans to potential harm; the ultimate justification of involving humans in research lies in the anticipated social value of the intervention. Third, at the moment only the validity of the clinical research proposal is a prerequisite for research to take place. We recommend making the anticipated social value a prerequisite as well. Summary In this paper we analyze the use of the concept social value in research ethics. Despite its unavoidable ambiguity, we aim to find a best use of the concept, subject to its role in justifying involving humans in first-in-human research. PMID:25189994

  7. [Man, problems of values and a discussion of abortion].

    PubMed

    Straass, G

    1981-04-15

    This is a discussion on pregnancy interruption as it was carried out in the last years in the German Federal Republic, as well as in the German Democratic Republic. Ethical and moral problems and concepts concerning abortion and abortion legislation are discussed from the viewpoint of various ideas and philosophies, especially from the marxist point of view. Moral and ethical concepts result from an evaluation process of human behavior and social relationships. From the marxist insight of people it is known that this is historically concrete and not eternally existing in the nature of man. It is based on concrete people within concrete social situations. Moral values are dependent on social concepts and include human motivations. There is a close relationship between human needs and interests on the one hand and ethical values on the other hand. In abortion too, the single decision of the person does not constitute an ethical value. Abortion cannot be considered independent from the woman, nor from social reality. Reasons for legal abortion have changed through the years according to social needs; before and after World War II poverty, hardship, malnutrition; today it mainly is a question of woman's need for equality in education, profession, and family. Population policies play a role: "soldiers for Hitler" during World War II; preservation of the German race; influx of foreign people with large families. Ethical naturalism "survival of the fittest" is rejected. "Human life" cannot be separated from "developing human life"; zygote, embryo, fetus and newborn are all inseparable stages in human life. A newborn child is not purely biological, like an animal; social aspects are involved. Human nature is a product of history. The developing embryo has no significance as a primary basis for induced abortion but secondarily serves only to determine the optimal time period for abortion. To base abortion on the nature of prenatal human life means nothing more than to orient oneself to an abstract concept. Ethical values reflect basic life interests of the human society and are historical products and not the kind of generalities which lend themselves to eternal perpetuation. PMID:7281787

  8. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  9. The Value of a College Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, DC.

    The American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU) cites both economic and noneconomic benefits of a college education in its criticism of current arguments that the value of a college education is declining. Richard Freeman and J. Herbert Holloman have asserted that the value of a college degree is decreasing because its "rate of

  10. 26 CFR 1.664-4 - Calculation of the fair market value of the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... computed on the basis of— (1) Life contingencies determined as to each life involved, from the values of lx... life, and copies of the relevant documents. A request for a ruling must comply with the instructions... the life of one individual. (i) If the period described in § 1.664-3(a)(5) is the life of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.664-4 - Calculation of the fair market value of the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... computed on the basis of— (1) Life contingencies determined as to each life involved, from the values of lx... life, and copies of the relevant documents. A request for a ruling must comply with the instructions... the life of one individual. (i) If the period described in § 1.664-3(a)(5) is the life of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.664-4 - Calculation of the fair market value of the remainder interest in a charitable remainder unitrust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... computed on the basis of— (1) Life contingencies determined as to each life involved, from the values of lx... life, and copies of the relevant documents. A request for a ruling must comply with the instructions... the life of one individual. (i) If the period described in § 1.664-3(a)(5) is the life of...

  13. "Values Clarification": The Engineering of Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Phyllis Gold

    1977-01-01

    "Values clarification" is questioned on grounds that (1) it fails to distinguish between moral and nonmoral values, (2) it is an invasion of privacy, (3) it dispenses with the moral distinction between "self" and "others," and (4) it raises questions of the morality of scholarship and of the morality of research with human subjects in particular.…

  14. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  15. Risk and value analysis of SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1986-01-01

    The risks, values, and costs of the SETI project are evaluated and compared with those of the Viking project. Examination of the scientific values, side benefits, and costs of the two projects reveal that both projects provide equal benefits at equal costs. The probability of scientific and technical success is analyzed.

  16. [Three Essential Shared Capabilities for Young Psychiatrists: Brain, Real-world, and Life-course Principles toward Values-based Psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    The discipline of psychiatry promotes well-being and recovery based on a comprehensive understanding of the patient from the perspectives of the brain, real-world, and life-course. Pursuant to efforts toward addressing social issues at a regional and national level, it is assumed that the psychiatrist can assist individuals based on an understanding of these three perspectives. This tripartite relationship goes beyond the history of extreme reductionism in neuroscience and the aftermath resulting from the anti-psychiatry movement to provide a foundation for the development of psychiatry and a theoretical groundwork for such basic psychiatric issues as what role pharmacotherapy plays in psychiatric treatment, just why the lives of people living in the community are thought to be important to an individual's well-being, and just what constitutes recovery. Humans have come to possess highly developed brain and mental functions as a result of the adaptation to the social environment that takes place as part of the evolutionary process. While mental functions are thus dictated in large part by evolution of the brain, they also consist of important features that are not attributable to reductionist models of the brain. That is, human mental functioning forms a foundation for metacognition and sophisticated language functions, and through interactions with others and society, one's mental functioning allows for further brain transformation and development (self-regulation of mental functions). Humans develop their own brain and mental functions through mutual exchanges with others, and their dealings with other people and society form their individual modes of living in the real-world. The human brain and mental functions have evolved in such a way as to provide for a better mode of living. Accordingly, for the individual, the makeup of his or her mode of living in the real-world is the source of the well-being that serves to support that individual's values. The scientific background that the human recovery process for those suffering from mental disease involves the combined support of work, school, marriage, and childrearing stems from this fact. Humans develop their own mental capital over their life-courses and utilize it in an effort to realize their well-beings. Humans utilize mental function self-regulation based on the emotional and interpersonal functions developed during childhood in order to formulate an image of themselves (the ego) as well as the type of person they want to become (values/needs). This is indeed the true essence of adolescence. The values that drive an individual's behavior by their very nature exist in the outside world and are shared by others as well as society. These are internalized as individual characteristics through the self-regulation process of adolescence. Regardless of life stage or type of mental illness, individual reflection, verbalization, and reorganization of adolescent ego and values formation are essential to the recovery process. Humans are born with both bodies and brains, and throughout the courses of their lives, they formulate and develop values. Based on an understanding of the tripartite relationship between the brain, real-world, and life courses, it can be argued that the supporting of individual values is the scientific basis for the so-called "patient-centered care" and "needs-based support" that serve as a psychiatrist's essential capabilities. Along with the patient's recovery, which is based on this values-based psychiatry, professional growth is the privilege enjoyed by those in the psychiatric field. Beginning with a foundation based on assisted recovery at the individual level, the psychiatrist can produce mental health changes at the regional level. The psychiatrist consequently possesses the national-level vision necessary to implement a community design model that combines mental health and preventive medicine. PMID:26642731

  17. Exceptional Values of Meromorphic Function on Annulus

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hong-Yan

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to study the exceptional values of meromorphic function and its derivative on annulus. We also give some theorems and corollaries about exceptional values of meromorphic function on the annulus, which are the improvement of the previous results given by Chen and Wu. PMID:23990762

  18. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  19. Serpentinite and the dawn of life

    PubMed Central

    Sleep, Norman H.; Bird, Dennis K.; Pope, Emily C.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine hydrothermal vents above serpentinite produce chemical potential gradients of aqueous and ionic hydrogen, thus providing a very attractive venue for the origin of life. This environment was most favourable before Earth's massive CO2 atmosphere was subducted into the mantle, which occurred tens to approximately 100 Myr after the moon-forming impact; thermophile to clement conditions persisted for several million years while atmospheric pCO2 dropped from approximately 25 bar to below 1 bar. The ocean was weakly acid (pH ∼ 6), and a large pH gradient existed for nascent life with pH 9–11 fluids venting from serpentinite on the seafloor. Total CO2 in water was significant so the vent environment was not carbon limited. Biologically important phosphate and Fe(II) were somewhat soluble during this period, which occurred well before the earliest record of preserved surface rocks approximately 3.8 billion years ago (Ga) when photosynthetic life teemed on the Earth and the oceanic pH was the modern value of approximately 8. Serpentinite existed by 3.9 Ga, but older rocks that might retain evidence of its presence have not been found. Earth's sequesters extensive evidence of Archaean and younger subducted biological material, but has yet to be exploited for the Hadean record. PMID:21930576

  20. End-of-Life Decisions

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Being One ............................................................11 Life-Sustaining Treatments ..............................................................................14 v Artificial Nutrition and Hydration ..............................................................14 v Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)........................................................ ...

  1. Cultural Values and Social Choice of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Werner

    1981-01-01

    Explores the relationship between cultural values and technology through examination of both values and technology in specific social contexts. Illustrations are based on two case studies--the proliferation of eating and drinking places in the United States and introduction of the gas stove in Senegal. (DB)

  2. The Myth of Value Free Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegley, John F.

    A counselor's values are inherent in all that he does with a client, ranging from selection of the counseling modality to the decision to terminate facilitative intervention. Value-free counseling is a myth, and recognition of this fact is the first step in arriving at a clear conception of what counseling can, or should, be. A counselor can be…

  3. The Economic Value of Opportunity Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive R.; Levin, Henry M.; Rosen, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    It is often said that youth are society's future; individuals need to prepare and nurture them if they desire that future to be bright and productive. Yet, with the spotlight currently on slow economic growth and high unemployment across the U.S., there has been little focus on the plight of youth as they transition from school to adult life. But…

  4. Space Biology: Patterns of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Frank B.

    1971-01-01

    Present knowledge about Mars is compared with past beliefs about the planet. Biological experiments that indicate life may exist on Mars are interpreted. Life patterns or biological features that might be postulated for extraterrestrial life are presented at the molecular, cellular, organism, and ecosystem levels. (DS)

  5. Dating the tree of life.

    PubMed

    Benton, Michael J; Ayala, Francisco J

    2003-06-13

    The relative merits of molecular and paleontological dates of major branching points in the tree of life are currently debated. In some cases, molecular date estimates are up to twice as old as paleontological dates. However, although it is true that paleontological dates are often too young (missing fossils), molecular dates are often too old (statistical bias). Intense study of the dating of major splits in the tree of mammals has shown rapprochement as fossil dates become older and molecular dates become younger. PMID:12805535

  6. Exobiology and the origin of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.; Khare, B. N.

    1976-01-01

    Abstracts on planetary studies and the search for extraterrestrial life are presented. Studies of the Jovian atmosphere were conducted. An assessment of the prospects for life on Mars is presented. And, the the means of contacting extraterrestrial civilizations is discussed.

  7. Improving Health and Quality of Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) Share Compartir Improving Health and Quality of Life On this Page Cognitive Behavioral Therapy ( ... and improve their ability to function and their quality of life. Doctors may refer some of their ...

  8. Enhance End-of-Life Care

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Enhance End-of-Life Care Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... lead in the efforts to improve end-of-life care for patients and their families. Photo: Corbis ...

  9. The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values

  10. Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosmayer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

  11. Gini characterization of extreme-value statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a profound connection between Gini’s index and extreme-value statistics. Gini’s index is a quantitative gauge for the evenness of probability laws defined on the positive half-line, and is the common measure of societal egalitarianism applied in Economics and in the Social Sciences. Extreme-value statistics-namely, the Gumbel, Fréchet and Weibull probability laws-are the only possible asymptotic statistics emerging from the extremes of large ensembles of independent and identically distributed random variables. Extreme-value statistics play a major role-all across Science and Engineering-in the analysis of rare and extreme events. Introducing generalizations of Gini’s index, and exploring an elemental Poissonian structure underlying the extreme-value statistics, we establish in this paper a Gini-based characterization of extreme-value statistics.

  12. The Pedagogy of Value-Confrontation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry Goldwyn

    This paper describes the basic principles and objectives of an educational approach based on "values confrontation" and evaluates its impact on student values, feelings, and behavior. After stressing the importance of forming a modern pedagogy concerned with developing rational thinking and deeper personal and social awareness, the paper presents…

  13. Valuing the Implementation of Financial Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberlee; Durband, Dorothy Bagwell

    2008-01-01

    Placing a monetary value on education is a complex task. A more difficult task is to determine at what monetary level individuals will support educational improvements. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate the value of the implementation of financial literacy education in Texas public schools. A Web-based survey was administered to…

  14. Towards the bibliography of life

    PubMed Central

    King, David; Morse, David R.; Willis, Alistair; Dil, Anton

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses how we intend to take forward the vision of a Bibliography of Life in the ViBRANT project. The underlying principle of the Bibliography is to provide taxonomists and others with a freely accessible bibliography covering the whole of life. Such a bibliography has been achieved for specific study areas within taxonomy, but not for “life” as a whole. The creation of such a comprehensive tool has been hindered by various social and technical issues. The social concerns focus on the willingness of users to contribute to the Bibliography. The technical concerns relate to the architecture required to deliver the Bibliography. These issues are discussed in the paper and approaches to addressing them within the ViBRANT project are described, to demonstrate how we can now seriously consider building a Bibliography of Life. We are particularly interested in the potential of the resulting tool to improve the quality of bibliographic references. Through analysing the large number of references in the Bibliography we will be able to add metadata by resolving known issues such as geographical name variations. This should result in a tool that will assist taxonomists in two ways. Firstly, it will be easier for them to discover relevant literature, especially pre-digital literature; and secondly, it will be easier for them to identify the canonical form for a citation The paper also covers related issues relevant to building the tool in ViBRANT, including implementation and copyright, with suggestions as to how we could address them. PMID:22207811

  15. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    PubMed

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing. PMID:23210532

  16. Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Related Documents PDF Living with Diabetes Download PDF Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Download Join our e-newsletter! Resources Managing Complications of Diabetes in Later Life Tools and Tips Printer-friendly ...

  17. A social-value analysis of postmaterialism.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Marc Stewart

    2005-04-01

    The author investigated the relationship between social values and R. Inglehart's (1971, 1981, 1990) Postmaterialism concept. In his theory, Materialism and Postmaterialism are basic value dimensions motivated by a person's need for security and short-term survival (on the one hand) and the desire to address needs that transcend material concerns (on the other). The aim of the present study was to attempt to locate Postmaterialism relative to politically nonspecific social values. Participants were 161 New Zealand university undergraduate men and women who completed P. R. Abramson and R. Inglehart's (1995) Postmaterialism scale and a 56-item Social Values Inventory (S. H. Schwartz, 1992). Analyses of Postmaterialism scale scores and aggregated scores reflecting the motivations underlying different groups of social values supported the hypothesis that Postmaterialism, as measured by this scale, is positively related to values associated with Self-Direction and Universalism motivations and negatively related to Security motivations. The results indicate that previous research had been limited to the application of values representing only a small part of the overall values space. PMID:15816348

  18. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  19. Values as Predictors of Global Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Lerandeau, Elizabeth A.

    This study assessed the relationships between human values and the psychological construct of world-mindedness. Fifty-one college students and 58 high school students in a town in the Pacific Northwest completed the Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992, 94) and the Cross-cultural World-mindedness Questionnaire (Der-Karabetian, 1992). A stepwise…

  20. Life cycle assessment of gasoline blending options.

    PubMed

    Mata, Teresa M; Smith, Raymond L; Young, Douglas M; Costa, Carlos A V

    2003-08-15

    A life cycle assessment has been done to compare the potential environmental impacts of various gasoline blends that meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. The main blending components of alkylate, cracked gasoline, and reformate have different octane and vapor pressure values as well as different potential environmental impacts. Because the octane and vapor pressure values are nonlinearly related to impacts, the results of this study show that some blends are better for the environment than others. To determine blending component compositions, simulations of a reformer were done at various operating conditions. The reformate products of these simulations had a wide range of octane values and potential environmental impacts. Results of the study indicate that for low-octane gasoline (95 Research Octane Number), lower reformer temperatures and pressures generally decrease the potential environmental impacts. However, different results are obtained for high-octane gasoline (98 RON), where increasing reformer temperatures and pressures increase the reformate octane values faster than the potential environmental impacts. The higher octane values for reformate allow blends to have less reformate, and therefore high-octane gasoline can have lower potential environmental impacts when the reformer is operated at higher temperatures and pressures. In the blends studied, reformate and cracked gasoline have the highest total impacts, of which photochemical ozone creation is the largest contributor (assuming all impact categories are equally weighted). Alkylate has a much lower total potential environmental impact but does have higher impact values for human toxicity by ingestion, aquatic toxicity, terrestrial toxicity, and acidification. Therefore, depending on environmental priorities, different gasoline blends and operating conditions should be chosen to meet octane and vapor pressure specifications. PMID:12953887