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  1. Aortic Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Adult Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances ... Disease Mitral Valve Disease Tricuspid Valve Disease Aortic Valve Disease Overview The human heart has four main ...

  2. The bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Braverman, Alan C; Güven, Hasan; Beardslee, Michael A; Makan, Majesh; Kates, Andrew M; Moon, Marc R

    2005-09-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve affects 1 to 2% of the population and may be complicated by aortic stenosis or aortic insufficiency and infective endocarditis. The bicuspid aortic valve is associated with abnormalities of the aortic wall such as coarctation of the aorta, aortic dissection, and aortic aneurysm. Most patients with a bicuspid aortic valve will develop some complication during life. Individuals with a bicuspid valve may be unaware of its presence and are at risk for unsuspected complications. Aortic wall abnormalities associated with bicuspid aortic valve are due to cystic medial necrosis. This process is associated with increased metalloproteinase activity and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells. The clinical correlates of aortopathy in the bicuspid aortic valve include significant enlargement of the ascending aorta with aneurysm formation and dissection. This process continues after valve replacement. The person with bicuspid aortic valve requires continuous surveillance to treat associated lesions and prevent complications. PMID:16129122

  3. Aortic valve decalcification revisited.

    PubMed

    Marty, A T; Mufti, S; Murabit, I

    1989-11-01

    A 75-year-old woman with a small calcified aortic root, severe aortic stenosis and triple vessel coronary artery disease developed angina at rest. Aortic valve decalcification and quadruple aorto-coronary bypass were done as her aortic root was too small and calcified to do anything else. Postoperative clinical and hemodynamic results have been excellent. Literature review supports application of this therapy in selected patients with trileaflet senescent aortic stenosis. PMID:2614067

  4. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat

    2009-12-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most important valvular heart disease affecting the elderly population. Surgical aortic valve replacement is the mainstay of treatment, although a substantial number of patients are considered high risk for surgery. Many of these patients do not undergo surgery and have poor outcomes from medically treated symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) provides a promising treatment option for some of these patients. Several devices are under investigation. The Edwards Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA) and the CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) have the largest human experience to date. Initial data suggest that these devices have an acceptable safety profile and provide excellent hemodynamic relief of aortic stenosis. The Edwards Sapien valve is currently under investigation in the United States in the PARTNER (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve) trial in high-risk surgical or inoperable patients; TAVI is available for clinical use in both Canada and Europe. TAVI is not used in low- or intermediate-risk surgical patients; however, future studies may prove its applicability in these subsets. The major complications of TAVI include access site-related problems and device malpositioning/migration. There are several new-generation prosthetic valves and delivery systems designed to be low profile and repositionable. Technical advances and refinement of the implantation methods may make TAVI even safer and ultimately a better treatment option, not only for patients with high surgical risk but also for those with moderate or low risk. PMID:19930984

  5. Sutureless aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of aortic stenosis and greater co-morbidities and risk profiles of the contemporary patient population has driven the development of minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) techniques to reduce surgical trauma. Recent technological developments have led to an alternative minimally invasive option which avoids the placement and tying of sutures, known as “sutureless” or rapid deployment aortic valves. Potential advantages for sutureless aortic prostheses include reducing cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration, facilitating minimally invasive surgery and complex cardiac interventions, whilst maintaining satisfactory hemodynamic outcomes and low paravalvular leak rates. However, given its recent developments, the majority of evidence regarding sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) is limited to observational studies and there is a paucity of adequately-powered randomized studies. Recently, the International Valvular Surgery Study Group (IVSSG) has formulated to conduct the Sutureless Projects, set to be the largest international collaborative group to investigate this technology. This keynote lecture will overview the use, the potential advantages, the caveats, and current evidence of sutureless and rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (AVR). PMID:25870807

  6. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Malaisrie, S Chris; Iddriss, Adam; Flaherty, James D; Churyla, Andrei

    2016-05-01

    Severe aortic stenosis (AS) is a life-threatening condition when left untreated. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the gold standard treatment for the majority of patients; however, transcatheter aortic valve implantation/replacement (TAVI/TAVR) has emerged as the preferred treatment for high-risk or inoperable patients. The concept of transcatheter heart valves originated in the 1960s and has evolved into the current Edwards Sapien and Medtronic CoreValve platforms available for clinical use. Complications following TAVI, including cerebrovascular events, perivalvular regurgitation, vascular injury, and heart block have decreased with experience and evolving technology, such that ongoing trials studying TAVI in lower risk patients have become tenable. The multidisciplinary team involving the cardiac surgeon and cardiologist plays an essential role in patient selection, procedural conduct, and perioperative care. PMID:27021619

  7. Aortic or Mitral Valve Replacement With the Biocor and Biocor Supra

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-09

    Aortic Valve Insufficiency; Aortic Valve Regurgitation; Aortic Valve Stenosis; Aortic Valve Incompetence; Mitral Valve Insufficiency; Mitral Valve Regurgitation; Mitral Valve Stenosis; Mitral Valve Incompetence

  8. Stentless aortic valves. Current aspects.

    PubMed

    Ennker, J; Albert, A; Ennker, I C

    2012-01-01

    The design of stentless valve prostheses is intended to achieve a more physiological flow pattern and superior hemodynamics in comparison to stented valves. First - generation stentless bioprosthesis were the Prima valve, the Freestyle valve and the Toronto stentless porcine valve. The second generation of stentless valves, as the Super stentless aortic porcine valve, need only one suture line. The Sorin Pericarbon Freedom and the Equine 3F heart Valve belong to the third generation of stentless valve pericardial bioprostheses. A stentless valve to replace a full root can be implanted by several surgical techniques: complete or modified subcoronary, root inclusion and full root. The full root technique is accompanied by the lowest incidence of patient-prothesis mismatch. Our own clinical experience reflects more than 3000 stentless valve implantations since April 1996. Randomized study trials showed a hemodynamic advantage for stentless valves, but several could not reach a significant level. Also reported was a significant advantage of stentless bioprostheses concerning transvalvular gradients, effective valve area and quicker regression of the left ventricular mass 6 months after the operation, but at 12 months. Advantages are obvious in patients with a decreased left ventricle ejection fraction of less than 50% and in smaller implanted valve size, concomitant aortic root pathology (e.g. dissection) and aortic valve endocarditis. A survival advantage for stentless bioprostheses in comparison to stented ones has been reported by all studies in the literature. Stentless valves enrich the surgical armamentarium. Time will define the place of stentless valves in the future. PMID:23439732

  9. Central flow tilting disc valve for aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Björk, Viking Olov

    1970-01-01

    A new central flow tilting disc valve has been introduced. The clinical experience from the first 50 patients treated with aortic valve replacement and followed up for 12 months is reported. The results obtained are so encouraging that the tilting disc valve is at present preferred for all aortic valve replacements in this institution. Images PMID:5485003

  10. Recent advances in aortic valve disease: highlights from a bicuspid aortic valve to transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Augoustides, John G T; Wolfe, Yanika; Walsh, Elizabeth K; Szeto, Wilson Y

    2009-08-01

    There have been major advances in the management of aortic valve disease. Because bicuspid aortic valve is common and predicts an increased risk of adverse aortic events, these patients merit aortic surveillance and consideration for ascending aortic replacement when its diameter exceeds 4.0 cm. Serial quantitative echocardiographic analysis, as compared with traditional clinical markers, can result in better timing of surgical intervention for aortic regurgitation. Furthermore, echocardiographic analysis of aortic regurgitation can classify the mechanism based on cusp mobility to guide aortic valve repair. In aortic root replacement, aortic valve preservation with reimplantation is a mainstream surgical option in Marfan syndrome to offer freedom from valve-related anticoagulation. Prosthetic aortic root replacement has further alternatives with the introduction of the aortic neosinus design and acceptable clinical outcomes with the porcine xenograft. Because aortic valve prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) may adversely affect patient outcome, its perioperative prevention is important. Furthermore, significant functional mitral regurgitation in association with aortic stenosis often resolves after aortic valve replacement. Echocardiographic assessment of the aortic valve must include valve area because the transaortic pressure gradient may be low in severe stenosis. Aortic valve replacement with partial sternotomy is safe and offers a reasonable less invasive alternative. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement, whether transfemoral or transapical, has revolutionized aortic valve replacement; it remains a major theme in the specialty for 2009 and beyond. PMID:19497768

  11. Aortic valve annuloplasty: new single suture technique.

    PubMed

    Schöllhorn, Joachim; Rylski, Bartosz; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm

    2014-06-01

    Reconstruction strategies for aortic valve insufficiency in the presence of aortic annulus dilatation are usually surgically challenging. We demonstrate a simple, modified Taylor technique of downsizing and stabilization of the aortic annulus using a single internal base suture. Since April 2011, 22 consecutive patients have undergone safe aortic valve annuloplasty. No reoperations for aortic valve insufficiency and no deaths occurred. PMID:24882316

  12. Aortic Valve Surgery: Minimally Invasive Options

    PubMed Central

    Ramlawi, Basel; Bedeir, Kareem; Lamelas, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery has not been adopted by a significant proportion of cardiac surgeons despite proven benefits. This may be related to a high learning curve and technical issues requiring retraining. In this review, we discuss the data for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and describe our operative technique for both ministernotomy and anterior thoracotomy approaches. We also discuss the advent of novel sutureless valves and how these techniques compare to available transcatheter aortic valve procedures. PMID:27127559

  13. Aortic Valve Surgery: Minimally Invasive Options.

    PubMed

    Ramlawi, Basel; Bedeir, Kareem; Lamelas, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve surgery has not been adopted by a significant proportion of cardiac surgeons despite proven benefits. This may be related to a high learning curve and technical issues requiring retraining. In this review, we discuss the data for minimally invasive aortic valve surgery and describe our operative technique for both ministernotomy and anterior thoracotomy approaches. We also discuss the advent of novel sutureless valves and how these techniques compare to available transcatheter aortic valve procedures. PMID:27127559

  14. [Parameters of quality for aortic valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Vetter, H O; Driever, R; Schmitz, E

    2009-10-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of mechanical or biological heart valve prostheses in combination with complications during long-term follow-up are responsible for the quality of aortic valve replacement. Anatomical conditions like narrow aortic root, concomitant coronary artery disease or reduced left ventricular function impair the quite good surgical results necessitating surgical intervention or the use of stentless valve implants. PMID:19834842

  15. Emergency Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation for Acute and Early Failure of Sutureless Perceval Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Durand, Eric; Tron, Christophe; Eltchaninoff, Hélène

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 78-year-old woman admitted for cardiogenic shock related to acute and early failure (severe aortic regurgitation) of a Perceval sutureless aortic bioprosthesis (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy). Clinical stability was achieved using rescue transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation with an Edwards SAPIEN 3 prosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA). To our knowledge, we report herein the first case of successful valve-in-valve implantation using a SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve in a sutureless bioprosthetic aortic valve with acute and early deterioration. PMID:26095935

  16. Nocardial endocarditis of an aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, G; Schaal, K P; Kochsiek, K

    1987-01-01

    The organism responsible for endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve was identified as Nocardia asteroides. The patient was treated with intravenous amikacin (250 mg four times a day) and intravenous imipenem (1.5 g four times a day). The valve was replaced under this new antibiotic regimen. This is the first report of survival after prosthetic valve nocardiosis. PMID:3555567

  17. Mechanical versus biological aortic valve replacement strategies.

    PubMed

    Reineke, D; Gisler, F; Englberger, L; Carrel, T

    2016-04-01

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the most frequently performed procedure in valve surgery. The controversy about the optimal choice of the prosthetic valve is as old as the technique itself. Currently there is no perfect valve substitute available. The main challenge is to choose between mechanical and biological prosthetic valves. Biological valves include pericardial (bovine, porcine or equine) and native porcine bioprostheses designed in stented, stentless and sutureless versions. Homografts and pulmonary autografts are reserved for special indications and will not be discussed in detail in this review. We will focus on the decision making between artificial biological and mechanical prostheses, respectively. The first part of this article reviews guideline recommendations concerning the choice of aortic prostheses in different clinical situations while the second part is focused on novel strategies in the treatment of patients with aortic valve pathology. PMID:26678683

  18. Geometry of aortic heart valves. [prosthetic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karara, H. M.

    1975-01-01

    Photogrammetric measurements of the surface topography of the aortic valves obtained from silicon rubber molds of freshly excised human aortic valves are presented. The data are part of an investigation into the design of a new prosthetic valve which will be a central-flow device, like the real valve and unlike previous central-occluding prostheses. Since the maximum stress on the heart valve is induced when the valve is closed and subject to diastolic back-pressure, it was decided to determine the valve geometry during diastole. That is, the molds were formed by pouring the rubber down the excised aortas, causing the valves to close. The molds were made under different pressures (20-120 torr); photogrammetry served as a vehicle for the assessment of the mold topography through the following outputs: digital models, surface profiles, and contour maps.

  19. Aortic Annulus Stabilization Technique for Rapid Deployment Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe; Tozzi, Piergiorgio; von Segesser, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deployment aortic valve replacement (RDAVR) with the use of rapid deployment valve systems represents a smart alternative to the use of standard aortic bioprosthesis for aortic valve replacement. Nevertheless, its use is still debatable in patients with pure aortic valve regurgitation or true bicuspid aortic valve because of the risk of postoperative paravalvular leak. To address this issue, an optimal annulus-valve size match seems to be the ideal surgical strategy. This article describes a new technique developed to stabilize the aortic annulus and prevent paravalvular leak after RDAVR. To confirm the feasibility, this technique was performed in six patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis who were scheduled to undergo aortic valve replacement at our center. All patients survived surgery and were discharged from the hospital. There were no new intracardiac conduction system disturbances observed, and a permanent pacemaker implantation was not required in any of the patients. The intraoperative and postoperative echocardiogram confirmed successful positioning of the valve, and no paravalvular leak was observed. In this preliminary experience, RDAVR through a full sternotomy or an upper hemisternotomy approach with the use of aortic annulus stabilization technique was safe, and no leak was observed. Future studies on large series of patients are necessary to confirm the safety and effectiveness of this technique in preventing paravalvular leak in patients with true bicuspid aortic valves or pure aortic regurgitation. PMID:26575385

  20. Unusual complication after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Frigg, Christoph; Cassina, Tiziano; Siclari, Francesco; Mauri, Romano

    2008-02-01

    We present a report of a postoperative left ventricular-right atrial (LV-RA) communication after aortic valve replacement. Such intracardiac defects are rare but encountered occasionally after valve surgery. The diagnosis was made by use of transesophageal echocardiography with echo-Doppler and color-flow imaging. Complications of LV-RA shunts and differential diagnosis are discussed. PMID:18042564

  1. Advances in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Kleiman, Neal S.; Reardon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is becoming widely used for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. Data from The PARTNER Trial (Placement of AoRtic TraNscathetER Valves) and the Medtronic CoreValve® U.S. Pivotal Investigational Device Exemption trial indicate that survival for extreme-risk patients is superior to best medical therapy and equivalent or superior to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR), although long-term durability remains unknown. Paravalvular leak remains higher in TAVR than SAVR, as does permanent pacemaker implantation in self-expanding valves. New-generation valves are addressing these issues, especially for paravalvular leak. There is strong evidence that TAVR is appropriate for both extreme-risk and high-risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis, and the continued development of new valves are making implantation more reliable. This review discusses the studies supporting the use of TAVR and explores current advances in the field. PMID:27127560

  2. Valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve implantation: the new playground for prosthesis-patient mismatch.

    PubMed

    Faerber, Gloria; Schleger, Simone; Diab, Mahmoud; Breuer, Martin; Figulla, Hans R; Eichinger, Walter B; Doenst, Torsten

    2014-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an established procedure for patients with aortic valve stenosis and significant comorbidities. One option offered by this technique is the implantation of a transcatheter valve inside a surgically implanted bioprosthesis. Many reports address the feasibility but also the pitfalls of these valve-in-valve (VIV) procedures. Review articles provide tables listing which valve sizes are appropriate based on the size of the initially implanted bioprosthesis. However, we previously argued that the hemodynamic performance of a prosthetic tissue valve is in large part a result of the dimensions of the bioprosthesis in relation to the patient's aortic outflow dimensions. Thus, the decision if a VIV TAVI procedure is likely to be associated with a favorable hemodynamic result cannot safely be made by looking at premade sizing tables that do not include patient dimensions and do not inquire about the primary cause for bioprosthetic valve stenosis. Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) may therefore be more frequent than expected after conventional aortic valve replacement. Importantly, it may be masked by a potentially flawed method assessing its relevance. Such PPM may therefore impact significantly on hemodynamic outcome after VIV TAVI. Fifteen percent of currently published VIV procedures show only a minimal reduction of pressure gradients. We will address potential pitfalls in the current determination of PPM, outline the missing links for reliable determination of PPM, and present a simplified algorithm to guide decision making for VIV TAVI. PMID:24612128

  3. Perioperative assessment of aortic homograft, Toronto stentless valve, and stented valve in the aortic position.

    PubMed

    Jin, X Y; Gibson, D G; Yacoub, M H; Pepper, J R

    1995-08-01

    We investigated aortic valve hemodynamic performance and perioperative left ventricular function in 50 patients (mean [+/- SD] age, 64 +/- 9 years; 34 men, 16 women) undergoing elective aortic valve replacement, using an aortic homograft (n = 20), a Toronto stentless porcine valve (n = 20), or a stented bioprosthesis (n = 10), by transesophageal echocardiography combined with high-fidelity cavity pressure recordings and thermodilution cardiac output measurements. Thirty-nine patients had aortic stenosis; 11 had predominant regurgitation. Thirteen patients with concomitant coronary artery stenosis underwent grafting. Left ventricular mass index in all patients was 280 +/- 110 g/m2. The transvalvular pressure drop and energy consumption were significantly higher with stented than stentless valves (5 with aortic homograft and 11 with Toronto valve, with matched age and valve size; 20 +/- 12 versus 3 +/- 9 mm Hg; 21% +/- 13% versus 8% +/- 8%, both p < 0.01). However, there was no difference in these variables between the Toronto valve and the aortic homograft (3 +/- 12 versus 2 +/- 10 mm Hg; 5% +/- 14% versus 2% +/- 12%, both p > 0.05), although the Toronto valves (normalized to body surface area) were larger than the aortic homografts (14.4 +/- 1.9 versus 12.6 +/- 1.8 mm/m2, p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in left ventricular stroke volume index or stroke work index in the systemic circulation, either between stentless and stented valves or between aortic homografts and Toronto valves, although the cross-clamp time required to insert a stentless valve was 20 minutes longer than that for a stented valve.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7646195

  4. 'Fast-implantable' aortic valve implantation and concomitant mitral procedures.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Enrico; Siniscalchi, Giuseppe; Marinakis, Sotirios; Berdajs, Denis; von Segesser, Ludwig

    2014-10-01

    Concomitant aortic and mitral valve replacement or concomitant aortic valve replacement and mitral repair can be a challenge for the cardiac surgeon: in particular, because of their structure and design, two bioprosthetic heart valves or an aortic valve prosthesis and a rigid mitral ring can interfere at the level of the mitroaortic junction. Therefore, when a mitral bioprosthesis or a rigid mitral ring is already in place and a surgical aortic valve replacement becomes necessary, or when older high-risk patients require concomitant mitral and aortic procedures, the new 'fast-implantable' aortic valve system (Intuity valve, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) can represent a smart alternative to standard aortic bioprosthesis. Unfortunately, this is still controversial (risk of interference). However, transcatheter aortic valve replacements have been performed in patients with previously implanted mitral valves or mitral rings. Interestingly, we learned that there is no interference (or not significant interference) among the standard valve and the stent valve. Consequently, we can assume that a fast-implantable valve can also be safely placed next to a biological mitral valve or next to a rigid mitral ring without risks of distortion, malpositioning, high gradient or paravalvular leak. This paper describes two cases: a concomitant Intuity aortic valve and bioprosthetic mitral valve implantation and a concomitant Intuity aortic valve and mitral ring implantation. PMID:25015540

  5. Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement

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  6. Aortic Valve Adaptation to Aortic Root Dilatation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae-Hee; Handschumacher, Mark D.; Levine, Robert A.; Sun, Byung Joo; Jang, Jeong Yoon; Yang, Dong Hyun; Kang, Joon-Won; Song, Jong-Min; Kang, Duk-Hyun; Lim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Jae-Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Background The 3-dimensional relationship between aortic root and cusp is essential to understand the mechanism of aortic regurgitation (AR) because of aortic root dilatation (ARD). We sought to test the hypothesis that the stretched cusps in ARD enlarge to compensate for ARD. Methods and Results Computed tomography imaged 92 patients (57 with ARD, 29 with moderate to severe AR, 28 without significant AR) and 35 normal controls. Specialized 3-dimensional software measured individual cusp surface areas relative to maximal mid-sinus cross-sectional area and minimal 3-dimensional annular area, coaptation area fraction, and asymmetry of sinus volumes and intercommissural distances. Total open cusp surface area increased (P<0.001) from 7.6±1.4 cm2/m2 in normals to 12.9±2.2 cm2/m2 in AR-negative and 15.2±3.3 cm2/m2 in AR-positive patients. However, the ratio of closed cusp surface area to maximal mid-sinus area, reflecting cusp adaptation, decreased from normals to AR-negative to AR-positive patients (1.38±0.20, 1.15±0.15, 0.88±0.15; P<0.001), creating the lowest coaptation area fraction. Cusp distensibility (closed diastolic versus open area) decreased from 20% in controls and AR-negative patients to 5% in AR-positive patients (P<0.001). Multivariate determinants of AR and coaptation area fraction reflected both sinus size and cusp-to-annular adaptation. ARD was also progressively asymmetrical with root size, and individual cusp surface areas failed to match this asymmetry. Conclusions Aortic cusp enlargement occurs in ARD, but cusp adaptation and distensibility become limited in prominent, asymmetrical ARD, leading to AR. Optimal AR repair tailored to individual patient anatomy can benefit from appreciating valve adaptation and 3-dimensional relationships; understanding cusp adaptation mechanisms may ultimately provide therapeutic opportunities to improve such compensation. PMID:25051951

  7. Valve-in-Valve-in-Valve Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation to Treat a Degenerated Surgical Bioprosthesis in a Subaortic Position

    PubMed Central

    Nuis, Rutger-Jan; Benitez, Luis M.; Nader, Carlos A.; Perez, Sergio; de Marchena, Eduardo J.; Dager, Antonio E.

    2013-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation for aortic stenosis has evolved as an alternative treatment for patients who are at high or excessive surgical risk. We report the case of an 84-year-old man with a degenerated surgically implanted valve in a subaortic position (9 mm below the native annulus) who underwent “valve-in-valve” transcatheter aortic valve implantation with use of a Medtronic CoreValve system. We planned to deploy the CoreValve at a conventional depth in the left ventricular outflow tract; we realized that this might result in paravalvular regurgitation, but it would also afford a “deep” landing site for a second valve, if necessary. Ultimately, we implanted a second CoreValve deep in the left ventricular outflow tract to seal a paravalvular leak. The frame of the first valve—positioned at the conventional depth—enabled secure anchoring of the second valve in a deeper position, which in turn effected successful treatment of the failing subaortic surgical prosthesis without paravalvular regurgitation. PMID:23914032

  8. Minimally invasive approach to calcified aortic valve replacement: Anaesthetic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Vymazal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    For symptomatic patients with severe calcified aortic valve stenosis, open heart surgery for aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard. However, elderly patients with an increased risk profile can be treated by using transcatheter approaches (transcatheter aortic valve implantation [TAVI]). The major considerations related to use of general and local anaesthesia for TAVI are discussed in this review. PMID:26195828

  9. Biomechanics of the pulmonary autograft valve in the aortic position.

    PubMed Central

    Gorczynski, A; Trenkner, M; Anisimowicz, L; Gutkowski, R; Drapella, A; Kwiatkowska, E; Dobke, M

    1982-01-01

    Pulmonary autograft valve replacement has been simulated by implanting the pulmonary valve into the aortic position of the same cadaver heart from both human and porcine sources. The forces acting on the pulmonary valve leaflets have been calculated on the basis of a triaxial ellipsoid mathematical model. These forces on the pulmonary autograft valve were shown to be essentially similar to those previously reported for aortic valve leaflets. Biomechanical measurements have been made on the simulated autograft valves and on the isolated pulmonary valve cusps. The tensile strengths of the pulmonary valve cusps in both circumferential and radial directions were roughly three times greater than those of aortic valve cusps. This indicated the ability of the pulmonary valves to accept, ab initio, aortic valve closing pressures. Pressure-induced changes in dimension, calculated on the basis of diameters of the simulated pulmonary autograft root, also indicated that the distensibility of the autograft valve was limited. It reached a maximum at 30 mm Hg (4 kPa) without any suggestion of further distension to the point of distortion and incompetence. The combination of the calculated forces acting on the valve and the biomechanical measurements have shown that pulmonary valves used as autograft aortic valve replacements are able to tolerate aortic pressures from the time of implantation. These experimental results from simulated autografts support the clinical use of this valve over the past 13 years. PMID:7135295

  10. Fundamental mechanics of aortic heart valve closure.

    PubMed

    Hose, David Rodney; Narracott, Andrew James; Penrose, Justin M T; Baguley, David; Jones, Ian P; Lawford, Patricia V

    2006-01-01

    Stresses in a prosthetic heart valve at closure are determined by its geometrical and structural characteristics, by the mechanical support environment, and by the momentum of the valve leaflets or occluder and of the blood at the instant of closure. The mass of blood to be arrested is significantly greater than that of the leaflets or occluder, and is therefore likely to dominate the closure impulse. The kinetic energy of the blood must be transduced into potential energy in the structural components (valve leaflets, aortic root and aorta). This paper presents a methodology for computation and parameterisation of the blood momentum associated with a valve in the aortic position. It is suggested that the influence of physiological parameters, such as systolic waveform and systemic impedance, on the closure characteristics can be investigated based on the fluid dynamic implications. Detailed results are presented for a single leaflet mechanical valve (Bjork-Shiley 60 degrees Convexo-Concave). It is demonstrated that a simple analytical method can yield results that might be adequate for the purposes of valve design. PMID:16488234

  11. Native aortic valve pneumococcal endocarditis - fulminant presentation

    PubMed Central

    Domingues, Kevin; Marta, Liliana; Monteiro, Isabel; Leal, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Pneumococcal endocarditis is a rare entity, corresponding to 1 to 3% of native valve endocarditis cases. It has a typically adverse prognosis, with high mortality. There is a reported predilection for the aortic valve; thus, a common presentation is acute left heart failure. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with a history of sinusitis, who was admitted with the diagnosis of pneumonia. She rapidly deteriorated with signs of septic shock and was transferred to the critical care unit. The transesophageal echocardiogram revealed severe aortic regurgitation due to valve vegetations. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. She underwent cardiac surgery and had multiple postoperative complications. Nonetheless, the patient made a slow and complete recovery. Infectious endocarditis should be ruled out if any suspicion arises, and echocardiography should be performed in an early stage in patients with poor response to vasopressors and inotropes. Patients with pneumococcal endocarditis benefit from an aggressive approach, with performance of early surgery.

  12. Aerococcus urinae associated aortic and tricuspid valve infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Beenish; Chaucer, Benjamin; Chevenon, Marie; Fernandes, Denise; Rana, Madhvi; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a rare bacteria usually associated with urinary tract infection. It is unusually associated with endocarditis. To date only 18 cases have been reported. Among these cases, the majority had aortic valve involvement. Three had mitral and aortic valve involvement, and two had mitral and tricuspid valve involvement. We present the first reported case of A. urinae associated aortic and tricuspid valve endocarditis. Timely recognition and appropriate treatment of this fatal infection is essential to decrease morbidity and mortality. PMID:27051583

  13. Aerococcus urinae associated aortic and tricuspid valve infective endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Beenish; Chaucer, Benjamin; Chevenon, Marie; Fernandes, Denise; Rana, Madhvi; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a rare bacteria usually associated with urinary tract infection. It is unusually associated with endocarditis. To date only 18 cases have been reported. Among these cases, the majority had aortic valve involvement. Three had mitral and aortic valve involvement, and two had mitral and tricuspid valve involvement. We present the first reported case of A. urinae associated aortic and tricuspid valve endocarditis. Timely recognition and appropriate treatment of this fatal infection is essential to decrease morbidity and mortality. PMID:27051583

  14. VALVE

    DOEpatents

    Arkelyan, A.M.; Rickard, C.L.

    1962-04-17

    A gate valve for controlling the flow of fluid in separate concentric ducts or channels by means of a single valve is described. In one position, the valve sealing discs engage opposed sets of concentric ducts leading to the concentric pipes defining the flow channels to block flow therethrough. In another position, the discs are withdrawn from engagement with the opposed ducts and at the same time a bridging section is interposed therebetween to define concentric paths coextensive with and connecting the opposed ducts to facilitate flow therebetween. A wedge block arrangement is employed with each sealing disc to enable it to engage the ducts. The wedge block arrangement also facilitates unobstructcd withdrawal of the discs out of the intervening space between the sets of ducts. (AEC)

  15. Valve

    DOEpatents

    Cho, Nakwon

    1980-01-01

    A positive acting valve suitable for operation in a corrosive environment is provided. The valve includes a hollow valve body defining an open-ended bore for receiving two, axially aligned, spaced-apart, cylindrical inserts. One insert, designated the seat insert, terminates inside the valve body in an annular face which lies within plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elastomeric O-ring seal is disposed in a groove extending about the annular face. The other insert, designated the wedge insert, terminates inside the valve body in at least two surfaces oppositely inclined with respect to each other and with respect to a plane normal to the axis of the two inserts. An elongated reciprocable gate, movable between the two inserts along a path normal to the axis of the two inserts, has a first flat face portion disposed adjacent and parallel to the annular face of the seat insert. The gate has a second face portion opposite to the first face portion provided with at least two oppositely inclined surfaces for mating with respective inclined surfaces of the wedge insert. An opening is provided through the gate which registers with a flow passage through the two inserts when the valve is open. Interaction of the respective inclined surfaces of the gate and wedge insert act to force the first flat face portion of the gate against the O-ring seal in the seat insert at the limits of gate displacement where it reaches its respective fully open and fully closed positions.

  16. The significance of aortic valve calcification in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xinshuang; Zhang, Minghui; Liu, Kun; Hou, Zhihui; Gao, Yang; Yin, Weihua; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhennan; Lu, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart disease. Our study was to analyze clinical features of BAV and evaluate whether aortic valve calcium score (AVCS) was a reliable marker for aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with BAV. 101 patients with BAV who both underwent echocardiology and cardiac computed tomography (CT) scan in our institution were included. Basic clinical data, haemodynamic feature, aortic valve and coronary calcium score were collected and compared among patients with different valve function and different degree of AS. Risk factors related to severe AS were evaluated by logistic regression, and a receiver operative characteristic curve was used to determine the cutoff calcium score greater than which the diagnosis of severe AS was optimized. Patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) were younger and demonstrated larger aortic annulus and sinus compared with patients with other valve dysfunction. Aortic valve calcium score was higher in patients with AS than with AR. For patients with different degree of AS, there were statistical significances in the value of age, aortic valve calcium score and coronary calcium score. AVCS was positively related to severe AS with an odd ratio of 1.286 (95 % CI 1.099-1.504) by every 300 points increase. AVCS was also a strong predictor for severe AS with area under the curve 0.855 with a cutoff value of 897 (sensitivity 86.7 %, specificity 72.2 %). Conclusively, aortic calcium score calculated by quantitative CT is a reliable marker in evaluating severity of AS. PMID:26440659

  17. Percutaneous Transcatheter Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan

    2000-09-15

    Purpose: Over the past 30 years there have been experimental efforts at catheter-based management of aortic valve regurgitation with the idea of extending treatment to nonsurgical candidates. A new catheter-based aortic valve design is described.Methods: The new catheter-delivered valve consists of a stent-based valve cage with locking mechanism and a prosthetic flexible tilting valve disc. The valve cage is delivered first followed by deployment and locking of the disc. In acute experiments, valve implantation was done in four dogs.Results: Valve implantation was successful in all four animals. The implanted valve functioned well for the duration of the experiments (up to 3 hr).Conclusion: The study showed the implantation feasibility and short-term function of the tested catheter-based aortic disc valve. Further experimental studies are warranted.

  18. Coronary Ostial Stenosis after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ziakas, Antonios G.; Economou, Fotios I.; Charokopos, Nicholas A.; Pitsis, Antonios A.; Parharidou, Despina G.; Papadopoulos, Thomas I.; Parharidis, Georgios E.

    2010-01-01

    Coronary ostial stenosis is a rare but potentially serious sequela after aortic valve replacement. It occurs in the left main or right coronary artery after 1% to 5% of aortic valve replacement procedures. The clinical symptoms are usually severe and may appear from 1 to 6 months postoperatively. Although the typical treatment is coronary artery bypass grafting, patients have been successfully treated by means of percutaneous coronary intervention. Herein, we present the cases of 2 patients in whom coronary ostial stenosis developed after aortic valve replacement. In the 1st case, a 72-year-old man underwent aortic valve replacement and bypass grafting of the saphenous vein to the left anterior descending coronary artery. Six months later, he experienced a non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography revealed a critical stenosis of the right coronary artery ostium. In the 2nd case, a 78-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement and grafting of the saphenous vein to an occluded right coronary artery. Four months later, she experienced unstable angina. Coronary angiography showed a critical left main coronary artery ostial stenosis and occlusion of the right coronary artery venous graft. In each patient, we performed percutaneous coronary intervention and deployed a drug-eluting stent. Both patients were asymptomatic on 6-to 12-month follow-up. We attribute the coronary ostial stenosis to the selective ostial administration of cardioplegic solution during surgery. We conclude that retrograde administration of cardioplegic solution through the coronary sinus may reduce the incidence of postoperative coronary ostial stenosis, and that stenting may be an efficient treatment option. PMID:20844624

  19. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation today and tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Wenaweser, Peter; Praz, Fabien; Stortecky, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in Western industrial countries (including Switzerland) with a prevalence of about 5% in the population aged 75 and over. If left untreated, symptomatic patients have a rate of death of more than 50% within 2 years. As a result of age and elevated surgical risk, an important proportion of elderly patients are not referred to surgery. Thus, the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in 2002 has initiated a paradigm shift in the treatment of patients with symptomatic, severe aortic stenosis. The early technical and procedural success of this minimal invasive treatment in high-risk patients has promoted further innovation and development of transcatheter heart valve (THV) systems during the last 13 years. Downsizing of the delivery catheters along with technical improvements aiming to reduce postprocedural paravalvular regurgitation have resulted in a significant reduction in mortality. As a consequence, TAVI is nowadays established as safe and effective treatment for selected inoperable and high-risk patients. Ongoing studies are investigating the outcome of intermediate risk patients allocated to either surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or TAVI. Despite these advancements, some specific areas of concern still require attention and need further investigations including conduction disturbances, valve degeneration and antithrombotic management. Although the off-label use of TAVI devices in the mitral, tricuspid or pulmonary position has recently developed, important limitations still apply and careful patient selection remains crucial. This review aims to summarise the available clinical evidence of transcatheter aortic valve treatment during the last 13 years and to provide a glimpse of future technologies. PMID:26999727

  20. The effects of positioning of transcatheter aortic valves on fluid dynamics of the aortic root.

    PubMed

    Groves, Elliott M; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Su, Jimmy L; Kheradvar, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a novel treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis. Due to the recent use of this technology and the procedural variability, there is very little data that quantify the hemodynamic consequences of variations in valve placement. Changes in aortic wall stresses and fluid retention in the sinuses of Valsalva can have a significant effect on the clinical response a patient has to the procedure. By comprehensively characterizing complex flow in the sinuses of Valsalva using digital particle image velocimetry and an advanced heart-flow simulator, various positions of a deployed transcatheter valve with respect to a bioprosthetic aortic valve (valve-in-valve) were tested in vitro. Displacements of the transcatheter valve were axial and directed below the simulated native valve annulus. It was determined that for both blood residence time and aortic Reynolds stresses, it is optimal to have the annulus of the transcatheter valve deployed as close to the aortic valve annulus as possible. PMID:25010918

  1. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement: postoperative CT findings of Sapien and CoreValve transcatheter heart valves.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Rodrigo A; Budde, Ricardo P J; Leiner, Tim; Shivalkar, Bharati; Van Herck, Paul L; Op de Beeck, Bart J; Vrints, Christiaan; Buijsrogge, Marc P; Stella, Pieter R; Rodrigus, Inez; Bosmans, Johan; Parizel, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement represents one of the most exciting medical technical developments in recent years, offering a much-needed therapeutic alternative for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis who, due to comorbidities and advanced age, are considered to be inoperable or at high surgical risk. The efficacy of this procedure compared with standard surgical intervention has been properly validated in multicenter randomized controlled trials (PARTNER A and B trials), leading to widespread clinical implementation, with over 50,000 procedures currently being performed worldwide each year. Although much of the attention has rightly focused on the potential role of computed tomography (CT) in the preprocedural assessment of the aortic root and the establishment of imaging-guided valve-sizing algorithms, less is known regarding the postprocedural CT characteristics of transcatheter heart valves (THVs). However, given the increasing worldwide recognition and clinical implementation of these devices, they will no doubt be encountered with increasing frequency in patients referred for thoracic CT, either for postprocedural evaluation of the aortic root or for unrelated reasons. Familiarity with these devices and their CT characteristics will increase diagnostic confidence and the value of the radiology report. The authors describe the physical and imaging properties of the currently commercially available THVs, their normal postprocedural imaging appearances, and potential complications that can be detected at CT. In addition, they discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of CT and echocardiography in this setting. PMID:25310415

  2. [Aortic valve stenosis: transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) – transarterial or transapical approach].

    PubMed

    Sack, S; Schelp, M K; Poppe, S; Weber, M; Krüger, T; Geith, S; Lieber, M; Schleger, S; Eichinger, W; Menne, J

    2011-03-01

    The calcified aortic stenosis is the dominating valve disease. Patients affected are most common elderly people in the 8 (th) or 9 (th) decade of their life who often show associated comorbidities like reduced left ventricular function, impaired renal function, pulmonary hypertension, and further diseases (Diabetes mellitus, stroke, COPD). In many cases perioperative morbidity and mortality are too high for surgical valve replacement and up to 30 % of patients are rejected. Nevertheless, prognosis of aortic stenosis is worse if the typical symptoms like dyspnea on exertion, syncope, and angina occur. The transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a new method treating this particular group of patients. The aortic valve bioprothesis consists of a balloon-expandable stent or a self-expandable frame, in which a valve of bovine or porcine pericardium is incorporated. The implantation is performed by retrograde access via the femoral or subclavian artery; the balloon-expandable prosthesis can also be implanted by transapical approach. Recently, the PARTNER trial and other studies demonstrate a high implantation success rate and better survival in comparison to standard therapy but exhibit also cerebral vascular and peripheral vascular complications. A further reduction of the available delivery systems and new types of valves which are under experimental tests and clinical evaluation contribute to this development. PMID:21344357

  3. Sutureless aortic valve implantation: first experience in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Guohao; Vu, duc Thang; Teoh, Kristine Leok Kheng; Ti, Lian Kah; Kofidis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Age-related degenerative calcification is currently the most common cause of aortic stenosis (AS) in adults and the most frequent reason for aortic valve replacement in patients with AS. With the increased life expectancy, a large proportion of elderly patients with AS is undergoing cardiac surgery, although many are not offered conventional aortic valve replacement due to the risks involved. However, sutureless aortic valve replacement provides an alternative for this group of elderly patients. This case series reports the first experience in Asia of sutureless aortic valve implantation in seven patients at our institution. PMID:25631972

  4. A simple technique for aortic valve replacement using freehand allografts.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Cabral, C E; Miller, D C; Shumway, N E

    1988-03-01

    Given the recent resurgence of interest in the use of "fresh" and cryopreserved allograft valves for aortic valve replacement, the fact that many cardiac surgeons were not exposed to the operative techniques involved in freehand implantation of allograft valves during their residency training, and the paucity of teaching materials that clearly portray such techniques, details of a simplified method of subcoronary, freehand allograft valve implantation in the aortic position are described and illustrated. PMID:2980005

  5. Deep Crater in Heavily Calcified Aortic Valve Leaflet

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sarah Chaoying; Canter, Lisa; Zeeshan, Ahmad; Elefteriades, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The association of severe calcific aortic stenosis with clinically significant stroke has not been well established. This case vividly describes the relationship with clinical and pathological (gross and microscopic) findings in a 62-year-old man with a severely calcified bicuspid aortic valve. Eleven months prior to aortic valve surgery, the patient had stigmata of cerebral embolic events in the absence of any other embolic source. During the aortic valve replacement surgery for aortic stenosis, he was found to have a large atheroma on the aortic valve cusp with a crater containing friable debris in its center. These findings support the potential for embolic stroke in patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. We recommend that the aortic valve be considered as an embolic source in patients with an otherwise cryptogenic cerebrovascular accident.

  6. Replacement of valve prosthesis within aortic composite graft.

    PubMed

    Urbanski, Paul P

    2009-12-01

    A 64-year-old man was referred for aortic valve re-replacement due to moderate-to-severe stenosis that developed 10 years after complete aortic root replacement using a stentless valve composite graft. He also had coronary heart disease and a mitral valve defect with predominant insufficiency. The patient underwent re-do surgery consisting of coronary artery bypass grafting, mitral valve replacement, and replacement of the valve prosthesis within the aortic conduit, which I believe is the first report of such a procedure. PMID:19932288

  7. Gene expression profiling of human calcific aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Rysä, Jaana

    2016-03-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease is a slowly progressive disorder that ranges from mild valve thickening (i.e. aortic sclerosis) to severe calcification of valves (i.e. aortic stenosis). Gene expression profiling analysis of non-calcified controls, sclerotic, and calcified aortic valves was performed to better understand the progression of calcific aortic valve disease. The complementary information related to processing and statistical analysis of the DNA microarray data is provided in this article. Interpretation of this data can be found in a research article entitled "MicroRNA-125b and chemokine CCL4 expression are associated with calcific aortic valve disease" [1]. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and is deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE51472. PMID:26981379

  8. Gene expression profiling of human calcific aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Rysä, Jaana

    2015-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease is a slowly progressive disorder that ranges from mild valve thickening (i.e. aortic sclerosis) to severe calcification of valves (i.e. aortic stenosis). Gene expression profiling analysis of non-calcified controls, sclerotic, and calcified aortic valves was performed to better understand the progression of calcific aortic valve disease. The complementary information related to processing and statistical analysis of the DNA microarray data is provided in this article. Interpretation of this data can be found in a research article entitled “MicroRNA-125b and chemokine CCL4 expression are associated with calcific aortic valve disease” [1]. The microarray data complies with MIAME guidelines and is deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database under accession number GSE51472.

  9. Meta-Analysis of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kondur, Ashok; Briasoulis, Alexandros; Palla, Mohan; Penumetcha, Anirudh; Mallikethi-Reddy, Sagar; Badheka, Apurva; Schreiber, Theodore

    2016-01-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a viable option in the treatment of severe aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for surgery. We sought to further investigate outcomes in patients at low to intermediate risk with aortic stenosis who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) versus TAVR. We systematically searched the electronic databases, MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane for prospective cohort studies of the effects of TAVR versus SAVR on clinical outcomes (30-day mortality, all-cause mortality, stroke and myocardial infarction, major vascular complications, paravalvular regurgitation, permanent pacemaker implantation, major bleeding, and acute kidney injury). We identified 5 clinical studies, examining 1,618 patients in the TAVR group and 1,581 patients in the SAVR group with an average follow-up of 1.05 years. No difference in all-cause mortality, stroke, and myocardial infarction between the 2 approaches was found. TAVR was associated with higher rates of vascular complications, permanent pacemaker implantation, and moderate or severe paravalvular regurgitation (p <0.001 for all), whereas more major bleeding events were seen in the SAVR group (p <0.001). In conclusion, TAVR was found to have similar survival and stroke rates and lower major bleeding rates as compared with SAVR in patients at low or intermediate surgical risk. However, SAVR was associated with less pacemaker placements and paravalvular regurgitation rates. PMID:26639040

  10. Absent Aortic Valve in DiGeorge Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Elizabeth C; Minturn, Lucy; Gotteiner, Nina L; Ernst, Linda M

    2016-01-01

    A 20-week-old fetus with the 22q11.2 deletion characteristic of DiGeorge syndrome is described with vertebral segmentation abnormalities and complex cardiovascular anomalies including an absent aortic valve. This is only the second known case of absent aortic valve in association with DiGeorge syndrome. We discuss the association of absent aortic valve with other conotruncal defects and the utility of fetal echocardiography in the diagnosis of DiGeorge syndrome. PMID:26230226

  11. Thrombocytosis following splenectomy and aortic valve replacement for idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura with bicuspid aortic valve

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Sarika; Ganjsinghani, Payal Kamlesh; Jain, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP) patients are at high risk for complications during and after cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass. The main clinical problem of primary ITP is an increased risk of bleeding although bleeding may not always be present. More recently, thrombosis has become appreciated as another potential complication of the procedure. We report a 22-year-old female patient with ITP with bicuspid aortic valve and splenomegaly, who underwent uncomplicated aortic valve replacement and splenectomy simultaneously. She was readmitted with chest pain due to coronary thrombosis following splenectomy which made the management difficult. We describe our experience in managing this patient who presented with thrombotic complication rather than bleeding in post-operative period and the challenges met in maintaining appropriate anticoagulation for aortic valve replacement as well as thrombosis, post-splenectomy PMID:26379295

  12. Thrombocytosis following splenectomy and aortic valve replacement for idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura with bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Sarika; Ganjsinghani, Payal Kamlesh; Jain, Rajnish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura (ITP) patients are at high risk for complications during and after cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass. The main clinical problem of primary ITP is an increased risk of bleeding although bleeding may not always be present. More recently, thrombosis has become appreciated as another potential complication of the procedure. We report a 22-year-old female patient with ITP with bicuspid aortic valve and splenomegaly, who underwent uncomplicated aortic valve replacement and splenectomy simultaneously. She was readmitted with chest pain due to coronary thrombosis following splenectomy which made the management difficult. We describe our experience in managing this patient who presented with thrombotic complication rather than bleeding in post-operative period and the challenges met in maintaining appropriate anticoagulation for aortic valve replacement as well as thrombosis, post-splenectomy. PMID:26379295

  13. Influence of acute hypertension on aortic valve competence.

    PubMed

    Fowler, N O; Holmes, J C; Spitz, H

    1975-12-01

    The effect of acutely induced hypertension on aortic valve competence was studied in anesthetized dogs. Aortic pressure was increased by infusion of methoxamine or mechanically; aortic valve competence was evaluated by aortogrphy and by indicator dye. The aortic valve was normally competent; aortic insufficiency appeared with increase of mean pressure by as little as 20-50 mmHg; 6 of 9 animals showed aortic incompetence when mean aortic pressure was elevated 45-70 mmHg, but the valve remained competent in 2 of 9 animals with mean pressure increments of 60-90 mmHg. The aortic root was appreciably less distensible than was the proximal descending aorta; this factor may limit the degree of aortic insufficiency in response to acute hypertension in the dog. PMID:765312

  14. The future of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Christian W; Arsalan, Mani; Mack, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Since the introduction of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) into clinical practice, the treatment of aortic stenosis has changed dramatically. In the past, medical therapy with or without balloon aortic valvuloplasty was the only option for inoperable patients. More recently, TAVI has become the treatment of choice for these patients and the preferred alternative for high-risk operable patients. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) currently remains the gold standard for patients at low or intermediate operative risk. As randomized trials have demonstrated comparable results between TAVI and SAVR in the high-risk population, there is now a clear trend towards performing TAVI even in intermediate-risk patients while awaiting the results of randomized trials in that population. Nevertheless, there are still questions regarding TAVI involving paravalvular leak (PVL), stroke, pacemaker requirements, and durability that remain to be more definitively answered before TAVI can routinely be performed in a broader, lower risk population. Improvements in patient selection, imaging, and second and third generation devices have decreased the incidence of PVLs and vascular complications that followed the earliest TAVI procedures, but the rates of perioperative stroke and permanent pacemaker implantation must still be addressed. Furthermore, the long-term durability of TAVI devices and a role for post-procedure antithrombotic management remain unanswered. Until these questions are more clearly answered, it is the Heart Team's task to determine the optimal treatment for each patient based on risk scores, frailty metrics, comorbidities, patient preference, and potential for improvement in quality of life. PMID:26578195

  15. Emerging trends in heart valve engineering: Part II. Novel and standard technologies for aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kheradvar, Arash; Groves, Elliott M; Goergen, Craig J; Alavi, S Hamed; Tranquillo, Robert; Simmons, Craig A; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Grande-Allen, K Jane; Mofrad, Mohammad R K; Falahatpisheh, Ahmad; Griffith, Boyce; Baaijens, Frank; Little, Stephen H; Canic, Suncica

    2015-04-01

    The engineering of technologies for heart valve replacement (i.e., heart valve engineering) is an exciting and evolving field. Since the first valve replacement, technology has progressed by leaps and bounds. Innovations emerge frequently and supply patients and physicians with new, increasingly efficacious and less invasive treatment options. As much as any other field in medicine the treatment of heart valve disease has experienced a renaissance in the last 10 years. Here we review the currently available technologies and future options in the surgical and transcatheter treatment of aortic valve disease. Different valves from major manufacturers are described in details with their applications. PMID:25449148

  16. Case report of Streptomyces endocarditis of a prosthetic aortic valve.

    PubMed Central

    Mossad, S B; Tomford, J W; Stewart, R; Ratliff, N B; Hall, G S

    1995-01-01

    We describe the first case of prosthetic valve endocarditis due to a Streptomyces sp. The patient presented with fever, cutaneous embolic lesions, and bacteremia 3 months after aortic valve replacement. Treatment required valve replacement and a long course of parenteral imipenem. PMID:8586732

  17. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloonexpandable valve: early experience from China

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qingsheng; Pei, Yifei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Zhinong; Zaiping, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the early experience of the application of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with the balloon-expandable system in China. The transcatheter aortic valve implantation technology has been widely used for patients with inoperable severe aortic stenosis in the developed world. The application of transcatheter aortic valve implantation is still in the early stages of testing in China, particularly for the balloon-expandable valve procedure. Methods This was a retrospective study. All patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation with balloon-expandable system in our hospital between 2011 and 2014 were included. Edwards SAPIEN XT Transcatheter Heart Valve was used. The improvement of valve and heart function was evaluated as well as 30-day mortality and major complications according to the VARC-2 definition. Results A total of 10 transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedures with the balloon-expandable system were performed in our hospital, of which 9 were transfemoral and 1 was transapical. The median age was 76 years, and the median STS score and Logistic EuroSCORE (%) were 8.9 and 16.2. The implantation was successfully conducted in all patients, only 2 patients had mild paravalvular leak. There was no second valve implantation. Moreover, no 30-day mortality or complications was reported. Following the transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure, the heart and valve functions had improved significantly. During the follow-up period of 3-34 months, one patient died of lung cancer 13 months after the operation. Conclusion This early experience has provided preliminary evidence for the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation procedure with the balloon-expandable system in the developing world with an increasing aging population.

  18. Unicuspid Unicommissural Aortic Valve: An Extremely Rare Congenital Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sukhjeet; Ghayal, Puneet; Mathur, Atish; Mysliwiec, Margaret; Lovoulos, Constantinos; Solanki, Pallavi; Klapholz, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital malformation that usually presents in the 3rd to 5th decade of life—and usually with severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation. It often requires surgical correction. Diagnosis can be made with 2- or 3-dimensional transthoracic or transesophageal echocardiography, cardiac computed tomography, or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who presented with dyspnea on exertion due to severe aortic stenosis secondary to a unicuspid unicommissural aortic valve. After aortic valve replacement, this patient experienced complete heart block that required the placement of a permanent pacemaker. PMID:26175647

  19. New frontiers in aortic therapy: focus on current trials and devices in transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Gutsche, Jacob T; Patel, Prakash A; Walsh, Elizabeth K; Sophocles, Aris; Chern, Sy-Yeu S; Jones, David B; Anwaruddin, Saif; Desai, Nimesh D; Weiss, Stuart J; Augoustides, John G T

    2015-04-01

    The first decade of clinical experience with transcatheter aortic valve replacement since 2002 saw the development of 2 main valve systems, namely the Edwards Sapien balloon-expandable valve series and the Medtronic self-expanding CoreValve. These 2 valve platforms now have achieved commercial approval and application worldwide in patients with severe aortic stenosis whose perioperative risk for surgical intervention is high or extreme. In the second decade of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, clinical experience and refinements in valve design have resulted in clinical drift towards lower patient risk cohorts. There are currently 2 major trials, PARTNER II and SURTAVI, that are both evaluating the role of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in intermediate-risk patient cohorts. The results from these landmark trials may usher in a new clinical paradigm for transcatheter aortic valve replacement in its second decade. PMID:25572322

  20. The Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Aagaard, J

    2004-12-01

    The Carbomedics bileaflet mechanical prosthesis was introduced in 1986 and until now more than 500,000 valves have been implanted. The aim of this study was to review the papers published on the Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis. The Carbomedics prosthesis has a solid pyrolite carbon housing and flat leaflets of pyrolite carbon coated graphite that is impregnated with tungsten. The pyrolite carbon housing is reinforced by an outer stiffening ring composed of titanium which virtually eliminates the risk of leaflet escape. The design further enables valve rotation after implantation. The standard aortic valve prosthesis has the sewing cuff located at the outflow level of the valve cylinder. A high-performance valve, the Carbomedics TopHat valve for supraannular implantation, is a standard aortic valve prosthesis where the sewing cuff has been transferred to the inflow level of the valve cylinder. A 2 size increase in valve size can be achieved by using the TopHat valve which is very important in patient-prosthesis mismatch. With the recommended international normalised ratio (INR) level for the Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis the rate of embolic and bleeding events are low. Thrombosis of a Carbomedics aortic heart valve prosthesis is rarely seen and is the result of inappropriate anticoagulation without pannus formation. The incidence of prosthetic endocarditis is very low and this is also the case for noninfectious paravalvular leakage necessitating reoperation. Intrinsic dysfunction and/or structural failure has never been reported. The total absence of intrinsic dysfunction and structural failure of the Carbomedics aortic valve prosthesis is a great advantage. Further the complication rate is very low. The TopHat, the supraannular version of this prosthesis, is a perfect solution in patient-prosthesis mismatch. PMID:15746631

  1. Mathematical modeling of aortic valve dynamics during systole.

    PubMed

    Aboelkassem, Yasser; Savic, Dragana; Campbell, Stuart G

    2015-01-21

    We have derived a mathematical model describing aortic valve dynamics and blood flow during systole. The model presents a realistic coupling between aortic valve dynamics, sinus vortex local pressure, and variations in the systemic vascular resistance. The coupling is introduced by using Hill׳s classical semi-spherical vortex model and an aortic pressure-area compliance constitutive relationship. The effects of introducing aortic sinus eddy vortices and variable systemic vascular resistance on overall valve opening-closing dynamics, left ventricular pressure, aortic pressure, blood flow rate, and aortic orifice area are examined. In addition, the strength of the sinus vortex is coupled explicitly to the valve opening angle, and implicitly to the aortic orifice area in order to predict how vortex strength varies during the four descriptive phases of aortic valve motion (fast-opening, fully-opening, slow-closing, and fast-closing). Our results compare favorably with experimental observations and the model reproduces well-known phenomena corresponding to aortic valve function such as the dicrotic notch and retrograde flow at end systole. By invoking a more complete set of physical phenomena, this new model will enable representation of pathophysiological conditions such as aortic valve stenosis or insufficiency, making it possible to predict their integrated effects on cardiac load and systemic hemodynamics. PMID:25451522

  2. Structural Failure of a Starr-Edwards Aortic Track Valve

    PubMed Central

    Ringel, Richard E.; Moulton, Anthony L.; Burns, Janet E.; Brenner, Joel I.; Berman, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    Structural failure of a Model 2400 Starr-Edwards aortic track valve occurred suddenly, 4 years after implantation. At operation, the valve cage was removed from the descending aorta. Examination of the excised prosthesis disclosed minimal cloth wear and no evidence of infective growth; however, three struts were fractured above their insertion into the valve ring. To our knowledge, this type of valve malfunction has not been previously noted. Images PMID:15227160

  3. Valve Replacement with a Sutureless Aortic Prosthesis in a Patient with Concomitant Mitral Valve Disease and Severe Aortic Root Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Scafuri, Antonio; Nicolò, Francesca; Chiariello, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve replacement with concomitant mitral valve surgery in the presence of severe aortic root calcification is technically difficult, with long cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times. We performed sutureless aortic valve replacement and mitral valve annuloplasty in a 68-year-old man who had severe aortic stenosis and moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation. Intraoperatively, we found severe calcification of the aortic root. We approached the aortic valve through a transverse aortotomy, performed in a higher position than usual, and we replaced the valve with a Sorin Perceval S sutureless prosthesis. In addition, we performed mitral annuloplasty with use of an open rigid ring. The aortic cross-clamp time was 63 minutes, and the cardiopulmonary bypass time was 83 minutes. No paravalvular leakage of the aortic prosthesis was detected 30 days postoperatively. Our case shows that the Perceval S sutureless bioprosthesis can be safely implanted in patients with aortic root calcification, even when mitral valve disease needs surgical correction. PMID:27127442

  4. Balloon-expandable prostheses for transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Urena, Marina; Allende, Ricardo; Amat-Santos, Ignacio J; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The implantation of a transcatheter heart valve (THV) through a balloon-expandable system played a major role in the early stages of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The technology consists of sewing a foldable biological cardiac valve inside a metallic stent frame, and then crimping the device into a balloon in order to implant the valve at the level of the aortic annulus through balloon inflation. The use of balloon-expandable valves underwent a rapid expansion in the years following the pioneering experience of 2002, and recent large multicenter trials and registries have confirmed the safety and efficacy of TAVR using balloon-expandable valves. The randomized Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed both the superiority and non-inferiority of TAVR with the balloon-expandable Edwards-Sapien system compared to medical treatment (non-operable patients) and surgical aortic valve replacement (high risk patients), respectively. Balloon-expandable valves have been associated with excellent hemodynamic results (residual mean gradient <15 mm Hg in most cases), though residual paravalvular aortic regurgitation is frequent (trivial or mild in the majority of patients, moderate or severe in <10%). Valve durability studies with up to 5-year follow-up have shown maintained valve hemodynamics over time with only a minimal decrease in valve area and no increase in aortic regurgitation. Future improvements in the balloon-expandable THV technology such as implementing anti-paravalvular leak features (ex. Sapien 3 valve), and showing its efficacy for the treatment of non-high risk patients (ongoing PARTNER II trial) will probably lead to broader use in a lower risk population in the near future. PMID:24838134

  5. [Vasoplegic Syndrome after Aortic Valve Replacement].

    PubMed

    Miyata, Kazuto; Shigematsu, Sayaka

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of vasoplegic syndrome (VS) after aortic valve replacement in a 65 year old male with aortic stenosis. The patient developed hypotension after separation from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Transesophageal echocardiography revealed well-maintained cardiac function and normal prosthetic valve function. However, his cardiac index was 3.0 l x min(-1) x m(-2) and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) was 1100 dynes x sec(-1) x cm(-5) x m(-2). Diagnosing VS, norepinephrine administration was commenced. Since his respiratory status was good, the patient was extubated on the day of surgery. Two days after surgery, catecholamines were discontinued with the stabilization of his circulatory status. However, his respiratory status showed gradual deterioration, and he was re-intubated. Chest X-ray showed bilateral pleural effusion, which was treated by drainage and fluid restriction. With this, his oxygenation improved and he could be extubated 5 days after surgery. Vasoplegic syndrome is a potentially life-threatening complication following cardiac surgery. Hypotension at the time of separation from CPB can be due to multiple factors. Despite an incidence rate of 10%, little is known about VS. We hope that, in future, tailored therapeutic protocols for VS will be developed. PMID:27004393

  6. Futility, benefit, and transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Lindman, Brian R; Alexander, Karen P; O'Gara, Patrick T; Afilalo, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a transformative innovation that provides treatment for high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who either were previously not referred for or were denied operative intervention. Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival and symptoms after TAVR versus medical therapy; however, there remains a sizable group of patients who die or lack improvement in quality of life soon after TAVR. This raises important questions about the need to identify and acknowledge the possibility of futility in some patients considered for TAVR. In this very elderly population, a number of factors in addition to traditional risk stratification need to be considered including multimorbidity, disability, frailty, and cognition in order to assess the anticipated benefit of TAVR. Consideration by a multidisciplinary heart valve team with broad areas of expertise is critical for assessing likely benefit from TAVR. Moreover, these complicated decisions should take place with clear communication around desired health outcomes on behalf of the patient and provider. The decision that treatment with TAVR is futile should include alternative plans to optimize the patient's health state or, in some cases, discussions related to end-of-life care. We review issues to be considered when making and communicating these difficult decisions. PMID:24954571

  7. Coronary Obstruction Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Henrique Barbosa; Sarmento-Leite, Rogério; Siqueira, Dimytri A. A.; Carvalho, Luiz Antônio; Mangione, José Armando; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Perin, Marco A.; de Brito, Fábio Sandoli

    2014-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was established as an important alternative for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. However, there are few data in the literature regarding coronary obstruction, that although rare, is a potentially fatal complication. Objective Evaluate this complication in Brazil. Methods We evaluated all patients presenting coronary obstruction from the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Main baseline and procedural characteristics, management of the complication, and clinical outcomes were collected from all patients. Results From 418 consecutive TAVI procedures, coronary obstruction occurred in 3 cases (incidence of 0.72%). All patients were women, without prior coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and with mean age of 85 ± 3 years, logistic EuroSCORE of 15 ± 6% and STS-PROM score of 9 ± 4%. All of the cases were performed with balloon-expandable Sapien XT prosthesis. In one patient, with pre-procedural computed tomography data, coronary arteries presented a low height and a narrow sinus of Valsalva. All patients presented with clinically significant severe maintained hypotension, immediately after valve implantation, and even though coronary angioplasty with stent implantation was successfully performed in all cases, patients died during hospitalization, being two periprocedurally. Conclusion Coronary obstruction following TAVI is a rare but potentially fatal complication, being more frequent in women and with the balloon-expandable prosthesis. Anatomical factors might be related with its increased occurrence, highlighting the importance of a good pre-procedural evaluation of the patients in order to avoid this severe complication. PMID:24652089

  8. Futility, Benefit, and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Alexander, Karen P.; O'Gara, Patrick T.; Afilalo, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a transformative innovation that provides treatment for high or prohibitive surgical risk patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who were previously either not referred for or denied operative intervention. Trials have demonstrated improvements in survival and symptoms after TAVR compared to medical therapy, however there remains a sizable group of patients who die or lack improvement in quality of life soon after TAVR. This raises important questions about the need to identify and acknowledge the possibility of futility in some patients considered for TAVR. In this very elderly population, a number of factors in addition to traditional risk stratification need to be considered including multimorbidity, disability, frailty, and cognition in order to assess the anticipated benefit of TAVR. Consideration by a multidisciplinary heart valve team with broad areas of expertise is critical for assessing likely benefit from TAVR. Moreover, these complicated decisions should take place with clear communication around desired health outcomes on behalf of the patient and provider. The decision that treatment with TAVR is futile should include alternative plans to optimize the patient's health state or, in some cases, discussions related to end of life care. We review issues to be considered when making and communicating these difficult decisions. PMID:24954571

  9. Transcatheter Aortic and Mitral Valve Implantation (TAMVI) in Native Rheumatic Valves.

    PubMed

    Akujuo, Adanna C; Dellis, Sophia L; Britton, Lewis W; Bennett, Edward V

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old female with moderate to severe aortic stenosis and severe mitral stenosis, deemed too high risk for surgery (STS mortality risk = 12.3%) with a porcelain aorta, was successfully treated with a transcatheter aortic and mitral valve implantation (TAMVI) via a transapical approach. A 23 mm Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) was placed in the aortic position and a 29 mm inverted Sapien valve (Edwards Lifesciences) in the mitral position. PMID:26347492

  10. Aortic valve replacement for quadricuspid valve: a lesson learnt from a negative experience.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Hirotada; Nakamura, Teruya; Mouri, Norio; Sawa, Yoshiki

    2014-08-01

    Quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare congenital abnormality often associated with valve incompetence and requires surgical correction in adulthood. However, using a standard suture technique of aortic valve replacement, postoperative complete atrioventricular block is not uncommon because of the downward displacement of the supranumerary leaflet towards the membranous septum. We describe a suture technique where the sutures on the supranumerary leaflet were passed through the aortic sinusal wall above the valvar hinge. This technique can preclude injury to the conduction system, thereby avoiding atrioventricular block. PMID:24824494

  11. Beating heart aortic valve replacement in a pregnant patient.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, Hassan; Masroor, Saqib; Lombardi, Pierluca; Rosenkranz, Eliot; Salerno, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman with a history of previous bileaflet mechanical aortic valve replacement presented in acute heart failure at 27 weeks of gestation. Transthoracic echocardiography (TEE) demonstrated minimal leaflet excursion consistent with valve thrombosis. The patient underwent emergent surgery with normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), and beating-heart technique for valve replacement. This novel strategy for aortic valve replacement is being presented as being particularly useful in pregnant patients whose fetuses are at risks of hypothermia, hemodilution, and hyperkalemia during CPB. PMID:15108793

  12. Notch-dependent EMT is attenuated in patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Kostina, Aleksandra S; Uspensky, Vladimir Е; Irtyuga, Olga B; Ignatieva, Elena V; Freylikhman, Olga; Gavriliuk, Natalia D; Moiseeva, Olga M; Zhuk, Sergey; Tomilin, Alexey; Kostareva, Аnna А; Malashicheva, Anna B

    2016-04-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital heart malformation and the reasons for the aortopathies associated with bicuspid aortic valve remain unclear. NOTCH1 mutations are associated with bicuspid aortic valve and have been found in individuals with various left ventricular outflow tract abnormalities. Notch is a key signaling during cardiac valve formation that promotes the endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. We address the role of Notch signaling in human aortic endothelial cells from patients with bicuspid aortic valve and aortic aneurysm. Aortic endothelial cells were isolated from tissue fragments of bicuspid aortic valve-associated thoracic aortic aneurysm patients and from healthy donors. Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition was induced by activation of Notch signaling. Effectiveness of the transition was estimated by loss of endothelial and gain of mesenchymal markers by immunocytochemistry and qPCR. We show that aortic endothelial cells from the patients with aortic aneurysm and bicuspid aortic valve have down regulated Notch signaling and fail to activate Notch-dependent endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to its stimulation by different Notch ligands. Our findings support the idea that bicuspid aortic valve and associated aortic aneurysm is associated with dysregulation of the entire Notch signaling pathway independently on the specific gene mutation. PMID:26876948

  13. From Unicuspid to Quadricuspid: Influence of Aortic Valve Morphology on Aortic 3D Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, Pegah; Schnell, Susanne; Mahadevia, Riti; Malaisrie, Chris; McCarthy, Patrick; Mendelson, Marla; Collins, Jeremy; Carr, James C.; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the impact of aortic valve morphology on aortic hemodynamicsbetweennormal tricuspid and congenitally anomalous aortic valvesranging from unicuspid to quadricuspid morphology. Materials and Methods Aortic 3D blood flow was evaluated by 4D flow MRI in 14 healthy volunteers with normal trileaflet valves and 14 patients withunicuspid(n=3), bicuspid (n=9, 3 ‘true’ bicuspid, 3 right-left (RL), 3 right-non (RN) coronary leaflet fusion, and quadricuspid aortic valves (n=2). Data analysis included the co-registered visualization of aortic valve morphology with systolic 3D blood flow. The influence of valve morphology on aortic hemodynamics was quantified by valve flow angle. Results All RL-BAV were associated with flow jets directed towards the right anterior aortic wallwhile RN-fusion and unicuspid valves resulted in flow jet patterns towards the right-posterior or posterior wall. Flow angles were clearly influenced by valve morphology(47°±10, 28°±2, 29°±18, 18°±12, 15°±2 for unicuspid, trueBAV, RN-BAV, RL-BAV, quadricuspid valves) and increased compared to controls (7.2°±1.1, p=0.001). Conclusions Altered 3D aortic hemodynamics are impacted by the morphology of congenitally malformed aortic valves. PMID:24265266

  14. The living aortic valve: From molecules to function

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Adrian H.; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Butcher, Jonathan T.; Latif, Najma; Bertazzo, Sergio; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2014-01-01

    The aortic valve lies in a unique hemodynamic environment, one characterized by a range of stresses (shear stress, bending forces, loading forces and strain) that vary in intensity and direction throughout the cardiac cycle. Yet, despite its changing environment, the aortic valve opens and closes over 100,000 times a day and, in the majority of human beings, will function normally over a lifespan of 70–90 years. Until relatively recently heart valves were considered passive structures that play no active role in the functioning of a valve, or in the maintenance of its integrity and durability. However, through clinical experience and basic research the aortic valve can now be characterized as a living, dynamic organ with the capacity to adapt to its complex mechanical and biomechanical environment through active and passive communication between its constituent parts. The clinical relevance of a living valve substitute in patients requiring aortic valve replacement has been confirmed. This highlights the importance of using tissue engineering to develop heart valve substitutes containing living cells which have the ability to assume the complex functioning of the native valve. PMID:25054122

  15. Recently patented transcatheter aortic valves in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Neragi-Miandoab, Siyamek; Skripochnik, Edvard; Salemi, Arash; Girardi, Leonard

    2013-12-01

    The most widely used heart valve worldwide is the Edwards Sapien, which currently has 60% of the worldwide transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) market. The CoreValve is next in line in popularity, encompassing 35% of the worldwide TAVI market. Although these two valves dominate the TAVI market, a number of newer transcatheter valves have been introduced and others are in early clinical evaluation. The new valves are designed to reduce catheter delivery diameter, improve ease of positioning and sealing, and facilitate repositioning or removal. The most recent transcatheter valves for transapical use include Acurate TA (Symetis), Engager (Medtronic), and JenaValve the Portico (St Jude), Sadra Lotus Medical (Boston Scientific), and the Direct Flow Medical. These new inventions may introduce more effective treatment options for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Improvements in transcatheter valves and the developing variability among them may allow for more tailored approaches with respect to patient's anatomy, while giving operators the opportunity to choose devices they feel more comfortable with. Moreover, introducing new devices to the market will create a competitive environment among producers that will reduce high prices and expand availability. The present review article includes a discussion of recent patents related to Transcatheter Aortic Valves. PMID:24279506

  16. Minimally Invasive Versus Conventional Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Attia, Rizwan Q.; Hickey, Graeme L.; Grant, Stuart W.; Bridgewater, Ben; Roxburgh, James C.; Kumar, Pankaj; Ridley, Paul; Bhabra, Moninder; Millner, Russell W. J.; Athanasiou, Thanos; Casula, Roberto; Chukwuemka, Andrew; Pillay, Thasee; Young, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has been demonstrated as a safe and effective option but remains underused. We aimed to evaluate outcomes of isolated MIAVR compared with conventional aortic valve replacement (CAVR). Methods Data from The National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research (NICOR) were analyzed at seven volunteer centers (2006–2012). Primary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and midterm survival. Secondary outcomes were postoperative length of stay as well as cumulative bypass and cross-clamp times. Propensity modeling with matched cohort analysis was used. Results Of 307 consecutive MIAVR patients, 151 (49%) were performed during the last 2 years of study with a continued increase in numbers. The 307 MIAVR patients were matched on a 1:1 ratio. In the matched CAVR group, there was no statistically significant difference in in-hospital mortality [MIAVR, 4/307,(1.3%); 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.4%–3.4% vs CAVR, 6/307 (2.0%); 95% CI, 0.8%–4.3%; P = 0.752]. One-year survival rates in the MIAVR and CAVR groups were 94.4% and 94.6%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in midterm survival (P = 0.677; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.56–1.46). Median postoperative length of stay was lower in the MIAVR patients by 1 day (P = 0.009). The mean cumulative bypass time (94.8 vs 91.3 minutes; P = 0.333) and cross-clamp time (74.6 vs 68.4 minutes; P = 0.006) were longer in the MIAVR group; however, this was significant only in the cross-clamp time comparison. Conclusions Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement is a safe alternative to CAVR with respect to operative and 1-year mortality and is associated with a shorter postoperative stay. Further studies are required in high-risk (logistic EuroSCORE > 10) patients to define the role of MIAVR. PMID:26926521

  17. Thrombogenic potential of Innovia polymer valves versus Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna aortic bioprosthetic valves.

    PubMed

    Claiborne, Thomas E; Girdhar, Gaurav; Gallocher-Lowe, Siobhain; Sheriff, Jawaad; Kato, Yasushi P; Pinchuk, Leonard; Schoephoerster, Richard T; Jesty, Jolyon; Bluestein, Danny

    2011-01-01

    Trileaflet polymeric prosthetic aortic valves (AVs) produce hemodynamic characteristics akin to the natural AV and may be most suitable for applications such as transcatheter implantation and mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices. Their success has not yet been realized due to problems of calcification, durability, and thrombosis. We address the latter by comparing the platelet activation rates (PARs) of an improved polymer valve design (Innovia LLC) made from poly(styrene-block-isobutylene-block-styrene) (SIBS) with the commercially available Carpentier-Edwards Perimount Magna Aortic Bioprosthetic Valve. We used our modified prothrombinase platelet activity state (PAS) assay and flow cytometry methods to measure platelet activation of a pair of 19 mm valves mounted inside a pulsatile Berlin left ventricular assist device (LVAD). The PAR of the polymer valve measured with the PAS assay was fivefold lower than that of the tissue valve (p = 0.005) and fourfold lower with flow cytometry measurements (p = 0.007). In vitro hydrodynamic tests showed clinically similar performance of the Innovia and Magna valves. These results demonstrate a significant improvement in thrombogenic performance of the polymer valve compared with our previous study of the former valve design and encourage further development of SIBS for use in heart valve prostheses. PMID:20930618

  18. [Left Ventricular Rupture during Both Mitral and Aortic Valve Replacements].

    PubMed

    Kurumisawa, Soki; Aizawa, Kei; Takazawa, Ippei; Sato, Hirotaka; Muraoka, Arata; Ohki, Shinnichi; Saito, Tsutomu; Kawahito, Koji; Misawa, Yoshio

    2015-05-01

    A 73-year-old woman on hemodialysis was transferred to our hospital for surgical treatment of heart valve disease. She required both mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical valves, associated with tricuspid annuloplasty. After aortic de-clamping, a massive hemorrhage from the posterior atrioventricular groove was observed. Under repeated cardiac arrest, the left atrium was reopened, the implanted mitral prosthetic valve was removed and a type I left ventricular rupture (Treasure classification) was diagnosed. The lesion was directly repaired with mattress stitches and running sutures, using reinforcement materials such as a glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium. To avoid mechanical stress by the prosthetic valve on the repaired site, a mechanical valve was implanted using a translocation method. The patient suffered from aspiration pneumonia and disuse atrophy for 3 months. However, she was doing well at 1 year post-operation. PMID:25963782

  19. Animal Models of Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sider, Krista L.; Blaser, Mark C.; Simmons, Craig A.

    2011-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. However, many details of the pathobiological mechanisms of CAVD remain to be described, and new approaches to treat CAVD need to be identified. Animal models are emerging as vital tools to this end, facilitated by the advent of new models and improved understanding of the utility of existing models. In this paper, we summarize and critically appraise current small and large animal models of CAVD, discuss the utility of animal models for priority CAVD research areas, and provide recommendations for future animal model studies of CAVD. PMID:21826258

  20. Transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation versus reoperative conventional aortic valve replacement: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Dong-Fang; Wang, Nelson; Huo, Ya Ruth; Di Eusanio, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter valve-in-valve (VIV) implantation for degenerated aortic bioprostheses has emerged as a promising alternative to redo conventional aortic valve replacement (cAVR). However there are concerns surrounding the efficacy and safety of VIV. This systematic review aims to compare the outcomes and safety of transcatheter VIV implantation with redoes cAVR. Six databases were systematically searched. A total of 18 relevant studies (823 patients) were included. Pooled analysis demonstrated VIV achieved significant improvements in mean gradient (38 mmHg preoperatively to 15.2 mmHg postoperatively, P<0.001) and peak gradient (59.2 to 23.2 mmHg, P=0.0003). These improvements were similar to the outcomes achieved by cAVR. The incidence of moderate paravalvular leaks (PVL) were significantly higher for VIV compared to cAVR (3.3% vs. 0.4%, P=0.022). In terms of morbidity, VIV had a significantly lower incidence of stroke and bleeding compared to redo cAVR (1.9% vs. 8.8%, P=0.002 & 6.9% vs. 9.1%, P=0.014, respectively). Perioperative mortality rates were similar for VIV (7.9%) and redo cAVR (6.1%, P=0.35). In conclusion, transcatheter VIV implantation achieves similar haemodynamic outcomes, with lower risk of strokes and bleeding but higher PVL rates compared to redo cAVR. Future randomized studies and prospective registries are essential to compare the effectiveness of transcatheter VIV with cAVR, and clarify the rates of PVLs. PMID:26904259

  1. Shape-based diagnosis of the aortic valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionasec, Razvan Ioan; Tsymbal, Alexey; Vitanovski, Dime; Georgescu, Bogdan; Zhou, S. Kevin; Navab, Nassir; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2009-02-01

    Disorders of the aortic valve represent a common cardiovascular disease and an important public-health problem worldwide. Pathological valves are currently determined from 2D images through elaborate qualitative evalu- ations and complex measurements, potentially inaccurate and tedious to acquire. This paper presents a novel diagnostic method, which identies diseased valves based on 3D geometrical models constructed from volumetric data. A parametric model, which includes relevant anatomic landmarks as well as the aortic root and lea ets, represents the morphology of the aortic valve. Recently developed robust segmentation methods are applied to estimate the patient specic model parameters from end-diastolic cardiac CT volumes. A discriminative distance function, learned from equivalence constraints in the product space of shape coordinates, determines the corresponding pathology class based on the shape information encoded by the model. Experiments on a heterogeneous set of 63 patients aected by various diseases demonstrated the performance of our method with 94% correctly classied valves.

  2. Management strategies and future challenges for aortic valve disease.

    PubMed

    Bonow, Robert O; Leon, Martin B; Doshi, Darshan; Moat, Neil

    2016-03-26

    The management of aortic valve disease has been improved by accurate diagnosis and assessment of severity by echocardiography and advanced imaging techniques, efforts to elicit symptoms or objective markers of disease severity and progression, and consideration of optimum timing of aortic valve replacement, even in elderly patients. Prevalence of calcific aortic stenosis is growing in ageing populations. Conventional surgery remains the most appropriate option for most patients who require aortic valve replacement, but the transcatheter approach is established for high-risk patients or poor candidates for surgery. The rapid growth of transcatheter aortic valve replacement has been fuelled by improved technology, evidence-based clinical research, and setting up of multidisciplinary heart teams. Aortic regurgitation can be difficult to diagnose and quantify. Left ventricular dysfunction often precedes symptoms, needing active surveillance by echocardiography to determine the optimum time for aortic valve replacement. Development of transcatheter approaches for aortic regurgitation is challenging, owing to the absence of valvular calcification and distortion of aortic root anatomy in many patients. PMID:27025437

  3. Mitral annular calcification in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic valve stenosis.

    PubMed

    Takami, Yoshiyuki; Tajima, Kazuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Limited data exis t on clinical relevance of aortic valve stenosis (AVS) and mitral annular calcification (MAC), although with similar pathophysiologic basis. We sought to reveal the prevalence of MAC and its clinical features in the patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR) for AVS. We reviewed 106 consecutive patients who underwent isolated AVR from 2004 to 2010. Before AVR, CT scans were performed to identify MAC, whose severity was graded on a scale of 0-4, with grade 0 denoting no MAC and grade 4 indicating severe MAC. Echocardiography was performed before AVR and at follow-up over 2years after AVR. MAC was identified in 56 patients with grade 1 (30%), 2 (39%), 3 (18%), and 4 (13%), respectively. Patients with MAC presented older age (728 versus 6611years), higher rate of dialysis-dependent renal failure (43 versus 4%), and less frequency of bicuspid aortic valve (9 versus 36%), when compared to those without MAC. No significant differences were seen in short- and mid-term mortality after AVR between the groups. In patients with MAC, progression of neither mitral regurgitation nor stenosis was observed at follow-up of 5323months for 102 survivors, although the transmitral flow velocities were higher than in those without MAC. In conclusion, MAC represented 53% of the patients undergoing isolated AVR for AVS, usually appeared in dialysis-dependent elder patients with tricuspid AVS. MAC does not affect adversely upon the survival, without progression of mitral valve disease, at least within 2years after AVR. PMID:25252778

  4. Transcatheter implantation of a CoreValve aortic prosthesis in a patient with a ball-cage mechanical mitral valve.

    PubMed

    Gedikli, Omer; Kutlu, Merih; Civelek, Ali; Ince, Huseyin

    2013-09-01

    Although transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been performed successfully in patients with aortic stenosis and a mechanical mitral valve, to the present authors' knowledge only one report has been made of this being achieved in a patient with a ball-cage-type mechanical mitral valve. In the present case, as the cage section of the mechanical valve was inclined towards the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT), there was a risk of interaction between the prosthesis and mechanical valve during the TAVI procedure. The successful implementation is described of a self-expandable aortic prosthesis in a patient with a ball-cage-type mechanical valve inclined towards the LVOT. PMID:24383383

  5. A nonlinear anisotropic model for porcine aortic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Li, J; Luo, X Y; Kuang, Z B

    2001-10-01

    The anisotropic property of porcine aortic valve leaflet has potentially significant effects on its mechanical behaviour and the failure mechanisms. However, due to its complex nature, testing and modelling the anisotropic porcine aortic valves remains a continuing challenge to date. This study has developed a nonlinear anisotropic finite element model for porcine heart valves. The model is based on the uniaxial experimental data of porcine aortic heart valve leaflet and the properties of nonlinear composite material. A finite element code is developed to solve this problem using the 8-node super-parameter nonlinear shells and the update Lagrangian method. The stress distribution and deformation of the porcine aortic valves with either uniform and non-uniform thicknesses in closed phase and loaded condition are calculated. The results showed significant changes in the stress distributions due to the anisotropic property of the leaflets. Compared with the isotropic valve at the same loading condition, it is found that the site of the peak stress of the anisotropic leaflet is different; the maximum longitudinal normal stress is increased, but the maximum transversal normal stress and in-plane shear stress are reduced. We conclude that it is very important to consider the anisotropic property of the porcine heart valves in order to understand the failure mechanism of such valves in vivo. PMID:11522307

  6. Smeloff-Cutter aortic valve endocarditis 31 years after implantation.

    PubMed

    Kanki, Kazushige; Takagi, Nobuyuki; Tachibana, Kazutoshi; Mishina, Taijiro; Higami, Tetsuya

    2011-04-01

    A Smeloff-Cutter ball prosthetic valve was replaced in a 56-year-old woman 31 years after implantation. Prosthetic endocarditis developed after endoscopic mucosal resection of colon cancer. The excised aortic ball valve was almost intact, without any thrombus formation. PMID:21471264

  7. Retrieval of Embolized Transcatheter Aortic Valves in Left Ventricle Through Apical Ventriculotomy.

    PubMed

    Ailawadi, Gorav; Downs, Emily; Mehta, Gaurav; Kern, John A; Ragosta, Michael; Lim, D Scott

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter valve placement complicated by left ventricular embolization is often treated with sternotomy, valve removal through the aorta, and conventional aortic valve replacement. We report three cases of ventricular embolization of aortic valves during deployment. We successfully placed a second transcatheter aortic valve in the correct position and retrieved the embolized valve through an apical ventriculotomy. All patients recovered well and survived for more than one year. doi: 10.1111/jocs.12701 (J Card Surg 2016;31:203-205). PMID:26846685

  8. Left main coronary artery obstruction by dislodged native-valve calculus after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Tahir; Ayhan, Huseyin; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-08-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:25120396

  9. Left Main Coronary Artery Obstruction by Dislodged Native-Valve Calculus after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Tahir; Keles, Telat; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdogan, Kemal Esref; Sari, Cenk; Bilen, Emine; Akcay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement can be an effective, reliable treatment for severe aortic stenosis in surgically high-risk or ineligible patients. However, various sequelae like coronary artery obstruction can occur, not only in the long term, but also immediately after the procedure. We present the case of a 78-year-old woman whose left main coronary artery became obstructed with calculus 2 hours after the transfemoral implantation of an Edwards Sapien XT aortic valve. Despite percutaneous coronary intervention in that artery, the patient died. This case reminds us that early recognition of acute coronary obstruction and prompt intervention are crucial in patients with aortic stenosis who have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement. PMID:25120396

  10. Percutaneous transluminal alcohol septal myocardial ablation after aortic valve replacement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitges, M.; Kapadia, S.; Rubin, D. N.; Thomas, J. D.; Tuzcu, M. E.; Lever, H. M.

    2001-01-01

    When left ventricular outflow tract obstruction develops after aortic valve replacement, few treatment choices have been available until now. We present a patient with prior aortic valve replacement who developed left ventricle outflow tract obstruction that was successfully treated with a percutaneous transcoronary myocardial septal alcohol ablation. This technique is a useful tool for the treatment of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, especially in those patients with prior heart surgery. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Intracardiac echocardiography to diagnose pannus formation after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshiya; Ohara, Takahiro; Funada, Akira; Takahama, Hiroyuki; Amaki, Makoto; Hasegawa, Takuya; Sugano, Yasuo; Kanzaki, Hideaki; Anzai, Toshihisa

    2016-03-01

    A 66-year-old female, under regular follow-up for 20 years after aortic valve replacement (19-mm Carbomedics), presented dyspnea on effort and hypotension during hemodialysis. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed elevation of transvalvular velocity up to 4 m/s, but the structure around the aortic prosthesis was difficult to observe due to artifacts. Fluoroscopy revealed normal motion of the leaflets of the mechanical valve. Intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) revealed a pannus-like structure in the left ventricular outflow tract. Transesophageal echocardiogram also revealed this structure. ICE can visualize structural abnormalities around a prosthetic valve after cardiac surgery even in patients in whom conventional imaging modalities failed. PMID:26732266

  12. Superimposition of a Mechanical Valve on an Impacted Aortic Bioprosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Hassan; Al-Ibrahim, K.; Sorefan, A. Aniff; Narayanan, Lakshmi

    1991-01-01

    During reoperation for replacement of a regurgitant aortic bioprosthesis (a 23-mm bovine pericardial valve), it was judged that total removal of the valve would be difficult, and hazardous to the patient. Therefore, its leaflets were excised and its sewing ring left in situ. A 21-mm Carbomedics bileaflet mechanical valve was sutured to the bioprosthetic sewing ring and implanted in the orifice of the bioprosthesis, resulting in excellent hemodynamic performance. We report this new technique to illustrate its feasibility, safety, and efficiency, as an alternative to complete removal of defective prostheses in the aortic position. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:199-201) Images PMID:15227480

  13. The role of transesophageal echocardiography in aortic valve preserving procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Terri; Shah, Pallav; Wahi, Sudhir

    2014-01-01

    In selected cases of aortic regurgitation, aortic valve (AV) repair and AV sparing root reconstruction viable alternatives to aortic valve replacement. Repair and preservation of the native valve avoids the use of long-term anticoagulation, lowers the incidence of subsequent thromboembolic events and reduces the risk of endocarditis. Additionally repair has a low operative mortality with reasonable mid-term durability. The success and longer term durability of AVPP has improved with surgical experience. An understanding of the mechanism of the AR is integral to determining feasibility and success of an AVPP. Assessment of AV morphology, anatomy of the functional aortic annulus (FAA) and the aortic root with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) improves the understanding of the mechanisms of AR. Pre- and intra-operative TEE plays a pivotal role in guiding case selection, surgical planning, and in evaluating procedural success. Post-operative transthoracic echocardiography is useful to determine long-term success and monitor for recurrence of AR. PMID:24973839

  14. Robotic System for Transapical Aortic Valve Replacement with MRI Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports our work on developing a robotic surgical system for transapical beating heart aortic valve replacement (AVR) under interactive real-time magnetic resonance imaging (rtMRI) guidance. Our system integrates a real-time MRI system, a compound MRI robot, as well as an interface for the surgeon to plan the procedure and manipulate the robot. The compound robot consists of a positioning module and a valve delivery module. A 5-DOF Inno-motion positioning arm provides and maintains direct access to the native aortic valve. A newly developed 3-DOF robotic valve delivery module allows the surgeon to remotely control bioprosthetic valve delivery with MRI guidance. Preliminary evaluation of the parameters of the robotic system demonstrates it can provide sufficient capability to successfully assist the surgeon. PMID:18982639

  15. Percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation: present and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Diego; Cevallos, Joaquim; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Martín-Yuste, Victoria; Freixa, Xavier; Andrea, Ruth; Falces, Carlos; Regueiro-Cueva, Ander; Masotti, Mónica; Sabaté, Manel

    2013-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic-valve implantation is becoming the standard of care for inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis and a valid alternative for those at high surgical risk. Since the first percutaneous transcatheter aortic-valve implantation in humans in 2002, over 50,000 transcatheter aortic valves have been implanted in the last decade, with progressive improvement in the available devices. Overall, there are two main families of transcatheter prosthesis: self-expandable and nonself-expandable. The self-expandable devices, for which CoreValve(®) (Medtronic CV Luxembourg S.a.r.l., Luxembourg) represents the prototype, are characterized by a structure composed of shape memory materials, usually nitinol, which acquire its final shape once released. By contrast, the non-self-expandable prostheses, mainly represented by the Edwards(®) valve (Edwards Life Sciences, Inc., CA, USA), require balloon dilatation to reach its final shape. Although several publications have already provided positive data on both technologies, new clinical studies with improved systems are currently being conducted in order to provide more solid data and potentially expand the spectrum of patients who can benefit from this therapy. Thus, the aim of the present paper is to review the salient features of the two most used systems today (third-generation CoreValve and Edwards SAPIEN XT(®)) as well as to provide data on other emerging valves and future perspectives. PMID:23480088

  16. Stentless pericardial valve for acute aortic valve endocarditis with annular destruction.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Steffen; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Fischlein, Theodor

    2015-04-01

    Surgery for aortic-valve endocarditis is still challenging, particularly in combination with destruction of the annulus. Freedom Solo (Solo) is a bovine stentless prosthesis for aortic valve replacement. It is implanted supra-annularly into the aortic wall with a single suture line, without requiring an 'intact' annulus. Thirteen patients received a Solo for endocarditis with annular destruction. Our results showed a low reinfection rate and no patient-prosthesis mismatch. Our contribution intends to show the feasibility of implantation also in case of complicated anatomical conditions, such as destruction of the annulus. PMID:22526223

  17. Bicuspid Aortic Stenosis Treated With the Repositionable and Retrievable Lotus Valve.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Rodewald, Christoph; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for severe aortic stenosis is a well-established and safe therapeutic option. However, data on TAVI in bicuspid aortic valve stenosis are limited and show a higher rate of moderate-severe aortic regurgitation compared with TAVI for tricuspid aortic valve stenosis. We report for the first time, to our knowledge, the use of the mechanically deployed Lotus valve in bicuspid aortic stenosis. In our patient who had severe bicuspid aortic stenosis and was at high surgical risk, the implantation of the repositionable and completely retrievable Lotus valve was a safe and controlled procedure resulting in no relevant aortic regurgitation. PMID:26604121

  18. Aortic periannular abscess invading into the central fibrous body, mitral valve, and tricuspid valve.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun Kong; Kim, Nan Yeol; Kang, Min-Woong; Kang, Shin Kwang; Yu, Jae Hyeon; Lim, Seung Pyung; Choi, Jae Sung; Na, Myung Hoon

    2014-06-01

    A 61-year-old man was diagnosed with aortic stenoinsufficiency with periannular abscess, which involved the aortic root of noncoronary sinus (NCS) that invaded down to the central fibrous body, whole membranous septum, mitral valve (MV), and tricuspid valve (TV). The open complete debridement was executed from the aortic annulus at NCS down to the central fibrous body and annulus of the MV and the TV, followed by the left ventricular outflow tract reconstruction with implantation of a mechanical aortic valve by using a leaflet of the half-folded elliptical bovine pericardial patch. Another leaflet of this patch was used for the repair of the right atrial wall with a defect and the TV. PMID:25207228

  19. Aortic false aneurysm after double valve replacement in a child.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Walters, Henry L; Forbes, Thomas J; Aggarwal, Sanjeev

    2013-06-01

    Aortic false aneurysm (AFA) is a rare but life threatening complication after aortic surgery. We report a 13-year-old boy who developed AFA after double valve replacement consisting of the following: (1) Bentall procedure utilizing a 25-mm St. Jude aortic valved composite Hemashield Dacron graft (Meadox Medicals, Oakland, NJ); and (2) replacement of right ventricle to pulmonary artery conduit with a 25-mm porcine valved conduit. The exterior metal ring of the pulmonary prosthetic valve conduit caused an abrasion of the Hemashield graft, resulting in the AFA. In addition to simple suture repair, the pulmonary conduit was wrapped with a Gore-Tex patch (W.L. Gore Assoc, Flagstaff, AZ) to prevent recurrence. PMID:23706444

  20. Relation of Aortic Valve Morphologic Characteristics to Aortic Valve Insufficiency and Residual Stenosis in Children With Congenital Aortic Stenosis Undergoing Balloon Valvuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Petit, Christopher J; Gao, Kevin; Goldstein, Bryan H; Lang, Sean M; Gillespie, Scott E; Kim, Sung-In H; Sachdeva, Ritu

    2016-03-15

    Aortic valve morphology has been invoked as intrinsic to outcomes of balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) for congenital aortic valve stenosis. We sought to use aortic valve morphologic features to discriminate between valves that respond favorably or unfavorably to BAV, using aortic insufficiency (AI) as the primary outcome. All patients who underwent BAV at 2 large-volume pediatric centers from 2007 to 2014 were reviewed. Morphologic features assessed on pre-BAV echo included valve pattern (unicuspid, functional bicuspid, and true bicuspid), leaflet fusion length, leaflet excursion angle, and aortic valve opening area and on post-BAV echo included leaflet versus commissural tear. Primary end point was increase in AI (AI+) of ≥2°. Eighty-nine patients (median age 0.2 years) were included in the study (39 unicuspid, 41 functional bicuspid, and 9 true bicuspid valves). Unicuspid valves had a lower opening area (p <0.01) and greater fusion length (p = 0.01) compared with functional and true bicuspid valves. Valve gradient pre-BAV and post-BAV were not different among valve patterns. Of the 16 patients (18%) with AI+, 14 had leaflet tears (odds ratio 13.9, 3.8 to 50). True bicuspid valves had the highest rate (33%) of AI+. On multivariate analysis, leaflet tears were associated with AI+, with larger opening area pre-BAV and lower fusion length pre-BAV. AI+ was associated with larger pre-BAV opening area. Gradient relief was associated with reduced angle of excursion. Valve morphology influences outcomes after BAV. Valves with lesser fusion and larger valve openings have higher rates of leaflet tears which in turn are associated with AI. PMID:26805657

  1. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) for Treatment of Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S; Doble, B; Xie, F; Blackhouse, G; Campbell, K; Kaulback, K; Chandra, K; Goeree, R

    2013-01-01

    Background One-year mortality outcomes in the PARTNER trial showed that transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was noninferior to surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) in patients who were eligible for sAVR (cohort A), and superior to standard treatment in patients who were ineligible for sAVR (cohort B). Objective To update a previous report on the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of TAVI, published in 2012. Data Sources A literature search was performed on September 11, 2012, using OVID MEDLINE, OVID MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, OVID EMBASE, EBSCO Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Wiley Cochrane Library, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination database, for studies published from January 1, 2011, until September 11, 2012. Review Methods Randomized controlled trials investigating TAVI in comparison to sAVR or standard treatment were included for analysis. Results were summarized descriptively. Results At 2-year follow-up, mortality in cohort A was similar between the TAVI and sAVR groups. Rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack, major vascular complications, and moderate/severe paravalvular aortic regurgitation were significantly higher in the TAVI group, but rate of major bleeding was significantly higher in the sAVR group. Mortality in cohort B was significantly lower with transfemoral (TF) TAVI than with standard treatment, but rate of stroke was significantly higher with TF TAVI. TF TAVI resulted in a more rapid improvement in quality of life scores than sAVR, but this difference was not sustained at 6 and 12 months. Patients who underwent transapical TAVI did not have a greater early improvement in quality of life compared to sAVR patients. Compared to standard treatment, TF TAVI resulted in a greater improvement in quality of life scores at all time points. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were in favour of TAVI for inoperable patients in the base-case analysis, but varied widely for operable patients. Conclusions The findings of the 2-year follow-up with respect to mortality and adverse events were consistent with those of the 1-year follow-up. TAVI was also associated with improvement in quality of life, although results varied by cohort. Consistent with the 2012 report, TAVI may be cost-effective for patients who are not candidates for surgery. Plain Language Summary Narrowing of 1 of the heart valves (called aortic valve stenosis) makes it difficult for the heart to work properly. Often, patients have surgery to replace the narrowed valve, but surgery is too risky for some. In 2012, Health Quality Ontario published a report on a less invasive treatment option called transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). This report reviews information published since the 2012 report: the results of a 2-year follow-up of TAVI patients, and studies exploring patients’ quality of life. PMID:23837106

  2. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in a Patient With a Previous Bioprosthetic Mitral Valve Replacement: Report of a Delayed Fatal Interaction.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Frédéric; Lamarche, Yoan; Le, Van Hoai Viet; Doucet, Michel; Roméo, Philippe; Généreux, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    We report on a man with bioprosthetic mitral valve perforation who presented late after transcatheter aortic valve replacement with a balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve (THV). The protrusion of the commissural strut of the bioprosthetic mitral valve coupled with the low implanted THV resulted in repetitive trauma leading to rupture of a mitral leaflet. Potential preventive strategies are discussed. This case illustrates the importance of preprocedural imaging screening and cautious THV deployment in patients with a bioprosthetic mitral valve. PMID:26319966

  3. Transfemoral Aortic Valve Implantation with the New Edwards Sapien 3 Valve for Treatment of Severe Aortic Stenosis—Impact of Valve Size in a Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Jochen; Gonska, Birgid; Rodewald, Christoph; Seeger, Julia; Scharnbeck, Dominik; Rottbauer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Aims The third generation Edwards Sapien 3 (Edwards Lifesciences Inc., Irvine, California) system was optimized to reduce residual aortic regurgitation and vascular complications. Methods and Results 235 patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis were prospectively enrolled. Transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) were performed without general anesthesia by transfemoral approach. Patients were followed for 30 days. Patients received 23mm (N = 77), 26mm (N = 91) or 29mm (N = 67) valve based on pre-procedural 256 multislice computer tomography. Mean oversizing did not differ between the 3 valves. There was no residual moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. Rate of mild aortic regurgitation and regurgitation index did not differ between groups. There was no switch to general anesthesia or conversion to surgery. Rate of major vascular complication was 3.0% with no difference between valve and delivery sheath sizes. Within 30 days rates of all cause mortality (2.6%) and stroke (2.1%) were low. Conclusions In patients with severe aortic stenosis transfemoral TAVI with the Edwards Sapien 3 valve without general anesthesia was associated with a high rate of device success, no moderate or severe residual aortic regurgitation, low rates of major vascular complication, mortality and stroke within 30 days with no difference between the 3 valve sizes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02162069 PMID:27003573

  4. Noggin attenuates the osteogenic activation of human valve interstitial cells in aortic valve sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo; Sainger, Rachana; Branchetti, Emanuela; Grau, Juan B.; Lai, Eric K.; Gorman, Robert C.; Sacks, Michael S.; Parolari, Alessandro; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Aims Aortic valve sclerosis (AVSc) is a hallmark of several cardiovascular conditions ranging from chronic heart failure and myocardial infarction to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS). AVSc, present in 25–30% of patients over 65 years of age, is characterized by thickening of the leaflets with marginal effects on the mechanical proprieties of the valve making its presentation asymptomatic. Despite its clinical prevalence, few studies have investigated the pathogenesis of this disease using human AVSc specimens. Here, we investigate in vitro and ex vivo BMP4-mediated transdifferentiation of human valve interstitial cells (VICs) towards an osteogenic-like phenotype in AVSc. Methods and results Human specimens from 60 patients were collected at the time of aortic valve replacement (AVS) or through the heart transplant programme (Controls and AVSc). We show that non-calcified leaflets from AVSc patients can be induced to express markers of osteogenic transdifferentiation and biomineralization through the combinatory effect of BMP4 and mechanical stimulation. We show that BMP4 antagonist Noggin attenuates VIC activation and biomineralization. Additionally, patient-derived VICs were induced to transdifferentiate using either cell culture or a Tissue Engineering (TE) Aortic Valve model. We determine that while BMP4 alone is not sufficient to induce osteogenic transdifferentiation of AVSc-derived cells, the combinatory effect of BMP4 and mechanical stretch induces VIC activation towards a phenotype typical of late calcified stage of the disease. Conclusion This work demonstrates, for the first time using AVSc specimens, that human sclerotic aortic valves can be induced to express marker of osteogenic-like phenotype typical of advanced severe aortic stenosis. PMID:23483047

  5. Mitral and aortic regurgitation following transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Piotr; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Sorysz, Danuta; Kochman, Janusz; Jastrzębski, Jan; Kukulski, Tomasz; Zembala, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse the impact of postprocedural mitral regurgitation (MR), in an interaction with aortic regurgitation (AR), on mortality following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Methods To assess the interaction between MR and AR, we compared the survival rate of patients (i) without both significant MR and AR versus (ii) those with either significant MR or significant AR versus (iii) with significant MR and AR, all postprocedure. 381 participants of the Polish Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Registry (166 males (43.6%) and 215 females (56.4%), age 78.8±7.4 years) were analysed. Follow-up was 94.1±96.5 days. Results Inhospital and midterm mortality were 6.6% and 10.2%, respectively. Significant MR and AR were present in 16% and 8.1% patients, including 3.1% patients with both significant MR and AR. Patients with significant versus insignificant AR differed with respect to mortality (log rank p=0.009). This difference was not apparent in a subgroup of patients without significant MR (log rank p=0.80). In a subgroup of patients without significant AR, there were no significant differences in mortality between individuals with versus without significant MR (log rank p=0.44). Significant MR and AR had a significant impact on mortality only when associated with each other (log rank p<0.0001). At multivariate Cox regression modelling concomitant significant MR and AR were independently associated with mortality (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.54 to 5.71, p=0.002). Conclusions Significant MR or AR postprocedure, when isolated, had no impact on survival. Combined MR and AR had a significant impact on a patient's prognosis. PMID:26908096

  6. [The research progress of transcatheter aortic valve replacement].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Maobo; Shi, Xinli; Jia, Jianxiong; Miao, Jingjing; Liu, Wei; Nie, Feilong

    2014-09-01

    During the past years transcatheter aortic valve replacement has evolved to a promising technique for the treatment of the patients who suffered from severe aortic stenosis, the progress and basic consideration on clinical study have been summarized in the article. PMID:25597083

  7. The pathology of human aortic valve homografts

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Judith C.

    1967-01-01

    Beta-propiolactone sterilized, freeze-dried aortic valve homografts offer a dead framework which is accepted by the host and is capable of immediate and full function. The survival time of such grafts as fully functional units may be limited by physical and chemical alterations produced in the tissues by sterilization and freeze-drying. The organizing reaction of the host in covering the grafts or using them as a scaffolding may also be affected by these processes. It is possible that better long-term results may be achieved by using fresh grafts. There is no difference in host cellular response to fresh and sterilized and/or freeze-dried grafts. There is a possibility that heterogeneous reactions to polypeptides in the graft may occur in some individuals. Organization and covering of the graft by host tissue occurs from host tissues contiguous to the graft. Cells circulating in the bloodstream play no part in this by seeding on the surface. Thrombosis, in the absence of infection, is a rare complication. (Anticoagulants were not used in these patients.) Calcification occurs as only a late complication in persisting `dead' tissue. Unsuspected, and often extensive, myocardial ischaemia occurs frequently under bypass conditions with coronary artery perfusion and substantially contributes to immediate post-operative mortality and morbidity. Images PMID:6033379

  8. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in the Elderly: Who to Refer?

    PubMed Central

    Finn, Matthew; Green, Philip

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, experience with transcatheter aortic valve implantation has led to improved outcomes in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who may not have previously been considered for intervention. These patients are often frail with significant comorbid conditions. As the prevalence of AS increases, there is a need for improved assessment parameters to determine the patients most likely to benefit from this novel procedure. This review discusses the diagnostic criteria for severe AS and the trials available to aid in the decision to refer for aortic valve procedures in the elderly. PMID:25216621

  9. A fatal outcome of thoracic aortic aneurysm in a male patient with bicuspid aortic valve

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, Ewa; Michałowska, Ilona; Szpakowski, Eugeniusz; Konopka, Anna; Klisiewicz, Anna; Teresa Bilińska, Zofia

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is often an asymptomatic but potentially lethal disease if its most catastrophic complication – aortic dissection – occurs. Thoracic aortic dissection is associated with a high mortality rate despite ongoing improvement in its management. We report a fatal outcome of thoracic aortic aneurysm in a male patient with bicuspid aortic valve. The patient was qualified for elective surgery of the ascending aorta and aortic valve at the age of 39 but he did not agree to undergo the proposed procedure. Three years later, he experienced acute aortic dissection and died despite a prompt diagnosis and complex management. PMID:24570730

  10. The closing behavior of mechanical aortic heart valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Po-Chien; Liu, Jia-Shing; Huang, Ren-Hong; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lai, Ho-Cheng; Hwang, Ned H C

    2004-01-01

    Mechanical artificial heart valves rely on reverse flow to close their leaflets. This mechanism creates regurgitation and water hammer effects that may form cavitations, damage blood cells, and cause thromboembolism. This study analyzes closing mechanisms of monoleaflet (Medtronic Hall 27), bileaflet (Carbo-Medics 27; St. Jude Medical 27; Duromedics 29), and trileaflet valves in a circulatory mock loop, including an aortic root with three sinuses. Downstream flow field velocity was measured via digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). A high speed camera (PIVCAM 10-30 CCD video camera) tracked leaflet movement at 1000 frames/s. All valves open in 40-50 msec, but monoleaflet and bileaflet valves close in much less time (< 35 msec) than the trileaflet valve (>75 msec). During acceleration phase of systole, the monoleaflet forms a major and minor flow, the bileaflet has three jet flows, and the trileaflet produces a single central flow like physiologic valves. In deceleration phase, the aortic sinus vortices hinder monoleaflet and bileaflet valve closure until reverse flows and high negative transvalvular pressure push the leaflets rapidly for a hard closure. Conversely, the vortices help close the trileaflet valve more softly, probably causing less damage, lessening back flow, and providing a washing effect that may prevent thrombosis formation. PMID:15307536

  11. Case Report: Prothesis-patient mismatch after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Ospina, Luis; Garcia-Morell, Juan; Rodriguez-Monserrate, Carla P; Valentin-Nieves, Julio

    2015-01-01

    Valve replacement is the standard surgical treatment of diseased valves that cannot be repaired. The main goal of replacement is to exchange the diseased valve with one that has the engineering and hemodynamics as close as possible to the disease free native valve. However due to mechanical and fluid dynamic constraints all prosthetic heart valves (PHVs) are smaller than normal and thus are inherently stenotic. This represents a challenge when it comes time to replace a valve. The correct valve with the correct and matching profile has to be selected before the procedure to avoid possible complications. It is well recognized that patients are also prone to patient-prosthesis mismatch at long term which could have consequences in the clinical outcomes (1). The evaluation of patient-prosthesis mismatch (PPM) has not been sufficiently emphasized in common practice. Failure to recognize this fact may lead to significant hemodynamic impairment and worsening of the clinical status over the time. Making efforts to identifying patients at risk may decrease the prevalence of PPM, the economic impact to our health system, the morbidity and mortality involved in these cases as well as creates efforts to standardized pre-operative protocols to minimized risk of PPM. We present a case of a 78 years old male patient who underwent aortic valve replacement due severe aortic stenosis, afterwards his clinical course got complicated with several admissions for shortness of breath and decompensated congestive heart failure (CHF). PMID:26434082

  12. Impact of Pulmonary Hypertension on Outcomes Following Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Spencer J.; Moon, Marc R.; Lindman, Brian R.; Bailey, Marci S.; Hill, Laureen L.; Damiano, Ralph J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The presence of pulmonary hypertension (PH) historically has been considered a significant risk factor affecting early and late outcomes following valve replacement. Given the number of recent advances in the management of PH following cardiac surgery a better understanding of the impact of PH on outcomes may assist in the clinical management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if pulmonary hypertension remains a risk factor in the modern era for adverse outcomes following aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic valve stenosis. Methods From January 1996 to June 2009, 1,080 patients underwent AVR for primary aortic valve stenosis, of which 574 (53%) had normal systolic pulmonary artery pressures (sPAP) and 506 (47%) had PH. PH was defined as mild (sPAP 35-44 mmHg), moderate (45-59mmHg), or severe (≥ 60mmHg). In the group of patients with PH, 204 had postoperative echocardiograms. Results Operative mortality was significantly higher in patients with PH (47/506, 9% versus 31/574, 5%; p=0.02). The incidence of postoperative stroke was similar (p=0.14), but patients with PH had an increased median hospital LOS (8 versus 7 days, p=0.001) and an increased incidence of prolonged ventilation (26% versus 17%, p<0.001). Preoperative PH was an independent risk factor for decreased long term survival (RR 1.7, p=0.02). Those with persistent PH postoperatively had decreased survival. Five-year survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 78 ± 6% with normal sPAP and 77 ± 7% with mild PH postoperatively, compared to 64 ± 8% with moderate PH and 45 ± 12% with severe PH (p<0.001). Conclusion In patients undergoing AVR, preoperative PH increased operative mortality and decreased long-term survival. Patients with persistent moderate or severe PH after AVR had decreased long-term survival. These data suggest that PH had a significant impact on outcomes in patients undergoing AVR and should be considered in preoperative risk assessment. PMID:21596173

  13. Predictors of the Size of Prosthetic Aortic Valve and In-Hospital Mortality in Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Dar, Mudassir Iqbal; Ahmed, Muhammad Umer; Hussain, Mehwish; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Khan, Asadullah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We hypothesized that gender, age, aortic root dimension, blood group and Left Ventricular End Diastolic and Systolic Diameters may have a significant correlation with the size of mechanical valve used. Methods: We included 48 patients retrospectively who had been operated at a single tertiary hospital. All patients with aortic stenosis or regurgitation were included in the study. Patients who had undergone previous cardiac surgery or concomitant surgical procedures, such as coronary artery bypass grafting, were excluded from the study. Results: The median size of the valves used in males (23mm) and females (21mm) were significantly different (P = 0.001). Size of the valve used was significantly associated with Left Ventricular End Systolic Diameter (LVESD) (r = 0.327, P = 0.007) and aortic root dimension (r = 0.526, P < 0.001). Moreover, significantly higher values of LVESD were observed in the expired patients (P = 0.023). Conclusion: This study shows that aortic root dimension and gender may be important predictors for the size of the prosthetic aortic valve used in aortic valve replacement. Our study also concludes that LVESD has significant relationship with in-hospital mortality. However, more long term clinical trials should be conducted to confirm these relationships. PMID:24999134

  14. A planning system for transapical aortic valve implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessat, Michael; Merk, Denis R.; Falk, Volkmar; Walther, Thomas; Jacobs, Stefan; Nöttling, Alois; Burgert, Oliver

    2009-02-01

    Stenosis of the aortic valve is a common cardiac disease. It is usually corrected surgically by replacing the valve with a mechanical or biological prosthesis. Transapical aortic valve implantation is an experimental minimally invasive surgical technique that is applied to patients with high operative risk to avoid pulmonary arrest. A stented biological prosthesis is mounted on a catheter. Through small incisions in the fifth intercostal space and the apex of the heart, the catheter is positioned under flouroscopy in the aortic root. The stent is expanded and unfolds the valve which is thereby implanted into the aortic root. Exact targeting is crucial, since major complications can arise from a misplaced valve. Planning software for the perioperative use is presented that allows for selection of the best fitting implant and calculation of the safe target area for that implant. The software uses contrast enhanced perioperative DynaCT images acquired under rapid pacing. In a semiautomatic process, a surface segmentation of the aortic root is created. User selected anatomical landmarks are used to calculate the geometric constraints for the size and position of the implant. The software is integrated into a PACS network based on DICOM communication to query and receive the images and implants templates from a PACS server. The planning results can be exported to the same server and from there can be rertieved by an intraoperative catheter guidance device.

  15. Perceval S aortic valve implantation in an achondroplastic Dwarf.

    PubMed

    Baikoussis, Nikolaos G; Argiriou, Michalis; Argiriou, Orestis; Dedeilias, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Despite cardiovascular disease in patients with dwarfism is not rare; there is a lack of reports referring to cardiac interventions in such patients. Dwarfism may be due to achondroplasia or hormonal growth disorders. We present a 58-year-old woman with episodes of dyspnea for several months. She underwent on transthoracic echocardiography, and she diagnosed with severe aortic valve stenosis. She referred to our department for surgical treatment of this finding. In accordance of her anthropometric characteristics and her very small aortic annulus, we had the dilemma of prosthesis selection. We decided to implant a stentless valve to optimize her effective orifice area. Our aim is to present the successful Perceval S valve implantation and the descriptions of the problems coming across in operating on these special patients. To our knowledge, this is the first case patient in which a Perceval S valve is implanted according to the international bibliography. PMID:26750695

  16. Replacement of a Dislocated Aortic Prosthesis After Transcatheter Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Mandegar, Mohammad Hossein; Moradi, Bahieh; Roshanali, Farideh

    2016-06-01

    A 77-year-old woman who had severe symptomatic aortic stenosis and was a high risk for conventional surgery underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation by means of the transfemoral approach. The prosthesis migrated and became embolized in the left ventricle after inflation, causing interference with the mitral valve and also partial outflow tract obstruction. The patient was emergently transferred to the operating room. Vertical aortotomy was performed under cardiopulmonary bypass, and the calcified native leaflets were removed. The migrated Edwards SAPIEN XT valve was extracted and subsequently successfully sewn into the annulus after examination for leaflet and stent competence. The hemodynamic performance of the implanted valve was surprisingly more favorable than that of the conventional tissue prosthesis. PMID:27211978

  17. Complete Aortic Valve Cusp Replacement in the Pediatric Population Using Tissue-Engineered Bovine Pericardium.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Domenico; Nöbauer, Christian; Rankin, J Scott; Vogt, Manfred; Lange, Rüdiger; Schreiber, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Three clinical cases of severe pediatric aortic valve defects undergoing complete aortic valve cusp replacement using tissue-engineered bovine pericardium are reported. All patients achieved excellent early results, and are being followed without complications. PMID:26522549

  18. Starr-Edwards valves at the aortic and mitral positions implanted for 39 years.

    PubMed

    Misawa, Shun-ichi; Aizawa, Kei; Kaminishi, Yuichiro; Muraoka, Arata; Misawa, Yoshio

    2011-06-01

    Cloth-covered Starr-Edwards caged ball valves implanted in the aortic and mitral valve positions for 39 years were extracted. Both showed valve dysfunction resulting from pannus overgrowth. The metal cages of the Starr-Edwards valves were covered with worn cloth. This case indicates the extended durability of Starr-Edwards valves and the importance of the design and materials of prosthetic heart valves to avoid pannus overgrowth and prosthetic valve abrasion. PMID:21674313

  19. Role of balloon dilatation of the aortic valve in pregnant patients with severe aortic stenosis.

    PubMed Central

    Banning, A P; Pearson, J F; Hall, R J

    1993-01-01

    The outcome of unrelieved severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in pregnancy is poor. Though the valve lesion can be corrected surgically before delivery at a low risk to the mother, cardiopulmonary bypass during pregnancy carries a high risk to the fetus. Two patients in the second trimester of pregnancy were successfully managed with balloon dilatation of the aortic valve. Both delivered healthy infants and were well a year later. Balloon dilatation of the aortic valve is a useful palliative procedure in the management of pregnant women with severe aortic stenosis. PMID:8280520

  20. Evaluation of biological aortic valve prostheses by dual source computer tomography and anatomic measurements for potential transapical valve-in-valve procedure.

    PubMed

    Grünenfelder, Jürg; Plass, Andre; Alkadhi, Hatem; Genoni, Michele

    2008-04-01

    Transapical aortic valve replacement has been introduced into clinical practice from which also patients with failing biological valves might profit: valve-in-valve procedure. The aim of the study was to determine the fate of biological valves in long-term follow-up (FU) and to evaluate topography and dimensions for transapical access via dual-source CT scan (DSCT). Fifty patients (mean age 76+/-13 years, range 38-87 years) underwent DSCT whereas the patients were followed for up to 13 years after porcine aortic valve replacement. Measurements of valve prosthesis and illustration of chest topography were done. Out of 46 evaluable patients, 34 showed no leaflet calcification and 12 minimally calcified. Seventeen valves (37%) showed no, 24 valves (52%) mild and 5 (11%) moderate-to-severe ring calcification. Three patients had moderate aortic stenosis, two patients showed mild insufficiency. The angle from the 4th ICS to apex to aortic valve annulus measured 80.3+/-11.1 degrees compared to the angle from the 5th ICS which measured 101.6+/-7.2 degrees (P<0.0001). Biological valves show good long-term results with minimal failure rate and limited calcification. Leaflet calcification might be problematic if unevenly distributed which can endanger the very close LCO. These measurements represent a prerequisite for preoperative planning and increase the awareness to detect potential procedural problems of the valve-in-valve concept. PMID:18218653

  1. Hemodynamics and Mechanobiology of Aortic Valve Inflammation and Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Kartik; Sucosky, Philippe; Yoganathan, Ajit P.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac valves function in a mechanically complex environment, opening and closing close to a billion times during the average human lifetime, experiencing transvalvular pressures and pulsatile and oscillatory shear stresses, as well as bending and axial stress. Although valves were originally thought to be passive pieces of tissue, recent evidence points to an intimate interplay between the hemodynamic environment and biological response of the valve. Several decades of study have been devoted to understanding these varied mechanical stimuli and how they might induce valve pathology. Here, we review efforts taken in understanding the valvular response to its mechanical milieu and key insights gained from in vitro and ex vivo whole-tissue studies in the mechanobiology of aortic valve remodeling, inflammation, and calcification. PMID:21760982

  2. Lactococcus garvieae Endocarditis on a Prosthetic Biological Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Tsur, A; Slutzki, T; Flusser, D

    2015-09-01

    Lactococcus garvieae (LG) endocarditis is a rare disease in humans. There are only about 16 reported cases in the world. We report a 76-year-old male patient with LG endocarditis. In depth interview with the patient revealed that 2 weeks prior to admission, he had eaten sushi containing raw fish. Unlike many of the other infections reported, which were on a native mitral valve, our patient's vegetation was on a prosthetic aortic valve. PMID:25295408

  3. Balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a treatment option in the era of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Costopoulos, Charis; Sutaria, Nilesh; Ariff, Ben; Fertleman, Michael; Malik, Iqbal; Mikhail, Ghada W

    2015-05-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is the commonest encountered valvular pathology and a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality in cases of severe stenosis. Definitive treatment has traditionally been offered in the form of surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with an acceptable surgical risk and more recently with the less invasive transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in those where surgery is not a viable option. Prior to the introduction of TAVI, inoperable patients were treated medically and where appropriate with balloon aortic valvuloplasty, a procedure which although effective only provided short-term relief and was associated with high complication rates especially during its infancy. Here we discuss whether balloon aortic valvuloplasty continues to have a role in contemporary clinical practice in an era where significant advances have been achieved in the fields of surgical aortic valve replacement, TAVI and postoperative care. PMID:25865236

  4. Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement in Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Friedrich; Hamm, Christian W; Welz, Armin

    2016-04-28

    To the Editor: Reinöhl et al. (Dec. 17 issue)(1) report on the numbers of surgical aortic-valve replacement and transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) procedures performed in Germany between 2007 and 2013. We are concerned about the validity of using the German Diagnosis Related Groups (G-DRG)-based data source. More reliable databases are available. In particular, the mandatory external quality-assurance database (the AQUA Quality Report) is considered to be nearly complete and therefore most representative of the German experience with TAVR and surgical aortic-valve replacement.(2)-(4) There is a major discrepancy between the numbers of procedures reported by Reinöhl et al. and the . . . PMID:27119248

  5. Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery: Transapical Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Mazilu, Dumitru; Horvath, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is less traumatic and therefore leads to quicker recovery. With the assistance of engineering technologies on devices, imaging, and robotics, in conjunction with surgical technique, minimally invasive cardiac surgery will improve clinical outcomes and expand the cohort of patients that can be treated. We used transapical aortic valve implantation as an example to demonstrate that minimally invasive cardiac surgery can be implemented with the integration of surgical techniques and engineering technologies. Feasibility studies and long-term evaluation results prove that transapical aortic valve implantation under MRI guidance is feasible and practical. We are investigating an MRI compatible robotic surgical system to further assist the surgeon to precisely deliver aortic valve prostheses via a transapical approach. Ex vivo experimentation results indicate that a robotic system can also be employed in in vivo models. PMID:23125924

  6. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: from fantasy to reality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Increased life expectancy has led to the presentation of more complicated patients in old age for the replacement of the aortic valve. The emergence of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) was considered as a significant breakthrough in the management of symptomatic, moribund patients suffering from aortic valve stenosis who had been rejected for surgical intervention. A novel technology often has a long journey from the point at which it is created to its every-day-use. It is now obvious that TAVI practice in multiple institutes around the world has gone beyond the evidence. Serious concerns have been raised questioning the current TAVI practice. Analysis of future TAVI use may assist clinicians and healthcare managers to understand and deploy this technology in accordance with the evidence. PMID:24602509

  7. Role of Echocardiography Before Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Badiani, Sveeta; Bhattacharyya, Sanjeev; Lloyd, Guy

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common primary valve disorder in the elderly with an increasing prevalence; transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an accepted alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in the high risk or inoperable patient. Appropriate selection of patients for TAVI is crucial and requires a multidisciplinary approach including cardiothoracic surgeons, interventional cardiologists, anaesthetists, imaging experts and specialist nurses. Multimodality imaging including echocardiography, CT and MRI plays a pivotal role in the selection and planning process; however, echocardiography remains the primary imaging modality used for patient selection, intra-procedural guidance, post-procedural assessment and long-term follow-up. The contribution that contemporary transthoracic and transoesophageal echocardiography make to the selection and planning of TAVI is described in this article. PMID:26960423

  8. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) for Treatment of Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S; Doble, B; Xie, F; Blackhouse, G; Campbell, K; Kaulback, K; Chandra, K; Goeree, R

    2012-01-01

    Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) for patients at high risk for surgery. Objective To evaluate the safety, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of TAVI for treatment of aortic valve stenosis in symptomatic older adults. Review Methods A literature search was performed on September 6, 2011, for studies published from January 1, 2007, to September 6, 2011. A combined decision tree and Markov model was developed to compare costs, life years, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) of all treatment options in their respective patient populations over a 20-year time horizon. Results Two studies from the PARTNER trial were identified. The first study compared TAVI to sAVR in patients who were candidates for sAVR. The second study compared TAVI to standard treatment in patients who were not eligible for sAVR. The first study showed that TAVI and sAVR had similar mortality rates at 1 year. The second study showed a significant improvement in patient survival in those undergoing TAVI. However, in both studies, the TAVI group had significantly higher rates of stroke/transient ischemic attack, and major vascular complications. Rates of major bleeding were significantly higher in sAVR group in the first study and significantly higher in TAVI group in the second study. The base-case cost-effectiveness of TAVI was $48,912 per QALY, but the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio ranged from $36,000 to $291,000 per QALY depending on the assumptions made in the longer-term prediction portion of the model (i.e., beyond the follow-up period of the PARTNER trial). Conclusions TAVI improves survival in patients who cannot undergo surgery. For those who are candidates for surgery, TAVI has a mortality rate similar to sAVR, but it is associated with significant adverse effects. TAVI may be cost-effective for patients who cannot undergo surgery, but is not cost-effective for patients who can. PMID:23074424

  9. First transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe pure aortic regurgitation in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chiam, Paul Toon-Lim; Ewe, See Hooi; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Yean Teng

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard of care for inoperable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS), and an alternative to open aortic valve replacement for patients at high surgical risk. TAVI has also been performed in several groups of patients with off-label indications such as severe bicuspid AS, and as a valve-in-valve therapy for a degenerated surgical bioprosthesis. Although TAVI with CoreValve® prosthesis is technically challenging, and global experience in the procedure is limited, the procedure could be a treatment option for well-selected patients with severe pure aortic regurgitation (AR). Herein, we report Asia's first case of TAVI for severe pure AR in a patient who was at extreme surgical risk, with good clinical outcome at six months. PMID:24570320

  10. First transcatheter aortic valve implantation for severe pure aortic regurgitation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Paul Toon-Lim; Ewe, See Hooi; Chua, Yeow Leng; Lim, Yean Teng

    2014-02-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard of care for inoperable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS), and an alternative to open aortic valve replacement for patients at high surgical risk. TAVI has also been performed in several groups of patients with off-label indications such as severe bicuspid AS, and as a valve-in-valve therapy for a degenerated surgical bioprosthesis. Although TAVI with CoreValve® prosthesis is technically challenging, and global experience in the procedure is limited, the procedure could be a treatment option for well-selected patients with severe pure aortic regurgitation (AR). Herein, we report Asia's first case of TAVI for severe pure AR in a patient who was at extreme surgical risk, with good clinical outcome at six months. PMID:24570320

  11. Limited Expansion of the New Self-Expandable Transcathether Aortic Valve Prosthesis (CoreValve Evolut R).

    PubMed

    Serio, Daniela; Doss, Mirko; Kim, Won-Keun; Möllmann, Helge; Walther, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been established as a therapeutic option in patients with a high procedural risk presenting with severe aortic stenosis. Recent improvements of TAVI technology made it possible to treat degenerated bioprosthesis using the valve-in-valve implantation concept. The self-expanding CoreValve (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) prosthesis has recently been redesigned and was introduced into clinical practice. We report a case of a not fully expanded Medtronic CoreValve Evolut R after deploying a 26 mm prosthesis into a degenerated 25 mm Carpentier-Edwards Perimount prosthesis. PMID:27106459

  12. Prosthetic valve endocarditis with valvular obstruction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Pabilona, Christine; Gitler, Bernard; Lederman, Jeffrey A; Miller, Donald; Keltz, Theodore N

    2015-04-01

    Patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for open-heart surgery might be candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Streptococcus viridans endocarditis that caused prosthetic valve obstruction after TAVR. A 77-year-old man who had undergone TAVR 17 months earlier was admitted because of evidence of prosthetic valve endocarditis. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a substantial increase in the transvalvular peak gradient and mean gradient in comparison with an echocardiogram of 7 months earlier. A transesophageal echocardiogram showed a 1.5-cm vegetation obstructing the valve. Blood cultures yielded penicillin-sensitive S. viridans. The patient was hemodynamically stable and was initially treated with vancomycin because of his previous penicillin allergy. Subsequent therapy with levofloxacin, oral penicillin (after a negative penicillin skin test), and intravenous penicillin eliminated the symptoms of the infection. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a relatively new procedure, and sequelae are still being discovered. We recommend that physicians consider obstructive endocarditis as one of these. PMID:25873834

  13. Acute thrombosis of mechanical bi-leaflet aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Tirilomis, Theodor

    2012-07-01

    Thrombosis of mechanical aortic valve prosthesis is a rare but life-threatening complication. In most reported cases, inadequate anticoagulation or cessation of anticoagulation is the cause of prosthesis thrombosis. The case of a 70-year-old male patient hospitalized for severe dyspnoea is presented. Although the patient was under continuous anticoagulation, thrombosis of the 16 years previously implanted mechanical 31-sized aortic valve prosthesis was diagnosed. Emergency surgery was performed and postoperative course was uneventful. Patients with large size prostheses should have closer anticoagulation monitoring, even after many years of event-free postimplant course. PMID:22923942

  14. Aortic valve endocarditis due to abiotrophia defectiva: a rare etiology.

    PubMed

    Yerebakan, Can; Westphal, Bernd; Skrabal, Christian; Kaminski, Alexander; Ugurlucan, Murat; Bomke, Anne-Kathrin; Liebold, Andreas; Steinhoff, Gustav

    2008-01-01

    Abiotrophia defectiva is a rare cause of infective endocarditis. Besides an association with often negative blood cultures and difficult treatment, high rates of relapse and higher mortality than endocarditis caused by other viridans streptococci are known features of this entity. We report on the surgical and medical management of the aortic valve endocarditis caused by Abiotrophia defectiva in a 19-year-old patient. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a patient to have Down syndrome and Abiotrophia defectiva endocarditis requiring aortic valve replacement. PMID:18421556

  15. Apicoaortic Valve Conduit for a Patient with Aortic Valve Stenosis and Patent Coronary Bypass Grafts Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, Anthony G; Relle, Margaret A; Lombardi, Sarah A

    2015-12-01

    In adults over 65 years of age, aortic valve stenosis has been found to be present in 2-9% within this group. Furthermore, aortic valve replacements in patients whom have had a previous coronary artery bypass grafting surgery have a mortality rate as high as 18%. A non-conventional effective surgical approach of bypassing the aortic valve by inserting an apicoaortic valve conduit (AVC) connecting the left ventricular apex to the descending thoracic aorta has been previously documented. We describe the case of a successful implantation of an AVC in a 64-year-old Caucasian male using cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:26834287

  16. Robotic-assisted aortic valve bypass (apicoaortic conduit) for aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Gammie, James S; Lehr, Eric J; Griffith, Bartley P; Dawood, Murtaza Y; Bonatti, Johannes

    2011-08-01

    Aortic valve bypass (AVB [apicoaortic conduit]) surgery consists of the construction of a valved conduit between the left ventricular apex and the descending thoracic aorta. In our institution, AVB is routinely performed without cardiopulmonary bypass or manipulation of the ascending aorta or native aortic valve. We report the case of an 83-year-old man with severe symptomatic bioprosthetic aortic stenosis, chronic thrombocytopenia, and a patent bypass graft who underwent robotically assisted beating-heart AVB through an anterior minithoracotomy. The distal anastomosis was constructed entirely using robotic telemanipulation. Robotic assistance enables the performance of beating-heart AVB through a small incision. PMID:21801931

  17. Aortic valve and ascending aortic root modeling from 3D and 3D+t CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grbic, Saša; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Zäuner, Dominik; Zheng, Yefeng; Georgescu, Bogdan; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-02-01

    Aortic valve disorders are the most frequent form of valvular heart disorders (VHD) affecting nearly 3% of the global population. A large fraction among them are aortic root diseases, such as aortic root aneurysm, often requiring surgical procedures (valve-sparing) as a treatment. Visual non-invasive assessment techniques could assist during pre-selection of adequate patients, planning procedures and afterward evaluation of the same. However state of the art approaches try to model a rather short part of the aortic root, insufficient to assist the physician during intervention planning. In this paper we propose a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of both the aortic valve and the ascending aortic root. A novel physiological shape model is introduced, consisting of the aortic valve root, leaflets and the ascending aortic root. The model parameters are hierarchically estimated using robust and fast learning-based methods. Experiments performed on 63 CT sequences (630 Volumes) and 20 single phase CT volumes demonstrated an accuracy of 1.45mm and an performance of 30 seconds (3D+t) for this approach. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a complete model of the aortic valve (including leaflets) and the ascending aortic root, estimated from CT, has been proposed.

  18. The expanding indications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Paul Tl; Ewe, See Hooi

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), also known as transcatheter aortic valve replacement, is increasingly performed worldwide and is a technology that is here to stay. It has become the treatment of choice for inoperable patients and an alternative option for patients at high surgical risk with severe aortic stenosis. Early results of TAVI in intermediate-risk patients appear promising although larger randomized trial results are awaited before the widespread adoption of this technology in this big pool of patients. In patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis and degenerated surgical bioprostheses, TAVI has been shown to be feasible and relatively safe, though certain important considerations remain. Indications for TAVI are likely to grow as newer generation and improved devices and delivery systems become available. PMID:26916608

  19. Mechano-Potential Etiologies of Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Merryman, W. David

    2009-01-01

    Aortic valve leaflets experience varying applied loads during the cardiac cycle. These varying loads act on both cells types of the leaflets, endothelial and interstitial cells, and cause molecular signaling events that are required for repairing the leaflet tissue, which is continually damaged from the applied loads. However, with increasing age, this reparative mechanism appears to go awry as valve interstitial cells continue to remain in their ‘remodeling’ phenotype and subsequently cause the tissue to become stiff, which results in heart valve disease. The etiology of this disease remains elusive; however, multiple clues are beginning to coalesce and mechanical cues are turning out to be large predicators of cellular function in the aortic valve leaflets, when compared to the cells from pulmonary valve, which is under a significantly less demanding mechanical loading regime. Finally this paper discusses the mechanical environment of the constitutive cell populations, mechanobiological processes that are currently unclear, and a mechano-potential etiology of aortic disease will be presented. PMID:19811785

  20. A Practical Approach to Managing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With Sedation.

    PubMed

    Neuburger, Peter J; Saric, Muhamed; Huang, Conan; Williams, Mathew Russell

    2016-06-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is increasingly performed as a minimally invasive treatment option for aortic valve disease. The typical anesthetic management for this procedure was traditionally similar to surgical aortic valve replacement and involved general anesthesia and transesophageal echocardiography. In this review, we discuss the technological advances in transcatheter valve systems that have improved outcomes and allow for use of sedation instead of general anesthesia. We describe an anesthetic protocol that avoids general anesthesia and utilizes transthoracic echocardiography for procedural guidance. PMID:26787418

  1. Perinatal Changes in Mitral and Aortic Valve Structure and Composition

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Elizabeth H.; Post, Allison D.; Laucirica, Daniel R.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    At birth, the mechanical environment of valves changes radically as fetal shunts close and pulmonary and systemic vascular resistances change. Given that valves are reported to be mechanosensitive, we investigated remodeling induced by perinatal changes by examining compositional and structural differences of aortic and mitral valves (AVs, MVs) between 2-day-old and 3rd fetal trimester porcine valves using immunohistochemistry and Movat pentachrome staining. Aortic valve composition changed more with birth than the MV, consistent with a greater change in AV hemodynamics. At 2 days, AV demonstrated a trend of greater versican and elastin (P = 0.055), as well as greater hyaluronan turnover (hyaluronan receptor for endocytosis, P = 0.049) compared with the 3rd-trimester samples. The AVs also demonstrated decreases in proteins related to collagen synthesis and fibrillogenesis with birth, including procollagen I, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, biglycan (all P ≤ 0.005), and decorin (P = 0.059, trend). Both AVs and MVs demonstrated greater delineation between the leaflet layers in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples, and AVs demonstrated greater saffron-staining collagen intensity, suggesting more mature collagen in 2-day-old compared with 3rd-trimester samples (each P < 0.05). The proportion of saffron-staining collagen also increased in AV with birth (P < 0.05). The compositional and structural changes that occur with birth, as noted in this study, likely are important to proper neonatal valve function. Furthermore, normal perinatal changes in hemodynamics often do not occur in congenital valve disease; the corresponding perinatal matrix maturation may also be lacking and could contribute to poor function of congenitally malformed valves. PMID:20536360

  2. Transcatheter ACURATE-TA Aortic Valve Implantation in a Patient With a Previous Mechanical Mitral Valve.

    PubMed

    Bagur, Rodrigo; Kiaii, Bob; Teefy, Patrick J; Diamantouros, Pantelis; Harle, Christopher; Goela, Aashish; Chan, Ian; Chu, Michael W A

    2015-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in the presence of a mechanical mitral valve (MMV) prosthesis is still challenging because of the rigid mitral frame within the aortomitral curtain. Moreover, low-lying coronary ostia represent a hazardous problem of coronary obstruction, especially in narrow or porcelain aortic roots. The present case demonstrates the successful management of 2 challenging anatomical issues, the rigid cage of the MMV and the low-lying left main coronary ostium (LMCO), with the implantation of the ACURATE-TA bioprosthesis (Symetis SA, Ecublens, Switzerland). It also highlights the importance of having multiple TAVI devices in order to choose the ideal transcatheter aortic bioprosthesis to fit the unique anatomical presentation of the patient. PMID:26522576

  3. [Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: An Introduction and Patient Care].

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ju; Wang, Shiao-Pei

    2015-06-01

    Aortic stenosis has a high prevalence among individuals over 75 years of age. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a novel valve-replacement technique for patients with multiple chronic diseases who are at high risk of requiring aortic valve replacement surgery. Most of the time, the indicators of TAVI are detected during an echocardiographic exam. The femoral artery is the primary insertion site. The complications of TAVI include stroke, vascular dissection, bleeding, aortic valve regurgitation, and arrhythmia. In terms of clinical effectiveness, the mortality rate of TAVI is lower than percutaneous ballon valvuloplasty but similar to AVR. The unplanned cardiac-related re-admission rate within 30 days of discharge is lower for TAVI than for AVR. In terms of activity tolerance, TAVI is significantly better than both percutaneous ballon valvuloplasty and AVR. Comprehensive nursing care may reduce the incidence of complications associated with TAVI. Nursing care of TAVI includes explaining and providing instructions regarding TAVI prior to the procedure. After the TAVI procedure and while the patient is in the ICU, remove the endotracheal tube as soon as possible, monitor his / her neuro-cognitive status, monitor for early detection of a stroke event, record urine output to assess renal function, observe bleeding in the puncture site, and evaluate cardiac arrhythmia and pain. While in the general ward, resume early physical activities and educate the patient regarding the risks and the prevention of bleeding. This article provides references for clinical staff responsible to care for post-TAVI surgery patients. PMID:26073960

  4. Multiple microthrombi on a papillary fibroelastoma of the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Chavanon, Olivier; Hlal, Monsef; Bakkali, Abderhamane; Dessertaine, Géraldine; Haffner-Dubus, Claire; Lantuejoul, Sylvie; Boignard, Aude

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a cardiac papillary fibroelastoma of the aortic valve resected by simple shaving the pedicle. The macroscopic view showed a jelly-like aspect, with the classical appearance of a sea anemone under water, with multiple slender fronds and numerous little submillimetric thrombi disseminated among the branches of the tumor. PMID:22186454

  5. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Keshavarzi, Freidoon; MacCarthy, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is one of the most significant technological advances in cardiovascular medicine. It offers a safe alternative in high risk cardiac patients with proven durability, economical viability and survival advantage. Current trials may expand its application in intermediate or low risk groups. PMID:26961440

  6. Left ventricular guidewire pacing for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Guérios, Enio E; Wenaweser, Peter; Meier, Bernhard

    2013-12-01

    Previous reports prove the safety and efficacy of cardiac pacing employing a guidewire in the left ventricle as unipolar pacing electrode. We describe the use of left ventricular guidewire pacing as an alternative to conventional transvenous temporary right ventricular pacing in the context of transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:22581741

  7. Surgical treatment of aortic valve endocarditis: a 26-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Adademir, Taylan; Tuncer, Eylem Yayla; Tas, Serpil; Donmez, Arzu Antal; Polat, Ebru Bal; Tuncer, Altug

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have retrospectively analyzed the results of the operations made for aortic valve endocarditis in a single center in 26 years. Methods From June 1985 to January 2011, 174 patients were operated for aortic valve endocarditis. One hundred and thirty-eight (79.3%) patients were male and the mean age was 39.3±14.4 (9-77) years. Twenty-seven (15.5%) patients had prosthetic valve endocarditis. The mean duration of follow-up was 7.3±4.2 years (0.1-18.2) adding up to a total of 1030.8 patient/years. Results Two hundred and eighty-two procedures were performed. The most frequently performed procedure was aortic valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis (81.6%). In-hospital mortality occurred in 27 (15.5%) cases. Postoperatively, 25 (14.4%) patients had low cardiac output and 17 (9.8%) heart block. The actuarial survival rates for 10 and 15 years were 74.6±3.7% and 61.1±10.3%, respectively. In-hospital mortality was found to be associated with female gender, emergency operation, postoperative renal failure and low cardiac output. The long term mortality was significantly associated with mitral valve involvement. Male gender was found to be a significant risk factor for recurrence in the follow-up. Conclusion Surgery for aortic valve endocarditis has significant mortality. Emergency operation, female gender, postoperative renal failure and low cardiac output are significant risk factors. Risk for recurrence and need for reoperation is low. PMID:24896158

  8. Ascending-to-descending aortic bypass and aortic valve replacement for concomitant severe aortic coarctation and aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Michael W A; Adams, Corey; Torres, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    We present a 33-year-old male with severe, symptomatic aortic coarctation and aortic stenosis assessed on a humanitarian medical mission to a developing country. Contemplating limited time and available resources, we performed a simultaneous single-stage approach with ascending-to-descending aortic bypass with a reinforced gortex graft and concomitant aortic valve replacement through a median sternotomy. The patient had an uneventful postoperative convalescence and was discharged on postoperative day 5. At 1-year follow-up, he was asymptomatic and doing well with good blood pressure control and complete equalization of upper and lower limb blood pressure measurements. Computed tomography and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a widely patent ascending-to-descending aortic bypass graft and a normally functioning prosthetic aortic valve, respectively. In developing countries where health care resources are limited, a combined approach with an extra-anatomic, thoracic aortic bypass, and aortic valve replacement resulted in good early and 1-year outcomes. This procedure may represent the most effective surgical option for patients with concomitant aortic coarctation and aortic stenosis. PMID:21278175

  9. Etiology of bicuspid aortic valve disease: Focus on hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Samantha K; Sucosky, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common form of inheritable cardiac defect. Although this abnormality may still achieve normal valvular function, it is often associated with secondary valvular and aortic complications such as calcific aortic valve disease and aortic dilation. The clinical significance and economic burden of BAV disease justify the need for improved clinical guidelines and more robust therapeutic modalities, which address the root-cause of those pathologies. Unfortunately, the etiology of BAV valvulopathy and aortopathy is still a debated issue. While the BAV anatomy and its secondary complications have been linked historically to a common genetic root, recent advances in medical imaging have demonstrated the existence of altered hemodynamics near BAV leaflets prone to calcification and BAV aortic regions vulnerable to dilation. The abnormal mechanical stresses imposed by the BAV on its leaflets and on the aortic wall could be transduced into cell-mediated processes, leading ultimately to valvular calcification and aortic medial degeneration. Despite increasing evidence for this hemodynamic etiology, the demonstration of the involvement of mechanical abnormalities in the pathogenesis of BAV disease requires the investigation of causality between the blood flow environment imposed on the leaflets and the aortic wall and the local biology, which has been lacking to date. This editorial discusses the different hypothetical etiologies of BAV disease with a particular focus on the most recent advances in cardiovascular imaging, flow characterization techniques and tissue culture methodologies that have provided new evidence in support of the hemodynamic theory. PMID:25548612

  10. 6-month aortic valve implantation of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered valve in sheep.

    PubMed

    Syedain, Zeeshan; Reimer, Jay; Schmidt, Jillian; Lahti, Matthew; Berry, James; Bianco, Richard; Tranquillo, Robert T

    2015-12-01

    Diseased aortic valves often require replacement, with over 30% of the current aortic valve surgeries performed in patients who will outlive a bioprosthetic valve. While many promising tissue-engineered valves have been created in the lab using the cell-seeded polymeric scaffold paradigm, none have been successfully tested long-term in the aortic position of a pre-clinical model. The high pressure gradients and dynamic flow across the aortic valve leaflets require engineering a tissue that has the strength and compliance to withstand high mechanical demand without compromising normal hemodynamics. A long-term preclinical evaluation of an off-the-shelf tissue-engineered aortic valve in the sheep model is presented here. The valves were made from a tube of decellularized cell-produced matrix mounted on a frame. The engineered matrix is primarily composed of collagen, with strength and organization comparable to native valve leaflets. In vitro testing showed excellent hemodynamic performance with low regurgitation, low systolic pressure gradient, and large orifice area. The implanted valves showed large-scale leaflet motion and maintained effective orifice area throughout the duration of the 6-month implant, with no calcification. After 24 weeks implantation (over 17 million cycles), the valves showed no change in tensile mechanical properties. In addition, histology and DNA quantitation showed repopulation of the engineered matrix with interstitial-like cells and endothelialization. New extracellular matrix deposition, including elastin, further demonstrates positive tissue remodeling in addition to recellularization and valve function. Long-term implantation in the sheep model resulted in functionality, matrix remodeling, and recellularization, unprecedented results for a tissue-engineered aortic valve. PMID:26409002

  11. Ascending Aortic Wall Cohesion: Comparison of Bicuspid and Tricuspid Valves

    PubMed Central

    Benedik, Jaroslav; Pilarczyk, Kevin; Wendt, Daniel; Indruch, Jiri; Flek, Radek; Tsagakis, Konstantinos; Alaeddine, Savvas; Jakob, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Bicuspid aortic valve (AV) represents the most common form of congenital AV malformation, which is frequently associated with pathologies of the ascending aorta. We compared the mechanical properties of the aortic wall between patients with bicuspid and tricuspid AV using a new custom-made device mimicking transversal aortic wall shear stress. Methods. Between 03/2010 and 07/2011, 190 consecutive patients undergoing open aortic valve replacement at our institution were prospectively enrolled, presenting either with a bicuspid (group 1, n = 44) or a tricuspid (group 2, n = 146) AV. Aortic wall specimen were examined with the “dissectometer” resulting in nine specific aortic-wall parameters derived from tensile strength curves (TSC). Results. Patients with a bicuspid AV showed significantly more calcified valves (43.2% versus 15.8%, P < 0.001), and a significantly thinner aortic wall (2.04 ± 0.42 mm versus 2.24 ± 0.41 mm, P = 0.008). Transesophageal echocardiography diameters (annulus, aortic sinuses, and sinotubular junction) were significantly larger in the bicuspid group (P = 0.003, P = 0.02, P = 0.01). We found no difference in the aortic wall cohesion between both groups as revealed by shear stress testing (P = 0.72, P = 0.40, P = 0.41). Conclusion. We observed no differences of TSC in patients presenting with tricuspid or bicuspid AVs. These results may allow us to assume that the morphology of the AV and the pathology of the ascending aorta are independent. PMID:22988539

  12. Why Does the Bicuspid Aortic Valve Keep Eluding Us?

    PubMed

    Itagaki, Shinobu; Chiang, Yuting; Tang, Gilbert H L

    2016-01-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is, by far, the most common congenital cardiovascular defect encountered by cardiovascular specialists. In the United States, the number of subjects alive is estimated to be 3 million, with an approximate 1% prevalence, more than 10 times higher than the second most common congenital lesion, ventricular septal defect. BAV is subjected to early degeneration and valve dysfunction, requiring surgical intervention in the course of a lifetime for most patients. BAV is also associated with ascending aortic dilatation, also known as BAV aortopathy. Surgical indications for a dysfunctional BAV are relatively straightforward and well established; the same as those for tricuspid aortic valve (TAV), usually triggered by symptoms or ventricular dysfunction. On the other hand, while sharing the same ultimate goal of preventing life-threatening consequences, such as aortic dissection and rupture, surgical thresholds for a dilated ascending aorta are different in the setting of BAV versus TAV; generally lower in BAV. Recently, the incidence of aortic dissection was reported to be much lower than believed, and the idea of more aggressive preemptive intervention on BAV aortopathy has become controversial. Instead, the importance of a more individualized approach is being highlighted. This article will provide a comprehensive review of (1) the typical clinical course of patients with BAV under contemporary management, (2) new risk-stratifying parameters proposed to make an individualized approach possible, and (3) practical challenges all cardiovascular specialists need to know when implementing and interpreting future BAV-related studies. PMID:25688662

  13. Computed tomography for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Apfaltrer, Paul; Henzler, Thomas; Blanke, Phillip; Krazinski, Aleksander W; Silverman, Justin R; Schoepf, U Joseph

    2013-07-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is rapidly becoming a widely used alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk. In these patients, TAVR has been associated with markedly improved survival and relief from symptoms. Despite a very-high risk patient profile, recent multicenter registries have confirmed the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Moreover, the randomized, controlled PARTNER (Placement of AoRTic TraNscathetER Valves) trial has confirmed both the superiority of TAVR over medical treatment in patients not considered to be candidates for standard SAVR and the noninferiority of TAVR compared with SAVR in high-risk patients. The TAVR procedure requires a comprehensive preinterventional diagnostic workup. Above all, detailed information on the anatomy of the aortic annulus (AA) and the relation of the AA to the coronary arteries is essential to avoid complications. So far, no imaging reference standard for AA sizing has been established. Echocardiography, catheter angiography, and computed tomography angiography are widely and often complementarily used imaging techniques for this purpose. Compared with 2-dimensional imaging techniques, computed tomography (CT) has been proven to provide comprehensive information on AA anatomy and geometry, supporting appropriate patient selection and prosthesis sizing. In addition, CT is gaining an increasing role in evaluating the vascular access route before the procedure. This article describes the rapidly emerging role of CT in the context of pre-TAVR assessment. PMID:23736825

  14. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: a Kidney’s Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Thongprayoon, Charat; Kashani, Kianoush

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has now emerged as a viable treatment option for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who are not suitable candidates for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Despite encouraging published outcomes, acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and lowers the survival of patients after TAVR. The pathogenesis of AKI after TAVR is multifactorial including TAVR specific factors such as the use of contrast agents, hypotension during rapid pacing, and embolization; preventive measures may include pre-procedural hydration, limitation of contrast dye exposure, and avoidance of intraprocedural hypotension. In recent years, the number of TAVR performed worldwide has been increasing, as well as published data on renal perspectives of TAVR including AKI, chronic kidney disease, end-stage kidney disease, and kidney transplantation. This review aims to present the current literature on the nephrology aspects of TAVR, ultimately to improve the patients’ quality of care and outcomes. PMID:27069960

  15. Left main coronary artery occlusion after percutaneous aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Bartorelli, Antonio L; Andreini, Daniele; Sisillo, Erminio; Tamborini, Gloria; Fusari, Melissa; Biglioli, Paolo

    2010-03-01

    Left main coronary artery occlusion occurred immediately after transfemoral aortic valve implantation in an 87-year-old woman, which resulted in ventricular fibrillation and hemodynamic collapse. This life-threatening complication was promptly diagnosed with transesophageal echocardiography, which showed the disappearance of diastolic left main coronary artery jet flow and was confirmed with aortic root angiography. After prompt defibrillation, hemodynamic support was obtained with intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic drugs. Functional recovery and survival were achieved with coronary stenting. This report highlights the importance of an integrated team approach of highly skilled specialists for these novel interventions. PMID:20172163

  16. Unicuspid aortic valve presenting with cardiac arrest in an adolescent.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Tara; Kolcow, Walenty; Smyth, Yvonne; Veerasingham, David

    2015-01-01

    Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare congenital anomaly typically affecting patients in their fourth and fifth decades and presenting with signs of heart failure. Our case is one of a previously asymptomatic teenage girl with a UAV, who presented with cardiac arrest and was successfully treated. Only two other similar cases have been reported in the literature, both were of slightly older male patients. Our case highlights the morbidity associated with the anomaly supporting the need for careful assessment of the valve in cases where UAV is suspected. PMID:26178230

  17. Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Endocarditis in Association with Enterococcus durans

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioacchino, Lorena; Balestrini, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Enterococci are common organisms associated with endocarditis, but infection by Enterococcus durans is very rare. To our knowledge, only 3 cases have been reported in the medical literature, and all 3 have involved native valves. Here we publish the first reported case (to our knowledge) of E. durans endocarditis in association with a bioprosthetic aortic valve. After the organism and its antibiotic susceptibility were identified, the 74-year-old male patient was treated successfully with teicoplanin and gentamicin, over a course of 6 weeks. PMID:27127436

  18. Doppler echocardiography in normally functioning replacement aortic valves: a review of 129 studies.

    PubMed

    Rajani, Ronak; Mukherjee, Dayal; Chambers, John B

    2007-09-01

    Echocardiography is the technique of choice for the assessment of replacement aortic valves. Hemodynamic function depends on the design and size of the valve. This review summarizes the published information available to the end of 2005. The most obstructive valve was the caged-ball, followed by the stented porcine and single tilting-disc valves. The stented bovine pericardial valves were slightly less obstructive than these, and similar to the intra-annular bileaflet mechanical valves. Stentless valves appeared slightly less obstructive still, and similar to reduced-cuff mechanical bileaflet valves. Homografts were the least obstructive. Approximate guide thresholds suggesting obstruction were derived. PMID:17944125

  19. Relationship of Metabolic Syndrome With Incident Aortic Valve Calcium and Aortic Valve Calcium Progression

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Ronit; Budoff, Matthew J.; Takasu, Junichiro; Shavelle, David M.; Bertoni, Alain; Blumenthal, Roger S.; Ouyang, Pamela; Wong, Nathan D.; O'Brien, Kevin D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with increased prevalence of aortic valve calcium (AVC) and with increased progression of aortic stenosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether MetS is associated with increased risks for the development of new (“incident”) AVC or for progression of established AVC as assessed by CT. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The relationships of MetS or its components as well as of diabetes to risks for incident AVC or AVC progression were studied among participants with CT scans performed at baseline and at either year 2 or year 3 examinations in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). RESULTS Of 5,723 MESA participants meeting criteria for inclusion, 1,674 had MetS by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, whereas 761 had diabetes. Among the 5,123 participants without baseline AVC, risks for incident AVC, adjusted for time between scans, age, sex, race/ethnicity, LDL cholesterol, lipid-lowering medications, and smoking, were increased significantly for MetS (odds ratio [OR] 1.67 [95% CI 1.21–2.31]) or diabetes (2.06 [1.39–3.06]). In addition, there was an increase in incident AVC risk with increasing number of MetS components. Similar results were found using the International Diabetes Federation MetS criteria. Among the 600 participants (10.5%) with baseline AVC, neither MetS nor diabetes was associated with AVC progression. CONCLUSIONS In the MESA cohort, MetS was associated with a significant increase in incident (“new”) AVC, raising the possibility that MetS may be a potential therapeutic target to prevent AVC development. PMID:19136658

  20. Transcatheter Valve-in-Valve and Valve-in-Ring for Treating Aortic and Mitral Surgical Prosthetic Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Jean-Michel; Del Trigo, Maria; Puri, Rishi; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2015-11-01

    Bioprosthetic valve use has increased significantly. Considering their limited durability, there will remain an ongoing clinical need for repairing or replacing these prostheses in the future. The current standard of care for treating bioprosthetic valve degeneration involves redo open-heart surgery. However, repeat cardiac surgery may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. With the rapid evolution of transcatheter heart valve therapies, the feasibility and safety of implanting a transcatheter heart valve within a failed tissue valve has been established. We review the historical perspective of transcatheter valve-in-valve therapy, as well as the main procedural challenges and clinical outcomes associated with this new less invasive treatment option. PMID:26516006

  1. Redo aortic valve surgery versus transcatheter valve-in-valve implantation for failing surgical bioprosthetic valves: consecutive patients in a single-center setting

    PubMed Central

    Wottke, Michael; Deutsch, Marcus-Andr; Krane, Markus; Piazza, Nicolo; Lange, Ruediger; Bleiziffer, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to a considerable rise in bioprosthetic as opposed to mechanical valve implantations, an increase of patients presenting with failing bioprosthetic surgical valves in need of a reoperation is to be expected. Redo surgery may pose a high-risk procedure. Transcatheter aortic valve-in-valve implantation is an innovative, less-invasive treatment alternative for these patients. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the outcome of consecutive patients after a valve-in-valve TAVI [transcatheter aortic valve-in-surgical aortic valve (TAV-in-SAV)] as compared to a standard reoperation [surgical aortic valve redo-operation (SAV-in-SAV)] has not yet been performed. The goal of this study was to compare postoperative outcomes after TAV-in-SAV and SAV-in-SAV in a single center setting. Methods All SAV-in-SAV and TAV-in-SAV patients from January 2001 to October 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with previous mechanical or transcatheter valves, active endocarditis and concomitant cardiac procedures were excluded. Patient characteristics, preoperative data, post-procedural complications, and 30-day mortality were collected from a designated database. Mean values SD were calculated for all continuous variables. Counts and percentages were calculated for categorical variables. The Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare categorical variables. Continuous variables were compared using the t-test for independent samples. A 2-sided P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results A total of 102 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 50 patients (49%) underwent a transcatheter valve-in-valve procedure, while 52 patients (51%) underwent redo-surgery. Patients in the TAV-in-SAV group were significantly older, had a higher mean logistic EuroSCORE and exhibited a lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than patients in the SAV-in-SAV group (78.16.7 vs. 66.213.1, P<0.001; 27.418.7 vs. 14.410, P<0.001; and 49.813.1 vs. 56.715.8, P=0.019 respectively). Postoperative pacemaker implantation and chest tube output were higher in the SAV-in-SAV group compared to the TAV-in-SAV group [11 (21%) vs. 3 (6%), P=0.042 and 0.91.0 vs. 0.60.9, P=0.047, respectively]. There was no significant difference in myocardial infarction, stroke or dialysis postoperatively. Thirty-day mortality was not significantly different between the two groups [TAV-in-SAV2 (4%) vs. SAV-in-SAV0, P=0.238]. Kaplan-Meier (KM) 1-year survival was significantly lower in the TAV-in-SAV group than in the SAV-in-SAV group (83% vs. 96%, P<0.001). Conclusions The present investigation shows that both groups, irrespective of different baseline comorbidities, show very good early clinical outcomes. While redo surgery is still the standard of care, a subgroup of patients may profit from the transcatheter valve-in-valve procedure. PMID:26543594

  2. Aortic Regurgitation in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement With the Self-Expanding CoreValve Versus the Balloon-Expandable SAPIEN XT Valve.

    PubMed

    Kiramijyan, Sarkis; Magalhaes, Marco A; Koifman, Edward; Didier, Romain; Escarcega, Ricardo O; Baker, Nevin C; Negi, Smita I; Minha, Sa'ar; Torguson, Rebecca; Jiaxiang, Gai; Asch, Federico M; Wang, Zuyue; Okubagzi, Petros; Gaglia, Michael A; Ben-Dor, Itsik; Satler, Lowell F; Pichard, Augusto D; Waksman, Ron

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of aortic regurgitation (AR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in a self-expanding and a balloon-expandable system is controversial. This study aimed to examine the incidence and severity of post-TAVR AR with the CoreValve (CV) versus the Edwards XT Valve (XT). Baseline, procedural, and postprocedural inhospital outcomes were compared. The primary end point was the incidence of post-TAVR AR of any severity, assessed with a transthoracic echocardiogram, in the CV versus XT groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was completed to evaluate for correlates of the primary end point. The secondary end points included the change in severity of AR at 30-day and 1-year follow-up. A total of 223 consecutive patients (53% men, mean age 82 years) who had transfemoral TAVR with either a CV (n = 119) or XT (n = 104) were evaluated. The rates of post-TAVR AR in the groups were similar, and there was no evidence of more-than-moderate AR in either group. There were significant differences in the rates of intraprocedural balloon postdilation with the CV (17.1%) versus XT valve (5.8%; p = 0.009) and in the rates of intraprocedural implantation of a second valve-in-valve prosthesis with the CV (9.9%) versus XT valve (2.2%; p = 0.036). There were no significant differences in inhospital safety outcomes between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the incidence of post-TAVR AR is similar between the CV and the XT valve when performed by experienced operators using optimal intraprocedural strategies, as deemed appropriate, to mitigate the severity of AR. PMID:26996768

  3. Asymptomatic Strut Fracture in DeBakey-Surgitool Aortic Valves

    PubMed Central

    Von Der Emde, Jürgen; Eberlein, Ulrich; Breme, Jürgen

    1990-01-01

    From August 1971 through November 1972, we implanted 62 Model 2 DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses in 62 patients, 4 of whom later had clinically asymptomatic strut fractures. In 1 case, the patient died suddenly, and autopsy revealed detachment of the ball-cage; in each of the other 3 cases, fractures of 2 struts close to the base of the prosthesis were diagnosed fluoroscopically, and the patients underwent successful reoperation. The interval between implantation and reoperation ranged from 11 months to 16 years, 9 months. In 1 patient, retrospective study of chest radiographs revealed that the fracture had been present for 2½ years. Larger valves (≥ A6) were affected significantly more often than smaller ones. We performed metallurgic analysis of 1 prosthesis: results revealed strut wear from fatigue cracking and secondary abrasion. Strut fracture was also promoted by suspension of the cage at right angles to the prosthetic ring and by use of a pyrolytic carbon ball in a titanium cage (i.e., an occluder harder than its holder). Patients with DeBakey-Surgitool aortic valve prostheses should undergo annual radiologic examinations to enable early detection of strut fractures. Prophylactic valve replacement is not indicated. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:223-7) Images PMID:15227175

  4. Neisseria elongata endocarditis of a native aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Samannodi, Mohammed; Vakkalanka, Sujit; Zhao, Andrew; Hocko, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria elongata is a part of the common bacterial flora of the oropharynx but has caused sepsis, osteomyelitis and infective endocarditis on rare occasions. We report the case of a 56-year-old Caucasian woman who was admitted to hospital with a 5-week history of fever, malaise and fatigue. Two blood cultures grew Gram-negative rods which were confirmed to be N. elongata subspecies nitroreducens via bacterial DNA sequence analysis. An echocardiogram showed a large mobile vegetation on the right and non-coronary cusps of the aortic valve. The patient underwent aortic valve replacement and antibiotic therapy for 6 weeks. We suggest that clinicians should consider extended antibiotic treatment and early surgical evaluation based on the nature and aggressiveness of N. elongata. PMID:26917793

  5. Gerbode Defect as a Result of Fungal Aortic Valve Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Pasrija, Chetan; Mohammed, Isa; Shats, Inna; Hong-Zohlman, Susie; Reoma, Junewai; Mazzeffi, Michael A; Rajagopal, Keshava

    2015-05-01

    A 63-year-old male patient with HIV disease presented with dyspnea and complete heart block, and was found to have aortic valve (AV) endocarditis secondary to Candida parapsilosis infection. Echocardiography demonstrated AV endocarditis and possible aortic root versus subannular abscess with moderate AV regurgitation (AR), a ventricular septal defect (VSD) and possible left ventricular to right atrial shunt (Gerbode defect). Large AV vegetations, subannular abscess with an acquired membranous VSD, Gerbode defect, and tricuspid annular abscess at the insertion of septal leaflet were noted intraoperatively. The patient underwent AV replacement with a stented bioprosthesis, two-sided VSD patch closure, and tricuspid valve (TV) repair with an annuloplasty ring. The left-sided patch closed the VSD and facilitated AV replacement, while the right-sided patch facilitated the TV repair. PMID:26901898

  6. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement: the Miami Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    For patients undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR), a minimally invasive approach performed via a right anterior thoracotomy is the preferred method at our institution. This method has evolved over a 10-year span, being applied to over 1,500 patients with the commitment of one surgeon seeking to offer a simplistic and reproducible minimally invasive alternative. We believe that this is truly the least invasive approach to the aortic valve since it avoids sternal invasion. By virtue of being less traumatic, the morbidity is diminished and therefore the recovery is enhanced. We believe that this approach is most beneficial in the high risk patient such as the elderly, the obese, those with chronic obstructive pulmonary, chronic kidney disease and those requiring re-operative surgery. This method has proven to be safe and effective in all patients requiring isolated AVR surgery. The only relative exclusion criteria would be a porcelain aorta with the inability to cannulate the patient. PMID:25694981

  7. Evidence of leaflet injury during percutaneous aortic valve deployment.

    PubMed

    Zegdi, Rachid; Bruneval, Patrick; Blanchard, Didier; Fabiani, Jean-Noël

    2011-07-01

    It has been suggested that valved stent deployment during transcatheter aortic valve implantation may be responsible for traumatic injury to pericardial leaflets, especially with balloon expandable valved stents. However, such an injury has not been described nor reported so far. We here report the microscopic analysis of 4 Sapien-Edwards prostheses, 2 of which have been implanted in humans. There was no macroscopic evidence of traumatic injury to the pericardial leaflets of the percutaneous valves. However, pathological microscopic findings were observed in all of them. These mainly consisted of collagen fibers fragmentation and disruption. Areas of non- or mildly affected tissue were adjacent to areas of severely damaged tissue. The entire thickness of the leaflets might be involved. The severity of the lesions also differed among leaflets from a same prosthesis. Areas of plasmatic insudation were identified in one case. The disruption index was significantly higher in the Sapien group in comparison to the control group: 42.4% (14-63.5%) versus 17.5% (9.2-31%) (p < 0.001). Although of limited size sample, this study does prove that traumatic injury to leaflets occurs during percutaneous valves implantation. This should prompt physicians to wait for the long-term results of this new technology before extending the indications to low-risk patients. PMID:21167732

  8. Deep Crater in Heavily Calcified Aortic Valve Leaflet: A "Smoking Gun" for Embolic Stroke.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sarah Chaoying; Canter, Lisa; Zeeshan, Ahmad; Elefteriades, John A

    2015-10-01

    The association of severe calcific aortic stenosis with clinically significant stroke has not been well established. This case vividly describes the relationship with clinical and pathological (gross and microscopic) findings in a 62-year-old man with a severely calcified bicuspid aortic valve. Eleven months prior to aortic valve surgery, the patient had stigmata of cerebral embolic events in the absence of any other embolic source. During the aortic valve replacement surgery for aortic stenosis, he was found to have a large atheroma on the aortic valve cusp with a crater containing friable debris in its center. These findings support the potential for embolic stroke in patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. We recommend that the aortic valve be considered as an embolic source in patients with an otherwise cryptogenic cerebrovascular accident. PMID:27175368

  9. A Simple Device for Morphofunctional Evaluation During Aortic Valve-Sparing Surgery.

    PubMed

    Leone, Alessandro; Bruno, Piergiorgio; Cammertoni, Federico; Massetti, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    Valve-sparing operations for the treatment of aortic root disease with a structurally normal aortic valve are increasingly performed as they avoid prosthesis-related complications. Short- and long-term results are critically dependent on perfect intraoperative restoration of valve anatomy and function. Residual aortic regurgitation is the main cause of early failure, and it is the most common motive for reoperation. However, intraoperative morphofunctional valve assessment requires expertise, and only transesophageal echocardiography can provide reliable information. We describe a simple, economic, reproducible hydrostatic test to intraoperatively evaluate valve competency under direct visualization. PMID:26140788

  10. Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Pseudoaneurysm after Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Shariff, Masood A.; Martingano, Daniel; Khan, Usman; Goyal, Nikhil; Sharma, Raman; Rizvi, Syed B.; Motivala, Apurva; Asgarian, Kourosh T.; Nabagiez, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm is an uncommon complication following aortic valve replacement (AVR), occurring most frequently secondary to endocarditis. We present a case of a 47-year-old female with a history of intravenous drug abuse and a past surgical history of two AVRs (2001 and 2009 with aortic root replacement for endocarditis) who presented with symptoms of lower extremity weakness. Subsequent radiologic imaging revealed the presence of a left ventricular outflow tract pseudoaneurysm, which was surgically managed with a homologous conduit. PMID:27175367

  11. Hemodynamic Changes following Aortic Valve Bypass: A Mathematical Approach

    PubMed Central

    Benevento, Emilia; Djebbari, Abdelghani; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Cecere, Renzo; Kadem, Lyes

    2015-01-01

    Aortic valve bypass (AVB) has been shown to be a viable solution for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Under this circumstance, the left ventricle (LV) has a double outlet. The objective was to develop a mathematical model capable of evaluating the hemodynamic performance following the AVB surgery. A mathematical model that captures the interaction between LV, AS, arterial system, and AVB was developed. This model uses a limited number of parameters that all can be non-invasively measured using patient data. The model was validated using in vivo data from the literature. The model was used to determine the effect of different AVB and AS configurations on flow proportion and pressure of the aortic valve and the AVB. Results showed that the AVB leads to a significant reduction in transvalvular pressure gradient. The percentage of flow through the AVB can range from 55.47% to 69.43% following AVB with a severe AS. LV stroke work was also significantly reduced following the AVB surgery and reached a value of around 1.2 J for several AS severities. Findings of this study suggest: 1) the AVB leads to a significant reduction in transvalvular pressure gradients; 2) flow distribution between the AS and the AVB is significantly affected by the conduit valve size; 3) the AVB leads to a significant reduction in LV stroke work; and 4) hemodynamic performance variations can be estimated using the model. PMID:25881082

  12. Hemodynamic changes following aortic valve bypass: a mathematical approach.

    PubMed

    Benevento, Emilia; Djebbari, Abdelghani; Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Cecere, Renzo; Kadem, Lyes

    2015-01-01

    Aortic valve bypass (AVB) has been shown to be a viable solution for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Under this circumstance, the left ventricle (LV) has a double outlet. The objective was to develop a mathematical model capable of evaluating the hemodynamic performance following the AVB surgery. A mathematical model that captures the interaction between LV, AS, arterial system, and AVB was developed. This model uses a limited number of parameters that all can be non-invasively measured using patient data. The model was validated using in vivo data from the literature. The model was used to determine the effect of different AVB and AS configurations on flow proportion and pressure of the aortic valve and the AVB. Results showed that the AVB leads to a significant reduction in transvalvular pressure gradient. The percentage of flow through the AVB can range from 55.47% to 69.43% following AVB with a severe AS. LV stroke work was also significantly reduced following the AVB surgery and reached a value of around 1.2 J for several AS severities. Findings of this study suggest: 1) the AVB leads to a significant reduction in transvalvular pressure gradients; 2) flow distribution between the AS and the AVB is significantly affected by the conduit valve size; 3) the AVB leads to a significant reduction in LV stroke work; and 4) hemodynamic performance variations can be estimated using the model. PMID:25881082

  13. Assessment of left ventricular and aortic valve function after aortic balloon valvuloplasty in adult patients with critical aortic stenosis

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, R.G.; Safian, R.D.; Lock, J.E.; Diver, D.J.; Berman, A.D.; Warren, S.E.; Come, P.C.; Baim, D.S.; Mandell, V.E.; Royal, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary reports have documented the utility of balloon aortic valvuloplasty as a palliative treatment for high-risk patients with critical aortic stenosis, but the effect of this procedure on cardiac performance has not been studied in detail. Accordingly, 32 patients (mean age 79 years) with long-standing, calcific aortic stenosis were treated at the time of cardiac catheterization with balloon dilatation of the aortic valve, and serial changes in left ventricular and valvular function were followed before and after valvuloplasty by radionuclide ventriculography, determination of systolic time intervals, and Doppler echocardiography. Prevalvuloplasty examination revealed heavily calcified aortic valves in all patients, a mean peak-to-peak aortic valve gradient of 77 +/- 27 mm Hg, a mean Fick cardiac output of 4.6 +/- 1.4 liters/min, and a mean calculated aortic valve area of 0.6 +/- 0.2 cm2. Subsequent balloon dilatation with 12 to 23 mm valvuloplasty balloons resulted in a fall in aortic valve gradient to 39 +/- 15 mm Hg, an increase in cardiac output to 5.2 +/- 1.8 liters/min, and an increase in calculated aortic valve area to 0.9 +/- 0.3 cm2. Individual hemodynamic responses varied considerably, with some patients showing major increases in valve area, while others demonstrated only small increases. In no case was balloon dilatation accompanied by evidence of embolic phenomena. Supravalvular aortography obtained in 13 patients demonstrated no or a mild increase in aortic insufficiency. Serial radionuclide ventriculography in patients with a depressed left ventricular ejection fraction revealed a small increase in ejection fraction from 40 +/- 13% to 46 +/- 12%.

  14. Relapsing tricuspid valve endocarditis by multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 11 years: tricuspid valve replacement with an aortic valve homograft.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Seok; Chang, Hyoung Woo; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Kang, Dong Ki; Kim, Eui-Chong; Kim, Ki-Bong

    2015-01-01

    Eleven years ago, a 27-year-old non-drug abuser woman was admitted to the hospital due to a burn injury. During the treatment, she was diagnosed with tricuspid valve infective endocarditis caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). She underwent tricuspid valve replacement (TVR) using a bioprosthetic valve, followed by 6 weeks of meropenem antibiotic therapy. Ten years later, she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. She underwent redo-TVR with a bioprosthetic valve and was treated with colistin and ciprofloxacin. Ten months later, she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis with MDR P. aeruginosa as a pathogen. She underwent a second redo-TVR with a tissue valve and was treated with colistin. Two months later, her fever recurred and she was again diagnosed with prosthetic valve infective endocarditis caused by MDR P. aeruginosa. She eventually underwent a third redo-TVR using an aortic valve homograft and was discharged from the hospital after additional 6 weeks' of antibiotic therapy. All the strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from each event of infective endocarditis were analyzed by repetitive deoxyribonucleic acid sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) strain typing to determine the correlation of isolates. All of the pathogens in 11 years were similar enough to be classified as the same strain, and this is the first case report of TVR using an aortic valve homograft to treat relapsing endocarditis. PMID:26051245

  15. Calcific aortic valve disease: A consensus summary from the Alliance of Investigators on Calcific Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yutzey, Katherine E.; Demer, Linda L.; Body, Simon C.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Towler, Dwight A.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.; Hofmann-Bowman, Marion A.; Mortlock, Douglas P.; Rogers, Melissa B.; Sadeghi, Mehran M.; Aikawa, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (CAVD) is increasingly prevalent worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic options beyond surgical valve replacement are currently limited. In 2011, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute assembled a working group on aortic stenosis. This group identified CAVD as an actively regulated disease process in need of further study. As a result, the Alliance of Investigators on CAVD was formed to coordinate and promote CAVD research, with the goals of identifying individuals at risk, developing new therapeutic approaches, and improving diagnostic methods. The group is composed of cardiologists, geneticists, imaging specialists, and basic science researchers. This report reviews the current status of CAVD research and treatment strategies with identification of areas in need of additional investigation for optimal management of this patient population. PMID:25189570

  16. Reverse U aortotomy (Kırali incision) for aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kırali, Kaan

    2016-06-01

    The presence of patent vein grafts on the proximal aorta may cause technical difficulties during reoperations for aortic valve replacement after previous coronary artery bypass surgery. A 65-year-old man underwent reoperation for aortic valve replacement two years after his first open heart surgery (valve-sparing aortic root replacement and aorta-right coronary artery saphenous vein graft). The aortotomy incision was started approximately 2 cm above the proximal anastomosis and continued down at both sides until the prosthetic graft. The reverse U aortotomy prevents unnecessary and risky manipulations of proximal anastomoses, provides perfect exposure, and can be used securely during reoperative aortic valve surgery. PMID:25759482

  17. Percutaneous SAPIEN S3 Transcatheter Valve Implantation for Post-Left Ventricular Assist Device Aortic Regurgitation.

    PubMed

    Kornberger, Angela; Beiras-Fernandez, Andres; Fichtlscherer, Stephan; Assmus, Birgit; Moritz, Anton; Stock, Ulrich A

    2015-10-01

    Aortic regurgitation was found to develop in a considerable share of patients supported with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The resulting circulatory loop renders LVAD operation inefficient so that symptoms of heart failure develop in spite of high LVAD flows. In patients with a high reoperative risk, transcatheter aortic valve implantation may be considered as an alternative to reoperative valve surgical procedures. We report a case of percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation using the SAPIEN S3 (Edwards Lifesciences, Inc, Irvine, CA) valve for post-LVAD aortic regurgitation. PMID:26434481

  18. A rare case of aortic valve myxoma: an unusual cause of embolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Koyalakonda, Shiva Prasad; Mediratta, Neeraj Kumar; Ball, Jeffrey; Royle, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Aortic valve myxoma is an extremely rare cardiac tumour. We describe a 60-year-old woman found to have an aortic valve myxoma and a patent foramen ovale (PFO) presenting as a stroke. In view of the recurrent cerebral ischaemic events, the aortic valve myxoma was surgically removed and the PFO was closed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of aortic valve myxoma with a PFO. We also highlight the importance of identifying a possible cardiac source of embolism in a stroke patient and considering this rare tumour as a cause in patients with a cryptogenic stroke. PMID:21540590

  19. [Composite valve graft replacement for aortic root aneurysm or dissection].

    PubMed

    Yamada, O; Kazui, T; Yamada, A; Koshino, T; Sakurada, T; Ikeda, K; Kawashima, T; Sasaki, A; Inoue, N; Komatsu, S

    1993-02-01

    Fifty four patients who had aneurysms (n = 35) or dissections (n = 19) associated with aortic regurgitation underwent the replacement of the ascending aorta and aortic valve by composite valve graft during 15-year period between September 1976 and December 1991. Of these, 49 (90.7%) patients had an annuloaortic ectasia and 26 (48.1%) had the Marfan syndrome. The methods of coronary artery reattachment to the graft were as follows: direct reattachment (original Bentall's technique) in 45 patients, aortic button technique (Carrel's patch technique) in 6, Cabrol's technique in 2 and Piehler's technique in 1 patients. Seven patients with a DeBakey type I dissection had concomitant replacement of the aortic arch with an aid of selective cerebral perfusion. The overall hospital mortality rate was 12.9%, and it has significantly decreased to 6.7% since we adopted a cold cardioplegia, preclotting the graft with albumin autoclave technique and coronary artery reattachment using conventional over-and-over and interrupted mattress sutures with pledgets during the last 10-years. The mean duration of follow-up period was 58.6 months. The actuarial survival rate at 10 years for all patients was 76.4%; for those with dissection, 78.4%; and for patients with Marfan syndrome, 70.4%. Reoperation for the prosthesis-related complications was necessary in only one patient, although operations on the remainder of aorta were required in 5 patients. Actuarial freedom from these operations at 10 years was 74.1%, but it was 69.3% for the subgroup with Marfan syndrome. The present data indicates that composite valve graft technique is an useful method for patients with aortic root aneurysms or dissections. PMID:8473787

  20. Viscoelastic Properties of the Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell

    PubMed Central

    Merryman, W. David; Bieniek, Paul D.; Guilak, Farshid; Sacks, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the mechanobiological function of the aortic valve interstitial cell (AVIC), due to its role in valve tissue homeostasis and remodeling. In a recent study we determined the relation between diastolic loading of the AV leaflet and the resulting AVIC deformation, which was found to be substantial. However, due to the rapid loading time of the AV leaflets during closure (~0.05 s), time-dependent effects may play a role in AVIC deformation during physiological function. In the present study, we explored AVIC viscoelastic behavior using the micropipette aspiration technique. We then modeled the resulting time-length data over the 100 sec test period using a standard linear solid (SLS) model which included Boltzmann superposition. To quantify the degree of creep and stress relaxation during physiological timescales, simulations of micropipette aspiration were preformed with a valve loading time of 0.05 s and a full valve closure time of 0.3 s. The 0.05 s loading simulations suggest that, during valve closure, AVICs act elastically. During diastole, simulations revealed creep (4.65%) and stress relaxation (4.39%) over the 0.3 s physiological timescale. Simulations also indicated that if Boltzmann superposition was not used in parameter estimation, as in much of the micropipette literature, creep and stress relaxation predicted values were nearly doubled (7.92% and 7.35%, respectively). We conclude that while AVIC viscoelastic effects are negligible during valve closure, they likely contribute to the deformation time-history of AVIC deformation during diastole. PMID:19275434

  1. Characterizing Nanoscale Topography of the Aortic Heart Valve Basement Membrane for Tissue Engineering Heart Valve Scaffold Design

    PubMed Central

    BRODY, SARAH; ANILKUMAR, THAPASIMUTHU; LILIENSIEK, SARA; LAST, JULIE A.; MURPHY, CHRISTOPHER J.; PANDIT, ABHAY

    2016-01-01

    A fully effective prosthetic heart valve has not yet been developed. A successful tissue-engineered valve prosthetic must contain a scaffold that fully supports valve endothelial cell function. Recently, topographic features of scaffolds have been shown to influence the behavior of a variety of cell types and should be considered in rational scaffold design and fabrication. The basement membrane of the aortic valve endothelium provides important parameters for tissue engineering scaffold design. This study presents a quantitative characterization of the topographic features of the native aortic valve endothelial basement membrane; topographical features were measured, and quantitative data were generated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and light microscopy. Optimal conditions for basement membrane isolation were established. Histological, immunohistochemical, and TEM analyses following decellularization confirmed basement membrane integrity. SEM and AFM photomicrographs of isolated basement membrane were captured and quantitatively analyzed. The basement membrane of the aortic valve has a rich, felt-like, 3-D nanoscale topography, consisting of pores, fibers, and elevations. All features measured were in the sub-100 nm range. No statistical difference was found between the fibrosal and ventricular surfaces of the cusp. These data provide a rational starting point for the design of extracellular scaffolds with nanoscale topographic features that mimic those found in the native aortic heart valve basement membrane. PMID:16548699

  2. Quadricuspid aortic valve complicated with infective endocarditis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Mizoguchi, Hiroki; Sakaki, Masayuki; Inoue, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Iwata, Takashi; Suehiro, Yasuo; Miura, Takuya

    2014-12-01

    Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve is a rare cardiac malformation with an unknown risk of infective endocarditis. We report a case of quadricuspid aortic valve complicated with infective endocarditis. A 53-year-old Japanese woman was hospitalized with leg edema and a fever of unknown origin. Corynebacterium striatum was detected in the blood culture. Echocardiography demonstrated a quadricuspid aortic valve with vegetation and severe functional regurgitation. The condition was diagnosed as a quadricuspid aortic valve with infective endocarditis, for which surgery was performed. The quadricuspid aortic valve had three equal-sized cusps and one smaller cusp (type B according to Hurwitz classification). We dissected the vegetation and infectious focus and implanted a mechanical valve. Following the case report, we review the literature. PMID:24496979

  3. Manipulation of valve composition to elucidate the role of collagen in aortic valve calcification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Extracellular matrix (ECM) disarray is found in calcific aortic valvular disease (CAVD), yet much remains to be learned about the role of individual ECM components in valvular interstitial cell (VIC) function and dysfunction. Previous clinical analyses have shown that calcification is associated with decreased collagen content, while previous in vitro work has suggested that the presence of collagen attenuates the responsiveness of VICs to pro-calcific stimuli. The current study uses whole leaflet cultures to examine the contributions of endogenous collagen in regulating the phenotype and calcification of VICs. Methods A “top-down” approach was used to characterize changes in VIC phenotype in response to collagen alterations in the native 3D environment. Collagen-deficient leaflets were created via enzymatic treatment and cultured statically for six days in vitro. After culture, leaflets were harvested for analysis of DNA, proliferation, apoptosis, ECM composition, calcification, and gene/protein expression. Results In general, disruption of collagen was associated with increased expression of disease markers by VICs in whole organ leaflet culture. Compared to intact control leaflets, collagen-deficient leaflets demonstrated increased VIC proliferation and apoptosis, increased expression of disease-related markers such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, alkaline phosphatase, and osteocalcin, and an increase in calcification as evidenced by positive von Kossa staining. Conclusions These results indicate that disruption of the endogenous collagen structure in aortic valves is sufficient to stimulate pathological consequences in valve leaflet cultures, thereby highlighting the importance of collagen and the valve extracellular matrix in general in maintaining homeostasis of the valve phenotype. PMID:24581344

  4. Aortic valve replacement with the medtronic freestyle stentless bioprosthesis.

    PubMed

    John, Alexander; Glauner, Christoph; Manoutcheri, Mohammad Ali; Ziaukas, Virgilijus; Mahesh, Gummiah Muniputtana; Warnecke, Henning

    2004-09-01

    During a five-year period from 1996 to 2000, the Medtronic Freestyle stentless bioprosthesis was implanted in 310 patients of advanced age. Age at operation ranged from 60 to 90 years (mean, 76 +/- 4 years). 191 patients were female and 119 male. All implants were done by the modified subcoronary method using our own modification which enabled an improved adaptation of the porcine aortic root to the human anatomy. Two sinuses were scalloped and the third left intact. Additional coronary bypass grafts were necessary in 129 (39%) patients and mitral valve procedures in 23 (7%). Mean perfusion time was 109 +/- 12 minutes and crossclamp time 87 +/- 8 minutes. 16 (5%) patients died perioperatively. Another 17 (5.7%) patients died during a 1 to 5.6 year follow-up (mean, 2.9 years). There was only one valve related death due to infection of the valve. In spite of the advanced age, 95% of the survivors were free from cardiac symptoms and continued to live an active and fruitful life. The biological nature of the valve and the low gradients are perhaps reasons for the good results. The long-term results are expected to be good. PMID:15353458

  5. In vitro Models of Aortic Valve Calcification: Solidifying a System

    PubMed Central

    Bowler, Meghan A.; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) affects 25% of people over 65, and the late-stage stenotic state can only be treated with total valve replacement, requiring 85,000 surgeries annually in the US alone [1]. As CAVD is an age-related disease, many of the affected patients are unable to undergo the open-chest surgery that is its only current cure. This challenge motivates the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in calcification, with the eventual goal of alternative preventative and therapeutic strategies. There is no sufficient animal model of CAVD, so we turn to potential in vitro models. In general, in vitro models have the advantages of shortened experiment time and better control over multiple variables compared to in vivo models. As with all models, the hypothesis being tested dictates the most important characteristics of the in vivo physiology to recapitulate. Here, we collate the relevant pieces of designing and evaluating aortic valve calcification so that investigators can more effectively draw significant conclusions from their results. PMID:25249188

  6. The functional aortic annulus in the 3D era: focus on transcatheter aortic valve replacement for the perioperative echocardiographer.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prakash A; Gutsche, Jacob T; Vernick, William J; Giri, Jay S; Ghadimi, Kamrouz; Weiss, Stuart J; Jagasia, Dinesh H; Bavaria, Joseph E; Augoustides, John G T

    2015-02-01

    The functional aortic annulus represents a sound clinical framework for understanding the components of the aortic root complex. Recent three-dimensional imaging analysis has demonstrated that the aortic annulus frequently is elliptical rather than circular. Comprehensive three-dimensional quantification of this aortic annular geometry by transesophageal echocardiography and/or multidetector computed tomography is essential to guide precise prosthesis sizing in transcatheter aortic valve replacement to minimize paravalvular leak for optimal clinical outcome. Furthermore, three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography accurately can quantify additional parameters of the functional aortic annulus such as coronary height for complete sizing profiles for all valve types in transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Although it is maturing rapidly as a clinical imaging modality, its role in transcatheter aortic valve replacement is seen best as complementary to multidetector computed tomography in a multidisciplinary heart team model. PMID:25620147

  7. Suboptimal geometrical implantation of biological aortic valves provokes functional deficits.

    PubMed

    Kuehnel, Ralf-Uwe; Wendt, Max O; Jainski, Ute; Hartrumpf, Martin; Pohl, Manfred; Albes, Johannes M

    2010-06-01

    Endovascular valves have become a valid option for patients not qualifying for conventional surgery. Biological valves mounted in a stent are currently used. After implantation, however, geometrical distortion of the valve can occur. We tested whether biological valves suitable for transcatheter implantation exhibit hemodynamic deficits after deployment in a distorted position. Two types of valves [bovine pericardium (BP) and porcine cusps], of 21 and 23 mm diameter, respectively were investigated. Mean transvalvular gradient (TVG), effective orifice area (EOA), and regurgitation fraction (REG) were measured prior to and after the 20% distortion of the original diameter. All valves exhibited an increase of TVG and reduction of EOA whereas REG increased only in BP valves after distortion. The 21 mm valves demonstrated a more pronounced alteration than the 23 mm valves. Even moderately distorted implantation of a biological valve results in a marked functional alteration. The susceptibility of pericardial valves is higher than that of porcine valves probably owing to better coaptation properties of native cusps even under deformed conditions when compared to valves constructed with pericardium. Care should therefore be taken during implantation of endovascular valves in order to avoid fixed hemodynamic deficits. Native valves may preferably be used as they demonstrate a more robust behavior regarding suboptimal implantation. PMID:20233809

  8. Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valve implantation with trivial paravalvular leakage

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Rolland

    2014-01-01

    Background Significant paravalvular leakage after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) correlates with increased morbidity and mortality, but adverse consequences of trivial paravalvular leakage have stimulated few investigations. Using a unique method distinctly different from other diagnostic approaches, we previously reported elevated backflow velocities of short duration (transients) in mechanical valve closure. In this study, similar transients were found in a transcatheter valve paravalvular leakage avatar. Methods Paravalvular leakage rate (zero to 58 mL/second) and aortic valve incompetence (volumetric back flow/forward flow; zero to 32%) were made adjustable using a mock transcatheter aortic valve device and tested in quasi-steady and pulsatile flow test systems. Projected dynamic valve area (PDVA) from the back illuminated mock transcatheter aortic valve device was measured and regional backflow velocities were derived by dividing volumetric flow rate by the PDVA over the open and closing valve phase and the total closed valve area derived from backflow leakage. Results Aortic incompetence from 1-32% generated negative backflow transients from 8 to 267 meters/second, a range not dissimilar to that measured in mechanical valves with zero paravalvular leakage. Optimal paravalvular leakage was identified; not too small generating high backflow transients, not too large considering volume overload and cardiac energy loss caused by defective valve behavior and fluid motion. Conclusions Thrombogenic potential of transcatheter aortic valves with trivial aortic incompetence and high magnitude regional backflow velocity transients was comparable to mechanical valves. This may have relevance to stroke rate, asymptomatic microembolic episodes and indications for anticoagulation therapy after transcatheter valve insertion. PMID:25333018

  9. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement – pros and cons of keyhole aortic surgery

    PubMed Central

    Szałański, Przemysław; Zembala, Michał; Filipiak, Krzysztof; Karolak, Wojciech; Wojarski, Jacek; Garbacz, Marcin; Kaczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Kwiecień, Anna; Zembala, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) has evolved into a safe, well-tolerated and efficient surgical treatment option for aortic valve disease. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity, providing faster recovery and rehabilitation, shorter hospital stay and better cosmetic results compared with conventional surgery. A variety of minimally invasive accesses have been developed and utilized to date. This concise review demonstrates and discusses surgical techniques used in contemporary approaches to MIAVR and presents the most important results of MIAVR procedures. PMID:26336491

  10. Late re-operation for aortic and mitral Starr-Edwards ball valve prostheses.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Arinaga, Koichi; Yokokura, Yoshinori; Yokokura, Hiroko; Egawa, Noriko

    2006-12-01

    Starr-Edwards ball valves removed more than 15 years after implantation were retrospectively investigated macroscopically. Eight patients required re-operation. Valve models used in the initial operations were a non-cloth-covered valve in 2 patients and a cloth-covered valve in 6. Two patients had replacement of an aortic ball valve (model 1260 and model 2320) and 6 underwent mitral valve replacement (model 6120 in one, model 6320 in 5). The mean time to re-operation was 23.0 +/- 4.8 years after implantation. Cloth wear causing significant hemolysis was observed in all cloth-covered valves, regardless of valve position. Autologous tissue growth was noted on the orifice ring and struts in both aortic and mitral prostheses. Thrombus formation was not found in any of the valves. Ball variance in silicone rubber balls was mild in the non-cloth-covered valves, even in the aortic position. The most significant problem with the cloth-covered ball valve was cloth wear. Cloth wear should always be considered when 15 years or more have passed since valve implantation. Significant hemolysis, elevation of lactate dehydrogenase values, and echocardiographic detection of transvalvular regurgitation are diagnostic of cloth wear, and are indications for replacement of a cloth-covered ball valve. PMID:17130320

  11. A Modified Epicardial Radiofrequency Ablation for Preoperative Atrial Fibrillation Combined With Isolated Aortic Valve Disease.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhaolei; Ma, Nan; Liu, Hao; Tang, Min; Ding, Fangbao; Bao, Chunrong; Mei, Ju

    2016-06-01

    Isolated aortic valve diseases can lead to atrial fibrillation (AF) by causing left atrium pressure overload and enlargement. At present, most patients with preoperative AF and isolated aortic valve disease have undergone a Cox-maze IV procedure through a left atriotomy under cardiopulmonary bypass with aortic cross-clamping. Here, we describe a novel modified epicardial radiofrequency ablation procedure performed on a beating heart without aortic cross-clamping or opening the left atrium. This technique has proved to be safe and feasible, with good clinical outcomes. It may be useful in selecting the best ablation approaches for patients with AF and aortic valve disease. PMID:27211963

  12. Bartonella henselae infection of prosthetic aortic valve associated with colitis.

    PubMed

    Karris, Maile Young; Litwin, Christine M; Dong, Hong S; Vinetz, Joseph

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of infective endocarditis can be difficult, particularly with atypical presentation and negative blood cultures. A 61-year-old man with a porcine aortic valve presented with fever, intermittent confusion, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the community clinic setting, a colonoscopy performed for anemia demonstrated colitis. Symptoms progressed for months; elicitation of a history of significant kitten exposure and the finding of an axillary lymph node prompted testing for Bartonella henselae antibodies. High titer antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated chronic B. henselae infection. Surgical valve replacement followed by prolonged doxycycline and rifampin led to cure. This case illustrates the complexities of infective endocarditis and is the first description B. henselae endocarditis associated with colitis in an immunocompetent adult. PMID:21702667

  13. Prosthetic aortic valve: a bone in the system.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vitor Hugo; Guardado, Joana; Fernandes, Marina; Lourenço, Mário; Machado, Inocência; Quelhas, Isabel; Azevedo, Olga; Lourenço, António

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of a 73-year-old female patient admitted to the surgical department for a splenic abscess. She had a history of a mechanical aortic valve implanted two years earlier. During the diagnostic work-up, the patient underwent a transesophageal echocardiogram that revealed the presence of multiple paravalvular abscesses, establishing the diagnosis of prosthetic valve endocarditis. A few days later, the echocardiogram was repeated due to a new-onset systolic-diastolic murmur. A large pseudoaneurysm and significant periprosthetic regurgitation were now noted and the patient was referred for cardiac surgery. The microbiologic exam revealed the presence of Streptococcus milleri, usually found in the gastrointestinal flora and a known pathogenic agent of endocarditis. Interestingly, the patient had had a foreign body (bone fragment) removed from her esophagus a few weeks earlier, which was the probable portal of entry for this infective endocarditis. PMID:25660459

  14. Bartonella henselae Infection of Prosthetic Aortic Valve Associated with Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Karris, Maile Young; Litwin, Christine M.; Dong, Hong S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The diagnosis of infective endocarditis can be difficult, particularly with atypical presentation and negative blood cultures. A 61-year-old man with a porcine aortic valve presented with fever, intermittent confusion, diarrhea, and fatigue. In the community clinic setting, a colonoscopy performed for anemia demonstrated colitis. Symptoms progressed for months; elicitation of a history of significant kitten exposure and the finding of an axillary lymph node prompted testing for Bartonella henselae antibodies. High titer antibodies by indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated chronic B. henselae infection. Surgical valve replacement followed by prolonged doxycycline and rifampin led to cure. This case illustrates the complexities of infective endocarditis and is the first description B. henselae endocarditis associated with colitis in an immunocompetent adult. PMID:21702667

  15. Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannelli, Claire; Moore, John; McLeod, Jonathan; Ceh, Dennis; Peters, Terry

    2015-03-01

    Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClipand numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.

  16. A survivor of late prosthesis migration and rotation following percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Philip Y K; Chiam, Paul T L; Chua, Yeow Leng; Sin, Yoong Kong

    2012-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a viable alternative endovascular technique in selected patients with severe aortic stenosis, who are either inoperable or at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement. We report a case of delayed displacement and rotation of an aortic bioprosthesis, 43 days after successful TAVI via the transfemoral approach, with the patient surviving the subsequent open heart surgery required for device retrieval. PMID:22228843

  17. Left ventricular outflow tract false aneurysm late after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Federico; Braconi, Lucio; Rossi, Alessandra; Sorbara, Carlo; Stefano, Pier Luigi

    2005-01-01

    We describe an unusual case of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) pseudoaneurysm late after aortic valve replacement. A 77-year-old man, who had undergone aortic valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis 7 years ago, presented, asymptomatic, with a transesophageal echocardiography (TTE) diagnosis of a large cavitary mass arising behind the aortic wall. The orifice of the pseudoaneurysm was successfully surgically closed and the aortic root reconstructed with cryopreserved homograft. PMID:15870043

  18. Aortic stenosis associated with Scheie's syndrome. Report of successful valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Masuda, H; Morishita, Y; Taira, A; Kuriyama, M

    1993-03-01

    A 62-year-old man who had aortic stenosis associated with Scheie's syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis [MPS], type I-S) successfully underwent aortic valve replacement. The composition of acidic glycosaminoglycans (acid mucopolysaccharides) of the excised aortic valve analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) supported the diagnosis of Scheie's syndrome. This article reviews the literature on aortic stenosis in MPS, a rare inherited metabolic disorder, and discusses biochemical features and surgical repair. PMID:8449111

  19. Age-related changes in aortic valve hemostatic protein regulation

    PubMed Central

    Balaoing, Liezl R.; Post, Allison D.; Liu, Huiwen; Minn, Kyung Taeck; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective While valvular endothelial cells (VECs) have unique responses compared to vascular ECs, valvular regulation of hemostasis is not well understood. Heart valves remodel throughout a person's lifetime, resulting in changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition and tissue mechanical properties that may affect VEC hemostatic function. This work assessed VEC regulation of hemostasis in situ and in vitro as a function of specimen age. Approach and Results Porcine aortic valves (PAV) were assigned into one of three age groups: YNG (6 weeks), ADT (6 months), or OLD (2 years). Histology of valves showed that secreted thrombotic/anti-thrombotic proteins localize at the valve endothelium, and tissue interior. Gene expression and immunostains for von Willebrand factor (VWF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and tissue plasminogen activator in YNG PAVECs was higher than in OLD, while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 levels in OLD were higher than in YNG and ADT. Histamine stimulated YNG PAVECs released higher concentrations of VWF proteins than OLD, while the fraction of cleaved VWF-140 fragments were not different between age groups. A CAVD in vitro model using valvular interstitial cells (VICs) confirmed that VWF in culture significantly increased VIC nodule formation and calcification. Conclusions Hemostatic protein regulation in AV tissues and VECs changes with age. The presence of VWF and other potential hemostatic proteins increase VIC calcification in vitro. Therefore, the increased capacity of elderly valves to sequester the hemostatic proteins, together with age-associated loss of ECM organization warrants investigation into potential roles for these proteins in the formation of calcific nodules. PMID:24177329

  20. Three-dimensional computer-aided design-based geometric modeling of a new trileaflet aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Praveen Kumar, Gideon; Mathew, Lazar

    2010-12-01

    Our objective was to design a new trileaflet aortic valve using computer-aided design (CAD). Quantification of aortic valve geometries is essential in understanding normal and pathological valvular function and eventually in the design of valves. We have designed a new tissue valve model to investigate its suitability in aortic valve replacement. Steps involved in three-dimensional CAD-based geometric modeling of a trileaflet aortic valve and the effects of different component dimensions on the mechanical behavior of valve are presented in this article. Conceptual designing of individual components was used to build the total geometric model. A new geometric model of a trileaflet aortic valve was designed. This may be of great interest to designers of new prosthetic heart valve models, as well as to surgeons involved in valve-sparing surgery. PMID:20545658

  1. Current Clinical Evidence on Rapid Deployment Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Barnhart, Glenn R.; Shrestha, Malakh Lal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. It is caused primarily by age-related degeneration and progressive calcification typically detected in patients 65 years and older. In patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, the average survival rate is only 2 years without appropriate treatment. Approximately one half of all patients die within the first 2 to 3 years of symptom onset. In addition, the age of the patients presenting for aortic valve replacement (AVR) is increased along with the demographic changes. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database shows that the number of patients older than 80 years has increased from 12% to 24% during the past 20 years. At the same time, the percentage of candidates requiring AVR as well as concomitant coronary bypass surgery has increased from 5% to 25%. Surgical AVR continues to be the criterion standard for treatment of aortic stenosis, improving survival and quality of life. Recent advances in prosthetic valve technology, such as transcatheter AVR, have expanded the indication for AVR to the extreme high-risk population, and the most recent surgical innovation, rapid deployment AVR, provides an additional tool to the surgeons’ armamentarium. PMID:26918310

  2. A Case of Severe Unicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis: Valve Repair With Tricuspidization in an Adult.

    PubMed

    Tokue, Masahide; Hara, Hidehiko; Sahara, Naohiko; Yamazaki, Kenji; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Takahashi, Kei; Ozaki, Shigeyuki; Sugi, Kaoru; Nakamura, Masato

    2015-10-01

    A 33-year-old male was referred to our institute with acute heart failure. The patient was found to have a unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) and severe aortic stenosis. He had been followed at a local university hospital during childhood. However, he stopped visiting the outpatient clinic after becoming an adult. His condition subsequently worsened, and he ultimately presented to our hospital with cardiogenic shock. In Japan, some adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients continue to be followed by pediatric cardiologists, though the patterns of practice are variable. This report describes the case of a patient who became lost to follow-up in early adulthood. We thus focus on this ACHD case as an example of the effects of inadequate communication among doctors and the need to establish better ACHD management protocols for treating this patient population. PMID:26467883

  3. Simulation of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in patient-specific aortic roots: Effect of crimping and positioning on device performance.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Matteo; Ghosh, Ram P; Marom, Gil; Slepian, Marvin J; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-08-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a cardiovascular condition that causes the progressive narrowing of the aortic valve (AV) opening, due to the growth of bone-like deposits all over the aortic root (AR). Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a minimally invasive procedure, has recently become the only lifesaving solution for patients that cannot tolerate the standard surgical valve replacement. However, adverse effects, such as AR injury or paravalvular leakage (PVL), may occur as a consequence of a sub-optimal procedure, due to the presence of calcifications in situ. Additionally, the crimping required for delivering the valve via stenting may damage the valve. The aim of the present study is to comparatively assess the crimping mechanics of the commercialized Edwards SAPIEN valve and an alternative polymeric valve (Polynova, Inc) and to evaluate the effect of different TAVR deployment positions using patient-specific numerical models. The optimal deployment location for achieving better patient outcomes was calculated and based on the interactions between the TAVR stent and the native AR. Results demonstrated that the Polynova valve withstands the crimping process better than the SAPIEN valve. Furthermore, deployment simulations showed the role that calcifications deposits may play in the TAVR sub-optimal valve anchoring to the AV wall, leading to the presence of gaps that result in PVL. PMID:26736255

  4. Ascending aortic dilatation as a late complication after implantation of a mechanical aortic valve performed 37 years earlier

    PubMed Central

    Plewka, Michał; Rogowski, Waldemar; Kasprzak, Jarosław D.

    2014-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the third most common cardiovascular disease. Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the only effective method of treatment in most AS patients. In some patients, AS leads to poststenotic dilatation of the ascending aorta – most commonly, this occurs in patients with concurrent aortic regurgitation or bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and in patients after aortic valve replacement. Cardiac surgeons face the dilemma whether to perform concurrent replacement of the dilated ascending aorta in patients qualified for AVR, as it is associated with an increased risk of perioperative complications and mortality. We report a case of a patient with an ascending aortic aneurysm, who had been implanted with an aortic mechanical valve (Lillehei-Kaster 16 ECC) 37 years earlier. PMID:26336465

  5. Use of a nonpledgeted suture technique is safe and efficient for aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    LaPar, Damien J.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Bhamidipati, Castigliano M.; Singh, Mansher; Dare, David; Kern, John A.; Kron, Irving L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The use of pledgeted sutures to secure the prosthetic valve to the annulus during aortic valve replacement is thought to decrease the incidence of paravalvular leak. We hypothesized that use of nonpledgeted sutures in aortic valve replacement would provide equivalent outcomes to those of a pledgeted suture technique. Methods Between January 1995 and April 2009, a total of 802 patients (511 nonpledgeted, 291 pledgeted) underwent isolated aortic valve replacement, including 671 patients who underwent primary, isolated aortic valve replacement (412 nonpledgeted, 259 pledgeted). Preoperative risk, intraoperative findings, and postoperative complications, including operative mortality, were evaluated. Results Operative mortalities in isolated AVR operations were similar at 2.5% and 3.1% (P > .66) for nonpledgeted and pledgeted groups, respectively. Paravalvular leak rates after aortic valve replacement were equivalent in nonpledgeted and pledgeted groups (0.8% vs 1.4%, respectively, P = .47). Reoperation for paravalvular leak was rare in both groups. Importantly, the nonpledgeted technique incurred significantly shorter aortic crossclamp time (58.1 ± 0.3 minutes vs 61.6 ± 0.4 minutes, P < .001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time (87.5 ± 0.8 minutes vs 90.3 ± 0.8 minutes, P = .02) than did the pledgeted technique. Conclusions A nonpledgeted suture technique offers an equivalent alternative to the traditional use of pledgets during aortic valve replacement, with no increase in paravalvular leak rate. This nonpledgeted suture technique provides a time efficient and safe approach to aortic valve replacement operations. PMID:20488465

  6. Acute kidney injury after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Wahlers, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Even though experience and techniques have constantly improved over the last years, peri- and postprocedural complications in high risk TAVI-collectives remain a major issue affecting outcome and survival. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and effects outcome and survival. However, the definition of AKI in published studies dealing with the phenomenon of AKI after TAVI varies widely and lacks standardization. This Review aims to present an overview over the current literature concerning AKI after TAVI with regard to the definition of AKI, the impact of AKI on mortality and potential risk factors for renal impairment after TAVI. PMID:26543598

  7. Aortic valve orifice equation independent of valvular flow intervals: application to aortic valve area computation in aortic stenosis and comparison with the Gorlin formula.

    PubMed

    Seitz, W; Oppenheimer, L; McIlroy, M; Nelson, D; Operschall, J

    1986-12-01

    An orifice equation is derived relating the effective aortic valve area, A, the average aortic valve pressure gradient, dP, the stroke volume, SV, and the heart frequency, FH, through considerations of momentum conservation across the aortic valve. This leads to a formula consistent with Newton's second law of motion. The form of the new equation is A = (7.5 X 10(-5)) SV FH2/Pd, where A, VS, FH and Pd are expressed in cm2, ml, s-1 and mmHg, respectively. Aortic valve areas computed with the new orifice equation are found to correlate with those computed by the Gorlin formula in conditions of resting haemodynamic states at a level of r = 0.86, SE = 0.25 cm2, N = 120. The results suggest that the new formula may be considered as an independent orifice equation having a similar domain of validity as the Gorlin formula. The new equation offers the possibility of deriving additional useful haemodynamic relationships through combination with established cardiological formulas and applying it in a noninvasive Doppler ultrasonic or echocardiographic context. PMID:3830201

  8. Potential drug targets for calcific aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Hutcheson, Joshua D.; Aikawa, Elena; Merryman, W. David

    2014-01-01

    Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and, given its association with age, the prevalence of CAVD is expected to continue to rise as global life expectancy increases. No drug strategies currently exist to prevent or treat CAVD. Given that valve replacement is the only available clinical option, patients often cope with a deteriorating quality of life until diminished valve function demands intervention. The recognition that CAVD results from active cellular mechanisms suggests that the underlying pathways might be targeted to treat the condition. However, no such therapeutic strategy has been successfully developed to date. One hope was that drugs already used to treat vascular complications might also improve CAVD outcomes, but the mechanisms of CAVD progression and the desired therapeutic outcomes are often different from those of vascular diseases. We, therefore, discuss the benchmarks that must be met by a CAVD treatment approach, and highlight advances in the understanding of CAVD mechanisms to identify potential novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24445487

  9. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation - Yesterday, Today and Tomorrow.

    PubMed

    Gooley, R; Cameron, J D; Meredith, I T

    2015-12-01

    Since the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was performed by Alain Cribier and colleagues in 2002 [1], the technology has garnered global support with more than 200,000 devices implanted. The rapid adoption of this technology has been driven by the need for a less invasive treatment modality in a cohort of patients often denied conventional surgical valve replacement due to an unacceptably high perioperative risk, whether real or perceived [2]. This, together with evidence that the technology confers morbidity and mortality advantages compared to medical therapy [3,4] and at least equivalent outcomes to surgical valve replacement [5,6] in select cohorts, has seen clinical approval in more than 50 countries. The last 13 years has seen an evolution of practises and equipment affecting almost every aspect of the TAVI procedure from pre-procedural assessment to device design and post-procedural care. The almost exponential rate of change has both benefits and risks. Benefits, in that impactful changes are translated into clinical practice very rapidly, but risks, in that meaningful comparative research studies potentially lag behind and can be outmoded by the time they are published. This instability may in turn delay regulatory review and approval processes that are based on such studies. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the evolution of TAVI, its current clinical position and likely future directions. PMID:26344347

  10. Myocardial injury associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Keun; Liebetrau, Christoph; van Linden, Arnaud; Blumenstein, Johannes; Gaede, Luise; Hamm, Christian W; Walther, Thomas; Möllmann, Helge

    2016-05-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an important treatment option for elderly patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis whose risk is too high or prohibitive for conventional surgery. Despite notable progress during the past decade, continuous efforts directed at further improvement of procedural safety and performance are required, especially considering expanding indications for interventional treatment options among lower-risk populations. One issue that needs to be addressed is myocardial damage, which can frequently be observed after TAVI and has been linked to worse prognosis. Yet, knowledge concerning the underlying mechanisms and clinical impact remains scarce, and further investigation in this field is warranted. In this review, we provide a contemporary summary of the types of myocardial injury associated with TAVI, including access-related injury, mechanical trauma and ischemia, the role of myocardial biomarkers, and the impact on left ventricular function, with emphasis on potential mechanisms and clinical implications. PMID:26670909

  11. Neo-Leaflet Failure after Comprehensive Aortic Root and Valve Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Jun; Lee, Jeong Woo; Chung, Cheol Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive aortic root and valve reconstruction (CARVAR) technique comprises two main procedures, which are aortic root reduction using prosthetic rings and neo-leaflet reconstruction using a pericardial patch. Although concerns about durability of the pericardial neo-leaflet have been raised in the CARVAR technique, complications related to leaflet reconstruction have not been reported to date. The present report describes two cases of complications associated with leaflet reconstruction. After resecting the reconstructed leaflets, aortic valve replacement was performed in the patients. Careful and close follow-up is required for patients who had undergone CARVAR surgery, and aortic valve surgery should be performed in a timely manner if needed. PMID:26509131

  12. Aortic Valve Repair: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Published Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Matthew; Shaw, Matthew; Sancho, Elena; Abello, David; Bashir, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is widely accepted that aortic valve disease is surgically managed with aortic valve replacement (AVR) using different available prostheses. The long-term survival, durability of the valve, and freedom from reoperation after AVR are well established in published literature. Over the past two decades, aortic valve repair (AVr) has evolved into an accepted surgical option for patients with aortic valve disease. We review and analyze the published literature on AVr. Methods: A systematic review of the current literature was performed through three electronic databases from inception to August 2013 to identify all relevant studies relating to aortic valve repair. Articles selected were chosen by two reviewers. Articles were excluded if they contained a pediatric population or if the patient number was less than 50. Results: Twenty-four studies conformed to the inclusion criteria for inclusion in the systematic review. In total, 4986 patients underwent aortic valve repair. 7 studies represented bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) repair, 5 studies represented cusp prolapse, and 3 studies represented valve repair with root dilation or aneurysm. Overall weighted in-hospital mortality for all studies was low (1.46% ± 1.21). Preoperative aortic insufficiency (AI) ≥ 2+ did not correlate to reoperation for valve failure (Pearson's Rs 0.2705, P = 0.2585). AI at discharge was reported in 9 studies with a mean AI ≥ 2+ in 6.1% of patients. Weighted average percentage for valve reoperation following BAV repair was 10.23% ± 3.2. Weighted average reoperation following cusp prolapse repair was 3.83 ± 1.96. Weighted average reoperation in aortic valve sparing procedures with root replacement was 4.25% ± 2.46. Although there are limitations and complications of prosthetic valves, especially for younger individuals, there is ample published literature that confers strong evidence for AVR. On the contrary, aortic valve repair may be a useful option for selected patients, but there is lack of uniformity in data and absence of compelling supporting evidence. An international multi-center study comparing and assessing the results between AVR & AVr is the next step required. Currently, higher levels of evidence do not exist for aortic valve repair. PMID:26798710

  13. Valve morphology effect in aortic coarctation flow using realistic silicon models and magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrufo, Oscar; Solis-Najera, Sergio; Pibarot, Philippe; Kadem, Lyes; Kesharvarz-Motamed, Zahra; Rodriguez, Alfredo O.; Garcia, Julio

    2014-11-01

    Aortic valve morphology and phenotype may alter the aortic wall structure and its normal flow hemodynamics. However, the relationship between altered flow patterns and progression of wall pathology is often not fully understood in patients with aortic coartation and needs larger experimental work. In this study, we introduced a compatible experimental setup with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a realistic aortic coarctation (AoCo) silicon model which can replicate physiological flow conditions (pressure, flow-wave, and systemic load). We evaluated the aortic valve hemodynamics of a normal tricuspid valve and a stenotic bicuspid valve using valve effective orifice area (EOA), peak and mean transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG). AoCo severity was assessed by the AoCo pressure gradient. For the tricuspid valve we obtained an EOA = 1.89 cm2, a peak TPG = 10 mmHg, and a mean TPG = 5 mmHg. For the bicuspid valve we obtained an EOA = 1.03 cm2, a peak TPG = 37 mmHg and a mean TPG = 13 mmHg. Furthermore, AoCo with tricuspid valve led to a peak AoCo pressure gradient (PG) = 11 mmHg and a mean PG = 5 mmHg. AoCo with bicuspid valve led to a peak PG = 6 mmHg and a mean PG = 3 mmHg. Aortic flow reattachment was more evident in presence of bicuspid valve and helical flow was present in all cases. This study showed that silicon prototyping in combination with MRI velocity measurements could successfully be used to assess hemodynamic effects of aortic valve morphology in aortic coarctation flow.

  14. The power of disruptive technological innovation: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Berlin, David B; Davidson, Michael J; Schoen, Frederick J

    2015-11-01

    We sought to evaluate the principles of disruptive innovation, defined as technology innovation that fundamentally shifts performance and utility metrics, as applied to transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). In particular, we considered implantation procedure, device design, cost, and patient population. Generally cheaper and lower performing, classical disruptive innovations are first commercialized in insignificant markets, promise lower margins, and often parasitize existing usage, representing unattractive investments for established market participants. However, despite presently high unit cost, TAVI is less invasive, treats a "new," generally high risk, patient population, and is generally done by a multidisciplinary integrated heart team. Moreover, at least in the short-term TAVI has not been lower-performing than open surgical aortic valve replacement in high-risk patients. We conclude that TAVI extends the paradigm of disruptive innovation and represents an attractive commercial opportunity space. Moreover, should the long-term performance and durability of TAVI approach that of conventional prostheses, TAVI will be an increasingly attractive commercial opportunity. PMID:25545639

  15. Design of Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves using biaxial test data.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Y; Paulson, K; Tyberg, J; Ronsky, J; Ali, I; Di Martino, E; Narine, K

    2015-08-01

    Bioprosthetic Aortic Valves (BAVs) do not have the serious limitations of mechanical aortic valves in terms of thrombosis. However, the lifetime of BAVs is too short, often requiring repeated surgeries. The lifetime of BAVs might be improved by using computer simulations of the structural behavior of the leaflets. The goal of this study was to develop a numerical model applicable to the optimization of durability of BAVs. The constitutive equations were derived using biaxial tensile tests. Using a Fung model, stress and strain data were computed from biaxial test data. SolidWorks was used to develop the geometry of the leaflets, and ABAQUS finite element software package was used for finite element calculations. Results showed the model is consistent with experimental observations. Reaction forces computed by the model corresponded with experimental measurements when the biaxial test was simulated. As well, the location of maximum stresses corresponded to the locations of frequent tearing of BAV leaflets. Results suggest that BAV design can be optimized with respect to durability. PMID:26737002

  16. Risk profile and outcomes of aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    PubMed Central

    Kesavan, Sujatha; Iqbal, Aamer; Khan, Yusra; Hutter, Jonathan; Pike, Katie; Rogers, Chris; Turner, Mark; Townsend, Mandie; Baumbach, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the patient characteristics, relationship between the Logistic EuroSCORE (LES) and the observed outcomes in octogenarians who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR). METHODS: Two hundred and seventy three octogenarians underwent AVR between 1996 and 2008 at Bristol Royal Infirmary. Demographics, acute outcomes, length of hospital stay and mortality were obtained. The LES was calculated to characterize the predicted operative risk. Two groups were defined: LES ≥ 15 (n = 80) and LES < 15 (n = 193). RESULTS: In patients with LES ≥ 15, 30 d mortality was 14% (95% CI: 7%-23%) compared with 4% (95% CI: 2%-8%) in the LES < 15 group (P < 0.007). Despite the increase in number of operations from 1996 to 2008, the average LES did not change. Only 5% of patients had prior bypass surgery. The LES identified a low risk quartile of patients with a very low mortality (4%, n = 8, P < 0.007) at 30 d. The overall surgical results for octogenarians were excellent. The low risk group had an excellent outcome and the high risk group had a poor outcome after surgical AVR. CONCLUSION: It may be better treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:22125671

  17. Nucleotide Catabolism on the Surface of Aortic Valve Xenografts; Effects of Different Decellularization Strategies.

    PubMed

    Kutryb-Zajac, Barbara; Yuen, Ada H Y; Khalpey, Zain; Zukowska, Paulina; Slominska, Ewa M; Taylor, Patricia M; Goldstein, Steven; Heacox, Albert E; Lavitrano, Marialuisa; Chester, Adrian H; Yacoub, Magdi H; Smolenski, Ryszard T

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular nucleotide metabolism controls thrombosis and inflammation and may affect degeneration and calcification of aortic valve prostheses. We evaluated the effect of different decellularization strategies on enzyme activities involved in extracellular nucleotide metabolism. Porcine valves were tested intact or decellularized either by detergent treatment or hypotonic lysis and nuclease digestion. The rates of ATP hydrolysis, AMP hydrolysis, and adenosine deamination were estimated by incubation of aorta or valve leaflet sections with substrates followed by HPLC analysis. We demonstrated relatively high activities of ecto-enzymes on porcine valve as compared to the aortic wall. Hypotonic lysis/nuclease digestion preserved >80 % of ATP and AMP hydrolytic activity but reduced adenosine deamination to <10 %. Detergent decellularization completely removed (<5 %) all these activities. These results demonstrate high intensity of extracellular nucleotide metabolism on valve surface and indicate that various valve decellularization techniques differently affect ecto-enzyme activities that could be important in the development of improved valve prostheses. PMID:26832118

  18. Ten year clinical evaluation of Starr-Edwards 2400 and 1260 aortic valve prostheses.

    PubMed Central

    Hackett, D; Fessatidis, I; Sapsford, R; Oakley, C

    1987-01-01

    The long term performance characteristics of the 2400 and 1260 series of Starr-Edwards aortic prostheses were investigated by a follow up study of clinical outcome of 327 patients discharged from hospital with isolated aortic valve replacement. Follow up lasted for up to 10 years and was based on 1616 patient-years. The 2400 series cloth covered tracked valve was implanted in 182 patients from 1974 to 1980 and the 1260 series bare strut silastic ball valve was inserted in 145 patients from 1979 to 1983. Total 10 year mortality and valve related morbidity were low and no cases of mechanical valve failure were recorded. There were no significant actuarial differences in mortality or valve related morbidity between the 2400 and 1260 valves. Starr-Edwards models 2400 and 1260 aortic valve prostheses showed excellent durability without any mechanical failures over a 10 year period. The long term outcome of isolated aortic valve replacement with these models is associated with a low frequency of valve related complications. PMID:3580223

  19. An experimental study of steady flow patterns of a new trileaflet mechanical aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Shing; Lu, Po-Chien; Lo, Chi-Wen; Lai, Ho-Cheng; Hwang, Ned H C

    2005-01-01

    Hemodynamic research shows that thrombosis formation is closely tied to flow field turbulent stress. Design limitations cause flow separation at leaflet edges and the annular valve base, vortex mixing downstream, and high turbulent shear stress. The trileaflet design opens like a physiologic valve with central flow. Leaflet curvature approximates a completely circular orifice, maximizing effective flow area of the open valve. Semicircular aortic sinuses downstream of the valve allow vortex formation to help leaflet closure. The new trileaflet design was hemodynamically evaluated via digital particle image velocimetry and laser-Doppler anemometry. Measurements were made during peak flow of the fully open valve, immediately downstream of the valve, and compared with the 27-mm St. Jude Medical (SJM) bileaflet valve. The trileaflet valve central flow produces sufficient pressure to inhibit separation shear layers. Absence of downstream turbulent wake eddies indicates smooth, physiologic blood flow. In contrast, SJM produces strong turbulence because of unsteady separated shear layers where the jet flow meets the aortic sinus wall, resulting in higher turbulent shear stresses detrimental to blood cells. The trileaflet valve simulates the physiologic valve better than previous designs, produces smoother flow, and allows large scale recirculation in the aortic sinuses to help valve closure. PMID:16156295

  20. Form Follows Function: Advances in Trilayered Structure Replication for Aortic Heart Valve Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Simionescu, Dan T.; Chen, Joseph; Jaeggli, Michael; Wang, Bo; Liao, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering the aortic heart valve is a challenging endeavor because of the particular hemodynamic and biologic conditions present in the native aortic heart valve. The backbone of an ideal valve substitute should be a scaffold that is strong enough to withstand billions of repetitive bending, flexing and stretching cycles, while also being slowly degradable to allow for remodeling. In this review we highlight three overlooked aspects that might influence the long term durability of tissue engineered valves: replication of the native valve trilayered histoarchitecture, duplication of the three-dimensional shape of the valve and cell integration efforts focused on getting the right number and type of cells to the right place within the valve structure and driving them towards homeostatic maintenance of the valve matrix. We propose that the trilayered structure in the native aortic valve that includes a middle spongiosa layer cushioning the motions of the two external fibrous layers should be our template for creation of novel scaffolds with improved mechanical durability. Furthermore, since cells adapt to micro-loads within the valve structure, we believe that interstitial cell remodeling of the valvular matrix will depend on the accurate replication of the structures and loads, resulting in successful regeneration of the valve tissue and extended durability. PMID:23355946

  1. Successful repair of aortic annulus rupture during transcatheter aortic valve replacement using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

    PubMed

    Negi, Smita I; Patel, Jay; Patel, Manish; Loyalka, Pranav; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor

    2015-09-01

    Aortic annular rupture is a rare and much dreaded complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Device oversizing to prevent post-procedural paravalvular leak is the most commonly identified cause of this complication. However, mechanical stress in a heavily calcified non-compliant vessel can also lead to annular rupture in this older population. We describe a case of aortic annular rupture with involvement of right coronary artery ostium leading to cardiac tamponade and cardiac arrest, successfully managed by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, open drainage of the pericardial space, pericardial patching of the defect and bypass of the affected vessel with excellent post-procedural results. PMID:23990118

  2. [Minimally Invasive Aortic Valve Replacement for Aortic Stenosis after Renal Transplantation;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Kenichi; Tomita, Shigeyuki; Yamaguchi, Seijirou; Ootake, Hiroshi; Nishida, Yuuji; Kiuchi, Ryuuta; Nishida, Satoru; Takagi, Takeshi; Shintani, Keiko; Yamamoto, Noritaka; Watanabe, Go

    2015-06-01

    A 41-year-old man was referred to our department for surgical treatment for aortic stenosis 7 years after renal transplantation. He had been diagnosed with aortic stenosis by echocardiography a year before. He had syncopal attack during exercise 2 months before and surgical treatment had been indicated. We successfully performed aortic valve replacement via right mini-thoracotomy in the 4th intercostal space. Cardiac surgery after renal transplantation is rare and many complications may happen. Minimally invasive cardiac surgery is considerated to be useful in minimizing mediastinitis in patients on immune suppressants. PMID:26066881

  3. Do we need sutureless or self-anchoring aortic valve prostheses?

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Malakh

    2015-03-01

    Surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) is the 'gold standard' for the treatment of aortic valve stenosis. Due to the increasing age of the patient population (reflecting the demographic changes), the use of biological valves has increased over the past years. At the same time, a large proportion of these patients require concomitant surgical procedures in addition to AVR. Although trans-apical or trans-femoral aortic valve implantations (TAVI) have been introduced for high risk patients, they are limited to patients with isolated aortic valve pathology. Therefore, strategies for avoiding long ischemia times, as well as long periods of extra-corporeal circulation (ECC) resulting in reduced peri-operative risks should be welcomed among the surgical community. Modern 'sutureless valves' with reduced cross-clamp and cardio-pulmonary bypass times as a result of the absence of sutures, combined with excellent hemodynamics in the short and mid-term, may be an ideal solution for geriatric patients. Additionally, 'self-anchoring' valves will increase the armament of surgeons in treating 'technically difficult' group of patients needing AVR who have small calcified aortic roots and those coming back after aortic root replacement with homografts. These valves should also expand the application of minimally access AVR. Therefore, the question of whether we need 'self-anchoring valves' is not only redundant, but the time may have come for these type of valves to be considered as the 'valve of choice' for higher risk geriatric patients who may be 'high risk' for conventional valves but not ineligible for TAVIs. PMID:25870814

  4. Retrograde Transcatheter Closure of Mitral Paravalvular Leak through a Mechanical Aortic Valve Prosthesis: 2 Successful Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Daxin; Pan, Wenzhi; Guan, Lihua; Qian, Juying

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis has been considered a contraindication to retrograde percutaneous closure of mitral paravalvular leaks, because passing a catheter through the mechanical aortic valve can affect the function of a mechanical valve and thereby lead to severe hemodynamic deterioration. We report what we believe are the first 2 cases of retrograde transcatheter closure of mitral paravalvular leaks through a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis without transseptal or transapical puncture. Our experience shows that retrograde transcatheter closure of mitral paravalvular leaks in this manner can be an optional approach for transcatheter closure of such leaks, especially when a transapical or transseptal puncture approach is not feasible. This technique might also be applied to other transcatheter procedures in which there is a need to pass a catheter through a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis. PMID:27127428

  5. Retrograde Transcatheter Closure of Mitral Paravalvular Leak through a Mechanical Aortic Valve Prosthesis: 2 Successful Cases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Daxin; Pan, Wenzhi; Guan, Lihua; Qian, Juying; Ge, Junbo

    2016-04-01

    The presence of a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis has been considered a contraindication to retrograde percutaneous closure of mitral paravalvular leaks, because passing a catheter through the mechanical aortic valve can affect the function of a mechanical valve and thereby lead to severe hemodynamic deterioration. We report what we believe are the first 2 cases of retrograde transcatheter closure of mitral paravalvular leaks through a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis without transseptal or transapical puncture. Our experience shows that retrograde transcatheter closure of mitral paravalvular leaks in this manner can be an optional approach for transcatheter closure of such leaks, especially when a transapical or transseptal puncture approach is not feasible. This technique might also be applied to other transcatheter procedures in which there is a need to pass a catheter through a mechanical aortic valve prosthesis. PMID:27127428

  6. Analysis of aortic valve gradients by transseptal technique: implications for noninvasive evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, J B; Folland, E D

    1989-07-01

    The peak instantaneous aortic valve gradient derived from Doppler echocardiography is commonly used to predict the severity of aortic stenosis. Peak instantaneous gradient should not be equated with the mean gradient or "peak to peak" gradient measured at cardiac catheterization. The primary purpose of this study is to assess the relationship between the aortic valve gradients, using a two-catheter transseptal technique in 102 patients with aortic stenosis, mixed aortic stenosis and regurgitation, and following aortic valve replacement. These cases were drawn from a series of 111 consecutive transseptal procedures for patients with isolated aortic valve disease. No major complications occurred, and the most common reason for technical failure was inability to engage the atrial septum in postoperative patients. Although the peak instantaneous gradient correlates well with the mean gradient in aortic stenosis (r = .94, P less than .001), mixed stenosis and regurgitation (r = .95, P less than .001), and after aortic valve replacement (r = .86, P less than .001), it systematically overestimates both the mean gradient and the peak to peak gradient. Neither the peak instantaneous nor the mean gradient correlates highly with aortic valve area in aortic stenosis (r = -.48, P less than .01 peak; r = -.58, P less than .001 mean gradient), mixed aortic stenosis and regurgitation (r = -.39, P NS peak; r = -.42, P NS mean gradient) or following aortic valve replacement (r = -.26, P NS peak; r = -.53, P less than .01 mean gradient). Systolic time intervals also were analyzed from the simultaneous left ventricular and ascending aortic pressure tracings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2766343

  7. Gallium-SPECT in the detection of prosthetic valve endocarditis and aortic ring abscess

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, K.; Barnes, D.; Martin, R.H.; Rae, J.R. )

    1991-09-01

    A 52-yr-old man who had a bioprosthetic aortic valve developed Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia. Despite antibiotic therapy he had persistent pyrexia and developed new conduction system disturbances. Echocardiography did not demonstrate vegetations on the valve or an abscess, but gallium scintigraphy using SPECT clearly identified a focus of intense activity in the region of the aortic valve. The presence of valvular vegetations and a septal abscess was confirmed at autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy, using SPECT, provided a useful noninvasive method for the demonstration of endocarditis and the associated valve ring abscess.

  8. Bicuspid aortic valve and severe aortic stenosis in a newborn exposed to carbamazapine during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Karataş, Zehra; Karataş, Ahmet; Özlü, Tülay; Goksugur, Sevil B; Varan, Birgül

    2014-01-01

    The use of antiepileptic drugs increases the risk of major congenital malformations during pregnancy. Here, we report an infant who had a history of in-utero carbamazepine exposure and who was born with a cardiac malformation. The infant was born at 39 weeks of gestation vaginally to an epileptic mother who had been treated with carbamazepine throughout her pregnancy. He was referred due to cardiac murmur in the second week of his life. The mother had not received folic acid supplementation. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed bicuspid aortic valve, mild aortic stenosis, patent ductus arteriosus, patent foramen ovale and the renal ultrasound revealed mild left hydronephrosis. Follow-up echocardiography performed 14 weeks later showed increased severity of aortic stenosis and percutaneous balloon aortic valvuloplasty was performed. To our knowledge, there is only one case report in the literature mentioning the association of a bicuspid aortic valve and aortic stenosis with oxcarbazepine exposure, which is a structural derivative of carbamazepine. However, there are no reports for association with carbamazepine itself. Bicuspid aorta and aortic stenosis may be among the cardiac malformations that result from the teratogenic effect of carbamazepine. PMID:25584038

  9. Aortic Dilation in Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease: Flow Pattern Is a Major Contributor and Differs with Valve Fusion Type

    PubMed Central

    Bissell, Malenka M.; Hess, Aaron T.; Biasiolli, Luca; Glaze, Steffan J.; Loudon, Margaret; Pitcher, Alex; Davis, Anne; Prendergast, Bernard; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J.; Neubauer, Stefan; Myerson, Saul G

    2013-01-01

    Background Ascending aortic dilation is important in bicuspid aortic valve disease (BAV), with increased risk of aortic dissection. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to understand the pathophysiology better by examining the links between 3-dimensional flow abnormalities, aortic function and aortic dilation. Methods and Results 142 subjects underwent CMR (mean age 40 years; 95 with BAV, 47 healthy volunteers [HV]). BAV patients had predominantly abnormal right-handed helical flow in the ascending aorta, larger ascending aortas (18.3 3.3 vs. 15.2 2.2mm/m2, p<0.001), and higher rotational (helical) flow (31.7 15.8 vs. 2.9 3.9mm2/s, p<0.001), systolic flow angle (23.1 12.5 vs. 7.0 4.6, p<0.001) and systolic wall shear stress (WSS) (0.85 0.28 vs. 0.59 0.17N/m2, p<0.001) compared to HV. BAV with right-handed flow and right-non coronary cusp fusion (n= 31) showed more severe flow abnormalities (rotational flow 38.5 16.5 vs. 27.8 12.4mm2/s, p<0.001; systolic flow angle 29.4 10.9 vs. 19.4 11.4, p<0.001; in-plane WSS 0.64 0.23 vs. 0.47 0.22N/m2, p<0.001) and larger aortas (19.5 3.4 vs. 17.5 3.1mm/m2, p<0.05) than right-left cusp fusion (n=55). BAV patients with normal flow patterns had similar aortic dimensions and WSS to HV and younger BAV patients showed abnormal flow patterns but no aortic dilation, both further supporting the importance of flow pattern in the etiology of aortic dilation. Aortic function measures (distensibility, aortic strain and pulse wave velocity) were similar across all groups. Conclusions Flow abnormalities may be a major contributor to aortic dilation in BAV. Fusion type affects the severity of flow abnormalities, and may allow better risk prediction and selection of patients for earlier surgical intervention. PMID:23771987

  10. Antioxidant Enzymes Reduce DNA Damage and Early Activation of Valvular Interstitial Cells in Aortic Valve Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Branchetti, Emanuela; Sainger, Rachana; Poggio, Paolo; Grau, Juan B.; Patterson-Fortin, Jeffrey; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Chorny, Michael; Lai, Eric; Gorman, Robert C.; Levy, Robert J.; Ferrari, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Objective Accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and remodeling of the microstructure of the cusp characterize aortic valve sclerosis, the early phase of calcific aortic valve disease. These events are associated with activation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) toward an osteogenic-like phenotype. Because ROS cause DNA damage and transcriptional activation we investigated the relationship between ROS, DNA damage response, and transdifferentiation of VICs. Methods and Results Human aortic valve cusps and patient-matched VICs were collected from 39 patients both with and without calcific aortic valve disease. VICs were exposed to hydrogen peroxide (0.1–1 mmol/L) after cell transduction with extracellular superoxide dismutase/catalase adenoviruses and characterized for DNA-damage response, osteogenic transdifferentiation, and calcification. ROS induce relocalization of phosphorylated γH2AX, MRE11, and XRCC1 proteins with expression of osteogenic signaling molecule RUNX2 via AKT. We report a sustained activation of γH2AX in aortic valve sclerosis-derived VICs suggesting their impaired ability to repair DNA damage. Adenovirus superoxide dismutase/catalase transduction decreases ROS-induced DNA damage and VIC transdifferentiation in aortic valve sclerosis-derived cells. Finally, adenoviral transduction with catalase reverts ROS-mediated calcification and cellular transdifferentiation. Conclusion We conclude that the ROS-induced DNA damage response is dysfunctional in early asymptomatic stages of calcific aortic valve disease. We unveiled an association among ROS, DNA-damage response, and cellular transdifferentiation, reversible by antioxidant enzymes delivery. PMID:23241403

  11. High Risk Aortic Valve Replacement – The Challenges of Multiple Treatment Strategies with an Evolving Technology

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, R; McBride, M; Manoharan, G; Spence, M; Jones, J M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Deciding on the optimal treatment strategy for high risk aortic valve replacement is challenging. Transcatheter Aortic Valve implantation (TAVI) has been available in our centre as an alternative treatment modality for patients since 2008. We present our early experience of TAVI and SAVR (surgical Aortic Valve Replacement) in high risk patients who required SAVR because TAVI could not be performed. Methods The database for Surgical aortic valve and Transcatheter aortic valve replacement referrals was interrogated to identify relevant patients. Results Survival to hospital discharge was 95.5% in the forty five patients who had SAVR when TAVI was deemed technically unsuitable. One year survival was 86%. Conclusion Defining who is appropriate for TAVI or high risk SAVR is challenging and multidisciplinary team discussion has never been more prudent in this field of evolving technology with ever decreasing risks of surgery. The introduction of TAVI at our institution has seen a rise in our surgical caseload by approximately by 25%. Overall, the option of aortic valve intervention is being offered to more patients in general which is a substantial benefit in the treatment of aortic valve disease.

  12. Calcification Characteristics of Low-Flow Low-Gradient Severe Aortic Stenosis in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Stähli, Barbara E.; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Gebhard, Cathérine; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Tanner, Felix C.; Nietlispach, Fabian; Maisano, Francesco; Falk, Volkmar; Lüscher, Thomas F.; Maier, Willibald; Binder, Ronald K.

    2015-01-01

    Low-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis (LFLGAS) is associated with worse outcomes. Aortic valve calcification patterns of LFLGAS as compared to non-LFLGAS have not yet been thoroughly assessed. 137 patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with preprocedural multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and postprocedural transthoracic echocardiography were enrolled. Calcification characteristics were assessed by MDCT both for the total aortic valve and separately for each leaflet. 34 patients had LFLGAS and 103 non-LFLGAS. Total aortic valve calcification volume (p < 0.001), mass (p < 0.001), and density (p = 0.004) were lower in LFLGAS as compared to non-LFLGAS patients. At 30-day follow-up, mean transaortic pressure gradients and more than mild paravalvular regurgitation did not differ between groups. In conclusion, LFLGAS and non-LFLGAS express different calcification patterns which, however, did not impact on device success after TAVR. PMID:26435875

  13. Interactions between Chlamydia pneumoniae and trace elements: a possible link to aortic valve sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Nyström-Rosander, Christina; Lindh, Ulf; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Hjelm, Eva; Thelin, Stefan; Lindqvist, Olle; Friman, Göran

    2003-02-01

    An association between Chlamydia pneumoniae and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases has been suggested. However, other factors may interact in the pathogenesis of valve sclerosis. Therefore, trace elements important for C. pneumoniae growth and host defense and markers of C. pneumoniae infection were studied in sclerotic valves and serum. Forty-six patients undergoing surgical valve replacement due to advanced aortic sclerosis were prospectively studied. Valves from 15 forensic cases with no heart valve disease and plasma from 46 healthy volunteers served as controls. C. pneumoniae was detected in 16/46 (34.8 %) sclerotic valves and in 0/15 forensic controls. IgG and IgA antibodies to C. pneumoniae were present in 54.3% and 26.1 % patients, respectively. In the patients' valves, iron, magnesium, and zinc each correlated to calcium, a marker of the histopathological severity of disease. Patients showed 10- to 70-fold increases of these trace elements in valves and an increased copper/zinc ratio in serum. In a majority of aortic sclerosis patients, one of several markers of C. pneumoniae infection were detected and all patients had a disturbed trace element balance in valves and serum suggestive of active immune process and infection. The pattern of trace element changes was essentially similar regardless of positive makers of C. pneumoniae, suggesting a similar etiopathogenesis in both subgroups. The 20-fold increase in iron, essential for C. pneumoniae growth, in sclerotic valves suggests a new possible link to this infection in aortic sclerosis. PMID:12719605

  14. Free-floating giant left atrial ball thrombus with aortic valve disease--a rare entity and a near miss.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Dharmendra; Simon, Ellis J; Prasad, Sai

    2012-03-01

    Large left atrial mural thrombi in the absence of mitral valve stenosis have been reported rarely in the literature. It is even rarer without history of atrial fibrillation (AF). These masses can cause systemic embolization and sudden circulatory collapse when they obstruct the mitral valve. We are presenting a case of giant, free floating ball thrombus, detected after aortic valve replacement for mixed aortic valve disease. It was found immediately before separation from cardiopulmonary bypass by transoesophageal echocardiography and was successfully removed. A ball thrombus without mitral valve disease and AF with aortic valve disease is not yet reported in the literature. PMID:22345191

  15. Side-Specific Endothelial-Dependent Regulation of Aortic Valve Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer; El-Hamamsy, Ismail; Chen, Si; Sarang, Zubair; Sarathchandra, Padmini; Yacoub, Magdi H.; Chester, Adrian H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2014-01-01

    Arterial endothelial cells maintain vascular homeostasis and vessel tone in part through the secretion of nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we determined how aortic valve endothelial cells (VEC) regulate aortic valve interstitial cell (VIC) phenotype and matrix calcification through NO. Using an anchored in vitro collagen hydrogel culture system, we demonstrate that three-dimensionally cultured porcine VIC do not calcify in osteogenic medium unless under mechanical stress. Co-culture with porcine VEC, however, significantly attenuated VIC calcification through inhibition of myofibroblastic activation, osteogenic differentiation, and calcium deposition. Incubation with the NO donor DETA-NO inhibited VIC osteogenic differentiation and matrix calcification, whereas incubation with the NO blocker l-NAME augmented calcification even in 3D VIC–VEC co-culture. Aortic VEC, but not VIC, expressed endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in both porcine and human valves, which was reduced in osteogenic medium. eNOS expression was reduced in calcified human aortic valves in a side-specific manner. Porcine leaflets exposed to the soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ increased osteocalcin and α-smooth muscle actin expression. Finally, side-specific shear stress applied to porcine aortic valve leaflet endothelial surfaces increased cGMP production in VEC. Valve endothelial-derived NO is a natural inhibitor of the early phases of valve calcification and therefore may be an important regulator of valve homeostasis and pathology. PMID:23499458

  16. Extensive aortic valve ring abscess formation: a rare complication of Q fever endocarditis.

    PubMed Central

    Fort, S.; Fraser, A. G.; Fox, K. A.

    1989-01-01

    We report the successful management and 2 year follow up of a young patient with Q fever endocarditis on a congenitally bicuspid aortic valve complicated by extensive abscess formation in the aortic valve ring and interventricular septum. Aortic root abscess formation complicating Q fever endocarditis has been reported in only one previous patient. Serological tests may thus be indicated in patients with aortic abscesses. Despite extensive aortic and intramyocardial abscess formation it proved possible to control the progression of disease by open drainage of the abscess and aortic valve replacement. Although the requirement for aortic root replacement was anticipated in this patient, it has not been required. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2608579

  17. Transapical aortic valve implantation and minimally invasive off-pump bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ahad, Samir; Baumbach, Hardy; Hill, Stephan; Franke, Ulrich F. W.

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained increasing popularity for high-risk patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis. A concomitant coronary artery disease leads to a complicated management and an increased perioperative risk. This case report describes the successful total arterial coronary revascularization of the left anterior descending and the left marginal branch of the circumflex artery utilizing the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) and left radial artery in off-pump technique in combination with the transapical transcatheter aortic valve implantation via minimally invasive anterolateral access in the fifth intercostal space. PMID:24221960

  18. Perceval S Valve Solution for Degenerated Freestyle Root in the Presence of Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    PubMed

    Lio, Antonio; Miceli, Antonio; Ferrarini, Matteo; Glauber, Mattia

    2016-06-01

    Aortic root replacement with porcine xenograft is a valuable treatment option in acute aortic dissection, but conduits are often prone to degeneration. Reoperation is still associated with high operative mortality, and it usually requires root removal and repetition of the Bentall procedure, or a less radical option limited to valve replacement. We describe two cases of Freestyle root degeneration in patients with chronic aortic dissection, in whom we performed a valve-in-valve procedure with the Perceval S prosthesis (Sorin Group, Saluggia, Italy). PMID:27211946

  19. Markov model for selection of aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation (without replacement) in high-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Gada, Hemal; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Svensson, Lars G; Marwick, Thomas H

    2012-05-01

    Comparisons between transcatheter aortic valve implantation without replacement (TAVI) and tissue aortic valve replacement (AVR) in clinical trials might not reflect the outcomes in standard clinical practice. This could have important implications for the relative cost-effectiveness of these alternatives for management of severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients for whom surgery is an option. The mean and variance of risks, transition probabilities, utilities, and cost of TAVI, AVR, and medical management derived from observational studies were entered into a Markov model that examined the progression of patients between relevant health states. The outcomes and cost were derived from 10,000 simulations. Sensitivity analyses were based on variations in the likelihood of mortality, stroke, and other commonly observed outcomes. Both TAVI and AVR were cost-effective compared to medical management. In the reference case (age 80 years, the perioperative TAVI and AVR mortality was 6.9% vs 9.8%, and annual mortality was 21% vs 24%), the utility of TAVI was greater than that of AVR (1.78 vs 1.72 quality-adjusted life years) and the lifetime cost of TAVI exceeded that of AVR ($59,503 vs $56,339). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $52,773/quality-adjusted life years. Threshold analyses showed that variation in the probabilities of perioperative and annual mortality after AVR and after TAVI and annual stroke after TAVI were important determinants of the favored strategy. Sensitivity analyses defined the thresholds at which TAVI or AVR was the preferred strategy with regard to health outcomes and cost. In conclusion, TAVI satisfies current metrics of cost-effectiveness relative to AVR and might provide net health benefits at acceptable cost for selected high-risk patients among whom AVR is the current procedure of choice. PMID:22335853

  20. Type A dissection and fistula to right atrium after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ming-Yuan; Hsieh, Shih-Rong

    2016-05-01

    A 73-year-old man with a history of severe aortic regurgitation underwent aortic valve replacement with a bioprosthesis. Nine years later, he presented with heart failure and was diagnosed with chronic type A dissection and severe aortic stenosis. During surgery, a fistula from the ascending aortic aneurysm to the right atrium was found incidentally. Replacement of the aortic valve and ascending aorta were performed successfully. The fistula was closed with sutures. The patient was discharged uneventfully on postoperative day 16. PMID:25406403

  1. Self-expanding aortic valve stent-material optimization.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gideon Praveen; Mathew, Lazar

    2012-11-01

    Vascular support structures are important devices for treating valve stenosis. Large population of patients is treated for valvular disease and the principal mode of treatment is the use of percutaneous valvuloplasty. Stent devices are proving to be an improved technology in minimal invasive cardiac surgery. This technology now accounts for 20% of treatments in Europe. This new technology provides highly effective results at minimal cost and short duration of hospitalization. During the development process, a number of specific designs and materials have come and gone, and a few have remained. Many design changes were successful, and many were not. This paper discusses the physical behavior of a hooked percutaneous aortic valve stent design using a finite element analysis. Specifically, the effects of crimping was simulated and analyzed for two types of realistic but different Nitinol materials (NITI-1 and NITI-2). The results show that both NITI-1 and NITI-2 had good crimping performance. The analysis performed in this paper may aid in understanding the stent's displacement ranges when subjected to physiological pressures exerted by the heart and cardiac blood flow during abnormal cardiovascular conditions. It may also help to evaluate the suitability of a Nitinol for fabrication purposes. PMID:22981766

  2. Endothelial nitric oxide signaling regulates Notch1 in aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Authors: Kevin; Hans, Chetan P.; Zhao, Ning; Koenig, Sara N.; Huang, Nianyuan; Guggilam, Anuradha; LaHaye, Stephanie; Tao, Ge; Lucchesi, Pamela A.; Lincoln, Joy; Lilly, Brenda; Garg, Vidu

    2013-01-01

    The mature aortic valve is composed of a structured trilaminar extracellular matrix that is interspersed with aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs) and covered by endothelium. Dysfunction of the valvular endothelium initiates calcification of neighboring AVICs leading to calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). The molecular mechanism by which endothelial cells communicate with AVICs and cause disease is not well understood. Using a co-culture assay, we show that endothelial cells secrete a signal to inhibit calcification of AVICs. Gain or loss of nitric oxide (NO) prevents or accelerates calcification of AVICs, respectively, suggesting that the endothelial cell-derived signal is NO. Overexpression of Notch1, which is genetically linked to human CAVD, retards the calcification of AVICs that occurs with NO inhibition. In AVICs, NO regulates the expression of Hey1, a downstream target of Notch1, and alters nuclear localization of Notch1 intracellular domain. Finally, Notch1 and NOS3 (endothelial NO synthase) display an in vivo genetic interaction critical for proper valve morphogenesis and the development of aortic valve disease. Our data suggests that endothelial cell-derived NO is a regulator of Notch1 signaling in AVICs in the development of the aortic valve and adult aortic valve disease. PMID:23583836

  3. Aortic Valve Function Under Support of a Left Ventricular Assist Device: Continuous vs. Dynamic Speed Support.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selim; van de Vosse, Frans N; Rutten, Marcel C M

    2015-08-01

    Continuous flow left ventricular devices (CF-LVADs) support the failing heart at a constant speed and alters the loads on the aortic valve. This may cause insufficiency in the aortic valve under long-term CF-LVAD support. The aim of this study is to assess the aortic valve function under varying speed CF-LVAD support. A Medtronic freestyle valve and a Micromed DeBakey CF-LVAD were tested in a mock circulatory system. First, the CF-LVAD was operated at constant speeds between 7500 and 11,500 rpm with 1000 rpm intervals. The mean pump outputs obtained from these tests were applied in varying speed CF-LVAD support mode using a reference model for the pump flow. The peak of the instantaneous pump flow was applied at peak systole and mid-diastole, respectively. Ejection durations and in the aortic valve were the longest when the peak pump flow was applied at mid-diastole among the CF-LVAD operating modes. Furthermore, mean aortic valve area over a cardiac cycle was highest when the peak pump flow was applied at mid-diastole. The results show that changing phase of the reference flow rate signal may reduce the effects of the CF-LVADs on altered aortic valve closing behavior, without compromising the overall pump support level. PMID:25480480

  4. Textile heart valve: first in-vivo experiment in the aortic position.

    PubMed

    Heim, Frederic; Gasser, Bernard; Khoffi, Foued; Blondel, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Non-invasive aortic valve implantation has become an alternative technique to surgical valve replacement in patients at high risk for open-chest surgery. With over 100,000 procedures already performed clinically, the technology is expected to involve less-critical patients in future. Whereas, biological valve tissue is a fragile material when folded for low-diameter catheter insertion purposes, textile polyester is a less-fragile material and may offer an alternative material to replace valve leaflets. One issue related to textile is the porosity of the material, which may induce exaggerated tissue ingrowth. Today, data relating to interactions between living tissues and fabrics used as valve materials are available only in the mitral position. Hence, the study aim was to observe the interaction pattern when the valve is implanted in the aortic position, and to assess the influence of sinus whirls on this pattern. PMID:25296455

  5. Minimally invasive concomitant aortic and mitral valve surgery: the Miami Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Valve surgery via a median sternotomy has historically been the standard of care, but in the past decade various minimally invasive approaches have gained increasing acceptance. Most data available on minimally invasive valve surgery has generally involved single valve surgery. Therefore, robust data addressing surgical techniques in patients undergoing double valve surgery is lacking. For patients undergoing combined aortic and mitral valve surgery, a minimally invasive approach, performed via a right lateral thoracotomy (the Miami Method), is the preferred method at our institution. This method is safe and effective and leads to an enhanced recovery in our patients given the reduction in surgical trauma. The following perspective details our surgical approach, concepts and results for combined aortic and mitral valve surgery. PMID:25694974

  6. The Anesthetic Management of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Guarracino, Fabio; Baldassarri, Rubia

    2016-06-01

    An increasing number of patients with a high risk for surgery because of advanced age and associated comorbidities that significantly increase the perioperative risk successfully undergo transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). TAVI is commonly performed under general or local anesthesia or local anesthesia plus mild sedation to achieve a conscious sedation. The anesthetic regimen generally depends on the patient's clinical profile and the procedural technical characteristics, but the center's experience and internal organization likely play an important role in anesthetic decision making. The large variation in anesthetic management among various centers and countries likely depends on the different composition of the operating team and institutional organization. Therefore, a tight interaction among the various members of the TAVI team, including the cardiac anesthetist, provides the proper anesthetic management using the chosen procedural technique. PMID:26403787

  7. Aortic valve replacement through J-shaped partial upper sternotomy

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Umberto; Amrani, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of minimally invasive techniques in general surgery, in the late 1980s, influenced cardiac surgery as well. This led to the emergence of several minimal access approaches for aortic valve replacement (AVR). Currently, the upper partial sternotomy with unilateral J-shaped extension to the right through the fourth intercostal space is the most popular minimal access approach. This approach offers the comfort factor of sternotomy, improved cosmetic result, preserved respiratory mechanics, and last but not the least cost saving as no new equipment is required. On the other hand, inability to visualize the whole heart, adequately de-air the left heart, and failure to apply epicardial pacing wires are some of the perceived disadvantages of this approach. This article provides a comprehensive review of the indications, contraindications, technical aspects, outcomes, advantages and disadvantages of AVR through J-shaped partial upper sternotomy. PMID:24251025

  8. Embolic Protection Devices in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Steinvil, Arie; Benson, Richard T; Waksman, Ron

    2016-03-01

    The initially reported periprocedural neurological events rates associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement raised concerns that ultimately led to the development and to the clinical research of novel embolic protection devices. Although the reduction of clinical stroke is a desired goal, the current research design of embolic protection devices focuses on surrogate markers of the clinical disease, primarily on silent central nervous system lesions observed in postprocedural diffuse-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive function testing. As the mere presence of particulate debris in brain matter may not correlate with the extent of brain injury, cognitive function, or quality of life, the clinical significance of embolic protection devices has yet to be determined, and interpretation of study results with regard to real-life clinical use should be viewed accordingly. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the updated ongoing clinical research on embolic protection devices and present its major caveats. PMID:26951618

  9. Combined aortic and mitral valve replacement in an adult with Scheie's disease.

    PubMed

    Butman, S M; Karl, L; Copeland, J G

    1989-07-01

    Mitral, aortic, and coronary arterial disease have been described in the various mucopolysaccharidoses. We report the first successful combined aortic and mitral valve replacement in an adult female patient with severe aortic and mitral stenosis due to Scheie's syndrome, a mucopolysaccharide storage disease. Both annulae were of sufficient integrity for good prosthetic placement, and the patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:2500310

  10. Design of a cyclic pressure bioreactor for the ex vivo study of aortic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Schipke, Kimberly J; To, S D Filip; Warnock, James N

    2011-01-01

    The aortic valve, located between the left ventricle and the aorta, allows for unidirectional blood flow, preventing backflow into the ventricle. Aortic valve leaflets are composed of interstitial cells suspended within an extracellular matrix (ECM) and are lined with an endothelial cell monolayer. The valve withstands a harsh, dynamic environment and is constantly exposed to shear, flexion, tension, and compression. Research has shown calcific lesions in diseased valves occur in areas of high mechanical stress as a result of endothelial disruption or interstitial matrix damage(1-3). Hence, it is not surprising that epidemiological studies have shown high blood pressure to be a leading risk factor in the onset of aortic valve disease(4). The only treatment option currently available for valve disease is surgical replacement of the diseased valve with a bioprosthetic or mechanical valve(5). Improved understanding of valve biology in response to physical stresses would help elucidate the mechanisms of valve pathogenesis. In turn, this could help in the development of non-invasive therapies such as pharmaceutical intervention or prevention. Several bioreactors have been previously developed to study the mechanobiology of native or engineered heart valves(6-9). Pulsatile bioreactors have also been developed to study a range of tissues including cartilage(10), bone(11) and bladder(12). The aim of this work was to develop a cyclic pressure system that could be used to elucidate the biological response of aortic valve leaflets to increased pressure loads. The system consisted of an acrylic chamber in which to place samples and produce cyclic pressure, viton diaphragm solenoid valves to control the timing of the pressure cycle, and a computer to control electrical devices. The pressure was monitored using a pressure transducer, and the signal was conditioned using a load cell conditioner. A LabVIEW program regulated the pressure using an analog device to pump compressed air into the system at the appropriate rate. The system mimicked the dynamic transvalvular pressure levels associated with the aortic valve; a saw tooth wave produced a gradual increase in pressure, typical of the transvalvular pressure gradient that is present across the valve during diastole, followed by a sharp pressure drop depicting valve opening in systole. The LabVIEW program allowed users to control the magnitude and frequency of cyclic pressure. The system was able to subject tissue samples to physiological and pathological pressure conditions. This device can be used to increase our understanding of how heart valves respond to changes in the local mechanical environment. PMID:21876532

  11. A Novel Method for Optical High Spatiotemporal Strain Analysis for Transcatheter Aortic Valves In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Heide-Jrgensen, Simon; Kumaran Krishna, Sellaswasmy; Taborsky, Jonas; Bechsgaard, Tommy; Zegdi, Rachid; Johansen, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) valve is a bioprosthetic valve within a metal stent frame. Like traditional surgical bioprosthetic valves, the TAVI valve leaflet tissue is expected to calcify and degrade over time. However, clinical studies of TAVI valve longevity are still limited. In order to indirectly assess the longevity of TAVI valves, an estimate of the mechanical wear and tear in terms of valvular deformation and strain of the leaflets under various conditions is warranted. The aim of this study was, therefore, to develop a platform for noncontact TAVI valve deformation analysis with both high temporal and spatial resolutions based on stereophotogrammetry and digital image correlation (DIC). A left-heart pulsatile in vitro flow loop system for mounting of TAVI valves was designed. The system enabled high-resolution imaging of all three TAVI valve leaflets simultaneously for up to 2000 frames per second through two high-speed cameras allowing three-dimensional analyses. A coating technique for applying a stochastic pattern on the leaflets of the TAVI valve was developed. The technique allowed a pattern recognition software to apply frame-by-frame cross correlation based deformation measurements from which the leaflet motions and the strain fields were derived. The spatiotemporal development of a very detailed strain field was obtained with a 0.5?ms time resolution and a spatial resolution of 72??m/pixel. Hence, a platform offering a new and enhanced supplementary experimental evaluation of tissue valves during various conditions in vitro is presented. PMID:26784124

  12. Enlargement of the aortic annulus during aortic valve replacement: a review.

    PubMed

    Bortolotti, Uberto; Celiento, Michele; Milano, Aldo D

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of aortic valve replacement (AVR) is to obtain relief from the fixed left ventricular (LV) obstruction by replacing the aortic valve with a prosthesis, either mechanical or biological, of adequate size. Most currently available prostheses provide satisfactory hemodynamic performance, but small-sized prostheses may be associated with high transvalvular gradients and suboptimal effective orifice area that result in prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM), and thus are far from ideal for use in young, active patients. The avoidance of PPM is advisable as it has been repeatedly associated with increased mortality, decreased exercise tolerance and an impaired regression of LV hypertrophy after AVR for severe aortic stenosis. Enlargement of the aortic annulus (EAA) has proved to be a valuable method to prevent PPM in the presence of a diminutive aortic root. This review outlines the various techniques described for EAA, presenting technical details, long-term results and major procedure-related complications, and discussing the current role of EAA in patients requiring AVR. PMID:24779326

  13. Amyloid, thrombosis, and acute myocardial infarction in association with a bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Groves, P H; Douglas-Jones, A G; Hall, R J

    1993-12-01

    A 34 year old man presented with an inferior non-Q-wave myocardial infarction. Echocardiography showed a bicuspid aortic valve with aortic outflow obstruction. Left coronary cusp morphology was normal but the right coronary cusp was grossly distorted and replaced by a mobile echodense mass encroaching upon the aortic valve orifice. The aortic valve was replaced and pathological analysis of the excised valve showed primary amyloid infiltration of the right coronary cusp but a normal left coronary cusp. The mass adherent to the right coronary leaflet had the histological appearances of organised thrombus and this was assumed to be the source of coronary embolism. This is the first reported case of primary valvar amyloid presenting with clinical sequelae and it illustrates the need for careful clinical assessment in young patients presenting with acute ischaemic syndromes. PMID:8280525

  14. A case report and literature overview: Abiotrophia defectiva aortic valve endocarditis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ramos, J N; dos Santos, L S; Vidal, L M R; Pereira, P M A; Salgado, A A; Fortes, C Q; Vieira, V V; Mattos-Guaraldi, A L; Júnior, R H; Damasco, P V

    2014-06-01

    A fatal case of aortic valve endocarditis due to Abiotrophia defectiva was reported in Brazil. An overview of cases of endocarditis and other human infections related to A. defectiva in developing countries was also accomplished. PMID:24510585

  15. Longest Event-Free Survival without Anticoagulation in a Mechanical Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Salmane, Chadi; Pandya, Bhavi; Lafferty, Kristen; Patel, Nileshkumar J; McCord, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Sixty percent of the patients going for valve replacement opt for mechanical valves and the remaining 40% choose bioprosthetics. Mechanical valves are known to have a higher risk of thrombosis; this risk further varies depending on the type of valve, its position, and certain individual factors. According to current guidelines, long-term anticoagulation is indicated in patients with metallic prosthetic valve disease. We report two unique cases of patients who survived 27 and 37 years event free, respectively, after mechanical aortic valve replacement (AVR) without being on any form of anticoagulation. The latter case described the longest survival in a human with a prosthetic aortic valve without anticoagulation. A review of literature demonstrated few cases of prosthetic valves with no anticoagulation in the long term without significant embolic events reported as case reports. These cases have been summarized in this article. Some cases of long-term survival (in the absence of anticoagulation) were attributed to good luck, and others as the result of genetic variations. New mechanical prosthetic valves can be promising, such as microporus-surfaced valves that may be used without full anticoagulation. The use of dual antiplatelet agents alone can be currently recommended only when a patient cannot take oral anticoagulation after AVR, and it should be followed with measuring and monitoring of platelet reactivity. PMID:27053922

  16. Totally biological composite aortic stentless valved conduit for aortic root replacement: 10-year experience

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To retrospectively analyze the clinical outcome of a totally biological composite stentless aortic valved conduit (No-React® BioConduit) implanted using the Bentall procedure over ten years in a single centre. Methods Between 27/10/99 and 19/01/08, the No-React® BioConduit composite graft was implanted in 67 patients. Data on these patients were collected from the in-hospital database, from patient notes and from questionnaires. A cohort of patients had 2D-echocardiogram with an average of 4.3 ± 0.45 years post-operatively to evaluate valve function, calcification, and the diameter of the conduit. Results Implantation in 67 patients represented a follow-up of 371.3 patient-year. Males were 60% of the operated population, with a mean age of 67.9 ± 1.3 years (range 34.1-83.8 years), 21 of them below the age of 65. After a mean follow-up of 7.1 ± 0.3 years (range of 2.2-10.5 years), more than 50% of the survivors were in NYHA I/II and more than 60% of the survivors were angina-free (CCS 0). The overall 10-year survival following replacement of the aortic valve and root was 51%. During this period, 88% of patients were free from valved-conduit related complications leading to mortality. Post-operative echocardiography studies showed no evidence of stenosis, dilatation, calcification or thrombosis. Importantly, during the 10-year follow-up period no failures of the valved conduit were reported, suggesting that the tissue of the conduit does not structurally change (histology of one explant showed normal cusp and conduit). Conclusions The No-React® BioConduit composite stentless aortic valved conduit provides excellent long-term clinical results for aortic root replacement with few prosthesis-related complications in the first post-operative decade. PMID:21699696

  17. 3D bioprinting of heterogeneous aortic valve conduits with alginate/gelatin hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A; Kang, Kevin H; Butcher, Jonathan T

    2013-05-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4 ± 3.4% for SMC and 83.2 ± 4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  18. 3D Bioprinting of Heterogeneous Aortic Valve Conduits with Alginate/Gelatin Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bin; Hockaday, Laura A.; Kang, Kevin H.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Heart valve disease is a serious and growing public health problem for which prosthetic replacement is most commonly indicated. Current prosthetic devices are inadequate for younger adults and growing children. Tissue engineered living aortic valve conduits have potential for remodeling, regeneration, and growth, but fabricating natural anatomical complexity with cellular heterogeneity remain challenging. In the current study, we implement 3D bioprinting to fabricate living alginate/gelatin hydrogel valve conduits with anatomical architecture and direct incorporation of dual cell types in a regionally constrained manner. Encapsulated aortic root sinus smooth muscle cells (SMC) and aortic valve leaflet interstitial cells (VIC) were viable within alginate/gelatin hydrogel discs over 7 days in culture. Acellular 3D printed hydrogels exhibited reduced modulus, ultimate strength, and peak strain reducing slightly over 7-day culture, while the tensile biomechanics of cell-laden hydrogels were maintained. Aortic valve conduits were successfully bioprinted with direct encapsulation of SMC in the valve root and VIC in the leaflets. Both cell types were viable (81.4±3.4% for SMC and 83.2±4.0% for VIC) within 3D printed tissues. Encapsulated SMC expressed elevated alpha-smooth muscle actin when printed in stiff matrix, while VIC expressed elevated vimentin in soft matrix. These results demonstrate that anatomically complex, heterogeneously encapsulated aortic valve hydrogel conduits can be fabricated with 3D bioprinting. PMID:23015540

  19. Biomechanical characterization of ascending aortic aneurysm with concomitant bicuspid aortic valve and bovine aortic arch.

    PubMed

    Pham, T; Martin, C; Elefteriades, J; Sun, W

    2013-08-01

    Studies have shown that patients harboring bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) or bovine aortic arch (BAA) are more likely than the general population to develop ascending aortic aneurysm (AsAA). A thorough quantification of the AsAA tissue properties for these patient groups may offer insights into the underlying mechanisms of AsAA development. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate and compare the mechanical and microstructural properties of aortic tissues from AsAA patients with and without concomitant BAV or BAA. AsAA (n=20), BAV (n=20) and BAA (n=15) human tissues were obtained from patients who underwent elective AsAA surgery. Planar biaxial and uniaxial failure tests were used to characterize the mechanical and failure properties of the tissues, respectively. Histological analysis was performed to detect medial degenerative characteristics of aortic aneurysm. Individual layer thickness and composition were quantified for each patient group. The circumferential stress-strain response of the BAV samples was stiffer than both AsAA (p=0.473) and BAA (p=0.152) tissues at a low load. The BAV samples were nearly isotropic, while AsAA and BAA samples were anisotropic. The areal strain of BAV samples was significantly less than that of AsAA (p=0.041) and BAA (p=0.004) samples at a low load. The BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples in both mechanical and failure properties. On the microstructural level, all samples displayed moderate medial degeneration, characterized by elastin fragmentation, cell loss, mucoid accumulation and fibrosis. The ultimate tensile strength of BAV and BAA sampleswere also found to decrease with age. Overall, the BAV samples were stiffer than both AsAA and BAA samples, and the BAA samples were similar to the AsAA samples. The BAV samples were thinnest, with less elastin than AsAA and BAA samples, which may be attributed to the loss of extensibility of these tissues at a low load. No apparent difference in failure mechanics among the tissue groups suggests that each of the patient groups may have a similar risk of rupture. PMID:23643809

  20. Simulations of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: implications for aortic root rupture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Kodali, Susheel; Primiano, Charles; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Aortic root rupture is one of the most severe complications of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The mechanism of this adverse event remains mostly unknown. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better understanding of the biomechanical interaction between the tissue and stent for patients with a high risk of aortic rupture. We simulated the stent deployment process of three TAVI patients with high aortic rupture risk using finite element method. The first case was a retrospective analysis of an aortic rupture case, while the other two cases were prospective studies, which ended with one canceled procedure and one successful TAVI. Simulation results were evaluated for the risk of aortic root rupture, as well as coronary artery occlusion, and paravalvular leak. For Case 1, the simulated aortic rupture location was the same as clinical observations. From the simulation results, it can be seen that the large calcified spot on the interior of the left coronary sinus between coronary ostium and the aortic annulus was pushed by the stent, causing the aortic rupture. For Case 2 and Case 3, predicated results from the simulations were presented to the clinicians at multidisciplinary pre-procedure meetings; and they were in agreement with clinician's observations and decisions. Our results indicated that the engineering analysis could provide additional information to help clinicians evaluate complicated, high-risk aortic rupture cases. Since a systematic study of a large patient cohort of aortic rupture is currently not available (due to the low occurrence rate) to clearly understand underlying rupture mechanisms, case-by-case engineering analysis is recommended for evaluating patient-specific aortic rupture risk. PMID:24736808

  1. In-Graft Endovascular Stenting Repair for Supravalvular Stenosis From Aortic Rupture After Balloon-Expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Nobuyuki; Scholtz, Werner; Haas, Nikolaus; Ensminger, Stephan; Gummert, Jan; Börgermann, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    An 81-year-old man with high-grade aortic valve stenosis and status post-coronary artery bypass grafting and supracoronary replacement of the ascending aorta was referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation. He was in New York Heart Association class III and had dyspnea. After appropriate screening, we implanted a 29-mm SAPIEN XT valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA USA) through a transapical approach because of severe peripheral arterial occlusive disease. Postinterventional aortography revealed correct positioning and function of the valve and free coronary ostia but contrast extravasation in the vicinity of the interposed vascular prosthesis, resulting in severe luminal narrowing. We chose to manage the stenosis with an endovascular stent. After stenting, extravascular compression was markedly reduced, and the pressure gradient disappeared. The patient was discharged home on the 20th postoperative day. Three months later, computed tomography depicted correct positioning of both grafts. The patient's general health is good, and he is now in New York Heart Association class II. This case illustrates a complication of transcatheter aortic valve implantation specific for patients with an ascending aortic graft. Although stenting may be a good solution, as depicted by this case, self-expanding transcatheter aortic valves should be preferred in patients with ascending aortic grafts to avoid the described complication. PMID:26355692

  2. Aorto-right ventricular fistula: a complication of aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Najib, Mohammad Q; Ng, Daniel; Vinales, Karyne L; Chaliki, Hari P

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of aorto-right ventricular (aorto-RV) fistula after prosthetic aortic valve replacement is rare. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) with color-flow Doppler, transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), or both may be required for diagnosis. A 42-year-old woman sought care for palpitations and dyspnea due to atrial flutter 2 weeks after prosthetic aortic valve replacement and graft replacement of the ascending aorta. TTE and TEE revealed left-to-right shunt due to aorto-RV fistula. PMID:21959192

  3. Incidence and risk factors of hemolysis after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with a balloon-expandable valve.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Jérôme; Puri, Rishi; Urena, Marina; Laflamme, Louis; DeLarochellière, Hugo; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; del Trigo, Maria; Campelo-Parada, Francisco; DeLarochellière, Robert; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Dumont, Eric; Doyle, Daniel; Mohammadi, Siamak; Côté, Mélanie; Pibarot, Philippe; Laroche, Vinçent; Rodés-Cabau, Josep

    2015-06-01

    There are currently no data evaluating the hematologic and biocompatibility profile of transcatheter aortic valves in vivo. We evaluated the incidence, predictive factors, and clinical consequences associated with hemolysis post-transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). A total of 122 patients who underwent TAVI with a balloon-expandable valve were included. Baseline blood sampling and echocardiography, followed by early post-TAVI echocardiography and repeat blood sampling, at 6 to 12 months post-TAVI were performed. Hemolysis post-TAVI was defined according to the established criteria. The incidence of hemolysis post-TAVI was 14.8% yet no patient experienced severe hemolytic anemia requiring transfusion. Compared with the nonhemolysis group, those with hemolysis demonstrated significant reductions in hemoglobin (p = 0.012), were more frequently women (67% vs 34%, p = 0.016), and had a higher incidence of post-TAVI severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) (44% vs 17%, p = 0.026). The rate of mild or more prosthetic valve regurgitation did not significantly differ between those patients with and without hemolysis (56% vs 37%, p = 0.44). Wall shear rate (WSR) and energy loss index (ELI), both indirect measures of shear stress, were higher (p = 0.039) and lower (p = 0.004), respectively, in those patients with hemolysis. Increasing PPM severity was also associated with significant stepwise WSR increments and ELI decrements (p <0.01 for both). In conclusion, subclinical hemolysis occurred in 15% of patients following TAVI. Although prosthetic valve regurgitation had no impact on hemolysis, a novel association between PPM and hemolysis was found, likely driven by higher shear stress as determined by WSR and ELI. These hematologic and biomechanical findings may have long-term clinical implications and could affect future transcatheter aortic valve design. PMID:25862156

  4. Differences in associated factors between aortic and mitral valve calcification in hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ikee, Ryota; Honda, Kenjiro; Ishioka, Kunihiro; Oka, Machiko; Maesato, Kyoko; Moriya, Hidekazu; Hidaka, Sumi; Ohtake, Takayasu; Kobayashi, Shuzo

    2010-06-01

    Increased prevalence of aortic and mitral valve calcification has been reported in patients on hemodialysis, but it remains unknown whether aortic and mitral valve calcification arise from similar pathogenesis. We detected heart valve calcification using two-dimensional echocardiography, and we related valve calcification to various clinical parameters in patients treated with hemodialysis three times a week for more than 1 year. In 112 patients (77 men and 35 women, age 67+/-10 years, duration on hemodialysis 95+/-67 months), aortic and mitral valve calcification were observed in 84 (75.0%) and 58 (51.7%) patients, respectively. Aortic valve calcification was associated with increased age, higher serum calcium, lower serum albumin, lower total cholesterol and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Multivariate analysis showed that increased age and higher serum calcium were independently associated with aortic valve calcification. Conversely, mitral valve calcification was associated with increased age, higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and higher serum beta(2)-microglobulin, but not with higher serum calcium. In multivariate analysis, increased age and higher serum beta(2)-microglobulin were independently associated with mitral valve calcification. Serum beta(2)-microglobulin was associated with longer duration on hemodialysis, malnutrition inflammation (lower serum albumin and higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and dyslipidemia. Considering the results in previous studies showing that the distribution of beta(2)-microglobulin amyloid deposition was consistent with that of tissue calcification in patients on hemodialysis, beta(2)-microglobulin may have pathogenic roles in valve calcification. PMID:20379193

  5. iTRAQ proteomic analysis of extracellular matrix remodeling in aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Rojas, Tatiana; Mourino-Alvarez, Laura; Alonso-Orgaz, Sergio; Rosello-Lleti, Esther; Calvo, Enrique; Lopez-Almodovar, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Miguel; Padial, Luis R.; Lopez, Juan Antonio; Cuesta, Fernando de la; Barderas, Maria G.

    2015-01-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common worldwide cause of valve replacement. The aortic valve is a thin, complex, layered connective tissue with compartmentalized extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by specialized cell types, which directs blood flow in one direction through the heart. There is evidence suggesting remodeling of such ECM during aortic stenosis development. Thus, a better characterization of the role of ECM proteins in this disease would increase our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms. Aortic valve samples were collected from 18 patients which underwent aortic valve replacement (50% males, mean age of 74 years) and 18 normal control valves were obtained from necropsies (40% males, mean age of 69 years). The proteome of the samples was analyzed by 2D-LC MS/MS iTRAQ methodology. The results showed an altered expression of 13 ECM proteins of which 3 (biglycan, periostin, prolargin) were validated by Western blotting and/or SRM analyses. These findings are substantiated by our previous results demonstrating differential ECM protein expression. The present study has demonstrated a differential ECM protein pattern in individuals with AS, therefore supporting previous evidence of a dynamic ECM remodeling in human aortic valves during AS development. PMID:26620461

  6. Aortic valve calcification in 499 consecutive patients referred for computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hryniewiecki, Tomasz; Micha?owska, Ilona; K?pka, Cezary; Abramczuk, El?bieta; Or?owska-Baranowska, Ewa; Ru?y??o, Witold

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is the most common cause of aortic stenosis. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of aortic valve, coronary artery and aortic calcifications and to evaluate the correlation between calcification of the aortic valve, coronary arteries and aorta. Material and methods The study included 499 patients aged 60 years and over who underwent coronary computed tomography because of chest pain. Beside coronary artery calcium score (CAC), we evaluated AVC and ascending aorta calcifications (AAC). Results Aortic valve calcification was found in 144 subjects (28.9% of the whole study population). Prevalence of CAC and AAC was higher than AVC and amounted to 73.8% and 54.0%. Prevalence of AVC, CAC and AAC was significantly lower in the group of patients ? 70 years than in the group of patients > 70 years of age (p = 0.0002, p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001). Aortic valve calcification was more often observed in men than women (34.7% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.02). Degree of aortic valve calcification was also significantly higher among men than women (median score 4 vs. 0, p = 0.01). Similar observations were true for CAC and AAC, where both prevalence and degree of calcification was higher among men than women. In the whole study population no correlation was noted between AVC and CAC or AAC (p = 0.34, p = 0.85). There was a significant correlation between AAC and CAC (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Despite some similarities in pathological mechanism and risk factors, a degenerative defect of the aortic valve could be independent of atheromatous lesions in the coronary arteries and aorta. PMID:26528335

  7. Trends in mechanical aortic valve replacement surgery in a large, multi-surgeon, single hospital practice

    PubMed Central

    Fedakar, Ali; Adademir, Taylan; Salihi, Salih; Boyacıoğlu, Kamil; Özbek, Babürhan; Taşar, Mehmet; Balkanay, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In recent decades, new high-performance prostheses have been invented for use with small aortic annuli, and they have helped avoid patient prosthesis mismatch (PPM) without the need for aortic annular enlargement. The purpose of this study is to examine the trends in mechanical aortic valve replacement surgery in a large, multi-surgeon, single hospital practice. Material and methods Between January 1999 and January 2008, 1337 consecutive patients underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with or without concomitant aortic annulus enlargement. Patients with aortic dissections and patients undergoing Bentall and Ross procedures were excluded from the analysis. Patients were grouped according to the used aortic valve size. The data were collected and analyzed retrospectively. Results The mean age of the subjects was 54.37 ± 17.35 (range: 10-84), and 881 of them were men (65.8%). The number of aortic root enlargement procedures decreased over the years (p < 0.05); particularly, the decline of the Nicks procedures was statistically significant (p < 0.05). In 2008, the most frequently used valve size was 23, which stands in contrast with the smaller size preferred in 1999 (p < 0.05). The primary pathophysiology leading to aortic valve replacement, i.e. aortic stenosis, did not change over the years (p > 0.05). Although the use of combined surgery increased in time, there was no statistical relationship with any increase in mortality rates (p > 0.05). Conclusions This study showed that avoiding the procedure of aortic root enlargement and implanting high-performance prostheses with larger valves is safe. PMID:26336451

  8. Characterization of abnormalities responsible for immediate rejection of porcine aortic valves for the manufacture of bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    Marinov, G R; Marois, Y; Maxie, G; Guidoin, R

    1998-08-01

    Gross observation at the slaughterhouse determines the primary selection of porcine aortic valves for the manufacture of bioprostheses. This step is critical because only valves with significant abnormalities are rejected. The present study validated this selection process by investigating the pathological characteristics of one series of accepted valves and one series of rejected valves. Macroscopy, x-ray examination, light microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed on 5 initially rejected valves, 3 leaflets from 3 other initially rejected valves, and 6 valves that successfully passed this first step in the selection process. Abnormalities were macroscopically visible only on the rejected valves and were described as thick white areas, heavy white striations, thin spots, white plaques, and nodules. Individual variability in the structure of each leaflet was more significant in the rejected valves than in the valves that had passed the first inspection. The leaflets of the rejected valves were also irregularly thick with a lack of consistency in the position and prominence of the different layers. The formation of nodules and the presence of white plaques in the inner fibrosa layer were among the pathological features. The initially accepted valves considered defect free under gross observation continued to display some weaknesses, and not all of the valves selected during the first step of the process were suitable to become bioprostheses. Because the manufacturer carries out further quality control inspections at every step of preparation resulting in additional rejections, it is therefore anticipated that all valves with defects will be rejected. None of the rejected valves were defect free, and rejection was fully justified. PMID:9702321

  9. INCLUDING AORTIC VALVE MORPHOLOGY IN COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS SIMULATIONS: INITIAL FINDINGS AND APPLICATION TO AORTIC COARCTATION

    PubMed Central

    Wendell, David C.; Samyn, Margaret M.; Cava, Joseph R.; Ellwein, Laura M.; Krolikowski, Mary M.; Gandy, Kimberly L.; Pelech, Andrew N.; Shadden, Shawn C.; LaDisa, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations quantifying thoracic aortic flow patterns have not included disturbances from the aortic valve (AoV). 80% of patients with aortic coarctation (CoA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) which may cause adverse flow patterns contributing to morbidity. Our objectives were to develop a method to account for the AoV in CFD simulations, and quantify its impact on local hemodynamics. The method developed facilitates segmentation of the AoV, spatiotemporal interpolation of segments, and anatomic positioning of segments at the CFD model inlet. The AoV was included in CFD model examples of a normal (tricuspid AoV) and a post-surgical CoA patient (BAV). Velocity, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS), and oscillatory shear index (OSI) results were compared to equivalent simulations using a plug inlet profile. The plug inlet greatly underestimated TKE for both examples. TAWSS differences extended throughout the thoracic aorta for the CoA BAV, but were limited to the arch for the normal example. OSI differences existed mainly in the ascending aorta for both cases. The impact of AoV can now be included with CFD simulations to identify regions of deleterious hemodynamics thereby advancing simulations of the thoracic aorta one step closer to reality. PMID:22917990

  10. Replacement of an aortic Starr-Edwards ball valve prosthesis 28 years after implantation.

    PubMed

    Tayama, Keiichiro; Akashi, Hidetoshi; Tayama, Eiki; Fukunaga, Shuji; Kawara, Takemi; Kosuga, Ken-ichi; Aoyagi, Shigeaki

    2004-05-01

    A 53-year-old woman who had undergone aortic valve replacement with a Starr-Edwards (S-E) valve (Model 1260) and open mitral commissurotomy 28 years previously was hospitalized with cardiac failure. Echocardiography showed mitral stenosis, mitral regurgitation, and a normally functioning S-E prosthesis. At reoperation, the mitral and aortic valves were replaced with St Jude bileaflet mechanical prostheses. Examination of the explanted S-E prosthesis revealed no structural abnormality other than lipid infiltration of the silastic ball. PMID:15118298

  11. Replacement of Regurgitant Bicuspid Aortic Valve in a Dilated, Non-Compacted Left Ventricle.

    PubMed

    Schenone, Aldo L; Cohen, Aaron; Pettersson, Gosta; Majdalany, David

    2016-05-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common form of congenital heart disease, with 20% of asymptomatic adults with BAV presenting with significant valve insufficiency. Yet, limited data exist regarding surgical indications and outcomes when BAV is accompanied by left ventricular dilation, systolic dysfunction, or left ventricle non-compaction (LVNC) syndrome. We present a case of dilated cardiomyopathy due to severe BAV regurgitation and partial LVNC syndrome and the decision to undergo aortic valve replacement. Our patient represents the most extreme documented case of regurgitant BAV with dilated, dysfunctional, and partially non-compacted left ventricle. Yet, surgical intervention provided improvement in systolic performance and ventricular dimensions. PMID:26701622

  12. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-induced aortic valve endocarditis: case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Ping; Liu, Jialiang; Tao, Jun; Liu, Jianyang; Yang, Yanqi; Yang, Songran

    2015-01-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a pathogen of zoonosis often associated with occupational exposure. Although Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection has high mortality, the heart valves in humans are rarely involved. The clinical data of a case of a 65-year-old male with Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae-induced aortic valve endocarditis was summarized retrospectively and analyzed with a literature review. Based on a literature review and our experience, cases of E. rhusiopathiae-induced aortic valve endocarditis are extremely rare and surgical treatment for this condition is useful and recommended. PMID:25785050

  13. [An emergent aortic and mitral valve replacement for active infective endocarditis preoperatively using extracorporeal ultrafiltration method].

    PubMed

    Sakahashi, H; Takazawa, A; Eishi, K; Aomi, S; Tsuchida, K; Harada, Y; Seino, R; Hashimoto, A; Koyanagi, H

    1991-03-01

    We reported a 29-year-old man with active endocarditis complicating aortic and mitral valve regurgitation. The echocardiogram showed a mycotic aneurysm at aortic valvular annulus and a aneurysm of mitral valve. Heart failure was progressive and caused anuria. Prior to emergent double valve replacement, 2,500 ml of water was removed. Then hemodynamics became stationary. Urination was good during and after operation. In this case, complicating acute renal failure, dehydration with extracorporeal ultrafiltration method was very effective for improvement of hemodynamics. PMID:2020151

  14. Dynamic hemodynamic energy loss in normal and stenosed aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Yap, Choon-Hwai; Dasi, Lakshmi P; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2010-02-01

    Aortic valve (AV) stenosis, if untreated, leads to heart failure. From a mechanics standpoint, heart failure can be interpreted as the failure of the heart to generate sufficient power to overcome energy losses in the circulation. Thus, energy efficiency-based measures for evaluating AV performance and disease severity have the advantage of being a direct measure of the contribution of the AV hydrodynamic characteristics toward heart failure. We present a new method for computing the rate of energy dissipation as a function of systolic time, by modifying the Navier-Stokes momentum equation. This method preserves the dynamic term of the Navier-Stokes momentum equation, and allows the investigation of the trend of the rate of energy dissipation over time. This method is applied to a series of in vitro experiments, where a trimmed porcine valve is exposed to various conditions: varying stroke volumes (50 ml to 90 ml) at the fixed heart rate; varying heart rates (60-80 beats/min) at fixed stroke volume; and varying stenosis levels (normal, mild stenosis, moderate stenosis). The results are: (1) energy dissipation waveform has a distinctive pattern of being skewed toward late systole, due to flow instabilities during deceleration phases; (2) increasing heart rate and stroke volume increases energy dissipation, but the normalized shape of the energy dissipation waveform is preserved across heart rates and stroke volumes; (3) increasing stenosis level increases energy dissipation, and also alters the normalized shape of the energy dissipation waveform. Since stenosis produces a signature energy dissipation waveform shape, dynamic energy dissipation analysis can potentially be extended into a clinical tool for AV evaluation. PMID:20370242

  15. Interlayer micromechanics of the aortic heart valve leaflet.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Rachel M; Sacks, Michael S

    2014-08-01

    While the mechanical behaviors of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers of the aortic valve (AV) leaflet are understood, little information exists on their mechanical interactions mediated by the GAG-rich central spongiosa layer. Parametric simulations of the interlayer interactions of the AV leaflets in flexure utilized a tri-layered finite element (FE) model of circumferentially oriented tissue sections to investigate inter-layer sliding hypothesized to occur. Simulation results indicated that the leaflet tissue functions as a tightly bonded structure when the spongiosa effective modulus was at least 25 % that of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Novel studies that directly measured transmural strain in flexure of AV leaflet tissue specimens validated these findings. Interestingly, a smooth transmural strain distribution indicated that the layers of the leaflet indeed act as a bonded unit, consistent with our previous observations (Stella and Sacks in J Biomech Eng 129:757-766, 2007) of a large number of transverse collagen fibers interconnecting the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Additionally, when the tri-layered FE model was refined to match the transmural deformations, a layer-specific bimodular material model (resulting in four total moduli) accurately matched the transmural strain and moment-curvature relations simultaneously. Collectively, these results provide evidence, contrary to previous assumptions, that the valve layers function as a bonded structure in the low-strain flexure deformation mode. Most likely, this results directly from the transverse collagen fibers that bind the layers together to disable physical sliding and maintain layer residual stresses. Further, the spongiosa may function as a general dampening layer while the AV leaflets deforms as a homogenous structure despite its heterogeneous architecture. PMID:24292631

  16. INTERLAYER MICROMECHANICS OF THE AORTIC HEART VALVE LEAFLET

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Rachel M.; Sacks, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    While the mechanical behaviors of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers of the aortic valve (AV) leaflet are understood, little information exists on their mechanical interactions mediated by the GAG-rich central spongiosa layer. Parametric simulations of the interlayer interactions of the AV leaflets in flexure utilized a tri-layered finite element (FE) model of circumferentially oriented tissue sections to investigate inter-layer sliding hypothesized to occur. Simulation results indicated that the leaflet tissue functions as a tightly bonded structure when the spongiosa effective modulus was at least 25% that of the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Novel studies that directly measured transmural strain in flexure of AV leaflet tissue specimens validated these findings. Interestingly, a smooth transmural strain distribution indicated that the layers of the leaflet indeed act as a bonded unit, consistent with our previous observations (Stella and Sacks, 2007) of a large number of transverse collagen fibers interconnecting the fibrosa and ventricularis layers. Additionally, when the tri-layered FE model was refined to match the transmural deformations, a layer-specific bimodular material model (resulting in four total moduli) accurately matched the transmural strain and moment-curvature relations simultaneously. Collectively, these results provide evidence, contrary to previous assumptions, that the valve layers function as a bonded structure in the low-strain flexure deformation mode. Most likely, this results directly from the transverse collagen fibers that bind the layers together to disable physical sliding and maintain layer residual stresses. Further, the spongiosa may function as a general dampening layer while the AV leaflets deforms as a homogenous structure despite its heterogeneous architecture. PMID:24292631

  17. Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients with a severe stenotic bicuspid aortic valve in a Chinese population*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian-bao; Jiang, Ju-bo; Zhou, Qi-jing; Pu, Zhao-xia; He, Wei; Dong, Ai-qiang; Feng, Yan; Jiang, Jun; Sun, Yong; Xiang, Mei-xiang; He, Yu-xin; Fan, You-qi; Dong, Liang; Wang, Jian-an

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with a severe stenotic bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) in a Chinese population. While several groups have reported the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of TAVI for patients with a BAV, worldwide experience of the technique is still limited, especially in China. Methods: From March 2013 to November 2014, high surgical risk or inoperable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS) who had undergone TAVI at our institution were selected for inclusion in our study. Results were compared between a BAV group and a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) group. Results: Forty patients were included in this study, 15 (37.5%) of whom were identified as having a BAV. In the BAV group, the aortic valve area was smaller ((0.47±0.13) vs. (0.59±0.14) cm2), the ascending aortic diameter was larger ((40.4±4.4) vs. (36.4±4.3) mm), and the concomitant aortic regurgitation was lower. No significant differences were found between the groups in the other baseline characteristics. No differences were observed either in the choice of access or valve size. The procedural success achieved in this study was 100%. There were no differences between groups in device success (86.7% vs. 88.0%), 30-d mortality (6.7% vs. 8.0%), or 30-d combined end point (13.3% vs. 12.0%). The incidences of new pacemaker implantation, paravalvular regurgitation and other complications, recovery of left ventricle ejection fraction and heart function were similar in both groups. Conclusions: Patients with a severely stenotic BAV can be treated with TAVI, and their condition after treatment should be similar to that of people with a TAV. PMID:25743122

  18. Safety valve

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Ulf C.

    1984-01-01

    The safety valve contains a resilient gland to be held between a valve seat and a valve member and is secured to the valve member by a sleeve surrounding the end of the valve member adjacent to the valve seat. The sleeve is movable relative to the valve member through a limited axial distance and a gap exists between said valve member and said sleeve.

  19. Radionuclide angiography in evaluation of left ventricular function following aortic valve replacement

    SciTech Connect

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1981-05-01

    Congestive heart failure in patients surviving aortic valve replacement has been associated with a high late mortality. To determine whether myocardial dysfunction in these patients occurred preoperatively, perioperatively, or during the early postoperative period, 19 consecutive patients undergoing aortic valve replacement using cardioplegia and hypothermia were studied by multiple-gated cardiac blood pool imaging. The resting ejection fractions for 8 patients with aortic stenosis did not show significant changes following operation. The 11 patients with aortic insufficiency has resting preoperative values of 58 +/- 15%, which fell to 38 +/- 18% immediately postoperatively (p less than 0.01), with the late values being 51 +/- 16%. Eight of 18 patients (44%) showed deterioration of regional wall motion immediately after operation, which persisted in 3 during the late evaluation. The occurrence of new perioperative regional wall motion abnormalities and persistent perioperative depression in left ventricular function in some patients suggest the need for further improvement in myocardial protection during cardiopulmonary bypass for aortic valve replacement.

  20. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Advantages and Limitations of Different Cardiac Imaging Techniques.

    PubMed

    Podlesnikar, Tomaz; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is an established therapy for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis and contraindications or high risk for surgery. Advances in prostheses and delivery system designs and continuous advances in multimodality imaging, particularly the 3-dimensional techniques, have led to improved outcomes with significant reductions in the incidence of frequent complications such as paravalvular aortic regurgitation. In addition, data on prosthesis durability are accumulating. Multimodality imaging plays a central role in the selection of patients who are candidates for transcatheter aortic valve replacement, procedure planning and guidance, and follow-up of prosthesis function. The strengths and limitations of each imaging technique for transcatheter aortic valve replacement will be discussed in this update article. PMID:26856791

  1. Minimally Invasive Repair of Left Ventricular Pseudoaneurysm after Transapical Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Ramlawi, Basel; Al Jabbari, Odeaa; Barker, Colin M.; Kleiman, Neal S.; Reardon, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is becoming a routine procedure to treat severe symptomatic aortic stenosis. At most transcatheter aortic valve replacement centers, transapical access is a frequent alternative for use in patients whose ileofemoral access is inadequate. Transapical access is increasingly applied to a variety of other structural heart and aortic procedures as well. There is a caveat, however. When performed in elderly patients with friable myocardium, transapical access is associated with such serious sequelae as bleeding and left ventricular apical pseudoaneurysmal formation. Here, we describe the case of a 70-year-old woman who developed a left ventricular apical pseudoaneurysm 3 weeks after transapical transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Our successful repair took a minimally invasive left lateral approach that involved peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass cannulation, Foley catheter occlusion and primary defect closure, and BioGlue reinforcement. PMID:27047291

  2. Association of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol–Related Genetic Variants With Aortic Valve Calcium and Incident Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Gustav; Luk, Kevin; Schulz, Christina-Alexandra; Engert, James C.; Do, Ron; Hindy, George; Rukh, Gull; Dufresne, Line; Almgren, Peter; Owens, David S.; Harris, Tamara B.; Peloso, Gina M.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Rich, Stephen; Kathiresan, Sekar; Orho-Melander, Marju; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Post, Wendy S.; Thanassoulis, George

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) has been associated with aortic stenosis in observational studies; however, randomized trials with cholesterol-lowering therapies in individuals with established valve disease have failed to demonstrate reduced disease progression. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether genetic data are consistent with an association between LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides (TG) and aortic valve disease. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Using a Mendelian randomization study design, we evaluated whether weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs), a measure of the genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids, constructed using single-nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies for plasma lipids, were associated with aortic valve disease. We included community-based cohorts participating in the CHARGE consortium (n = 6942), including the Framingham Heart Study (cohort inception to last follow-up: 1971-2013; n = 1295), Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2000-2012; n = 2527), Age Gene/Environment Study-Reykjavik (2000-2012; n = 3120), and the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDCS, 1991-2010; n = 28 461). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Aortic valve calcium quantified by computed tomography in CHARGE and incident aortic stenosis in the MDCS. RESULTS The prevalence of aortic valve calcium across the 3 CHARGE cohorts was 32% (n = 2245). In the MDCS, over a median follow-up time of 16.1 years, aortic stenosis developed in 17 per 1000 participants (n = 473) and aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis occurred in 7 per 1000 (n = 205). Plasma LDL-C, but not HDL-C or TG, was significantly associated with incident aortic stenosis (hazard ratio [HR] per mmol/L, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.04-1.57; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.3% and 2.4% in lowest and highest LDL-C quartiles, respectively). The LDL-C GRS, but not HDL-C or TG GRS, was significantly associated with presence of aortic valve calcium in CHARGE (odds ratio [OR] per GRS increment, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.09-1.74; P = .007) and with incident aortic stenosis in MDCS (HR per GRS increment, 2.78; 95% CI, 1.22-6.37; P = .02; aortic stenosis incidence: 1.9% and 2.6% in lowest and highest GRS quartiles, respectively). In sensitivity analyses excluding variants weakly associated with HDL-C or TG, the LDL-C GRS remained associated with aortic valve calcium (P = .03) and aortic stenosis (P = .009). In instrumental variable analysis, LDL-C was associated with an increase in the risk of incident aortic stenosis (HR per mmol/L, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07-2.14; P = .02). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Genetic predisposition to elevated LDL-C was associated with presence of aortic valve calcium and incidence of aortic stenosis, providing evidence supportive of a causal association between LDL-C and aortic valve disease. Whether earlier intervention to reduce LDL-C could prevent aortic valve disease merits further investigation. PMID:25344734

  3. Successful implantation of a second-generation aortic valve in severe aortic regurgitation secondary to a traumatic cusp lesion.

    PubMed

    Mangieri, Antonio; Latib, Azeem; Aurelio, Andrea; Figini, Filippo; Agricola, Eustachio; Rosa, Isabella; Stella, Stefano; Spagnolo, Pietro; Castiglioni, Alessandro; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with a dilated cardiomyopathy and severe aortic regurgitation (AR) secondary to a traumatic cusp lesion was referred to our institution because of progressive worsening of dyspnea. After formal discussion in the heart team, the patient was scheduled for TAVI (transcatheter aortic valve implantation). The pre procedural computed tomography scan revealed a minimum amount of calcium on the aortic valve and low position of coronary ostia. The TAVI procedure was performed with the implantation of a fully retrievable and repositionable aortic valve prosthesis (Direct Flow 29 mm, Direct Flow Medical, Santa Rosa, California) with an excellent result and no paravalvular leak. The TAVI devices designed for the treatment of calcific aortic stenosis have numerous limitations for the treatment of pure AR such as the risk of residual AR, the lack of repositionability and retrievability, and the need for valve- in-valve implantation. We believe that treatment of selected cases of pure AR with the Direct Flow valve is feasible and takes advantage of the retrievability of the prosthesis. PMID:26070636

  4. Chronic Otitis Media Resulting in Aortic Valve Replacement: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Guler, Adem; Sahin, Mehmet Ali; Gurkan Yesil, Fahri; Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Demirkol, Sait; Arslan, Mehmet

    2015-04-01

    The bicuspid aortic valve is known to be the most common congenital cardiac malformation, with an approximate incidence rate of 1-2% in the general population. Most patients are unaware of the disease until the onset of infective endocarditis, which is a life-threatening complication that may affect a heart valve or other cardiac structures at the site of endothelial damage. A 22-year-old man presented to our internal medicine clinic with a complaint of acute onset dyspnea and fatigue. His body temperature was 38 (°)C. A diastolic murmur was detected at the right sternal border. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe aortic insufficiency, and two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography showed that the aortic valve was bicuspid. There was also a flail lesion extending the left ventricular outflow tract, resulting in pathological coaptation and severe aortic insufficiency. The patient was referred to our cardiovascular department for surgery. We herein present this case of a bicuspid aortic valve complicated by infective endocarditis due to the underlying disease of chronic otitis media related to a rare pathogen: Alloiococcus otitidis. The patient underwent a successful aortic valve replacement surgery due to aortic insufficiency following infective endocarditis. He was discharged on the 16(th) postoperative day in good condition. PMID:26110009

  5. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Malone, E; Wu, J; Girardi, L N; Bonassar, L J; Lipson, H; Chu, C C; Butcher, J T

    2012-09-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for the long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12-22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over tenfold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 min, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0 and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17 and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6 and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment. PMID:22914604

  6. Rapid 3D printing of anatomically accurate and mechanically heterogeneous aortic valve hydrogel scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Hockaday, L A; Kang, K H; Colangelo, N W; Cheung, P Y C; Duan, B; Malone, E; Wu, J; Girardi, L N; Bonassar, L J; Lipson, H; Chu, C C; Butcher, J T

    2013-01-01

    The aortic valve exhibits complex three-dimensional (3D) anatomy and heterogeneity essential for long-term efficient biomechanical function. These are, however, challenging to mimic in de novo engineered living tissue valve strategies. We present a novel simultaneous 3D-printing/photocrosslinking technique for rapidly engineering complex, heterogeneous aortic valve scaffolds. Native anatomic and axisymmetric aortic valve geometries (root wall and tri-leaflets) with 12 to 22 mm inner diameters (ID) were 3D printed with poly-ethylene glycol-diacrylate (PEG-DA) hydrogels (700 or 8000 MW) supplemented with alginate. 3D printing geometric accuracy was quantified and compared using Micro-CT. Porcine aortic valve interstitial cells (PAVIC) seeded scaffolds were cultured for up to 21 days. Results showed that blended PEG-DA scaffolds could achieve over 10-fold range in elastic modulus (5.3±0.9 to 74.6±1.5 kPa). 3D printing times for valve conduits with mechanically contrasting hydrogels were optimized to 14 to 45 minutes, increasing linearly with conduit diameter. Larger printed valves had greater shape fidelity (93.3±2.6, 85.1±2.0, and 73.3±5.2% for 22, 17, and 12 mm ID porcine valves; 89.1±4.0, 84.1±5.6, and 66.6±5.2% for simplified valves). PAVIC seeded scaffolds maintained near 100% viability over 21 days. These results demonstrate that 3D hydrogel printing with controlled photocrosslinking can rapidly fabricate anatomical heterogeneous valve conduits that support cell engraftment. PMID:22914604

  7. Evaluation of the Edwards SAPIEN 3 Transcatheter Valve For Aortic Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Htun, Nay M; Webb, John G

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is a viable alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis. The SAPIEN 3 is the latest generation of balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve, designed to address some of the shortcomings of earlier versions of transcatheter heart valves. It has a lower device profile to reduce access-related vascular injury, an improved delivery catheter to facilitate accurate implantation, and incorporates an additional outer sealing cuff to minimize paravalvular leakage. The latest European and North American trials using SAPIEN 3 have documented very low rates of vascular complications and paravalvular regurgitation with rates of stroke and mortality rates lower than anticipated with SAVR in both intermediate and high surgical risk patients. PMID:26878548

  8. Fatal systemic air embolism in a neonate with absent aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Muneuchi, Jun; Kuraoka, Ayako; Ochiai, Yoshie; Nishibatake, Makoto; Sese, Akira; Joo, Kunitaka

    2011-08-01

    A 32-year-old pregnant woman was referred at 33 weeks' gestation for prenatal ultrasound demonstrating fetal hydrops due to absent aortic valve with free aortic valve insufficiency. Elective caesarian section at 34 week's gestation was performed. Surgical intervention was planned immediately after labor at which time mitral valve closure and atrial septostomy using cardiopulmonary bypass would be performed. However, before insertion of the cannula for cardiopulmonary bypass, a gush of air from the right atrium was noted. The surgical procedure was abandoned because systemic air embolism was suspected. The child died 2 h after birth. Autopsy showed absent aortic valve with closed foramen ovale and left-ventricular hypertrophy. Microscopic findings showed pulmonary and systemic lymphangiectasis, which caused the introduction of air into systemic venous system by way of lymphatic duct just after birth. PMID:21455752

  9. Outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement: the benchmark for percutaneous therapies.

    PubMed

    Bajona, Pietro; Suri, Rakesh M; Greason, Kevin L; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2014-01-01

    Historically, many patients with severe senile calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS) were not offered surgery, largely due to the perception that the risks of operation were prohibitive. Such patients have subsequently been formally designated as 'high risk' or 'inoperable' with respect to their suitability for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in the evolving lexicon of heart valve disease. The recent availability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) represents an alternative treatment option, and permits the opportunity to re-examine algorithms for assessing operative risk. As the experience with TAVR grows, expanded use in new patient populations can be anticipated. While TAVR in high risk AS patients has demonstrated benefits, the emerging indication in intermediate AS is less clear and conclusions will necessarily await the availability of results from ongoing clinical trials. This article will discuss current outcomes for SAVR among high- and intermediate-risk patients with AS as a barometer in assessing the results of nascent percutaneous therapies. PMID:24838137

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infective Endocarditis Following Aortic Valve Implantation: A Note of Caution

    PubMed Central

    Dapás, Juan Ignacio; Rivero, Cynthia; Burgos, Pablo; Vila, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative treatment for severe aortic valve stenosis (AS) in patients with prohibitive risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) is a rare complication of this relatively novel procedure and current guidelines do not include specific recommendations for its treatment. We report a case of PVE due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa after TAVI that required SAVR, with successful outcome. PVE usually occurs during the first year after TAVI and entails a high mortality risk because patients eligible for this min-imally invasive procedure are fragile (i.e. advanced age and/or severe comorbidities). Additionally, clinical presentation may be atypical or subtle and transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) may not be conclusive, which delays diagnosis and treatment worsening the prognosis. This case highlights that open SAVR might be ultimately indicated as part of treatment for TAVI-PVE despite a high-risk surgery score. PMID:27014375

  11. Blockage of a mechanical aortic valve leaflet with Bioglue: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gabrijelcic, Tone

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical aortic valve dysfunction is a very rare event and is usually due to thrombosis, pannus overgrowth, or both. BioGlue as a cause for such a complication has been reported only occasionally. We describe a case of a 63-year-old woman who underwent operation for symptomatic tight aortic stenosis. After implantation of an aortic valve (AGN-751, size 19; St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) because of a transverse tear of the aortic wall above the annulus occurring during the suturing of the aortotomy, a triangular Vascutek Dacron patch (Vascutek/Terumo, Inchinnan, Scotland, UK) was included. To secure hemostasis, BioGlue (CryoLife, Kennesaw, GA, USA) was applied. A transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination performed after signs of ischemia appeared in the electrocardiogram on postoperative day 5 revealed an aortic transvalvular gradient of 74/38 mm Hg and a functional valve area of 1.0 cm2. No coronary lesions were revealed in a coronarography evaluation, but cinefluoroscopy (CF) examination revealed immobility of 1 valve leaflet. The reoperation revealed a thick, rough layer of the glue on the inner side of the patch. This glue had run down to the valve, blocking a mechanical leaflet. Cleaning the valve was not possible, and the valve had to be changed. The subsequent postoperative course was uneventful. The transvalvular gradient was 39/20 mm Hg, and the functional valve area was 1.2 cm2. We believe that the use of BioGlue and other surgical sealants is justified to secure complex suture lines and for maintaining hemostasis in cardiac surgery, but some precautionary rules must be respected. Authors have indicated that the glue enters through the needle holes in such cases, but our findings suggest it can also pass to the Dacron patch itself. CF is superior to TTE and transesophageal echocardiography for analyzing movement of the mechanical valve leaflet, and cardiac catheterization is rarely needed. PMID:23262046

  12. Use of Toronto stentless porcine valve in patients with aortic dilation.

    PubMed

    Petracek, M R; Shuman, T A; Pirolo, J S; Tedder, M; Ball, S K; Graves, D

    1999-10-01

    One of the contraindications for a stentless aortic valve is dilation of the aorta such that the sinotubular ridge is more than 2 mm larger than the annulus. Since May of 1994, 134 patients have had their aortic valve replaced with St Jude Toronto SPV valves; of these, 38 patients have required sinotubular ridge reduction. This was done by using one or more pleats in the aorta between the commisural posts. There were 20 patients with one pleat, 12 patients with two pleats, 5 patients with three pleats, and 1 patient with four pleats. In addition, three Toronto SPV valves were used in patients with significant calcification in the native coronary sinuses. All of the valves have had trace or no aortic insufficiency and have not developed aortic insufficiency in follow-up evaluation. Mean gradients remain low (<10 mm Hg). These valves have been much more versatile than originally expected and can be used in patients with mild to moderate aortic dilation and calcification. PMID:10660170

  13. Ramipril retards development of aortic valve stenosis in a rabbit model: mechanistic considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Doan TM; Stafford, Irene; Sverdlov, Aaron L; Qi, Weier; Wuttke, Ronald D; Zhang, Yuan; Kelly, Darren J; Weedon, Helen; Smith, Malcolm D; Kennedy, Jennifer A; Horowitz, John D

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To date, no therapeutic modality has been shown to be effective in retarding AVS progression. We evaluated the effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition with ramipril on disease progression in a recently developed rabbit model of AVS. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of 8 weeks of treatment with either vitamin D2 at 25 000 IU for 4 days a week alone or in combination with ramipril (0.5 mg·kg−1) on aortic valve structure and function were examined in New Zealand white rabbits. Echocardiographic aortic valve backscatter (AVBS) and aortic valve : outflow tract flow velocity ratio were utilized to quantify changes in valve structure and function. KEY RESULTS Treatment with ramipril significantly reduced AVBS and improved aortic valve : outflow tract flow velocity ratio. The intravalvular content of the pro-oxidant thioredoxin-interacting protein was decreased significantly with ramipril treatment. Endothelial function, as measured by asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations and vascular responses to ACh, was improved significantly with ramipril treatment. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Ramipril retards the development of AVS, reduces valvular thioredoxin-interacting protein accumulation and limits endothelial dysfunction in this animal model. These findings provide important insights into the mechanisms of AVS development and an impetus for future human studies of AVS retardation using an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. PMID:20958293

  14. Histopathology of aortic complications in bicuspid aortic valve versus Marfan syndrome: relevance for therapy?

    PubMed

    Grewal, Nimrat; Franken, Romy; Mulder, Barbara J M; Goumans, Marie-José; Lindeman, Johannes H N; Jongbloed, Monique R M; DeRuiter, Marco C; Klautz, Robert J M; Bogers, Ad J J C; Poelmann, Robert E; Groot, Adriana C Gittenberger-de

    2016-05-01

    Patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and patients with Marfan syndrome (MFS) are more prone to develop aortic dilation and dissection compared to persons with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV). To elucidate potential common and distinct pathways of clinical relevance, we compared the histopathological substrates of aortopathy. Ascending aortic wall biopsies were divided in five groups: BAV (n = 36) and TAV (n = 23) without and with dilation and non-dilated MFS (n = 8). General histologic features, apoptosis, the expression of markers for vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) maturation, markers predictive for ascending aortic dilation in BAV, and expression of fibrillin-1 were investigated. Both MFS and BAV showed an altered distribution and decreased fibrillin-1 expression in the aorta and a significantly lower level of differentiated VSMC markers. Interestingly, markers predictive for aortic dilation in BAV were not expressed in the MFS aorta. The aorta in MFS was similar to the aorta in dilated TAV with regard to the presence of medial degeneration and apoptosis, while other markers for degeneration and aging like inflammation and progerin expression were low in MFS, comparable to BAV. Both MFS and BAV aortas have immature VSMCs, while MFS and TAV patients have a similar increased rate of medial degeneration. However, the mechanism leading to apoptosis is expected to be different, being fibrillin-1 mutation induced increased angiotensin-receptor-pathway signaling in MFS and cardiovascular aging and increased progerin in TAV. Our findings could explain why angiotensin inhibition is successful in MFS and less effective in TAV and BAV patients. PMID:26129868

  15. Automatic aortic root landmark detection in CTA images for preprocedural planning of transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Elattar, Mustafa; Wiegerinck, Esther; van Kesteren, Floortje; Dubois, Lucile; Planken, Nils; Vanbavel, Ed; Baan, Jan; Marquering, Henk

    2016-03-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is currently a well-established minimal invasive treatment option for patients with severe aortic valve stenosis. CT Angiography is used for the pre-operative planning and sizing of the prosthesis. To reduce the inconsistency in sizing due to interobserver variability, we introduce and evaluate an automatic aortic root landmarks detection method to determine the sizing parameters. The proposed algorithm detects the sinotubular junction, two coronary ostia, and three valvular hinge points on a segmented aortic root surface. Using these aortic root landmarks, the automated method determines annulus radius, annulus orientation, and distance from annulus plane to right and left coronary ostia. Validation is performed by the comparison with manual measurements of two observers for 40 CTA image datasets. Detection of landmarks showed high accuracy where the mean distance between the automatically detected and reference landmarks was 2.81 ± 2.08 mm, comparable to the interobserver variation of 2.67 ± 2.52 mm. The mean annulus to coronary ostium distance was 16.9 ± 3.3 and 17.1 ± 3.3 mm for the automated and the reference manual measurements, respectively, with a mean paired difference of 1.89 ± 1.71 mm and interobserver mean paired difference of 1.38 ± 1.52 mm. Automated detection of aortic root landmarks enables automated sizing with good agreement with manual measurements, which suggests applicability of the presented method in current clinical practice. PMID:26498339

  16. Standardized endpoint definitions for transcatheter aortic valve implantation clinical trials: a consensus report from the Valve Academic Research Consortium†

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Martin B.; Piazza, Nicolo; Nikolsky, Eugenia; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Cutlip, Donald E.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Krucoff, Mitchell W.; Mack, Michael; Mehran, Roxana; Miller, Craig; Morel, Marie-angèle; Petersen, John; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Takkenberg, Johanna J.M.; Vahanian, Alec; van Es, Gerrit-Anne; Vranckx, Pascal; Webb, John G.; Windecker, Stephan; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To propose standardized consensus definitions for important clinical endpoints in transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), investigations in an effort to improve the quality of clinical research and to enable meaningful comparisons between clinical trials. To make these consensus definitions accessible to all stakeholders in TAVI clinical research through a peer reviewed publication, on behalf of the public health. Background Transcatheter aortic valve implantation may provide a worthwhile less invasive treatment in many patients with severe aortic stenosis and since its introduction to the medical community in 2002, there has been an explosive growth in procedures. The integration of TAVI into daily clinical practice should be guided by academic activities, which requires a harmonized and structured process for data collection, interpretation, and reporting during well-conducted clinical trials. Methods and results The Valve Academic Research Consortium established an independent collaboration between Academic Research organizations and specialty societies (cardiology and cardiac surgery) in the USA and Europe. Two meetings, in San Francisco, California (September 2009) and in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (December 2009), including key physician experts, and representatives from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and device manufacturers, were focused on creating consistent endpoint definitions and consensus recommendations for implementation in TAVI clinical research programs. Important considerations in developing endpoint definitions included (i) respect for the historical legacy of surgical valve guidelines; (ii) identification of pathophysiological mechanisms associated with clinical events; (iii) emphasis on clinical relevance. Consensus criteria were developed for the following endpoints: mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, bleeding, acute kidney injury, vascular complications, and prosthetic valve performance. Composite endpoints for TAVI safety and effectiveness were also recommended. Conclusion Although consensus criteria will invariably include certain arbitrary features, an organized multidisciplinary process to develop specific definitions for TAVI clinical research should provide consistency across studies that can facilitate the evaluation of this new important catheter-based therapy. The broadly based consensus endpoint definitions described in this document may be useful for regulatory and clinical trial purposes. PMID:21216739

  17. Effect of valve orientation on flow development past aortic valve prostheses in a model human aorta.

    PubMed

    Chandran, K B; Khalighi, B; Chen, C J; Falsetti, H L; Yearwood, T L; Hiratzka, L F

    1983-06-01

    The effect of valve orientation on flow development in a model human aorta was studied by means of a qualitative flow visualization technique. The model replicated the geometry of the human aorta and the experiment simulated a physiologically realistic pulsatile flow. The following valves were studied: Starr-Edwards Stellite, Starr-Edwards silicone, Björk-Shiley spherical disc, Björk-Shiley convexo-concave disc, and Hall-Kaster tilting disc. All the valves had a tissue anulus diameter of 27 mm. With the ball-in-cage valves, the flow in the ascending aorta was predominantly axial and uniform throughout systole, while vortex formation was observed downstream from the ball. With the tilting disc valves, the flow development in the aorta was a function of the orientation of the valves. With the major flow orifice directed toward the commissure between the right and noncoronary cusps, the fluid motion was predominantly in the axial direction through early systole. A vortex developed along the wall of lesser curvature of the aorta with the progression of systole. In early diastole, a well-defined flow reversal was observed along the lesser curvature of the aorta. With the major flow orifice directed toward the left coronary cusp, the fluid motion, although predominantly axial, was not uniform in the ascending aorta. Regions of relative stasis present near the wall of greater curvature subsequently developed into a trapped vortex throughout the cardiac cycle. With the major flow orifice directed more posteriorly, an improved fluid dynamic characteristic was observed, and there was no trapped vortex present near the wall of greater curvature. The flow visualization study in the model human aorta suggests that, from a fluid dynamic point of view, orientation of the major flow orifice of the tilting disc valve toward the wall of lesser curvature is not advisable. PMID:6855259

  18. First Human Case of Retrograde Transcatheter Implantation of an Aortic Valve Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, David; Condado, José A.; Besso, José; Vélez, Manuel; Burger, Bruno; Bibbo, Salvatore; Cedeno, Douglas; Acquatella, Harry; Mejia, Carlos; Induni, Eduardo; Fish, R. David

    2005-01-01

    The transcatheter route is an emerging approach to treating valvular disease in high-risk patients. The 1st clinical antegrade transcatheter placement of an aortic valve prosthesis was reported in 2002. We describe the first retrograde transcatheter implantation of a new aortic valve prosthesis, in a 62-year-old man with inoperable calcific aortic stenosis and multiple severe comorbidities. Via the right femoral artery, a Cook introducer was advanced into the abdominal aorta. The aortic valve was crossed with a straight wire, and a pigtail catheter was advanced into the left ventricle to obtain pressure-gradient and anatomic measurements. An 18-mm valvuloplasty balloon was then used to predilate the aortic valve. Initial attempts to position the prosthetic valve caused a transient cardiac arrest. Implantation was achieved by superimposing the right coronary angiogram onto fluoroscopic landmarks in the same radiographic plane. A balloon-expandable frame was used to deliver the valve. After device implantation, the transvalvular gradient was <5 mmHg. The cardiac output increased from 1 to 5 L/min, and urine production increased to 200 mL/h. The patient was extubated on the 2nd postimplant day. Twelve hours later, he had to be reintubated because of respiratory distress and high pulmonary pressures. His condition deteriorated, and he died of biventricular failure and refractory hypotension on day 5. Despite the severe hypotension, valve function was satisfactory on echo-Doppler evaluation. In our patient, retrograde transcatheter implantation of a prosthetic aortic valve yielded excellent hemodynamic results and paved the way for further use of this technique in selected high-risk patients. PMID:16392228

  19. Steady flow dynamics of prosthetic aortic heart valves: a comparative evaluation with PIV techniques.

    PubMed

    Lim, W L; Chew, Y T; Chew, T C; Low, H T

    1998-05-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), capable of providing full-field measurement of velocities and flow stresses, has become an invaluable tool in studying flow behaviour in prosthetic heart valves. This method was used to evaluate the performances of four prosthetic heart valves; a porcine bioprostheses, a caged ball valve, and two single leaflet tilting disc valves with different opening angles. Flow visualization techniques, combined with velocity vector fields and Reynolds stresses mappings in the aortic root obtained from PIV, and pressure measurements were used to give an overall picture of the flow field of the prosthetic heart valves under steady flow conditions. The porcine bioprostheses exhibited the highest pressure loss and Reynolds stresses of all the valves tested. This was mainly due to the reduction in orifice area caused by the valve mounting ring and the valve stents. For the tilting disc valves, a larger opening angle resulted in a smoother flow profile, and thus lower Reynolds stresses and pressure drops. The St. Vincent valve exhibited the lowest pressure drop and Reynolds stresses. PMID:9727338

  20. Stroke after Aortic Valve Surgery: Results from a Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Messé, Steven R.; Acker, Michael A.; Kasner, Scott E.; Fanning, Molly; Giovannetti, Tania; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.; Bilello, Michel; Szeto, Wilson Y.; Bavaria, Joseph E.; Hargrove, W. Clark; Mohler, Emile R.; Floyd, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence and impact of clinical stroke and silent radiographic cerebral infarction complicating open surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) are poorly characterized. Methods and Results We performed a prospective cohort study of subjects ≥ 65 years of age undergoing AVR for calcific aortic stenosis. Subjects were evaluated by neurologists pre-operatively and post-operatively, and underwent post-operative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Over a 4 year period, 196 subjects were enrolled at 2 sites. Mean age = 75.8 ± 6.2 years, 36% female, 6% non-white. Clinical strokes were detected in 17%, Transient Ischemic Attack in 2%, and in-hospital mortality was 5%. The frequency of stroke in the Society for Thoracic Surgery (STS) database in this cohort was 7%. Most strokes were mild; the median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was 3 (interquartile range 1 – 9). Clinical stroke was associated with increased length of stay, median 12 vs 10 days, p = 0.02. Moderate or severe stroke (NIHSS ≥10) occurred in 8 (4%) and was strongly associated with in-hospital mortality, 38% vs 4%, p = 0.005. Of the 109 stroke-free subjects with post-operative MRI, silent infarct was identified in 59 (54%). Silent infarct was not associated with in-hospital mortality or increased length of stay. Conclusions Clinical stroke after AVR was more common than previously reported, more than double for this same cohort in the STS database, and silent cerebral infarctions were detected in over half of patients undergoing AVR. Clinical stroke complicating AVR is associated with increased length of stay and mortality. PMID:24690611

  1. Sedation or general anesthesia for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Jonathan; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Tassani, Peter; Martin, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is nowadays a routine therapy for elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and high perioperative risk. With growing experience, further development of the devices, and the expansion to intermediate-risk patients, there is increasing interest in performing this procedure under conscious sedation (TAVI-S) rather than the previously favoured approach of general anesthesia (TAVI-GA). The proposed benefits of TAVI-S include; reduced procedure time, shorter intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, reduced need for intraprocedural vasopressor support, and the potential to perform the procedure without the direct presence of an anesthetist for cost-saving reasons. To date, no randomized trial data exists. We reviewed 13 non-randomized studies/registries reporting data from 6,718 patients undergoing TAVI (3,227 performed under sedation). Patient selection, study methods, and endpoints have differed considerably between published studies. Reported rates of in-hospital and longer-term mortality are similar for both groups. Up to 17% of patients undergoing TAVI-S require conversion to general anesthesia during the procedure, primarily due to vascular complications, and urgent intubation is frequently associated with hemodynamic instability. Procedure related factors, including hypotension, may compound preexisting age-specific renal impairment and enhance the risk of acute kidney injury. Hypotonia of the hypopharyngeal muscles in elderly patients, intraprocedural hypercarbia, and certain anesthetic drugs, may increase the aspiration risk in sedated patients. General anesthesia and conscious sedation have both been used successfully to treat patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI with similar reported short and long-term mortality outcomes. The authors believe that the significant incidence of complications and unplanned conversion to general anesthesia during TAVI-S mandates the start-to-finish presence of an experienced cardiac anesthetist in order to optimize patient outcomes. Good quality randomized data is needed to determine the optimal anesthetic regimen for patients undergoing TAVI. PMID:26543597

  2. Platelet reactivity in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Orvin, Katia; Eisen, Alon; Perl, Leor; Zemer-Wassercug, Noa; Codner, Pablo; Assali, Abid; Vaknin-Assa, Hana; Lev, Eli I; Kornowski, Ran

    2016-07-01

    Thromboembolic events, primarily stroke, might complicate transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) procedures in 3-5 % of cases. Thus, it is common to administer aspirin and clopidogrel pharmacotherapy for 3-6 months following TAVI in order to prevent those events. The biologic response to the dual anti platelet treatment (DAPT) is heterogeneous, e.g. low response, known as high on treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR) may be associated with adverse thromboembolic events. Little is known about the prevalence of HTPR among patients undergoing TAVI. To assess the variability in response and rates of residual platelet reactivity in patients undergoing TAVI. We examined platelet reactivity in response to clopidogrel and aspirin in 40 consecutive patients (mean age 81.7 ± 6.5 years, 66.7 % women) who underwent successful TAVI using the VerifyNow P2Y12 assay and the multiple electrode aggregometry assay (Multiplate analyzer) in response to adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid respectively, at different time points before and following TAVI. Before TAVI, the majority of patients were on antiplatelet therapy (68.5 % aspirin, 12.5 % clopidogrel, 12.5 % DAPT). Following the procedure all patients were on DAPT or clopidogrel and warfarin. Among analyzed patients, 41 % had HTPR for clopidogrel and 12.5 % for aspirin at baseline, which did not significantly change 1-month following the procedure (p = 0.81 and p  = 0.33, respectively). In conclusion, patients undergoing TAVI for severe aortic stenosis and treated with DAPT have high rates of residual platelet reactivity during the peri-procedural period and up to 1-month thereafter. These findings may have clinical implications for the anti-platelet management of TAVI patients. PMID:26695072

  3. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation as a Procedural Rescue Strategy for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Cardiac Complications.

    PubMed

    Banjac, Igor; Petrovic, Marija; Akay, Mehmet H; Janowiak, Lisa M; Radovancevic, Rajko; Nathan, Sriram; Patel, Manish; Loyalka, Pranav; Kar, Biswajit; Gregoric, Igor D

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular complications during or after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are associated with extremely high mortality, but extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as procedural rescue option to improve outcomes when patients experience respiratory or cardiac arrest. From 2012 to 2014, 230 patients underwent TAVR and 10 patients (4.3%) required emergent venous-arterial ECMO support. Mean age was 83 years, median Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score was 15, and mean aortic gradient was 45 mm Hg. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 35%. Access for most ECMOs was femoral; two patients required central arterial and femoral venous access. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated in response to hemodynamic collapse due to perforation of left ventricle (n = 2), aortic root rupture (n = 1), moderate-to-severe aortic insufficiency (n = 1), left main impingement (n = 1), valve embolization (n = 1), severe hypotension and cardiac arrest after prolonged rapid pacing sequence (n = 1), ventricular fibrillation (n = 2), and ventricular tachycardia (n = 1). Median time of ECMO support was 87 minutes. There were three hospital deaths. Post-TAVR mean aortic gradient was 8 mm Hg and median hospital stay was 19 days. Additional procedures included valve-in-valve placement (n = 1), percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 1), surgical LV repair (n = 2), surgical valve replacement (n = 1), aortic root rupture repair, and coronary bypass grafting (n = 1). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is rescue therapy for hemodynamic instable patients who develop TAVR-related cardiac complications. PMID:26309098

  4. Current Clinical Evidence on Rapid Deployment Aortic Valve Replacement: Sutureless Aortic Bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Glenn R; Shrestha, Malakh Lal

    2016-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the Western world. It is caused primarily by age-related degeneration and progressive calcification typically detected in patients 65 years and older. In patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, the average survival rate is only 2 years without appropriate treatment. Approximately one half of all patients die within the first 2 to 3 years of symptom onset. In addition, the age of the patients presenting for aortic valve replacement (AVR) is increased along with the demographic changes. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database shows that the number of patients older than 80 years has increased from 12% to 24% during the past 20 years. At the same time, the percentage of candidates requiring AVR as well as concomitant coronary bypass surgery has increased from 5% to 25%. Surgical AVR continues to be the criterion standard for treatment of aortic stenosis, improving survival and quality of life. Recent advances in prosthetic valve technology, such as transcatheter AVR, have expanded the indication for AVR to the extreme high-risk population, and the most recent surgical innovation, rapid deployment AVR, provides an additional tool to the surgeons' armamentarium. PMID:26918310

  5. Microparticle-Induced Coagulation Relates to Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis in Severe Aortic Valve Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Patrick; Erkilet, Gülsüm; Veulemans, Verena; Kröpil, Patric; Schurgers, Leon; Zeus, Tobias; Heiss, Christian; Kelm, Malte; Westenfeld, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microparticles (MPs) derived from endothelial cells and blood cells bear procoagulant activity and promote thrombin generation. Thrombin exerts proinflammatory effects mediating the progression of atherosclerosis. Aortic valve stenosis may represent an atherosclerosis-like process involving both the aortic valve and the vascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MP-induced thrombin generation is related to coronary atherosclerosis and aortic valve calcification. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 55 patients with severe aortic valve stenosis, we assessed the coronary calcification score (CAC) as indicator of total coronary atherosclerosis burden, and aortic valve calcification (AVC) by computed tomography. Thrombin-antithrombin complex (TATc) levels were measured as a marker for thrombin formation. Circulating MPs were characterized by flow cytometry according to the expression of established surface antigens and by measuring MP-induced thrombin generation. Results Patients with CAC score below the median were classified as patients with low CAC, patients with CAC Score above the median as high CAC. In patients with high CAC compared to patients with low CAC we detected higher levels of TATc, platelet-derived MPs (PMPs), endothelial-derived MPs (EMPs) and MP-induced thrombin generation. Increased level of PMPs and MP-induced thrombin generation were independent predictors for the severity of CAC. In contrast, AVC Score did not differ between patients with high and low CAC and did neither correlate with MPs levels nor with MP-induced thrombin generation. Conclusion In patients with severe aortic valve stenosis MP-induced thrombin generation was independently associated with the severity of CAC but not AVC indicating different pathomechanisms involved in coronary artery and aortic valve calcification. PMID:27010400

  6. Stentless porcine bioprostheses in the treatment of aortic valve infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Santini, F; Musazzi, A; Bertolini, P; Pugliese, P; Fabbri, A; Faggian, G; Prioli, A; Mazzucco, A

    1995-05-01

    Between January 1992 and June 1994, 23 patients underwent surgery for aortic valve endocarditis at the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of the University of Verona; a subgroup of 10 patients underwent aortic valve replacement with a porcine stentless valve (Biocor LTDA n = 8; Toronto SPV n = 2). There were 7 males and 3 females with a mean age of 56.3 years (range, 36 to 73 years). Eight patients had active endocarditis and two had healed endocarditis. Nine patients had native valve in endocarditis, the presence of a bicuspid aortic valve in 2, and 1 patient had recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), 7 of whom were in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Functional Class IV. The main indications for operation were congestive cardiac failure, active sepsis, and presence of large and mobile vegetations by echo and arrhythmias. There were no operative or late mortalities in this subgroup of patients. Short-term survival is 100% at a mean follow-up time of 11.2 months (range, 4 to 18 months), with no recurrent endocarditis or valve-related complications. PMID:7626870

  7. Design and Physical Characterization of a Synchronous Multivalve Aortic Valve Culture System

    PubMed Central

    Durst, Christopher A.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2015-01-01

    For many tissues, cyclic mechanical stimulation is considered necessary to maintain the normal morphology in vitro. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a simple bioreactor system capable of medium-term (more than 2 weeks) culture of native and engineered aortic valves. The system consists of three pistons in separate cylindrical chambers that are simultaneously driven through the culture medium by a crank and cam assembly. The faces of these pistons have unidirectional valves mounted in opposing orientations that permit flow from one side of the face to the other. A custom designed stent was employed to secure either native or engineered trileaflet valves to the pistons. Computational fluid dynamics and finite element modeling was used to assist selection of materials and components in the system. Finally, sterility testing using base culture medium was performed to verify the ability of the system to retain sterile conditions. The current design permits the cyclic opening and closing of three aortic valves, however this device can be modified to accommodate up to 12 valves simultaneously. This new bioreactor system has applications not only for development of tissue-engineered valves, but for also studying disease models in the aortic valve. PMID:19953323

  8. Determination of oxidation state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czapla-Masztafiak, J.; Lis, G. J.; Gajda, M.; Jasek, E.; Czubek, U.; Bolechała, F.; Borca, C.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    In order to investigate changes in chemical state of iron in normal and pathologically altered human aortic valves X-ray absorption spectroscopy was applied. Since Fe is suspected to play detrimental role in aortic valve stenosis pathogenesis the oxidation state of this element has been determined. The experimental material consisted of 10 μm sections of valves excised during routine surgery and from autopsies. The experiment was performed at the MicroXAS beamline of the SLS synchrotron facility in Villigen (Switzerland). The Fe K-edge XANES spectra obtained from tissue samples were carefully analyzed and compared with the spectra of reference compounds containing iron in various chemical structures. The analysis of absorption edge position and shape of the spectra revealed that both chemical forms of iron are presented in valve tissue but Fe3+ is the predominant form. Small shift of the absorption edge toward higher energy in the spectra from stenotic valve samples indicates higher content of the Fe3+ form in pathological tissue. Such a phenomenon suggests the role of Fenton reaction and reactive oxygen species in the etiology of aortic valve stenosis. The comparison of pre-edge regions of XANES spectra for control and stenotic valve tissue confirmed no differences in local symmetry or spin state of iron in analyzed samples.

  9. [10 years of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: an overview of the clinical applicability and findings].

    PubMed

    de Ronde-Tillmans, Marjo J A G; Lenzen, Mattie J; Abawi, Masieh; Van Mieghem, Nicolas M D A; Zijlstra, Felix; De Jaegere, Peter P T

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a common heart valve disorder in adults. Its prevalence increases with age and is therefore especially seen in older patients. Thirty to forty per cent of patients with symptomatic aortic valve stenosis are not referred for surgical valve replacement because of high age, their medical history or comorbidities. In 2002, the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was carried out in an inoperable patient. Since 2012, TAVI has been included in international guidelines for heart valve diseases as a treatment strategy in symptomatic patients at a high risk of complications and a life expectancy of more than one year. Decision-making about which treatment is preferable takes a multidisciplinary approach. Important complications of TAVI are bleeding, renal function disorder, stroke, conduction abnormalities, valve insufficiency and death. TAVI procedures are carried out in the Netherlands only in cardiac centres in which specific expertise is present in the areas of structural cardiovascular disease. Scientific research is important for further developments and improvements. PMID:25308222

  10. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation - what the general physician needs to know.

    PubMed

    Ruparelia, Neil; Prendergast, Bernard D

    2015-10-01

    With an increasingly elderly population, the incidence of aortic stenosis (AS) is rising. While surgical aortic valve replacement remains the gold standard treatment for patients with severe symptomatic AS, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as the treatment of choice for patients who are inoperable or high surgical risk. TAVI has been shown to be associated with a clear mortality benefit when compared with medical therapy and to be at least as good as surgical aortic valve replacement in this patient group. The last few years have seen rapid development in this revolutionary technology in conjunction with increasing centre and operator experience, and indications for the procedure are swiftly expanding. In this review, we summarise the current evidence base and discuss factors that need to be considered by the general physician when contemplating TAVI as a treatment option, including practical aspects, emerging indications and future directions. PMID:26430178

  11. An unusually accentuated diastolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in aortic insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Rudominer, Rebecca; Saric, Muhamed; Benenstein, Ricardo; Skolnick, Adam H

    2013-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with endocarditis involving the aortic valve and resulting in moderate aortic insufficiency. Transesophageal and transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated an unusually accentuated diastolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral valve leaflet toward the interventricular septum. The anterior leaflet remained within a few millimeters of the septum throughout diastole, with a narrow jet of aortic insufficiency separating the anterior leaflet from the septum. We hypothesize that the particularly long anterior mitral leaflet was drawn toward the septum during diastole due to the Venturi effect of the aortic insufficiency jet within a narrow ventricular outflow tract. This accentuated diastolic anterior motion may be a diastolic correlate of systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve. PMID:22678922

  12. Aortic valve dynamics using a fluid structure interaction model--The physiology of opening and closing.

    PubMed

    Kalyana Sundaram, Govinda Balan; Balakrishnan, Komarakshi R; Kumar, Ramarathnam Krishna

    2015-07-16

    Comparative study among aortic valves requires the use of an unbiased and relevant boundary condition. Pressure and flow boundary conditions used in literature are not sufficient for an unbiased analysis. We need a different boundary condition to analyze the valves in an unbiased, relevant environment. The proposed boundary condition is a combination of the pressure and flow boundary condition methods, which is chosen considering the demerits of the pressure and flow boundary conditions. In order to study the valve in its natural environment and to give a comparative analysis between different boundary conditions, a fluid-structure interaction analysis is made using the pressure and the proposed boundary conditions for a normal aortic valve. Commercial software LS-DYNA is used in all our analysis. The proposed boundary condition ensures a full opening of the valve with reduced valve regurgitation. It is found that for a very marginal raise in the ventricular pressure caused by pumping a fixed stroke volume, the cardiac output is considerably raised. The mechanics of the valve is similar between these two boundary conditions, however we observe that the importance of the root to raise the cardiac output may be overstated, considering the importance of the fully open nodule of arantius. Our proposed boundary condition delivers all the insights offered by the pressure and flow boundary conditions, along with providing an unbiased framework for the analysis of different valves and hence, more suitable for comparative analysis. PMID:26058838

  13. Transcatheter valve implantation can alter fluid flow fields in aortic sinuses and ascending aorta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit

    2012-11-01

    Transcatheter aortic valves (TAVs) are valve replacements used to treat aortic stenosis. Currently, these have been used in elderly patients at high-risk for open-heart procedures. Since these devices are implanted under fluoroscopic guidance, the implantation position of the valve can vary with respect to the native aortic valve annulus. The current study characterizes the altered hemodynamics in the aortic sinus and ascending aorta under different implantation (high and low) and cardiac output (2.5 and 5.0 L/min) conditions. Two commonly used TAV designs are studied using 2-D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). 200 phase locked images are obtained at every 25ms in the cardiac cycle, and the resulting vector fields are ensemble averaged. High implantation of the TAV with respect to the annulus causes weaker sinus washout and weaker sinus vortex formation. Additionally, the longer TAV leaflets can also result in a weaker sinus vortex. The level of turbulent fluctuations in the ascending aorta did not appear to be affected by axial positioning of the valve, but varied with cardiac output. The results of this study indicates that TAV positioning is important to be considered clinically, since this can affect coronary perfusion and potential flow stagnation near the valve.

  14. Functional annulus remodelling using a prosthetic ring in tricuspid aortic valve repair: mid-term results†

    PubMed Central

    Fattouch, Khalil; Castrovinci, Sebastiano; Murana, Giacomo; Nasso, Giuseppe; Guccione, Francesco; Dioguardi, Pietro; Salardino, Massimo; Bianco, Giuseppe; Speziale, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The functional aortic valve annulus (FAVA) is a complex unit with proximal (aorto-ventricular junction) and distal (sinotubular junction) components. The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the total FAVA remodelling, using a prosthetic ring, on mid-term clinical and echocardiographic results after aortic valve repair. METHODS Since February 2003, 250 patients with tricuspid aortic valve insufficiency (AI) underwent aortic valve repair. FAVA dilatation was treated by prosthetic ring in 52 patients, by isolated subcommissural plasty in 62, by subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement in 57 and by David's reimplantation procedure in 79. Survival rate and freedom from recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate were evaluated by Kaplan–Meier. RESULTS Overall late survival was 90.4%. Late cardiac-related deaths occurred in 15 patients. At follow-up, 36 (16%) patients had recurrent AI greater than or equal to moderate because of cusp reprolapse and/or FAVA redilatation. Freedom from recurrent AI was significantly higher for patients who underwent David's procedure or FAVA remodelling by prosthetic ring than those who underwent isolated subcommissural plasty (P < 0.01) or subcommissural plasty plus ascending aortic replacement (P = 0.02). There was no statistical difference between David's procedure and prosthetic ring annuloplasty (P = 0.26). CONCLUSION FAVA remodelling using a prosthetic ring is a safe procedure in aortic valve repair surgery thanks to long-term annulus stabilization and it is a pliable alternative to David's procedure in selected patients. This technique may be used in all patients with slight root dilatation to avoid aggressive root reimplantation. We also recommended total FAVA annuloplasty in all patients who underwent aortic valve repair to improve long-term repair results. PMID:24065345

  15. Twist1 promotes heart valve cell proliferation and extracellular matrix gene expression during development in vivo and is expressed in human diseased aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Santanu; Wirrig, Elaine E.; Hinton, Robert B.; Merrill, Walter H.; Spicer, Douglas B.; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    During embryogenesis the heart valves develop from undifferentiated mesenchymal endocardial cushions (EC), and activated interstitial cells of adult diseased valves share characteristics of embryonic valve progenitors. Twist1, a class II basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, is expressed during early EC development and is downregulated later during valve remodeling. The requirements for Twist1 down-regulation in the remodeling valves and the consequences of prolonged Twist1 activity were examined in transgenic mice with persistent expression of Twist1 in developing and mature valves. Persistent Twist1 expression in the remodeling valves leads to increased valve cell proliferation, increased expression of Tbx20, and increased extracellular matrix (ECM) gene expression, characteristic of early valve progenitors. Among the ECM genes predominant in the EC, Col2a1 was identified as a direct transcriptional target of Twist1. Increased Twist1 expression also leads to dysregulation of fibrillar collagen and periostin expression, as well as enlarged hypercellular valve leaflets prior to birth. In human diseased aortic valves, increased Twist1 expression and cell proliferation are observed adjacent to nodules of calcification. Overall, these data implicate Twist1 as a critical regulator of valve development and suggest that Twist1 influences ECM production and cell proliferation during disease. PMID:20804746

  16. Regression of aortic valve stenosis by ApoA-I mimetic peptide infusions in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Busseuil, D; Shi, Y; Mecteau, M; Brand, G; Kernaleguen, A-E; Thorin, E; Latour, J-G; Rhéaume, E; Tardif, J-C

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is the most common valvular heart disease, and standard curative therapy remains open heart surgical valve replacement. The aim of our experimental study was to determine if apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) mimetic peptide infusions could induce regression of AVS. Experimental approach: Fifteen New Zealand White male rabbits received a cholesterol-enriched diet and vitamin D2 until significant AVS was detected by echocardiography. The enriched diet was then stopped to mimic cholesterol-lowering therapy and animals were allocated randomly to receive saline (control group, n=8) or an ApoA-I mimetic peptide (treated group, n=7), three times per week for 2 weeks. Serial echocardiograms and post mortem valve histology were performed. Key results: Aortic valve area increased significantly by 25% in the treated group after 14 days of treatment (P=0.012). Likewise, aortic valve thickness decreased by 21% in the treated group, whereas it was unchanged in controls (P=0.0006). Histological analysis revealed that the extent of lesions at the base of valve leaflets and sinuses of Valsalva was smaller in the treated group compared with controls (P=0.032). The treatment also reduced calcification, as revealed by the loss of the positive relationship observed in the control group (r=0.87, P=0.004) between calcification area and aortic valve thickness. Conclusions and implications: Infusions of ApoA-I mimetic peptide lead to regression of experimental AVS. These positive results justify the further testing of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-based therapies in patients with valvular aortic stenosis. Regression of aortic stenosis, if achieved safely, could transform the clinical treatment of this disease. PMID:18414386

  17. SU-C-18C-02: Specifcation of X-Ray Projection Angles Which Are Aligned with the Aortic Valve Plane From a Planar Image of a Valvuloplasty Balloon Inflated Across the Aortic Valve

    SciTech Connect

    Fetterly, K; Mathew, V

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedures provide a method to implant a prosthetic aortic valve via a minimallyinvasive, catheter-based procedure. TAVR procedures require use of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane to minimize prosthetic valve positioning error due to x-ray imaging parallax. The purpose of this work is to calculate the continuous range of interventional fluoroscopy c-arm projection angles which are aligned with the aortic valve plane from a single planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve. Methods: Computational methods to measure the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve were developed. Required inputs include a planar x-ray image of a known valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and specifications of x-ray imaging geometry from the DICOM header of the image. A-priori knowledge of the species-specific typical range of aortic orientation is required to specify the sign of the angle of the long axis of the balloon with respect to the x-ray beam. The methods were validated ex-vivo and in a live pig. Results: Ex-vivo experiments demonstrated that the angular orientation of a stationary inflated valvuloplasty balloon can be measured with precision less than 1 degree. In-vivo pig experiments demonstrated that cardiac motion contributed to measurement variability, with precision less than 3 degrees. Error in specification of x-ray geometry directly influences measurement accuracy. Conclusion: This work demonstrates that the 3D angular orientation of the aortic valve can be calculated precisely from a planar image of a valvuloplasty balloon inflated across the aortic valve and known x-ray geometry. This method could be used to determine appropriate c-arm angular projections during TAVR procedures to minimize x-ray imaging parallax and thereby minimize prosthetic valve positioning errors.

  18. Effect of gallium on in vitro aortic valve cusp mineralization - EDXRF studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wróbel, A.; Goncerz, G.; Kunz, J.; Podolec, P.; Rokita, E.

    2004-01-01

    The present studies were designed to determine the effect of gallium on the aortic valve cusp mineralization. The studies were conducted on aortic valves collected at autopsy from 35 donors. Each sample was incubated for 21 days in the mineralization-promoting medium, containing Ga at concentrations ranging from 0.0 to 8.0 μg/ml. The elemental compositions of the samples were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method. The concentrations of 14 elements were determined: Mg, Al, S, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Br and Sr. Calcium contents and Ca/P ratios were considered as markers of the mineralization process. The aortic valves could be divided into two groups depending on the advancement of the mineralization process. The first group in which the process progressed and the second one which was resistant to mineralization. Ga was accumulated in both groups. The results demonstrated that Ga reduced the aortic valve mineralization in dose-dependent manner in the first group and did not influence the mineralization in the mineralization-resistant aortic valves.

  19. Tear in mitral anterior leaflet as a complication of Manouguian's procedure in a woman with an aortic valve prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Arat-Ozkan, Alev; Okçün, Baris; Mert, Murat; Baran, Türker; Küçükoglu, Serdar

    2004-07-01

    Complications of valve replacement are diverse. In addition to morbidity due to the prosthetic valve itself (e.g. endocarditis, thrombosis), complications due to operative technique may occur in complex cases, as in aortic valve replacement with annular enlargement. Postoperative echocardiography is a simple, non-invasive method to evaluate patients with prosthetic valves. Detailed knowledge of the surgical technique employed and of probable complications is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis. The case is reported of a woman with aortic valve replacement and annular enlargement who had mitral regurgitation due to a tear in the anterior mitral leaflet as a complication of Manouguian's annulus enlargement. PMID:15311870

  20. Topography of aortic heart valves. [applied to the development of a prosthetic heart valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karara, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    The cooperative effort towards the development of a tri-leaflet prosthetic heart valve is described. The photogrammetric studies were conducted on silicone rubber molds. Information on data acquisition and data reduction phases is given, and certain accuracy aspects of the project are explained. The various outputs which are discussed include digital models, profiles, and contour maps.

  1. Minimally Invasive Implantation of the EDWARDS INTUITY Rapid Deployment Aortic Valve Via a Right Minithoracotomy.

    PubMed

    Lenos, Aristidis; Diegeler, Anno

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, many surgeons have focused their interest on the development and improvement of minimally invasive techniques for aortic valve replacement. Although the minimally invasive approaches for the treatment of mitral valve disease have been standardized, the preferred route for aortic valve replacement remains a matter of debate. Access through a right minithoracotomy avoids opening the sternum; however, it requires a greater surgical ability and a learning period, even for experienced surgeons. This enhances the role of sutureless prostheses because these devices are associated with easier placement, excellent hemodynamic performance, and acceptable rates of pacemaker implantation and paravalvular leak. Herein, we report a series of 10 consecutive patients who received an EDWARDS INTUITY rapid deployment valve (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA USA) by a right minithoracotomy. PMID:26120899

  2. Marked discrepancy in pressure gradient between Doppler and catheter examinations on Medtronic Mosaic valve in aortic position.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Fujii, Genyo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Hoshino, Satoshi; Hayashi, Yasunari

    2012-12-01

    A 71-year-old woman underwent aortic valve replacement with 23 mm Medtronic Mosaic Ultra valve 4 years ago because of aortic stenosis. Although she had been asymptomatic since the operation, echocardiography showed 4 m/s of transprosthetic valve flow that implied early prosthetic valve failure. Catheter examination revealed that the mean transvalvular pressure gradient during systole was 15.1 mmHg on simultaneous pressure recording, and calculated valve area 1.82 cm(2). Her body surface area was 1.56 m(2). Prosthetic valve failure and prosthesis-patient mismatch were both denied. The discrepancy between Doppler study data and catheter data seemed to be due to fluid dynamical pressure recovery phenomenon. Net pressure difference between the left ventricle and the aorta may be significantly smaller than that estimated using Bernoulli's equation from transvalvular flow speed in some patients after aortic valve replacement. PMID:22688582

  3. [A case report of perforated aneurysm of mitral valve with aortic regurgitation].

    PubMed

    Ono, T; Iwaya, F; Igari, T; Abe, T; Hagiwara, K; Tanji, M; Satokawa, H; Watanabe, M; Midorikawa, H; Sato, Y

    1991-10-01

    The patient was a 71-year-old male who complained of palpitation and tachycardia. The echocardiogram showed a bulging of the anterior mitral valve leaflet toward the left atrium that persisted throughout cardiac cycle. The cine angiogram showed deformity of the anterior mitral valve leaflet with severe mitral regurgitation and mild aortic regurgitation. At operation, a perforated aneurysm was recognized at the anterior mitral valve leaflet without thrombus and vegetation. The size of aneurysm was 40 x 25 x 25 mm. The patient underwent MVR + AVR, and the postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological examination of the anterior mitral valve leaflet revealed scar-like fibrosis and old inflammatory change. It was judged a true aneurysm of mitral valve, because the structure of endocardium was kept. PMID:1942693

  4. Bilateral lung transplantation from a donor with previous aortic valve surgery.

    PubMed

    Das De, Sudeep; Nenekidis, Ioannis; Itrakjy, Abdul; Mascaro, Jorge

    2016-05-01

    The British Transplantation Society states that previous chest surgery in a donor constitutes a contraindication to lung retrieval. In this report, we describe a case of successful bilateral lung harvest from a donor who had previously undergone aortic valve replacement. This case highlights that isolated valve surgery can be an addition to the extended donor criteria for lung retrieval and therefore increase the number of organs available for transplantation. PMID:25698804

  5. Bicuspid aortic valve hemodynamics does not promote remodeling in porcine aortic wall concavity

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Samantha K; Moore, Alison N; Sucosky, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of type-I left-right bicuspid aortic valve (LR-BAV) hemodynamic stresses in the remodeling of the thoracic ascending aorta (AA) concavity, in the absence of underlying genetic or structural defects. METHODS: Transient wall shear stress (WSS) profiles in the concavity of tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) and LR-BAV AAs were obtained computationally. Tissue specimens excised from the concavity of normal (non-dilated) porcine AAs were subjected for 48 h to those stress environments using a shear stress bioreactor. Tissue remodeling was characterized in terms of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression and activity via immunostaining and gelatin zymography. RESULTS: Immunostaining semi-quantification results indicated no significant difference in MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression between the tissue groups exposed to TAV and LR-BAV AA WSS (P = 0.80 and P = 0.19, respectively). Zymography densitometry revealed no difference in MMP-2 activity (total activity, active form and latent form) between the groups subjected to TAV AA and LR-BAV AA WSS (P = 0.08, P = 0.15 and P = 0.59, respectively). CONCLUSION: The hemodynamic stress environment present in the concavity of type-I LR-BAV AA does not cause any significant change in proteolytic enzyme expression and activity as compared to that present in the TAV AA. PMID:26839660

  6. Double valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Stassano, Paolo; Mannacio, Vito; Musumeci, Antonino; Golino, Alessandro; Maida, Piero; Ferrigno, Vincenzo; Buonocore, Gaetano; Spampinato, Nicola

    1991-01-01

    From January 1976 through December 1987, 194 patients with a mean age of 43.3 ± 13.7 years (range, 11 to 74 years) underwent double (mitral and aortic) replacement of native valves with 8 types of bioprostheses: Carpentier-Edwards, 127 valves; Hancock, 76 valves; Liotta-Bioimplant, 57 valves; Ionescu-Shiley, 53 valves; Vascor, 27 valves; Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial, 22 valves; Angell-Shiley, 20 valves; and Implamedic, 6 valves. Concomitant cardiac procedures were performed in 25 patients (12.8%). There were 18 operative deaths (9.27%). Our retrospective analysis was restricted to 352 bioprostheses implanted in the 176 patients who survived surgery and were considered at risk for valve tissue failure. The overall cumulative duration of follow-up was 1,174.1 patient-years (range, 1 to 13 years). The durations of follow-up for specific valves were: Carpentier-Edwards, 920.2 valve-years; Hancock, 383.8 valve-years; Liotta-Bioimplant, 310.2 valve-years; Ionescu-Shiley, 357.7 valve-years; Vascor, 131.2 valve-years; Carpentier-Edwards Pericardial, 52.0 valve-years; Angell-Shiley, 167.0 valve-years; and Implamedic, 31.0 valve-years. Thirty patients had thromboembolic accidents, for a linearized incidence of 2.5% per patient-year. At 13 years, the actuarial freedom from thromboembolic accidents was 85.8% ± 10.7%. Nine patients had endocarditis, for a linearized incidence of 0.7% per patient-year. At 13 years, the actuarial freedom from endocarditis was 92.0% ± 1.5%. Twenty-four patients had valve tissue failure, for a cumulative linearized incidence of 1.87% per valve-year. The cumulative actuarial probability of freedom from valve tissue failure was 78.6% ± 3.7% at 10 years and 51.2% ± 10.7% at 13 years. The 24 patients with valve tissue failure all underwent reoperation: 20 of these had double valve replacement, 3 had aortic valve replacement alone, and 1 had mitral valve replacement alone. The mean interval between initial valve implantation and reoperation was 66.9 ± 28.8 months. At reoperation, the hospital mortality was 15.1% (5 patients). This study showed that the long-term results of valve implantation are not significantly influenced by either prosthesis design or material. Moreover, the incidence of degenerative change was similar in the aortic and mitral positions. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1991;18:34-40) PMID:15227506

  7. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement: the Leipzig experience

    PubMed Central

    Merk, Denis R.; Etz, Christian D.; Seeburger, Joerg; Schroeter, Thomas; Oberbach, Andreas; Uhlemann, Madlen; Hoellriegel, Robert; Haensig, Martin; Leontyev, Sergey; Garbade, Jens; Misfeld, Martin; Mohr, Friedrich W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive techniques are progressively challenging traditional approaches in cardiothoracic surgery. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (AVR) has become a routine procedure at our institution. Methods We retrospectively analyzed all patients undergoing minimally invasive isolated AVR between January 2003 and March 2014, at our institution. Mean follow-up was 4.7±4.3 years (range: 0-18 years) and was 99.8% complete. Results There were 1,714 patients who received an isolated minimally invasive AVR. The mean (± SD) patient age was 65±12.8 years, ejection fraction 60%±12% and log EuroSCORE 5.3%±5.1%. Mean cross-clamp time was 58±18 minutes and mean cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time was 82.9±26.7 minutes. Thirty-day survival was 97.8%±0.4%, and 69.4%±1.7% at 10-years. The multivariate analysis revealed age at surgery [P=0.016; odds ratio (OR), 1.1], length of surgery time (P=0.002; OR, 1.01), female gender (P=0.023; OR, 3.54), preoperative myocardial infarction (MI) (P=0.006; OR, 7.87), preoperative stroke (P=0.001; OR, 13.76) and preoperative liver failure (P=0.015; OR, 10.28) as independent risk factors for mortality. Cox-regression analysis revealed the following predictors for long term mortality: age over 75 years (P<0.001; OR, 3.5), preoperative dialysis (P<0.01; OR, 2.14), ejection fraction less than 30% (P=0.003; OR, 3.28) and urgent or emergency operation (P<0.001; OR, 2.3). Conclusions Minimally invasive AVR can be performed safely and effectively with very few perioperative complications. The early and long-term outcomes in these patients are acceptable. PMID:25694976

  8. Patient radiation exposure during transcatheter aortic valve replacement procedures

    PubMed Central

    Daneault, Benoit; Balter, Stephen; Kodali, Susheel K.; Williams, Mathew R.; Généreux, Philippe; Reiss, George R.; Paradis, Jean-Michel; Green, Philip; Kirtane, Ajay J.; Smith, Craig; Moses, Jeffrey W.; Leon, Martin B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe patient radiation utilisation during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on a series of consecutive patients. Methods and results Data on radiation exposure were prospectively collected for consecutive patients undergoing TAVR and percutaneous coronary interventions at our centre. Radiation dose during the procedure was recorded using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference point (Ka,r) and the dose area product (PKA). In addition to quantifying overall radiation doses during TAVR, radiation exposure during transfemoral (TF) (n=79) and transapical (TA) (n=26) cases was compared. The median radiation dose during TAVR was 1,639 mGy (983–2,420), or 188 (106–321) Gy*cm2. Radiation dose was significantly lower among TA patients using either the reference point (TA: 946 [777–1,261] vs. TF: 1,932 [1,383–2,614] mGy; p<0.001) or the dose area product (TA: 89 [60–115] vs. TF: 236 [164–338] Gy*cm2; p<0.001). Fluoroscopy time was lower for TA patients (TA: 10 [8–11] vs. TF: 30 [24–34] minutes; p<0.001). Operators experience did not affect radiation exposure for TF cases. Conclusions Radiation exposure during TAVR appears similar to other percutaneous coronary interventions of moderate complexity. Radiation doses were significantly lower for TA procedures. A higher dose of radiation in TF patients may be related to additional imaging requirements to optimise percutaneous vascular access and closure. PMID:23086785

  9. Echocardiographic vs Invasive Measurement of the Direct Flow Transcatheter Aortic Heart Valve Mean Gradient: Contradictory or Complementary?

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Latib, Azeem; Agricola, Eustachio; Baumgartner, Helmut; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    In this case report, we explain the reason behind observed differences in echocardiographic and invasively measured mean aortic valve gradient after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. A 25-mm Direct Flow valve (Direct Flow Medical Inc, Santa Rosa, CA) was successfully implanted in a patient with severe aortic stenosis via the transfemoral route. The discrepancy between invasive and echocardiographic measurements could be explained by the combination of a non-flat velocity profile inside the tubular structure of the Direct Flow valve, which can cause local low pressure fields that result in true high gradients detected using Doppler, and pressure recovery. PMID:26255214

  10. The 37-Year Durability of a Björk-Shiley Delrin-Disc Aortic Valve Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Fabrizio; Zingarelli, Edoardo; Actis Dato, Guglielmo Mario; Punta, Giuseppe; Flocco, Roberto; del Ponte, Stefano; Casabona, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    We report the exceptional longevity of a Björk-Shiley Delrin-disc prosthetic aortic valve that had been implanted in a man who underwent surgical correction of an ascending aortic aneurysm 37 years later. Upon explantation of the valve, the Delrin disc had only shallow abrasion on the ventricular surface, and none on the aortic surface. We discuss the soundness and durability of this valve in our patient, in contrast with its short functional prosthetic life in other patients. The 37-year lifespan of this patient's Björk-Shiley Delrin-disc valve is among the longest reported. PMID:22740755

  11. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Assisted with Microcatheter: A New Method to Avoid Coronary Artery Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang; Chu, Guo-Jun; Wang, Fei-Yu; Zhu, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Ben; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Qin, Yong-Wen; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of fluoroscopic landmarks can make valve deployment more difficult in patients with absent aortic valve (AV) calcification. The goal of this article was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of transcatheter implantation of a valved stent into the AV position of a goat, assisted with a microcatheter which provides accurate positioning of coronary artery ostia to help valved stent deployment. Methods: The subjects were 10 healthy goats in this study. A microcatheter was introduced into the distal site of right coronary artery (RCA) through femoral artery sheath. A minimal thoracic surgery approach was used to access the apex of the heart. The apex of the left ventricle was punctured; a delivery catheter equipped with the valved stent was introduced over a stiff guidewire into the aorta arch. We could accurately locate the RCA ostia through the microcatheter placed in the RCA under fluoroscopy. After correct valve position was confirmed, the valved stent was implanted after rapid inflation of the balloon. The immediate outcome of the function of the valved stents was evaluated after implantation. Results: All ten devices were successfully implanted into the AV position of the goats. Immediate observation after the procedure showed that the valved stents were in the desired position after implantation by angiography, echocardiogram. No obstruction of coronary artery ostia occurred, and no moderate to severe aortic regurgitation was observed. Conclusions: When the procedure of transcatheter implantation of a balloon-expandable valved stent into the AV position of goats is assisted with microcatheter positioning coronary artery ostia, the success rate of operation can be increased in those with noncalcified AV. PMID:25758265

  12. Improvement in renal functions with transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Kele?, Telat; Ayhan, Hseyin; Durmaz, Tahir; Sar?, Cenk; Aslan, Abdullah Nabi; Erdo?an, Kemal E?ref; Kasapkara, Hac? Ahmet; Bilen, Emine; Bayram, Nihal Akar; Akay, Murat; Bozkurt, Engin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives In recent years, emerging transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative for surgery. However, with advanced age, several co-morbid factors together with contrast agent usage can cause deterioration in renal function and increase in the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) with poor prognosis in patients with AKI. Therefore, many patients cannot benefit from this treatment. In this study, we aim to examine the effects of TAVI on renal functions. Methods and Results Seventy patients, mean age of 77.6 years, underwent TAVI between July 2011 and December 2012. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by using the Cockcroft and Gault Formula. Patients were monitored for 48 h for urine output. Stage 1 AKI, according to the VARC-2 AKIN system, developed in only five (7.1%) of the patients after the procedure. There was a statistically significant increase between the mean 1st month eGFRs before (68.2 vs. 61.0, P < 0.01) and after (68.2 vs. 63.6, P < 0.05) the TAVI in the cohort. After TAVI (48.5 mL/min, P < 0.01) and the 1st month (52.1 mL/min, P < 0.01), the eGFR of the 36 (51.4%) patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease before the procedure showed a statistically significant increase in renal functions. The hospital mortality rate was higher in the group which developed AKI (P < 0.01). First month eGFR showed a more statistically significant increase than pre-TAVI eGFR (62.8 and 69.8, P < 0.05, respectively) in AKI developing patients and this difference - though statistically not significant - continued into the sixth month. Conclusions In this study, we showed that the treatment of aortic stenosis through TAVI allows improvement of renal functions, and that AKI rates will be lower with careful patient selection, proper pre-procedural hydration, and careful use of contrast agent. PMID:24454323

  13. Computational analysis of an aortic valve jet with Lagrangian coherent structures.

    PubMed

    Shadden, Shawn C; Astorino, Matteo; Gerbeau, Jean-Frédéric

    2010-03-01

    Important progress has been achieved in recent years in simulating the fluid-structure interaction around cardiac valves. An important step in making these computational tools useful to clinical practice is the development of postprocessing techniques to extract clinically relevant information from these simulations. This work focuses on flow through the aortic valve and illustrates how the computation of Lagrangian coherent structures can be used to improve insight into the transport mechanics of the flow downstream of the valve, toward the goal of aiding clinical decision making and the understanding of pathophysiology. PMID:20370302

  14. The influence of leaflet skin friction and stiffness on the performance of bioprosthetic aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Dellimore, K; Kemp, I; Scheffer, C; Weich, H; Doubell, A

    2013-12-01

    Leaflet skin friction and stiffness were found to have a significant influence on the systolic performance of a 19 mm diameter bioprosthetic aortic valve based on fluid-structure interaction simulations at a heart rate of 72 bpm. Four different leaflet skin friction coefficients (0.0, 9.2 × 10(-4), 4.8 × 10(-2) and 4.8 × 10(-1)) were simulated along with three different leaflet elastic moduli (3.0 × 10(6), 3.5 × 10(6), 4.0 × 10(6) N m(-2)). Higher leaflet skin friction was found to increase the magnitude of the systolic transvalvular pressure gradient and the peak velocity through the valve, as well as decrease the valve orifice area. The results for the leaflet opening and closing kinematics also showed that higher leaflet skin friction combined with higher leaflet stiffness produces longer rapid valve opening, closing and ejection times, as well as smaller valve orifice areas. These results are consistent with clinical findings for calcified aortic valves and suggest that valve performance under stenotic conditions is strongly influenced by the combined effect of increasing leaflet stiffness and surface roughness caused by calcification. PMID:24264225

  15. Endocarditis after transfemoral aortic valve implantation in a patient with Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Alessandro; Pozzoli, Alberto; Maisano, Francesco; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2012-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) was introduced five years ago (2007) as an alternative treatment for patients with severe aortic stenosis, who are considered at too high a risk for surgical replacement. Few cases of postoperative infection by TAVI device are reported in the literature. We report the case of a patient with Osler-Weber-Rendu (OWR) syndrome, in which the TAVI procedure was preferred at the outset to avoid the risk of bleeding. He was diagnosed with endocarditis on the TAVI device one year later; he then underwent an uneventful surgical aortic valve replacement. In these complex clinical cases it is difficult to determine a ‘gold standard’ treatment and the possibility of offering patients both the percutaneous treatment and the surgical replacement appears to be desirable. Correction of the valve disease improves the outcome, reducing the episodes of haemorrhage and the need for blood transfusions. PMID:22691380

  16. Design of a new pulsatile bioreactor for tissue engineered aortic heart valve formation.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Kris; Yperman, Jessa; Verbeken, Erik; Segers, Patrick; Meuris, Bart; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Flameng, Willem; Verdonck, Pascal R

    2002-08-01

    Evidence has been gathered that biomechanical factors have a significant impact on cell differentiation and behavior in in vitro cell cultures. The aim of this bioreactor is to create a physiological environment in which tissue engineered (TE) aortic valves seeded with human cells can be cultivated during a period of several days. The bioreactor consists of 2 major parts: the left ventricle (LV) and the afterload consisting of a compliance, representing the elastic function of the large arteries, and in series a resistance, mimicking the arterioles and capillaries. The TE aortic valve is placed between the LV and the compliance. With controllable resistance, compliance, stroke volume and frequency, and hydrodynamic conditions can be changed over a wide physiological range. This study resulted in a prototype of a compact pulsatile flow system for the creation of TE aortic valves. In addition a biocompatibility study of the used materials is performed. PMID:12139499

  17. Replacement of the aortic valve with a bioprosthesis at the time of continuous flow ventricular assist device implantation for preexisting aortic valve dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Chamogeorgakis, Themistokles; Mountis, Maria; Gonzalez-Stawinski, Gonzalo V.

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has become a mainstay of therapy for advanced heart failure patients who are either ineligible for, or awaiting, cardiac transplantation. Controversy remains over the optimal therapeutic strategy for preexisting aortic valvular dysfunction in these patients at the time of LVAD implant. In patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation, surgical approaches are center specific and range from variable leaflet closure techniques to concomitant aortic valve replacement (AVR) with a bioprosthesis. In the present study, we retrospectively analyzed our outcomes in patients who underwent simultaneous AVR and LVAD implantation secondary to antecedent aortic valve pathology. Between January 2004 and June 2010, 144 patients underwent LVAD implantation at a single institution. Of these, 7 patients (4.8%) required concomitant AVR. Five of the 7 patients (71%) survived to hospital discharge and suffered no adverse events in the perioperative period. One-year survival for the discharged patients was 80%, and no prosthetic valve-related adverse events were observed in long-term follow-up. Given our experience, we conclude that bioprosthetic AVR is a plausible alternative for end-stage heart failure patients at the time of LVAD implantation. PMID:26424939

  18. Percutaneous Transcatheter One-Step Mechanical Aortic Disc Valve Prosthesis Implantation: A Preliminary Feasibility Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan Peregrin, Jan H.; Rocek, Miloslav; Timmermans, Hans A.; Pavcnik, Dusan; Roesch, Josef

    2006-02-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of one-step implantation of a new type of stent-based mechanical aortic disc valve prosthesis (MADVP) above and across the native aortic valve and its short-term function in swine with both functional and dysfunctional native valves. Methods. The MADVP consisted of a folding disc valve made of silicone elastomer attached to either a nitinol Z-stent (Z model) or a nitinol cross-braided stent (SX model). Implantation of 10 MADVPs (6 Z and 4 SX models) was attempted in 10 swine: 4 (2 Z and 2 SX models) with a functional native valve and 6 (4 Z and 2 SX models) with aortic regurgitation induced either by intentional valve injury or by MADVP placement across the native valve. MADVP function was observed for up to 3 hr after implantation. Results. MADVP implantation was successful in 9 swine. One animal died of induced massive regurgitation prior to implantation. Four MADVPs implanted above functioning native valves exhibited good function. In 5 swine with regurgitation, MADVP implantation corrected the induced native valve dysfunction and the device's continuous good function was observed in 4 animals. One MADVP (SX model) placed across native valve gradually migrated into the left ventricle. Conclusion. The tested MADVP can be implanted above and across the native valve in a one-step procedure and can replace the function of the regurgitating native valve. Further technical development and testing are warranted, preferably with a manufactured MADVP.

  19. Sutureless aortic valve replacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Kevin; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Niranjan, Nithya; Bouchard, Denis; Carrel, Thierry P.; Dapunt, Otto E.; Eichstaedt, Harald C.; Fischlein, Theodor; Gersak, Borut; Glauber, Mattia; Haverich, Axel; Misfeld, Martin; Oberwalder, Peter J.; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Shrestha, Malakh Lal; Solinas, Marco; Vola, Marco; Yan, Tristan D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sutureless aortic valve replacement (SU-AVR) has emerged as an innovative alternative for treatment of aortic stenosis. By avoiding the placement of sutures, this approach aims to reduce cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) duration and thereby improve surgical outcomes and facilitate a minimally invasive approach suitable for higher risk patients. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess the safety and efficacy of SU-AVR approach in the current literature. Methods Electronic searches were performed using six databases from their inception to January 2014. Relevant studies utilizing sutureless valves for aortic valve implantation were identified. Data were extracted and analyzed according to predefined clinical endpoints. Results Twelve studies were identified for inclusion of qualitative and quantitative analyses, all of which were observational reports. The minimally invasive approach was used in 40.4% of included patients, while 22.8% underwent concomitant coronary bypass surgery. Pooled cross-clamp and CPB duration for isolated AVR was 56.7 and 46.5 minutes, respectively. Pooled 30-day and 1-year mortality rates were 2.1% and 4.9%, respectively, while the incidences of strokes (1.5%), valve degenerations (0.4%) and paravalvular leaks (PVL) (3.0%) were acceptable. Conclusions The evaluation of current observational evidence suggests that sutureless aortic valve implantation is a safe procedure associated with shorter cross-clamp and CPB duration, and comparable complication rates to the conventional approach in the short-term. PMID:25870805

  20. 4D optical coherence tomography of aortic valve dynamics in a murine mouse model ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnabel, Christian; Jannasch, Anett; Faak, Saskia; Waldow, Thomas; Koch, Edmund

    2015-07-01

    The heart and its mechanical components, especially the heart valves and leaflets, are under enormous strain during lifetime. Like all highly stressed materials, also these biological components undergo fatigue and signs of wear, which impinge upon cardiac output and in the end on health and living comfort of affected patients. Thereby pathophysiological changes of the aortic valve leading to calcific aortic valve stenosis (AVS) as most frequent heart valve disease in humans are of particular interest. The knowledge about changes of the dynamic behavior during the course of this disease and the possibility of early stage diagnosis could lead to the development of new treatment strategies and drug-based options of prevention or therapy. ApoE-/- mice as established model of AVS versus wildtype mice were introduced in an ex vivo artificially stimulated heart model. 4D optical coherence tomography (OCT) in combination with high-speed video microscopy were applied to characterize dynamic behavior of the murine aortic valve and to characterize dynamic properties during artificial stimulation. OCT and high-speed video microscopy with high spatial and temporal resolution represent promising tools for the investigation of dynamic behavior and their changes in calcific aortic stenosis disease models in mice.

  1. Percutaneous implantation of the CoreValve aortic valve prosthesis in patients at high risk or rejected for surgical valve replacement: Clinical evaluation and feasibility of the procedure in the first 30 patients in the AMC-UvA.

    PubMed

    Baan, J; Yong, Z Y; Koch, K T; Henriques, J P S; Bouma, B J; de Hert, S G; van der Meulen, J; Tijssen, J G P; Piek, J J; de Mol, B A J M

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To report the feasibility, safety and efficacy of percutaneous aortic valve implantation (PAVI) with the CoreValve self-expanding aortic valve bioprosthesis in elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis who are rejected for surgery or have a high surgical risk.Methods. PAVI using the CoreValve ReValving System was performed under general anaesthesia in 30 high-risk (surgical) patients with a symptomatic severe aortic valve stenosis.Results. The patients had a mean age of 80.5+/-7.7 years, a mean aortic valve area of 0.71+/-0.19 cm(2), a peak transvalvular aortic gradient of 79+/-25 mmHg, as measured with echo Doppler, a logistic EuroSCORE of 15+/-10% and a Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score of 5.2+/-2.9%. Device success was achieved in all patients and acute procedural success in 27 patients (90%). In the surviving patients, there was in a reduction of the peak aortic pressure gradient from 76+/-24 mmHg to 22+/-7 mmHg (n=24, p<0.00001) 30 days after successful device implantation. At 30 days, major adverse cardiovascular and cerebral events had occurred in seven patients (23%). This included mortality in six patients (20%), of which one death was cardiovascular. The other five non-cardiovascular deaths involved two patients who died of an exacerbation of severe pre-existent pulmonary disease and three of infectious complications.Conclusions. Percutaneous aortic valve implantation was successfully performed in our centre in highrisk patients, with a 30-day mortality of 20%. When successful, marked haemodynamic improvement and relief of symptoms was achieved. (Neth Heart J 2010;18:18-24.). PMID:20111639

  2. Hemodynamic rounds series: Left heart catheterization and mitral balloon valvuloplasty in a patient with a mechanical aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Kosmicki, Douglas; Michaels, Andrew D

    2008-02-15

    Patients with rheumatic heart disease and a history of mechanical aortic valve replacement will occasionally present with significant mitral stenosis for consideration of mitral balloon valvuloplasty. The conventional retrograde trans-aortic method for left heart catheterization cannot be done for patients with a mechanical aortic valve. We present a patient with a mechanical aortic valve who underwent successful left heart catheterization and mitral valvuloplasty via a transseptal approach. A 5 French pigtail catheter was advanced through the left atrial 8 French Mullins sheath into the left ventricle, for simultaneous pressure measurement across the mitral valve. This manuscript discusses the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches for left heart catheterization in patients with a mechanical aortic valve. PMID:18288758

  3. Multidetector row computed tomography assessment of the native aortic and mitral valve: a call for routine assessment of left-sided heart valves during coronary computed tomography.

    PubMed

    de Heer, Linda M; Habets, Jesse; Chamuleau, Steven A J; Mali, Willem P Th M; van Herwerden, Lex A; Kluin, Jolanda; Budde, Ricardo P J

    2012-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve regurgitation are the most common valvular heart diseases (VHD) in Western countries. In daily clinical practice, the diagnosis and evaluation of the severity of VHD is based on clinical findings and imaging. Transthoracic echocardiography is the preferred imaging technique for the initial evaluation of VHD. In patients with inconclusive transthoracic echocardiography, transoesophageal echocardiography can have additional diagnostic value. Cardiac multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) has proven to have diagnostic value in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in symptomatic patients with a low-to-intermediate pretest probability. The images acquired for coronary assessment also contain diagnostic information on heart valves. The purpose of this review was to discuss the diagnostic value of MDCT for the evaluation of left-sided VHD. We provide an overview of the literature comparing echocardiography and MDCT for VHD assessment focusing on aortic valve and mitral valve disease, and we present clinical recommendations. PMID:23045729

  4. St. Jude Medical Trifecta™ aortic valve perioperative performance in 200 patients

    PubMed Central

    Permanyer, Eduard; Estigarribia, Arnaldo-Javier; Ysasi, Alejandro; Herrero, Enrique; Semper, Omar; Llorens, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The St. Jude Medical Trifecta aortic bioprosthesis (St. Jude Medical, Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA) is a new stented pericardial tissue heart valve. The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical and haemodynamic performance of the Trifecta bioprosthesis in the early postoperative period. METHODS From July 2010 to September 2012, a total of 200 consecutive patients underwent aortic valve replacement with the Trifecta valve in our institution. All intraoperative and postoperative data were prospectively collected. Mean EuroSCORE II was 3.98%. Echocardiography was performed at discharge in all patients. RESULTS The mean age was 71.2 ± 7.7 (range 39–89 years). Extubation in the operating theatre was successfully performed in 96% of patients. Mean hospital stay was 8.5 days. The prosthesis sizes were 19 mm (n = 33), 21 mm (n = 81), 23 mm (n = 59), 25 mm (n = 23) and 27 mm (n = 4). Mean systolic pressure gradients ranged from 9.4 mmHg (size 19 valve) to 4.8 mmHg (size 27 valve). Mean effective orifice area (EOA) ranged from 1.61 cm2 (size 19 valve) to 2.5 cm2 (size 27 valve). Severe mismatch (<0.65 cm2/m2) did not occur in any patient. Of note, 99.5% of patients had mild or no aortic insufficiency at discharge. The early (30-day) mortality was 2.5% (n = 5). CONCLUSIONS The Trifecta valve offers good clinical results and excellent haemodynamic performance. Special care must be taken to avoid oversizing, which can lead to difficulty in implantation and can produce gradient increases due to an excess of prosthetic leaflet tissue. PMID:23825161

  5. Total ellipse of the heart valve: the impact of eccentric stent distortion on the regional dynamic deformation of pericardial tissue leaflets of a transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Paul S; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; Yoganathan, Ajit P; McNamara, Laoise M

    2015-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacements (TAVRs) are a percutaneous alternative to surgical aortic valve replacements and are used to treat patients with aortic valve stenosis. This minimally invasive procedure relies on expansion of the TAVR stent to radially displace calcified aortic valve leaflets against the aortic root wall. However, these calcium deposits can impede the expansion of the device causing distortion of the valve stent and pericardial tissue leaflets. The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of eccentric TAVR stent distortion on the dynamic deformation of the tissue leaflets of the prosthesis in vitro. Dual-camera stereophotogrammetry was used to measure the regional variation in strain in a leaflet of a TAVR deployed in nominal circular and eccentric (eccentricity index = 28%) orifices, representative of deployed TAVRs in vivo. It was observed that (i) eccentric stent distortion caused incorrect coaptation of the leaflets at peak diastole resulting in a 'peel-back' leaflet geometry that was not present in the circular valve and (ii) adverse bending of the leaflet, arising in the eccentric valve at peak diastole, caused significantly higher commissure strains compared with the circular valve in both normotensive and hypertensive pressure conditions (normotension: eccentric = 13.76 ± 2.04% versus circular = 11.77 ± 1.61%, p = 0.0014, hypertension: eccentric = 15.07 ± 1.13% versus circular = 13.56 ± 0.87%, p = 0.0042). This study reveals that eccentric distortion of a TAVR stent can have a considerable impact on dynamic leaflet deformation, inducing deleterious bending of the leaflet and increasing commissures strains, which might expedite leaflet structural failure compared to leaflets in a circular deployed valve. PMID:26674192

  6. Aortic valve sclerosis in mice deficient in endothelial nitric oxide synthase

    PubMed Central

    El Accaoui, Ramzi N.; Gould, Sarah T.; Hajj, Georges P.; Chu, Yi; Davis, Melissa K.; Kraft, Diane C.; Lund, Donald D.; Brooks, Robert M.; Doshi, Hardik; Zimmerman, Kathy A.; Kutschke, William; Anseth, Kristi S.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for fibrocalcific aortic valve disease (FCAVD) are associated with systemic decreases in bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO). In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), vascular expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is decreased, and eNOS−/− mice have increased prevalence of BAV. The goal of this study was to test the hypotheses that EDNO attenuates profibrotic actions of valve interstitial cells (VICs) in vitro and that EDNO deficiency accelerates development of FCAVD in vivo. As a result of the study, coculture of VICs with aortic valve endothelial cells (vlvECs) significantly decreased VIC activation, a critical early phase of FCAVD. Inhibition of VIC activation by vlvECs was attenuated by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or indomethacin. Coculture with vlvECs attenuated VIC expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9, which depended on stiffness of the culture matrix. Coculture with vlvECs preferentially inhibited collagen-3, compared with collagen-1, gene expression. BAV occurred in 30% of eNOS−/− mice. At age 6 mo, collagen was increased in both bicuspid and trileaflet eNOS−/− aortic valves, compared with wild-type valves. At 18 mo, total collagen was similar in eNOS−/− and wild-type mice, but collagen-3 was preferentially increased in eNOS−/− mice. Calcification and apoptosis were significantly increased in BAV of eNOS−/− mice at ages 6 and 18 mo. Remarkably, these histological changes were not accompanied by physiologically significant valve stenosis or regurgitation. In conclusion, coculture with vlvECs inhibits specific profibrotic VIC processes. In vivo, eNOS deficiency produces fibrosis in both trileaflet and BAVs but produces calcification only in BAVs. PMID:24610917

  7. Anomalous origin of the left anterior descending artery from the pulmonary artery associated with bicuspid aortic valve and aortic coarctation.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Andrew J B; Radford, Dorothy J; Jalali, Homayoun

    2003-01-01

    A 15-year-old boy presented with exertional palpitations and chest pain. Investigation revealed anomalous origin of his left anterior descending coronary artery from his pulmonary trunk causing myocardial ischaemia. He previously had aortic coarctation repair with known aortic root dilation and a bicuspid aortic valve. His left anterior descending artery was implanted into the aortic root using a Gortex interposition conduit. This represents an interesting combination of cardiac abnormalities for which repair required consideration of the requirement of further surgery in the future. PMID:16352110

  8. Extensive aneurysms of sinuses of Valsalva precluding valve sparing aortic root reimplantation (David procedure).

    PubMed

    Ashoub, Ahmed; Tang, Augustine; Shaktawat, Sameer

    2011-03-01

    A 55-year-old female noticed worsening exertional dyspnoea for two years. She was born with cleft palate and profound deafness. Significant physical findings included dysmorphism with micrognathia and acrocephaly and congenital deafness. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed aneurysms involving the right and the non-coronary sinuses of Valsalva. Despite that, the native aortic valve retained preserved geometry. Computed tomography (CT)-scan demonstrated multiple aneurysms arising from all three sinuses of Valsalva. This displaced the right ventricle (RV) caudally and indented the RV outflow tract. A valve-sparing root reimplantation was planned. However, intraoperatively the root aneurysms were found to be very extensive such that no healthy tissue remained along the insertion lines of the aortic valve leaflets. The aortic annulus was not dilated (2 cm) and the left ventricular outlow tract was not involved in the disease process. Consequently, despite the presence of macroscopically normal leaflets and relatively undisturbed annular geometry, we were unable to reimplant the native aortic valve and proceeded to a modified Bentall procedure. Histologically, significant medial degeneration with loss of elastin and muscle was identified in the aortic sinus wall. Similar changes were also found affecting the native leaflets coupled with increased fibrous thickening. PMID:21148665

  9. Immersed smoothed finite element method for fluid-structure interaction simulation of aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jianyao; Liu, G. R.; Narmoneva, Daria A.; Hinton, Robert B.; Zhang, Zhi-Qian

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a novel numerical method for simulating the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems when blood flows over aortic valves. The method uses the immersed boundary/element method and the smoothed finite element method and hence it is termed as IS-FEM. The IS-FEM is a partitioned approach and does not need a body-fitted mesh for FSI simulations. It consists of three main modules: the fluid solver, the solid solver and the FSI force solver. In this work, the blood is modeled as incompressible viscous flow and solved using the characteristic-based-split scheme with FEM for spacial discretization. The leaflets of the aortic valve are modeled as Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic materials and solved using smoothed finite element method (or S-FEM). The FSI force is calculated on the Lagrangian fictitious fluid mesh that is identical to the moving solid mesh. The octree search and neighbor-to-neighbor schemes are used to detect efficiently the FSI pairs of fluid and solid cells. As an example, a 3D idealized model of aortic valve is modeled, and the opening process of the valve is simulated using the proposed IS-FEM. Numerical results indicate that the IS-FEM can serve as an efficient tool in the study of aortic valve dynamics to reveal the details of stresses in the aortic valves, the flow velocities in the blood, and the shear forces on the interfaces. This tool can also be applied to animal models studying disease processes and may ultimately translate to a new adaptive methods working with magnetic resonance images, leading to improvements on diagnostic and prognostic paradigms, as well as surgical planning, in the care of patients.

  10. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of Aortic Valve Annular Shape in Children With Bicuspid Aortic Valves and/or Aortic Coarctation Compared With Controls.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Christen R; Sugeng, Lissa; Abraham, Sharon; Li, Fangyong; Weismann, Constance G

    2015-11-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is the most common congenital cardiac abnormality, occurring in 1% to 2% of the general population. Adults with degenerative aortic valve (AV) disease have been shown to have an elliptical shaped AV annulus. The goal of this study was to investigate the shape of the aortic annulus in children with BAV, coarctation of the aorta (CoA) with or without BAV, and normal controls with trileaflet AVs using 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE). We reviewed echocardiograms of children with isolated BAV (n= 40), CoA (n= 26), and controls (n= 40) that included 3DE of the AV. Eccentricity index (EI) was defined as the ratio between the smaller and larger annular dimension. ?D was defined as the difference between the larger and smaller annular dimension. Patients with BAV had an eccentric AV annulus compared with controls (BAV EI 0.85 0.05 and control EI 0.96 0.03; p <0.001). Subjects with CoA also had a more eccentric annulus than controls regardless of AV morphology (CoA 0.84 0.06; p <0.001). EI was not associated with somatic growth parameters or gender. Among all patients with BAV, AV dysfunction was associated with fusion of the right and noncoronary (R-N) cusps (p <0.001), but there was no association between valve dysfunction and EI. ?D was higher in both the BAV and CoA groups compared with the control group (BAV 3.4 1.9mm, CoA 2.8 1.8mm, and control 0.6 0.4mm; p <0.001 each). Although there was no significant correlation of ?D with age in the control group during childhood, ?D increased with age in the BAV and CoA groups. In conclusion, children with BAV and/or CoA have an elliptical shaped AV annulus by 3DE, which is independent of age, gender, or body surface area. AV annular eccentricity may lead to inaccurate measurement of AV annular size if measured by 2DE alone. Considering AV annular eccentricity when balloon sizing the annulus before valvuloplasty may help improve interventional results in some patients. PMID:26375172

  11. Immediate outcome after sutureless versus transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Biancari, Fausto; Barbanti, Marco; Santarpino, Giuseppe; Deste, Wanda; Tamburino, Corrado; Gulino, Simona; Immè, Sebastiano; Di Simone, Emanuela; Todaro, Denise; Pollari, Francesco; Fischlein, Theodor; Kasama, Keiichiro; Meuris, Bart; Dalén, Magnus; Sartipy, Ulrik; Svenarud, Peter; Lahtinen, Jarmo; Heikkinen, Jouni; Juvonen, Tatu; Gatti, Giuseppe; Pappalardo, Aniello; Mignosa, Carmelo; Rubino, Antonino S

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the immediate outcome of patients undergoing transcatheter (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement with the sutureless Perceval bioprosthesis (SU-AVR). This is a retrospective multicenter analysis of 773 patients who underwent either TAVI (394 patients, mean age, 80.8 ± 5.5 years, mean EuroSCORE II 5.6 ± 4.9 %) or SU-AVR (379 patients, 77.4 ± 5.4 years, mean EuroSCORE II 4.0 ± 3.9 %) with or without concomitant myocardial revascularization. Data on SU-AVRs were provided by six European institutions (Belgium, Finland, Germany, Italy and Sweden) and data on TAVIs were provided by a single institution (Catania, Italy). In-hospital mortality was 2.6 % after SU-AVR and 5.3 % after TAVI (p = 0.057). TAVI was associated with a significantly high rate of mild (44.0 vs. 2.1 %) and moderate-severe paravalvular regurgitation (14.1 vs. 0.3 %, p < 0.0001) as well as the need for permanent pacemaker implantation (17.3 vs. 9.8 %, p = 0.003) compared with SU-AVR. The analysis of patients within the 25th and 75th percentiles interval of EuroSCORE II, i.e., 2.1-5.8 %, confirmed the findings of the overall series. One-to-one propensity score-matched analysis resulted in 144 pairs with similar baseline characteristics and operative risk. Among these matched pairs, in-hospital mortality (6.9 vs. 1.4 %, p = 0.035) was significantly higher after TAVI. SU-AVR with the Perceval prosthesis in intermediate-risk patients is associated with excellent immediate survival and is a valid alternative to TAVI in these patients. PMID:25573258

  12. Use of Circular Foldable Nitinol Blades for Resecting Calcified Aortic Heart Valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauck, Florian; Wendt, Daniel; Stühle, Sebastian; Kawa, Emilia; Wendt, Hermann; Müller, Wiebke; Thielmann, Matthias; Kipfmüller, Brigitte; Vogel, Bernd; Jakob, Heinz

    2009-08-01

    The use of percutaneous aortic valve implantation is limited, as the native calcified valve is left in situ. A new device has been developed for resecting calcified aortic valves, using collapsible nickel-titanium blades: laser-cut T-structures of Nitinol sheet-material (Ni51Ti49 at.%) have been grinded on a high-speed milling cutter to produce cutting edges which have been given the shape of half-circles afterwards. These have been connected to each other and to struts by using rivets which also serve as articulating axes for the cutting ring. The blades are folded around these axes and retreated into a tube to be inserted in the heart through the calcified valve leaflets. Once released, the cutting edges regain their ring-shape. By combining rotation of the ring with a translating movement against a second ring of slightly greater diameter on the instrument, a punching process is created which cuts the calcified valve leaflets and leaves a circular annulus, where a prosthesis can be fixed. In vitro cutting of artificially calcified valves ( n = 6) resulted in a resection time of t = 22 ± 6.29 s with a maximum turning moment of M = 2.4 ± 1.27 Nm, proving the function and the feasibility of the concept.

  13. Hydrodynamic characteristics of porcine aortic valves cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and polyepoxy compounds.

    PubMed

    Soda, Aiko; Tanaka, Ryou; Saida, Yuuto; Takashima, Kazuaki; Hirayama, Tomohiro; Umezu, Mitsuo; Yamane, Yoshihisa

    2009-01-01

    Porcine aortic valve (AoF) tissues cross-linked with glutaraldehyde and epoxy compounds were reported to have high anticalcification properties, but their hydrodynamic characteristics have not been evaluated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hydrodynamic differences between porcine AoFs, cross-linked with concomitant use of an epoxy compound and glutaraldehyde, at different fixation periods. The valves were mounted on a pulsatile flow circulation mimicking a left heart. The left atrial and left ventricular pressures and mitral and aortic flows were measured at every 0.002 seconds, and the hydrodynamic factor of the valves mounted on the mitral position was estimated. Effective orifice area and the regurgitation volume, which are used as indicators of valve efficiency, failed to detect significant differences due to glutaraldehyde fixation time. In addition, the pressure gradient across the bioprosthetic valve and the variation of mitral flow also had no significant differences. The flow circuit model of the present study was mimicking of a left heart. The evaluation of the mitral valvular function with different glutaraldehyde fixation times was accomplished by relating the pressure with the flow, and by estimating the time lag between valve motion and transvalvular flow. PMID:19092670

  14. An in vitro evaluation of the impact of eccentric deployment on transcatheter aortic valve hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Paul S; Saikrishnan, Neelakantan; McNamara, Laoise M; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2014-06-01

    Patients with aortic stenosis present with calcium deposits on the native aortic valve, which can result in non-concentric expansion of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) stents. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether eccentric deployment of TAVRs lead to turbulent blood flow and blood cell damage. Particle Image Velocimetry was used to quantitatively characterize fluid velocity fields, shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy downstream of TAVRs deployed in circular and eccentric orifices representative of deployed TAVRs in vivo. Effective orifice area (EOA) and mean transvalvular pressure gradient (TVG) values did not differ substantially in circular and eccentric deployed valves, with only a minor decrease in EOA observed in the eccentric valve (2.0 cm(2) for circular, 1.9 cm(2) for eccentric). Eccentric deployed TAVR lead to asymmetric systolic jet formation, with increased shear stresses (circular = 97 N/m(2) vs. eccentric = 119 N/m(2)) and regions of turbulence intensity (circular = 180 N/m(2) vs. eccentric = 230 N/m(2)) downstream that was not present in the circular deployed TAVR. The results of this study indicate that eccentric deployment of TAVRs can lead to altered flow characteristics and may potentially increase the hemolytic potential of the valve, which were not captured through hemodynamic evaluation alone. PMID:24719050

  15. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of the flow through a stenotic aortic valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Hoda; Labrosse, Michel R.; Durand, Louis-Gilles; Kadem, Lyes

    2009-11-01

    In Europe and North America, aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent valvular heart disease and cardiovascular disease after systemic hypertension and coronary artery disease. Understanding blood flow through an aortic stenosis and developing new accurate non-invasive diagnostic parameters is, therefore, of primarily importance. However, simulating such flows is highly challenging. In this study, we considered the interaction between blood flow and the valve leaflets and compared the results obtained in healthy valves with stenotic ones. One effective method to model the interaction between the fluid and the structure is to use Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) approach. Our two-dimensional model includes appropriate nonlinear and anisotropic materials. It is loaded during the systolic phase by applying pressure curves to the fluid domain at the inflow. For modeling the calcified stenotic valve, calcium will be added on the aortic side of valve leaflets. Such simulations allow us to determine the effective orifice area of the valve, one of the main parameters used clinically to evaluate the severity of an AS, and to correlate it with changes in the structure of the leaflets.

  16. Mitral valve prolapse, aortic compliance, and skin collagen in joint hypermobility syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Handler, C E; Child, A; Light, N D; Dorrance, D E

    1985-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse was sought clinically and with phonocardiography and M mode and sector echocardiography in 15 women aged 22-57 years with joint hypermobility syndrome. The type III:III + I collagen ratio was measured in skin biopsy specimens and was found to be raised in seven of 10 patients sampled. Thirteen patients had increased aortic wall compliance measured by the continuous wave Doppler ultrasound technique. Ten (67%) patients had mitral valve prolapse shown by auscultatory signs or echocardiography or both--a prevalence at least three times greater than that in the general adult population. It is concluded that if the abnormality of collagen biosynthesis found in skin biopsy samples in these patients is also present in their mitral valve tissue this may predispose them to prolapse of the valve. Images PMID:3902069

  17. Inhibition of ectonucleotidase with ARL67156 prevents the development of calcific aortic valve disease in warfarin-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Côté, Nancy; El Husseini, Diala; Pépin, Andrée; Bouvet, Céline; Gilbert, Liz-Ann; Audet, Audrey; Fournier, Dominique; Pibarot, Philippe; Moreau, Pierre; Mathieu, Patrick

    2012-08-15

    Calcific aortic valve disease is the most common heart valve disorder. So far, there is no medical treatment for calcific aortic valve disease. The expression of ectonucleotidases, which metabolize nucleotides into phosphate products, may influence the calcification of the aortic valve. In this study, we investigated if the administration of an ectonucleotidase inhibitor, ARL67156 (6-N,N-Diethyl-D-β,γ-dibromomethyleneATP trisodium salt), may prevent the calcification of the aortic valve in the warfarin-induced mineralization rat model. Male Wistar rats were treated with warfarin or warfarin+ARL67156 for 28 days. All rats had comprehensive Doppler-echocardiographic studies at 28 day. A gene profiling of ectonucleotidases expressed in aortas of rats was documented by quantitative real-time PCR. The amount of calcium was determined by quantitative method and von Kossa staining. Ex vivo cultures of rat aortas were also used to further assess the effect of ARL67156 on the calcifying process and Akt signaling. Mineralization of the aorta/aortic valve was documented in warfarin-treated rats and was accompanied by the development of aortic stenosis. These changes were paralleled by an increased of ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase-1 (ENPP1). Administration of the ectonucleotidase inhibitor, ARL67156 prevented the development of aortic stenosis by lowering the level of apoptosis and mineralization of the aortic valve/aorta. In addition, ARL67156 normalized the level of pAkt, an important kinase involved in the survival pathway. Inhibition of ectonucleotidase activity prevented the development of calcific aortic valve disease in a rat model. On that account, ectonucleotidase may represent a novel target in the treatment of calcific aortic valve disease. PMID:22659116

  18. Calcific Aortic Valve Disease: Part 1-Molecular Pathogenetic Aspects, Hemodynamics, and Adaptive Feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2016-04-01

    Aortic valvular stenosis (AVS), produced by calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) causing reduced cusp opening, afflicts mostly older persons eventually requiring valve replacement. CAVD had been considered "degenerative," but newer investigations implicate active mechanisms similar to atherogenesis-genetic predisposition and signaling pathways, lipoprotein deposits, chronic inflammation, and calcification/osteogenesis. Consequently, CAVD may eventually be controlled/reversed by lifestyle and pharmacogenomics remedies. Its management should be comprehensive, embracing not only the valve but also the left ventricle and the arterial system with their interdependent morphomechanics/hemodynamics, which underlie the ensuing diastolic and systolic LV dysfunction. Compared to even a couple of decades ago, we now have an increased appreciation of genomic and cytomolecular pathogenetic mechanisms underlying CAVD. Future pluridisciplinary studies will characterize better and more completely its pathobiology, evolution, and overall dynamics, encompassing intricate feedback processes involving specific signaling molecules and gene network cascades. They will herald more effective, personalized medicine treatments of CAVD/AVS. PMID:26891845

  19. Plug valve

    DOEpatents

    Wordin, John J.

    1989-01-01

    An improved plug valve wherein a novel shape for the valve plug and valve chamber provide mating surfaces for improved wear characteristics. The novel shape of the valve plug is a frustum of a body of revolution of a curved known as a tractrix, a solid shape otherwise known as a peudosphere.

  20. Comparison of the early haemodynamics of stented pericardial and porcine aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Deo, Salil V; Altarabsheh, Salah E; Cho, Yan Hyun; Erwin, Patricia J; Park, Soon J

    2015-01-01

    Data comparing the haemodynamic performance of stented pericardial and porcine aortic valves are conflicting. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis comparing the early haemodynamic parameters of stented pericardial and porcine valves in patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement. Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science were queried for English language original publications from 2000 to 2013. Studies comparing porcine (PoV) and pericardial (PeV) with regard to their haemodynamic parameters were included in this review. Continuous data were pooled using the mean difference (MD) or the standardized mean difference (SMD). A random-effect inverse weighted analysis was conducted; a P-value<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Results are presented with 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen studies (1265 PeV patients and 871 PoV patients) were included in this analysis. The pooled transvalvular mean gradient was lower for PeV [MD -4.6 (-6.45 to -2.77) mmHg; P<0.01]. Limiting this analysis to small valves (19 and 21 mm; eight studies; 714 patients) revealed that the PeV gradients were significantly lower [MD -4.5 (-5.7 to -3.2); P=0.001]. The corresponding effective orifice area of PeV was significantly larger than PoV [SMD 0.42 (0.15-0.69); P<0.01]. A sensitivity analysis comprising only randomized controlled trials did not significantly alter results. When compared with porcine valves, stented pericardial aortic valves have lower mean transvalvular gradients early after implant. Even pericardial valves in smaller sizes (19 and 21 mm) have a better haemodynamic profile when compared with their counterparts. PMID:25123674

  1. Numerical comparison of the closing dynamics of a new trileaflet and a bileaflet mechanical aortic heart valve.

    PubMed

    Li, Chi-Pei; Lu, Po-Chien

    2012-12-01

    The closing velocity of the leaflets of mechanical heart valves is excessively rapid and can cause the cavitation phenomenon. Cavitation bubbles collapse and produce high pressure which then damages red blood cells and platelets. The closure mechanism of the trileaflet valve uses the vortices in the aortic sinus to help close the leaflets, which differs from that of the monoleaflet or bileaflet mechanical heart valves which mainly depends on the reverse flow. We used the commercial software program Fluent to run numerical simulations of the St. Jude Medical bileaflet valve and a new trileaflet mechanical heart valve. The results of these numerical simulations were validated with flow field experiments. The closing velocity of the trileaflet valve was clearly slower than that of the St. Jude Medical bileaflet valve, which would effectively reduce the occurrence of cavitation. The findings of this study are expected to advance the development of the trileaflet valve. PMID:22692363

  2. Excellent durability of Starr-Edwards ball valves implanted in the aortic and mitral positions for 27 years: report of a rare surgical case.

    PubMed

    Tochii, Masato; Takagi, Yasushi; Kaneko, Kan; Ishida, Michiko; Akita, Kiyotoshi; Higuchi, Yoshiro; Ando, Motomi

    2013-01-01

    A 59-year-old male who had undergone aortic and mitral valve replacement with Starr-Edwards ball valves 27 years ago was admitted to our hospital for hemolytic anemia and heart failure. Echocardiography revealed prosthetic valve failure with a high-pressure gradient and small effective orifice area. The Starr-Edwards ball valves were successfully replaced with bileaflet mechanical valves. The explanted valves revealed no structural abnormalities. PMID:22785448

  3. Increased systolic load causes adverse remodeling of fetal aortic and mitral valves.

    PubMed

    Tibayan, Frederick A; Louey, Samantha; Jonker, Sonnet; Espinoza, Herbert; Chattergoon, Natasha; You, Fanglei; Thornburg, Kent L; Giraud, George

    2015-12-15

    While abnormal hemodynamic forces alter fetal myocardial growth, little is known about whether such insults affect fetal cardiac valve development. We hypothesized that chronically elevated systolic load would detrimentally alter fetal valve growth. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep received either a continuous infusion of adult sheep plasma to increase fetal blood pressure, or a lactated Ringer's infusion as a volume control beginning on day 126 ± 4 of gestation. After 8 days, mean arterial pressure was higher in the plasma infusion group (63.0 mmHg vs. 41.8 mmHg, P < 0.05). Mitral annular septal-lateral diameter (11.9 mm vs. 9.1 mm, P < 0.05), anterior leaflet length (7.7 mm vs. 6.4 mm, P < 0.05), and posterior leaflet length (P2; 4.0 mm vs. 3.0 mm, P < 0.05) were greater in the elevated load group. mRNA levels of Notch-1, TGF-β2, Wnt-2b, BMP-1, and versican were suppressed in aortic and mitral valve leaflets; elastin and α1 type I collagen mRNA levels were suppressed in the aortic valves only. We conclude that sustained elevated arterial pressure load on the fetal heart valve leads to anatomic remodeling and, surprisingly, suppression of signaling and extracellular matrix genes that are important to valve development. These novel findings have important implications on the developmental origins of valve disease and may have long-term consequences on valve function and durability. PMID:26354842

  4. Distribution of Mitral Annular and Aortic Valve Calcium as Assessed by Unenhanced Multidetector Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Koshkelashvili, Nikoloz; Codolosa, Jose N; Goykhman, Igor; Romero-Corral, Abel; Pressman, Gregg S

    2015-12-15

    Aging is associated with calcium deposits in various cardiovascular structures, but patterns of calcium deposition, if any, are unknown. In search of such patterns, we performed quantitative assessment of mitral annular calcium (MAC) and aortic valve calcium (AVC) in a broad clinical sample. Templates were created from gated computed tomography (CT) scans depicting the aortic valve cusps and mitral annular segments in relation to surrounding structures. These were then applied to CT reconstructions from ungated, clinically indicated CT scans of 318 subjects, aged ≥65 years. Calcium location was assigned using the templates and quantified by the Agatston method. Mean age was 76 ± 7.3 years; 48% were men and 58% were white. Whites had higher prevalence (p = 0.03) and density of AVC than blacks (p = 0.02), and a trend toward increased MAC (p = 0.06). Prevalence of AVC was similar between men and women, but AVC scores were higher in men (p = 0.008); this difference was entirely accounted for by whites. Within the aortic valve, the left cusp was more frequently calcified than the others. MAC was most common in the posterior mitral annulus, especially its middle (P2) segment. For the anterior mitral annulus, the medial (A3) segment calcified most often. In conclusion, AVC is more common in whites than blacks, and more intense in men, but only in whites. Furthermore, calcium deposits in the mitral annulus and aortic valve favor certain locations. PMID:26517948

  5. Relation of aortic valve calcium to chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Guerraty, Marie A; Chai, Boyang; Hsu, Jesse Y; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Gao, Yanlin; Yang, Wei; Keane, Martin G; Budoff, Matthew J; Mohler, Emile R

    2015-05-01

    Although subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at markedly increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, the relation between CKD and aortic valve calcification has not been fully elucidated. Also, few data are available on the relation of aortic valve calcification and earlier stages of CKD. We sought to assess the relation of aortic valve calcium (AVC) with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of bone metabolism in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. All patients who underwent aortic valve scanning in the CRIC study were included. The relation between AVC and eGFR, traditional and novel cardiovascular risk factors, and markers of calcium metabolism were analyzed using both unadjusted and adjusted regression models. A total of 1,964 CRIC participants underwent computed tomography for AVC quantification. Decreased renal function was independently associated with increased levels of AVC (eGFR 47.11, 44.17, and 39 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively, p<0.001). This association persisted after adjusting for traditional, but not novel, AVC risk factors. Adjusted regression models identified several traditional and novel risk factors for AVC in patients with CKD. There was a difference in AVC risk factors between black and nonblack patients. In conclusion, our study shows that eGFR is associated in a dose-dependent manner with AVC in patients with CKD, and this association is independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25791240

  6. The structure and material composition of ossified aortic valves identified using a set of scientific methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, Antonín; Šmíd, Michal; Havelcová, Martina; Coufalová, Lucie; Kučková, Štěpánka; Velčovská, Martina; Hynek, Radovan

    2013-11-01

    Degenerative aortic stenosis has become a common and dangerous disease in recent decades. This disease leads to the mineralization of aortic valves, their gradual thickening and loss of functionality. We studied the detailed assessment of the proportion and composition of inorganic and organic components in the ossified aortic valve, using a set of analytical methods applied in science: polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The sample valves showed the occurrence of phosphorus and calcium in the form of phosphate and calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and hydroxy-fluorapatite, with varying content of inorganic components from 65 to 90 wt%, and with phased development of degenerative disability. The outer layers of the plaque contained an organic component with peptide bonds, fatty acids, proteins and cholesterol. The results show a correlation between the formation of fluorapatite in aortic valves and in other parts of the human bodies, associated with the formation of bones.

  7. Surgical treatment of late aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis: 19 years’ experience

    PubMed Central

    Yayla, Tuncer Eylem; Serpil, Tas; Bal, Polat Ebru; Antal, Dönmez Arzu; Adnan, Ak; Mustafa, Akbulut; Bulbul, Serhat; Aksut, Mehmet; Altug, Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the study We retrospectively analyzed the results of operations conducted for aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis in a single center over 19 years. Material and methods From February 1992 to January 2011, we performed operations on 27 patients with aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis. Seventeen patients (63.0%) were male, and the mean age was 39.1 ± 14.2 (16-67) years. Blood cultures were positive in 11 patients (40.7%), and the most commonly identified microorganism was Streptococcus (7 patients, 25.9%). The mean duration of follow-up was 8.6 ± 4.7 years (0.5-18.2), adding up to a total of 136.9 patient/years. Results Forty procedures were performed on these 27 patients. The most commonly performed procedure was aortic valve replacement with a prosthetic valve – 16 patients (59.3%). Fifteen patients were operated on during the active phase of infection. In-hospital mortality was observed in 11 patients (40.7%). Postoperatively, 12 patients (44.4%) had low cardiac output, 3 (11.1%) suffered from a heart block; none of them required permanent pacemaker implantation. The actuarial survival for 1 and 5 years was 55.6 ± 9.6% and 47.6 ± 9.7%, respectively. Conclusions Prosthetic valve endocarditis of the aortic valve is a challenging situation for the surgeon. The surgical treatment carries a high mortality rate and long-term survival is low. Among the survivors, however, recurrence and the need for reoperation are unlikely. PMID:26336408

  8. Manufacturing and hydrodynamic assessment of a novel aortic valve made of a new nanocomposite polymer.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Benyamin; Tzamtzis, Spyridon; Ghanbari, Hossein; Burriesci, Gaetano; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2012-04-30

    Synthetic leaflet heart valves have been widely studied as possible alternatives to the current mechanical and bioprosthetic valves. Assessing the in vitro hydrodynamic function of these prostheses is of great importance to predict their hemodynamic behaviour prior to implantation. This study introduces an innovative concept of a low-profile semi-stented surgical aortic valve (SSAV) made of a novel nanocomposite polyurethane with a polycarbonate soft segment (PCU) and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) nanoparticles covalently bonded as a pendant cage to the hard segment. The POSS-PCU is already used in surgical implants, including lacrimal duct, bypass graft, and recently, a tracheal replacement. Nine valves of three leaflet thicknesses (100, 150 and 200 μm) and 21 mm internal diameter were prepared using an automated dip-coating procedure, and assessed in vitro for their hydrodynamic performance on a pulse duplicator system. A commercially available porcine bioprosthetic valve (Epic™, St. Jude Medical) of equivalent size was selected as a control model. Compared to the bioprosthetic valve, the SSAVs showed a considerably lower transvalvular pressure drop and larger effective orifice area (EOA). They were also characterised by a lower systolic energy loss, especially at high cardiac outputs. The leaflet thickness was found to significantly affect the hydrodynamics of these valves (P<0.01). The SSAVs with 100 μm leaflets demonstrated improved flow characteristics compared to the bioprosthetic valve. The enhanced hydrodynamic function of the SSAV suggests that the proposed design together with the advanced POSS-PCU material can represent a significant step towards the introduction of polyurethane valves into the clinical application. PMID:22336198

  9. Long-Term Hemodynamic Performance of the Aortic Valve After David I: An Echocardiographic Study.

    PubMed

    Mignosa, Carmelo; Mariani, Carlo; Deste, Wanda; Felis, Salvatore; Di Stefano, Salvatore; Giuffrida, Angelo; Rubino, Antonino S

    2015-01-01

    Despite optimal hemodynamics at rest, the performance of the aortic valve under stress conditions long after David I procedure is still debated. From 2001-2014, 73 patients underwent reimplantation with David I technique. Aortic valve function of 13 patients (age 61.2 ± 8.72) with a follow-up of at least 5 years (6.3 ± 0.9 years) was assessed at exercise echocardiographic stress test on a stationary cycle. Patients who had undergone concomitant procedure, with recurrent aortic insufficiency or mitral valve incompetence, were excluded. In all, 8 healthy volunteers served as controls. Transvalvular gradients progressively increased during the steps in both groups (P-within < 0.001), being higher in David patients (P-between < 0.001), but never reaching a clinical significance (David Peak gradient 23.8 ± 9.3mmHg; Mean gradient 13.2 ± 5.1mmHg). Effective orifice area (EOA) and EOA index did not change during the test in David patients, whereas Controls showed a progressive increase of functional valve area to a peak at 50W (Controls EOA 4.0 ± 0.5cm(2); EOA index 2.0 ± 0.3cm(2)/m(2)). In conclusion, David I procedure ensures good hemodynamics during high-flow conditions at long-term follow-up. The reimplantation of the functional aortic annulus inside a rigid tube determines a paradoxical reduction of functional aortic valve area, secondary to the increased stroke volume, without any clinically relevant increase in transvalvular gradients. These data confirm the reliability of David I in the long term, even under physical stress conditions. PMID:26708365

  10. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation in Lower-Risk Patients With Aortic Stenosis: Is It Justified to Be the Preferred Treatment?

    PubMed

    Abdelghani, Mohammad; Serruys, Patrick W

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation underwent progressive improvements until it became the default therapy for inoperable patients, and a recommended therapy in high-risk operable patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. In the lower-risk patient strata, a currently costly therapy that still has important complications with questionable durability is competing with the established effective and still-improving surgical replacement. This report tries to weigh the clinical evidence, the recent technical improvements, the durability, and the cost-effectiveness claims supporting the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in intermediate-low risk patients. The importance of appropriate patients' risk stratification and a more comprehensive approach to estimate that risk are also emphasized in the present report. PMID:27076570

  11. Methodological inaccuracies in clinical aortic valve severity assessment: insights from computational fluid dynamic modeling of CT-derived aortic valve anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, Brad; Srivatsa, Sanjay S.; Beussman, Kevin M.; Wang, Yechun; Suzen, Yildirim B.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mazur, Wojciech; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease. Assessing the contribution of the valve as a portion to total ventricular load is essential for the aging population. A CT scan for one patient was used to create one in vivo tricuspid aortic valve geometry and assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD simulated the pressure, velocity, and flow rate, which were used to assess the Gorlin formula and continuity equation, current clinical diagnostic standards. The results demonstrate an underestimation of the anatomic orifice area (AOA) by Gorlin formula and overestimation of AOA by the continuity equation, using peak velocities, as would be measured clinically by Doppler echocardiography. As a result, we suggest that the Gorlin formula is unable to achieve the intended estimation of AOA and largely underestimates AOA at the critical low-flow states present in heart failure. The disparity in the use of echocardiography with the continuity equation is due to the variation in velocity profile between the outflow tract and the valve orifice. Comparison of time-averaged orifice areas by Gorlin and continuity with instantaneous orifice areas by planimetry can mask the errors of these methods, which is a result of the assumption that the blood flow is inviscid.

  12. Methodological inaccuracies in clinical aortic valve severity assessment: insights from computational fluid dynamic modeling of CT-derived aortic valve anatomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traeger, Brad; Srivatsa, Sanjay S.; Beussman, Kevin M.; Wang, Yechun; Suzen, Yildirim B.; Rybicki, Frank J.; Mazur, Wojciech; Miszalski-Jamka, Tomasz

    2016-04-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease. Assessing the contribution of the valve as a portion to total ventricular load is essential for the aging population. A CT scan for one patient was used to create one in vivo tricuspid aortic valve geometry and assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). CFD simulated the pressure, velocity, and flow rate, which were used to assess the Gorlin formula and continuity equation, current clinical diagnostic standards. The results demonstrate an underestimation of the anatomic orifice area (AOA) by Gorlin formula and overestimation of AOA by the continuity equation, using peak velocities, as would be measured clinically by Doppler echocardiography. As a result, we suggest that the Gorlin formula is unable to achieve the intended estimation of AOA and largely underestimates AOA at the critical low-flow states present in heart failure. The disparity in the use of echocardiography with the continuity equation is due to the variation in velocity profile between the outflow tract and the valve orifice. Comparison of time-averaged orifice areas by Gorlin and continuity with instantaneous orifice areas by planimetry can mask the errors of these methods, which is a result of the assumption that the blood flow is inviscid.

  13. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Infective Endocarditis: Current Data and Implications on Prophylaxis and Management.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shoshan, Jeremy; Amit, Sharon; Finkelstein, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a widespread procedure for the treatment of symptomatic severe aortic stenosis in patients with high surgical risk. In conjunction with the growing experience, the adverse outcomes of TAVI have arisen, including transcatheter aortic valve infective endocarditis (TAVIE). Although rare, TAVIE has been shown as a major etiology of transcatheter aortic valve failure and its magnitude is expected to increase as TAVI will become more frequent, and long term follow-ups will accumulate. To date, large scale TAVI cohorts have restrictively addressed TAVIE-related data and details regarding TAVIE course and management are available only in sporadic case reports, which have been recently collected and published. In this review, we present a case of TAVIE from our institution and analyze the available data regarding prevalence, clinical presentation and microbiology of TAVIE, as depicted from the current literature. We discuss TAVIE treatment and prophylaxis strategies, which are expected to gain growing attention in the years to come, as TAVI will be established as a key procedure in aortic stenosis management. PMID:26710943

  14. Correlation dimension analysis of Doppler signals in children with aortic valve disorders.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Derya; Güler, N Fatma

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the correlation dimension analysis has been applied to the aortic valve Doppler signals to investigate the complexity of the Doppler signals which belong to aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic insufficiency (AI) diseases and healthy case. The Doppler signals of 20 healthy subjects, ten AS and ten AI patients were acquired via the Doppler echocardiography system that is a noninvasive and reliable technique for assessment of AS and AI diseases. The correlation dimension estimations have been performed for different time delay values to investigate the influence of time delay on the correlation dimension calculation. The correlation dimension of healthy group has been found lower those found in AI and AS disorder groups and the correlation dimension of AS group has also been found higher than those found in AI group, significantly. The results of this study have indicated that the aortic valve Doppler signals exhibit high level chaotic behaviour in AI and AS diseases than healthy case. Additionally, the correlation dimension analysis is sensitive to the time delay and has successfully characterized the blood flow dynamics for proper time delay value. As a result, the correlation dimension can be used as an efficient method to determine the healthy or pathological cases of aortic valve. PMID:20703615

  15. Aortic valve replacement to a patient with high titer of cold agglutinin.

    PubMed

    Kansaku, Rei; Kuwaki, Kenji; Amano, Atsushi; Inaba, Hirotaka; Tambara, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Taira; Sakakibara, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    A 60-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of aortic stenosis with a peak pressure gradient of 61 mmHg, moderate aortic regurgitation, and a dilatation of the ascending aorta of 50 mm in diameter, which had grown 5 mm in 2 years. Because of severe aortic stenosis with a bicuspid valve and fast progression of the ascending aorta in size, replacements of both the aortic valve and the ascending aorta were planned.He had experienced severe acute renal failure with hemolysis because of cold agglutinin one year before the operation. The hemoglobin had decreased to 4.3 g/dL during hemolytic attack. His titer of cold agglutinin was extremely high. The titer of cold agglutinin has kept above than 1:131072 at 4 degree Celsius. It once increased to 1:524288.Both the replacement of the aortic valve and the ascending aorta under normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass using intermittent warm blood cardioplegia were completed uneventfully. He was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 11. PMID:22791002

  16. Supramolecular structure of human aortic valve and pericardial xenograft material: atomic force microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Jastrzebska, Maria; Mróz, Iwona; Barwiński, Bogdan; Zalewska-Rejdak, Justyna; Turek, Artur; Cwalina, Beata

    2008-01-01

    Pericardial tissue (bovine or porcine), chemically stabilized with glutaraldehyde (GA), is widely used in cardiovascular surgery in the form of bioprosthetic valves. GA reacts with tissue proteins and creates inter- and intra-molecular cross-links, resulting in improved durability. However, tissue calcification and mechanical damage are still unresolved problems. The purpose of this study was to examine the surface topography of normal human aortic valve and GA-stabilized porcine pericardium tissue in order to gain comparative insight into supramolecular structure of both tissues. The analysis was focused on morphologic evaluation of collagen constituents of the tissues. Atomic force microscopy working in the contact mode in air was employed in the study. Considerable diversity in the spatial orientation of collagen fibrils for the human aortic valve and pericardial tissue were observed. It was found that different forms of collagen fibril packing, i.e. dense and "in phase" or loose, could have an impact on the collagen D-banding pattern. Stabilization with GA introduced significant changes in the surface topography of collagen fibrils and in their spatial organization on the tissue surface. Strong disturbance in the fibril's D-spacing was observed. It was also suggested, that the observed structural changes at the supramolecular level might make an important contribution to the progressive damage and calcification of the tissue. The presented results demonstrate that the AFM method can be useful for non-destructive structural characterization of heart valves and bioprosthetic heart valve material. PMID:17597365

  17. Haemophilus parainfluenzae aortic prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) successfully treated with oral levofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Brahmbhatt, Kunal; Raza, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    Antibiotic treatment of native valve infective endocarditis (IE) traditionally consists of 4-6 weeks of intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy. Oral (PO) antibiotic therapy is being used more frequently, for part or all of treatment for IE but experience in treating IE with PO antibiotics is limited. Preferable agents for oral therapy of IE are antibiotics with a high degree of activity against the IE pathogen and that have high bioavailability (>90%) so that achievable serum and tissue levels are the same as with equivalent IV antibiotics. Oral antibiotic therapy of IE has several advantages over IV therapy given the long duration of treatment, i.e., 4-6 weeks for IE. Firstly, outpatient oral therapy for IE is easily administered over 4-6 weeks and decreases hospital length of stay (LOS). Secondly, oral antibiotics (administered at the same dose, frequency and duration) costs much less than their IV counterparts. Thirdly, with PO therapy for IE there are no central venous catheter (CVC) associated complications, e.g., phlebitis, bacteremia, fungemia. Compared to native valve IE, prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE), depending on the IE pathogen, requires prolonged therapy and usually valve replacement. Haemophilus sp. IE is relatively virulent and often complicated by heart failure and/or embolic phenomena. We describe the first reported case of Haemophilus parainfluenzae aortic PVE successfully treated with oral levofloxacin without aortic valve replacement. PMID:25998992

  18. Percutaneous valve replacement in a young adult for radiation-induced aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Latib, Azeem; Montorfano, Matteo; Figini, Filippo; Maisano, Francesco; Chieffo, Alaide; Benussi, Stefano; Bellanca, Raimondo; Gerli, Chiara; Spagnolo, Pietro; Alfieri, Ottavio; Colombo, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    A 46-year-old woman known with relapsing Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed at age 5, treated with repeated cycles of radiotherapy and chemotherapy, presented with severe symptomatic radiation-induced aortic stenosis. She also had other late sequelae of radiotherapy including thyroid cancer, mediastinal fribrosis and left pulmonary fibrosis with severe restrictive lung disease and a newly diagnosed renal carcinoma. Due to the prohibitively high surgical risk and need for urgent treatment, she underwent successful transcatheter aortic valve replacement with transfemoral implantation of a 23 mm Edwards SAPIEN-XT prosthesis, which was performed without valvuloplasty of the noncalcified fibrotic valve. The final result was excellent with reduction of the transaortic gradient and no residual aortic regurgitation. PMID:22450861

  19. Patient evaluation and selection for transcatheter aortic valve replacement: the heart team approach.

    PubMed

    Sintek, Marc; Zajarias, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been shown to significantly impact mortality and quality of life in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) who are deemed high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Essential to these outcomes is proper patient selection. The multidisciplinary TAVR heart team was created to provide comprehensive patient evaluation and aid in proper selection. This review with outline the history and components of the heart team, and delineate the team's role in risk and frailty assessment, evaluation of common co-morbidities that impact outcomes, and the complex multi-modality imaging necessary for procedural planning and patient selection. The heart team is critical in determining patient eligibility and benefit and the optimal operative approach for TAVR. The future of structural heart disease will certainly require a team approach, and the TAVR heart team will serve as the successful model. PMID:24838133

  20. Presentation on US Hospital Websites of Risks and Benefits of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kincaid, Mariah L.; Fleisher, Lee A.; Neuman, Mark D.

    2015-01-01

    Adequate presentation of risks and benefits of medical therapies is essential to informed decision making by patients.1 Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis among carefully selected patients; recent randomized clinical trials have identified important positive and negative outcomes of TAVR in these populations, including twice the risk of stroke for patients undergoing TAVR vs those undergoing open aortic valve replacement.2,3 Since 78% of all adults in the United States seek out health information online,4we assessed the information regarding known risks and benefits of TAVR made available to the public on the websites of US hospitals currently performing TAVR procedures. PMID:25581476

  1. Complete Atrioventricular Block due to Infective Endocarditis of Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

    PubMed

    Park, Mi-Youn; Jeon, Hui-Kyung; Shim, Byung-Ju; Kim, Ha-Neul; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Kang, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Jin; Koh, Yoon-Seok; Shin, Woo-Seung; Lee, Jong-Min

    2011-09-01

    A 38-year-old man visited our emergency department presenting with a 6-day persistent fever. The man had undergone an orthodontic procedure 7 days prior to the visit. He had a fever with a temperature of 38.2℃ and a diastolic murmur (grade III) was detected at the left sternal border. Reddish-brown lines beneath the nails were present, and raised lesions which were red and painful were detected on the soles of the patient's feet. Laboratory findings showed an elevated inflammatory marker. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms, showed a bicuspid aortic valve, and moderate aortic regurgitation and vegetation were noted. Treatment with antibiotics was given, but 4 days later, a 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed complete atrioventricular (AV) block. Immediately, a temporary pacemaker was inserted, and the following day an aortic valve replacement was performed. Intraoperative findings revealed a fistula around the AV node. He has suffered no subsequent cardiac events during the follow-up. PMID:22073324

  2. Preferential short cut or alternative route: the transaxillary access for transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Deuschl, Florian; Conradi, Lenard; Lubos, Edith; Schirmer, Johannes; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Blankenberg, Stefan; Treede, Hendrik; Schfer, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained widespread acceptance as a treatment option for patients at high risk for conventional aortic valve replacement. The most commonly used access site for TAVI is the common femoral artery. Yet, in a significant number of patients the transfemoral access is not suitable due to peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremity. In these cases the transaxillary approach can serve as an alternative implantation route. By considering the anatomical requirements and providing an adequate endovascular safety-net during the procedure the transaxillary TAVI approach results in excellent procedural and clinical outcome. However, whether the transaxillary access for TAVI is superior to other non-transfemoral approaches (e.g., transapical or direct aortic) needs to be studied in the future in a prospective randomized trial. PMID:26543600

  3. Imaging analysis of collagen fiber networks in cusps of porcine aortic valves: effect of their local distribution and alignment on valve functionality.

    PubMed

    Mega, Mor; Marom, Gil; Halevi, Rotem; Hamdan, Ashraf; Bluestein, Danny; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2016-07-01

    The cusps of native aortic valve (AV) are composed of collagen bundles embedded in soft tissue, creating a heterogenic tissue with asymmetric alignment in each cusp. This study compares native collagen fiber networks (CFNs) with a goal to better understand their influence on stress distribution and valve kinematics. Images of CFNs from five porcine tricuspid AVs are analyzed and fluid-structure interaction models are generated based on them. Although the valves had similar overall kinematics, the CFNs had distinctive influence on local mechanics. The regions with dilute CFN are more prone to damage since they are subjected to higher stress magnitudes. PMID:26406926

  4. Influence of valve size, orientation and downstream geometry of an aortic BMHV on leaflet motion and clinically used valve performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Annerel, S; Claessens, T; Taelman, L; Degroote, J; Van Nooten, G; Verdonck, P; Segers, P; Vierendeels, J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to reconcile some of our own previous work and the work of others to generate a physiologically realistic numerical simulation environment that allows to virtually assess the performance of BMHVs. The model incorporates: (i) a left ventricular deformable model to generate a physiological inflow to the aortic valve; (ii) a patient-specific aortic geometry (root, arch and descending aorta); (iii) physiological pressure and flow boundary conditions. We particularly studied the influence of downstream geometry, valve size and orientation on leaflet kinematics and functional indices used in clinical routine. Compared to the straight tube geometry, the patient-specific aorta leads to a significant asynchronous movement of the valve, especially during the closing of the valve. The anterior leaflet starts to close first, impacts the casing at the closed position and remains in this position. At the same time, the posterior leaflet impacts the pivoting mechanisms at the fully open position. At the end of systole, this leaflet subsequently accelerates to the closed position, impacting the casing with an angular velocity of approximately -477 rad/s. The valve size greatly influences the transvalvular pressure gradient (TPG), but does not change the overall leaflet kinematics. This is in contrast to changes in valve orientation, where changing valve orientation induces large differences in leaflet kinematics, but the TPG remains approximately the same. PMID:25186435

  5. Simulation of self expanding transcatheter aortic valve in a realistic aortic root: implications of deployment geometry on leaflet deformation.

    PubMed

    Gunning, Paul S; Vaughan, Ted J; McNamara, Laoise M

    2014-09-01

    Self expanding Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacements (TAVR) can conform to the geometry of the aortic annulus and the calcified leaflet complex, which may result in leaflet distortion and altered leaflet kinematics, but such changes have not yet been characterized. In this study we developed a computational model to investigate the deployment of a self expanding TAVR in a realistic aortic root model derived from multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) images. We simulated TAVR crimping/deployment in realistic and idealized aortic root models, followed by diastolic loading of the TAVR leaflets in its final deployed configuration. The TAVR deployed in a realistic aortic root had increased peak loading in the commissural region of the leaflets compared to TAVRs under idealized circular deployment conditions (2.97 vs. 1.52 MPa). Furthermore, orientation of the TAVR in the asymmetric aortic annulus such that the commissures of the TAVR are aligned with the native valve commissures minimized the effect of TAVR stent distortion on peak stresses in the TAVR leaflets (2.97 vs. 2.35 MPa). We propose that preoperative planning of the orientation of the TAVR in the aortic root annulus might minimize the impact of potential stent distortion on leaflet function and may in turn increase long term leaflet durability. PMID:24912765

  6. Check valve

    DOEpatents

    Upton, Hubert Allen; Garcia, Pablo

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion.

  7. Check valve

    DOEpatents

    Upton, H.A.; Garcia, P.

    1999-08-24

    A check valve for use in a GDCS of a nuclear reactor and having a motor driven disk including a rotatable armature for rotating the check valve disk over its entire range of motion is described. In one embodiment, the check valve includes a valve body having a coolant flow channel extending therethrough. The coolant flow channel includes an inlet end and an outlet end. A valve body seat is located on an inner surface of the valve body. The check valve further includes a disk assembly, sometimes referred to as the motor driven disc, having a counterweight and a disk shaped valve. The disk valve includes a disk base having a seat for seating with the valve body seat. The disk assembly further includes a first hinge pin member which extends at least partially through the disk assembly and is engaged to the disk. The disk valve is rotatable relative to the first hinge pin member. The check valve also includes a motor having a stator frame with a stator bore therein. An armature is rotatably positioned within the stator bore and the armature is coupled to the disk valve to cause the disk valve to rotate about its full range of motion. 5 figs.

  8. Differential expression of cartilage and bone-related proteins in pediatric and adult diseased aortic valves

    PubMed Central

    Wirrig, Elaine E.; Hinton, Robert B.; Yutzey, Katherine E.

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 5 million people are affected with aortic valve disease (AoVD) in the United States. The most common treatment is aortic valve (AoV) replacement surgery, however, replacement valves are susceptible to failure, necessitating additional surgeries. The molecular mechanisms underlying disease progression and late AoV calcification are not well understood. Recent studies suggest that genes involved in bone and cartilage development play an active role in osteogenic-like calcification in human calcific AoVD (CAVD). In an effort to define the molecular pathways involved in AoVD progression and calcification, expression of markers of valve mesenchymal progenitors, chondrogenic precursors, and osteogenic differentiation was compared in pediatric non-calcified and adult calcified AoV specimens. Valvular interstitial cell (VIC) activation, extracellular matrix (ECM) disorganization, and markers of valve mesenchymal and skeletal chondrogenic progenitor cells were observed in both pediatric and adult AoVD. However, activated BMP signaling, increased expression of cartilage and bone-type collagens, and increased expression of the osteogenic marker Runx2 are observed in adult diseased AoVs and are not observed in the majority of pediatric diseased valves, representing a marked distinction in the molecular profile between pediatric and adult diseased AoVs. The combined evidence suggests that an actively regulated osteochondrogenic disease process underlies the pathological changes affecting AoVD progression, ultimately resulting in stenotic AoVD. Both pediatric and adult diseased AoVs express protein markers of valve mesenchymal and chondrogenic progenitor cells while adult diseased AoVs also express proteins involved in osteogenic calcification. These findings provide specific molecular indicators of AoVD progression, which may lead to identification of early disease markers and the development of potential therapeutics. PMID:21163264

  9. Cellular Changes during Renal Failure-Induced Inflammatory Aortic Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Mahmoud; Duvdevan, Nitsan; Meir, Karen; Beeri, Ronen; Lotan, Chaim

    2015-01-01

    Background Aortic valve calcification (AVC) secondary to renal failure (RF) is an inflammation-regulated process, but its pathogenesis remains unknown. We sought to assess the cellular processes that are involved in the early phases of aortic valve disease using a unique animal model of RF-associated AVC. Methods Aortic valves were obtained from rats that were fed a uremia-inducing diet exclusively for 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks as well as from controls. Pathological examination of the valves included histological characterization, von Kossa staining, and antigen expression analyses. Results After 2 weeks, we noted a significant increase in urea and creatinine levels, reflecting RF. RF parameters exacerbated until the Week 5 and plateaued. Whereas no histological changes or calcification was observed in the valves of any study group, macrophage accumulation became apparent as early as 2 weeks after the diet was started and rose after 3 weeks. By western blot, osteoblast markers were expressed after 2 weeks on the diet and decreased after 6 weeks. Collagen 3 was up-regulated after 3 weeks, plateauing at 4 weeks, whereas collagen 1 levels peaked at 2 and 4 weeks. Fibronectin levels increased gradually until Week 5 and decreased at 6 weeks. We observed early activation of the ERK pathway, whereas other pathways remained unchanged. Conclusions We concluded that RF induces dramatic changes at the cellular level, including macrophage accumulation, activation of cell signaling pathway and extracellular matrix modification. These changes precede valve calcification and may increase propensity for calcification, and have to be investigated further. PMID:26070132

  10. A three-dimensional co-culture model of the aortic valve using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hubert; Balaoing, Liezl R; Grigoryan, Bagrat; Raphael, Robert M; Killian, T C; Souza, Glauco R; Grande-Allen, K Jane

    2014-01-01

    The aortic valve consists of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) and endothelial cells (VECs). While these cells are understood to work synergistically to maintain leaflet structure and valvular function, few co-culture models of these cell types exist. In this study, aortic valve co-cultures (AVCCs) were assembled using magnetic levitation and cultured for 3 days. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were used to assess the maintenance of cellular phenotype and function, and the formation of extracellular matrix. AVCCs stained positive for CD31 and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), demonstrating that the phenotype was maintained. Functional markers endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), von Willebrand factor (VWF) and prolyl-4-hydroxylase were present. Extracellular matrix components collagen type I, laminin and fibronectin also stained positive, with reduced gene expression of these proteins in three dimensions compared to two dimensions. Genes for collagen type I, lysyl oxidase and αSMA were expressed less in AVCCs than in 2-D cultures, indicating that VICs are quiescent. Co-localization of CD31 and αSMA in the AVCCs suggests that endothelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation might be occurring. Differences in VWF and eNOS in VECs cultured in two and three dimensions also suggests that the AVCCs possibly have anti-thrombotic potential. Overall, a co-culture model of the aortic valve was designed, and serves as a basis for future experiments to understand heart valve biology. PMID:24036238

  11. Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Calcified Human Aortic Valves: A Histopathologic, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Study.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Sciangula, Alfonso; Aquila, Saveria; Mazzulla, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    The hallmarks of calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) are the significant quantitative and qualitative changes that occur in the extracellular matrix (ECM), which ultimately lead to increased leaflet stiffness and obstruction of left ventricular outflow. Mounting evidence suggests that ECM remodeling not only contribute to valve cell dysfunction but also alter certain cell signaling pathways responsible for the initiation and progression of the disease state. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), collectively called matrixins, are a family of enzymes known to participate in numerous ECM remodeling events during embryonic development and in disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether changes in MMP-9 expression might be involved in the pathophysiology of CAVD. For this purpose, we have analyzed a total of 19 pathologic valves from patients who underwent aortic valve replacement for calcific aortic stenosis. Microscopically, the cusp tissue showed diffuse fibrosis, neovascularization, and abnormal ECM remodeling with collagen disorganization and mineralization. Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses have been performed on both the areas overlying and remote from the mineral deposits. Protein expression data evidenced a significant upregulation of MMP-9 in the calcified lesion area. Consistent with these observations, immunohistochemistry demonstrated that MMP-9 protein was almost exclusively localized near or around the mineralized nodules, whereas was generally quite weak or absent in areas devoid of any calcification. Our data suggest that MMP-9 may play a key role in CAVD probably by promoting the fibrotic and procalcific remodeling of the ECM. PMID:25390353

  12. A New Cone-Shaped Aortic Valve Prosthesis for Orthotopic Position: An Experimental Study in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Sochman, Jan; Peregrin, Jan H.; Pulda, Zdenek; Pavcnik, Dusan; Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Roesch, Josef

    2010-04-15

    The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate a newly designed cone-shaped aortic valve prosthesis (CAVP) for one-step transcatheter placement in an orthotopic position. The study was conducted in 15 swine using either the transcarotid (11 animals) or the transfemoral (4 animals) artery approach. A 12- or 13-Fr sheath was inserted via arterial cutdown. The CAVP was deployed under fluoroscopic control and its struts, by design, induced significant native valve insufficiency. CAVP function was evaluated by aortography and aortic pressure curve tracing. In 11 of 15 swine the CAVP was properly deployed and functioned well throughout the scheduled period of 2-3 h. In three swine the CAVPs were placed lower than intended, however, they were functional even in the left ventricular outflow tract position. One swine expired due to inadvertent low CAVP placement that caused both aortic regurgitation and immobilization of the anterior mitral valve leaflet by the valve struts. We conclude that this design of CAVP is relatively easy to deploy, works well throughout a short time period (2-3 h), and, moreover, seems to be reliable even in a lower-than-orthotopic position (e.g., infra-annulary space). Longer-term studies are needed for its further evaluation.

  13. Loss of Gata5 in mice leads to bicuspid aortic valve

    PubMed Central

    Laforest, Brigitte; Andelfinger, Gregor; Nemer, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), the leading congenital heart disease, occurs in 1%–2% of the population. Genetic studies suggest that BAV is an autosomal-dominant disease with reduced penetrance. However, only 1 gene, NOTCH1, has been linked to cases of BAV. Here, we show that targeted deletion of Gata5 in mice leads to hypoplastic hearts and partially penetrant BAV formation. Endocardial cell–specific inactivation of Gata5 led to BAV, similar to that observed in Gata5–/– mice. In all cases, the observed BAVs resulted from fusion of the right-coronary and noncoronary leaflets, the subtype associated with the more severe valve dysfunction in humans. Neither endocardial cell proliferation nor cushion formation was altered in the absence of Gata5. Rather, defective endocardial cell differentiation, resulting from the deregulation of several components of the Notch pathway and other important endocardial cell regulators, may be the underlying mechanism of disease. The results unravel a critical cell-autonomous role for endocardial Gata5 in aortic valve formation and identify GATA5 as a potential gene responsible for congenital heart disease in humans. Mice with mutated Gata5 alleles represent unique models to dissect the mechanisms underlying degenerative aortic valve disease and to develop much-needed preventive and therapeutic interventions. PMID:21633169

  14. Aortic Valve Cyclic Stretch Causes Increased Remodeling Activity and Enhanced Serotonin Receptor Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, Kartik; Bakay, Marina A.; Connolly, Jeanne M.; Zhang, Xuemei; Yoganathan, Ajit P.; Levy, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased serotonin(5HT) receptor(5HTR) signaling has been associated with cardiac valvulopathy. Prior cell culture studies of 5HTR signaling in heart valve interstitial cells have provided mechanistic insights concerning only static conditions. We investigated the hypothesis that aortic valve biomechanics participate in the regulation of both 5HTR expression and inter-related extracellular matrix remodeling events. Methods The effects of cyclic-stretch on aortic valve 5HTR, expression, signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling were investigated using a tensile stretch bioreactor in studies which also compared the effects of adding 5HT and/or the 5HT-transporter inhibitor, Fluoxetine. Results Cyclic-stretch alone increased both proliferation and collagen in porcine aortic valve cusp samples. However, with cyclic-stretch, unlike static conditions, 5HT plus Fluoxetine caused the greatest increase in proliferation (p<0.0001), and also caused significant increases in collagen(p<0.0001) and glycosaminoglycans (p<0.0001). DNA microarray data demonstrated upregulation of 5HTR2A and 5HTR2B (>4.5 fold) for cyclic-stretch versus static (p<0.001), while expression of the 5HT transporter was not changed significantly. Extracellular matrix genes (eg. Collagen Types I,II,III, and proteoglycans) were also upregulated by cyclic-stretch. Conclusions Porcine aortic valve cusp samples subjected to cyclic stretch upregulate 5HTR2A and 2B, and also initiate remodeling activity characterized by increased proliferation and collagen production. Importantly, enhanced 5HTR responsiveness, due to increased 5HTR2A and 2B expression, results in a significantly greater response in remodeling endpoints (proliferation, collagen and GAG production) to 5HT in the presence of 5HT transporter blockade. PMID:21718840

  15. Pulmonary autograft replacement of the bicuspid aortic valve: a successful surgical option for young adults.

    PubMed

    Santini, F; Gatti, G; Prioli, A; Mazzucco, A; Santini, F; Gatti, G; Prioli, A; Mazzucco, A

    1999-10-31

    A severely dysfunctioning congenitally bicuspid aortic valve may require surgical treatment within the fourth decade of life. Among conventional options, the pulmonary autograft (PA) offers many theoretical advantages particularly for young patients, including potential for growth, hemodynamic performance, no need for anticoagulants and freedom from endocarditis. However the operation is more complex and longer, may interfere with coronary and right ventricular anatomy and function and may expose the patient to the downside of two valves at risk. Aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the mid-term results achieved with the PA performed in adolescents and young adults with a bicuspid aortic valve. Between July 94 and June 98, 26 patients, 22 males and four females, with a mean age of 24+/-10 years (range, 11 to 38), underwent bicuspid aortic valve replacement with a pulmonary autograft (stenosis 2-8%; insufficiency 13-50%; combined 11-42%). Eight patients (31%) were in NYHA FC I, 17 (65%) in II, and 1 (4%) in III. Mean preoperative ejection fraction was 67+/-7%. Three patients (11.5%) had a past medical history of endocarditis (healed in all) and in two the PA was a re-do procedure. The PA was inserted as a subcoronary implant in one case (4%) and utilized as a root in the remaining 25 (96%). The right ventricular outflow tract was reconstructed with a cryopreserved pulmonary homograft conduit in all cases. Mean cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamp times were 204+/-50 min (range, 174 to 300) and 157+/-35 min (range, 133 to 193) respectively. No early or late deaths had occurred at a mean follow-up of 22.5 months (range, 5 to 47.5). The first patient in the series (4%) was reexplored for bleeding and needed transfusions. The subsequent routine use medical and surgical strategies resulted in no further need for postoperative reexploration, and successful containment of total postoperative blood loss (<350 ml/m2BSA). 2-D Echo evaluation of neo-aortic valve competence at 6 months, revealed no evidence of aortic valve regurgitation in 17 (65%), trivial regurgitation in seven (27%), mild in one (4%) and mild-to-moderate in one (4%). The latter patient (subcoronary implant PA) required reoperation. At six months, the mean degree of regression of left ventricular mass compared to pre-operative data, was 36% (333+/-94 to 212+/-60 gr, p<0.05). All patients are asymptomatic, in NYHA FC I, and enjoy normal social interaction. In conclusion, PA root implantation can be offered as a low-risk alternative to conventional prosthetic aortic valve replacement to adolescents and young adults with a bicuspid aortic valve. The routine achievement of blood loss containment has minimized the risk of transfusion thus contributing to expand the indication in young patients. Continued patients evaluation particularly with regard to evidence of neo-aortic valve degeneration, root dilatation and homograft dysfunction in the long term is warranted. PMID:10574395

  16. Inclusion cylinder method for aortic valve replacement utilising the Ross operation in adults with predominant aortic stenosis – 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Skillington, Peter D.; Mokhles, M. Mostafa; Wilson, William; Grigg, Leeanne; Larobina, Marco; O'Keefe, Michael; Takkenberg, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Background: To report our experience with the Ross operation in patients with predominant aortic stenosis (AS) using an inclusion cylinder (IC) method. Methods: Out of 324 adults undergoing a Ross operation, 204 patients of mean age of 41.3 years (limits 16–62) underwent this procedure for either AS or mixed AS and regurgitation (AS/AR) between October, 1992 and February, 2012, implanting the PA with an IC method. Clinical follow up and serial echo data for this group is 97% complete with late mortality follow up 99% complete. Results: There has been zero (0%) early mortality, and late survival at 15 years is 98% (96%, 100%). Only one re-operation on the aortic valve for progressive aortic regurgitation (AR) has been required with freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years being 99% (96%, 100%). The freedom from all re-operations on the aortic and pulmonary valves at 15 years is 97% (94%, 100%). Echo analysis at the most recent study shows that 98% have nil, trivial or mild AR. Aortic root size has remained stable, shown by long-term (15 year) echo follow up. Conclusions: In an experience spanning 19 years, the Ross operation used for predominant AS using the IC method described, results in 99% freedom from re-operation on the aortic valve at 15 years, better than any other tissue or mechanical valve. For adults under 65 years without significant co-morbidities who present with predominant AS, the pulmonary autograft inserted with this technique gives excellent results. PMID:24749112

  17. Complete translocation of the aortic root and coronary bypass grafting with a microporous polyurethane (Mitrathane) composite valved graft in the treatment of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mestres, C A; Ninot, S; Pomar, J L

    1986-01-01

    The case of a 20-year-old male patient, with a history of addiction to parenteral heroin and recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis, is presented. In this case the final procedure consisted of a complete translocation of the aortic root and coronary bypass grafting with a composite graft made from a microporous polyurethane (Mitrathane) cardiac patch, a prosthetic valve and two Mitrathane vascular grafts for the coronaries. This is a complex operation, only indicated in cases of extensive destruction of the aortic root due to recurrent endocarditis. To our knowledge, it is the first case of this type performed using Mitrathane. PMID:3494169

  18. Fluid Dynamics of Coarctation of the Aorta and Effect of Bicuspid Aortic Valve

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz-Motamed, Zahra; Garcia, Julio; Kadem, Lyes

    2013-01-01

    Up to 80% of patients with coarctation of the aorta (COA) have a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV). Patients with COA and BAV have elevated risks of aortic complications despite successful surgical repair. The development of such complications involves the interplay between the mechanical forces applied on the artery and the biological processes occurring at the cellular level. The focus of this study is on hemodynamic modifications induced in the aorta in the presence of a COA and a BAV. For this purpose, numerical investigations and magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted with different configurations: (1) normal: normal aorta and normal aortic valve; (2) isolated COA: aorta with COA (75% reduction by area) and normal aortic valve; (3) complex COA: aorta with the same severity of COA (75% reduction by area) and BAV. The results show that the coexistence of COA and BAV significantly alters blood flow in the aorta with a significant increase in the maximal velocity, secondary flow, pressure loss, time-averaged wall shear stress and oscillatory shear index downstream of the COA. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of why patients with complex COA have adverse outcome even following a successful surgery. PMID:24015239

  19. Early transcatheter valve dysfunction after transapical mitral valve-in-valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Baldizon, Isabel; Espinoza, Andres; Kuntze, Thomas; Girdauskas, Evaldas

    2016-04-01

    Some patients who underwent previous mitral valve surgery experience bioprosthetic valve degeneration or recurrent mitral valve regurgitation, and the transcatheter valve-in-valve or valve-in-ring procedure is a promising therapeutic option. Early thrombotic complications have been recently reported in 0.6-0.8% of TAVI prostheses implanted in aortic position. To the best of our knowledge, this article reports on the first case of thrombotic transcatheter mitral valve dysfunction which occurred on oral anticoagulation with Coumadin in combination with antiplatelet therapy. Although it is quite a rare complication, early thrombotic dysfunction of transcatheter valve prosthesis may occur. PMID:27002016

  20. Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the need for heart valve surgery. Percutaneous Interventions Balloon valvuloplasty is a procedure that may be used ... procedure works on valves in the same way balloon angioplasty does on the arteries. Like angioplasty, it ...

  1. The impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on patients' profiles and outcomes of aortic valve surgery programmes: a multi-institutional appraisal†

    PubMed Central

    D'Onofrio, Augusto; Alfieri, Ottavio R.; Cioni, Micaela; Alamanni, Francesco; Fusari, Melissa; Tarzia, Vincenzo; Rizzoli, Giulio; Gerosa, Gino

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this retrospective multicenter study was to assess how the development of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) influenced the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing aortic valve procedures. METHODS We reviewed 1395 patients who underwent isolated surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or TAVI in three centres with a high-volume TAVI programme. Patients were divided into two groups: ‘Pre-TAVI’ (395 patients, 28.3%) and ‘Post-TAVI’ (1000 patients, 71.7%) operated on before and after the introduction of TAVI into clinical practice. We evaluated age, logistic EuroSCORE I (LES) and hospital mortality according to time periods and the procedure performed, whether SAVR or TAVI. RESULTS ‘Post-TAVI’ patients were older (78.2 ± 7.8 vs 76.8 ± 6.7 years; P = 0.002) and with a significantly higher LES (17.8 ± 14.7 vs 9.1 ± 9.2%; P < 0.001) than ‘Pre-TAVI’ patients. Hospital mortality was not significantly different between groups (‘Pre-TAVI’ vs ‘Post-TAVI’: 2 vs 3.4%; P = 0.17). Of the 1000 ‘Post-TAVI’ patients, 605 (60.5%) underwent TAVI and 395 (39.5%), SAVR. Patients undergoing TAVI were older (79.9 ± 7.1 vs 75.5 ± 9.2 years; P < 0.001) and with a higher LES (22.9 ± 15.3 vs 9.7 ± 9.3%; P < 0.001) than ‘Post-TAVI’ SAVR patients, but their hospital mortality was similar (3.9 vs 2.5%; P = 0.22). LES was similar between ‘Pre-TAVI’ and ‘Post-TAVI’ SAVR patients (9.1 ± 9.2 vs 9.7 ± 9.3%; P = 0.26). Furthermore, we did not find significant differences in the overall hospital mortality between SAVR and TAVI patients: 2.3 vs 3.9%, P = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS This analysis shows that the development of TAVI has caused an increase in the preoperative risk profile of patients scheduled for aortic valve procedures (SAVR or TAVI) without increasing hospital mortality. PMID:23360714

  2. Influence of beta-blocker therapy on aortic blood flow in patients with bicuspid aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bradley D; Markl, Michael; Barker, Alex J; van Ooij, Pim; Carr, James C; Malaisrie, S Chris; McCarthy, Patrick; Bonow, Robert O; Kansal, Preeti

    2016-04-01

    In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV), beta-blockers (BB) are assumed to slow ascending aorta (AAo) dilation by reducing wall shear stress (WSS) on the aneurysmal segment. The aim of this study was to assess differences in AAo peak velocity and WSS in BAV patients with and without BB therapy. BAV patients receiving BB (BB+, n = 30, age: 47 ± 11 years) or not on BB (BB-, n = 30, age: 46 ± 13 years) and healthy controls (n = 15, age: 43 ± 11 years) underwent 4D flow MRI for the assessment of in vivo aortic 3D blood flow. Peak systolic velocities and 3D WSS were calculated at the anterior and posterior walls of the AAo. Both patient groups had higher maximum and mean WSS relative to the control group (p = 0.001 to p = 0.04). WSS was not reduced in the BB+ group compared to BB- patients in the anterior AAo (maximum: 1.49 ± 0.47 vs. 1.38 ± 0.49 N/m(2), p = 0.99, mean: 0.76 ± 0.2 vs. 0.74 ± 0.18 N/m(2), p = 1.00) or posterior AAo (maximum: 1.45 ± 0.42 vs. 1.39 ± 0.58 N/m(2), p = 1.00; mean: 0.65 ± 0.16 vs. 0.63 ± 0.16 N/m(2), p = 1.00). AAo peak velocity was elevated in patients compared to controls (p < 0.01) but similar for BB+ and BB- groups (p = 0.42). Linear models identified significant relationships between aortic stenosis severity and increased maximum WSS (β = 0.186, p = 0.007) and between diameter at the sinus of Valsalva and reduced mean WSS (β = -0.151, p = 0.045). Peak velocity and systolic WSS were similar for BAV patients irrespective of BB therapy. Further prospective studies are needed to investigate the impact of dosage and duration of BB therapy on aortic hemodynamics and development of aortopathy. PMID:26817758

  3. Challenges in valve-in-valve therapy

    PubMed Central

    Noorani, Alia; Radia, Rahee

    2015-01-01

    At present, the majority of surgical heart valves (SHVs) implanted are bioprosthetic valves. Over time however, these are prone to structural deterioration, which may manifest as valvular stenosis, regurgitation or a combination of the two. Re-operation is the current standard of care for these patients but this itself carries a significant risk of mortality and morbidity. As a natural extension of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), now an evidence based solution for severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients, valve-in-valve (VIV) therapy is evolving into an alternative option in selected patients with structural biological valvular deterioration in all four-valve positions. The first of these VIV procedures was performed in Germany in 2007, for failing aortic valve prosthesis and later, reported in other positions. As with any novel emerging therapy, there is a learning curve to the procedure and the operator must be aware of the potential challenges. In this review we describe some of these challenges with the aim of providing awareness as well as guidance on attaining a successful outcome. PMID:26543595

  4. Coronary Artery Disease and Outcomes of Aortic Valve Replacement for Severe Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Beach, Jocelyn M.; Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Svensson, Lars G.; Rajeswaran, Jeevanantham; Marwick, Thomas; Griffin, Brian; Johnston, Douglas R.; Sabik, Joseph F.; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We contrast risk profiles and compare outcomes of patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) and coronary artery bypass grafting (AS+CABG) with those of patients with isolated AS who underwent AVR alone. Background In patients with severe AS, CAD is often an incidental finding with underappreciated survival implications. Methods From 10/1991–7/2010, 2,286 patients underwent AVR+CABG and 1,637 AVR alone. A propensity score was developed and used for matched comparisons of outcomes (1,082 patient pairs). Analyses of long-term mortality were performed for each group, then combined to identify common and unique risk factors. Results Patients with AS+CAD vs. isolated AS were older, more symptomatic, more likely to be hypertensive, had lower ejection fraction and greater arteriosclerotic burden, but less severe AS. Hospital morbidity and long-term survival were poorer (43% vs. 59% at 10 years). Both groups shared many mortality risk factors; however, early risk among AS+CAD patients reflected effects of CAD; late risk reflected diastolic left ventricular dysfunction expressed as ventricular hypertrophy and left atrial enlargement. Patients with isolated AS and few comorbidities had the best outcome, those with CAD without myocardial damage had intermediate outcome equivalent to propensity-matched isolated AS patients, and those with CAD, myocardial damage, and advanced comorbidities had the worst outcome. Conclusions Cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities must be considered in managing patients with severe AS. Patients with severe AS and CAD risk factors should undergo early diagnostics and AVR+CABG before ischemic myocardial damage occurs. PMID:23428216

  5. Caval-Aortic Access to Allow Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients Otherwise Ineligible: Initial Human Experience

    PubMed Central

    Greenbaum, Adam B.; O’Neill, William W.; Paone, Gaetano; Guerrero, Mayra E.; Wyman, Janet F.; Cooper, R. Lebron; Lederman, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We describe the first use of caval-aortic access and closure to enable transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients who lacked other access options. Caval-aortic access refers to percutaneous entry into the abdominal aorta from the femoral vein through the adjoining inferior vena cava. Background TAVR is attractive in high risk or inoperable patients with severe aortic stenosis. Available transcatheter valves require large introducer sheaths, which risk major vascular complications or preclude TAVR altogether. Caval-aortic access has been successful in animals. Methods We performed a single center retrospective review of procedural and 30-day outcomes of prohibitive-risk patients undergoing TAVR via caval-aortic access. Results Between July 2013 and January 2014, 19 patients underwent TAVR via caval-aortic access. 79% were women. Caval-aortic access and tract closure was successful in all 19; TAVR was successful in 17. Six patients suffered modified VARC-2 major vascular complications, two (11%) of whom required intervention. Most (79%) required blood transfusion. There were no deaths attributable to caval-aortic access. Through 111 (39–229) days of follow up, there were no post-discharge complications related to tract creation or closure. All patients had persistent aorto-caval flow immediately post procedure. Of 16 who underwent repeat imaging after the first week, 15 (94%) had complete closure of the residual aorto-caval tract. Conclusions Percutaneous transcaval venous access to the aorta allows TAVR in otherwise ineligible patients, and may offer a new access strategy for other applications requiring large transcatheter implants. PMID:24814495

  6. HIF-1α and VEGF: Immunohistochemical Profile and Possible Function in Human Aortic Valve Stenosis.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Moraca, Francesca Maria; Sciangula, Alfonso; Aquila, Saveria; Mazzulla, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Calcific aortic stenosis (CAS) is the most common valvular disease in Western countries. Histological findings in patients with CAS extremely resemble those of atherosclerosis and include accumulation and modification of lipoproteins, inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, and calcification. Angiogenesis is another prominent feature of CAS; however, there is only a limited amount of data available regarding the mechanisms behind the pathological neovascularization of a structure that is originally avascular. The present study aims to identify the molecular basis that regulates blood vessel growth in stenotic aortic valves, focusing on the role of HIF-1α and VEGF pathway. A total of 19 native degenerating aortic valves obtained at valve replacement surgery have been processed for Western blot, immunohistochemical, morphometric, and ultrastructural analyses. First, we have demonstrated the adverse ECM remodeling and the significant thickening of the leaflet also showing that HIF-1α and VEGF are significantly upregulated in the stenotic valves, are locally produced and colocalize with angiogenesis and areas of calcification. Next, we have characterized, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the morphological features of the neovasculature evidencing the presence of intact blood vessels in close proximity to the mineralized zones. These results suggest that the complex structural remodeling of the matrix might reduce oxygen availability in the valve cusp contributing to the stabilization of HIF-1α that in turn induces a metabolic adaptation through the upregulation of VEGF and the formation of new blood vessels not only to overcome the hypoxic state but also to sustain the calcification process. PMID:25569379

  7. Simulation of transcatheter aortic valve implantation: a patient-specific finite element approach.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, F; Conti, M; Morganti, S; Reali, A

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, heart valve failure has been treated adopting open-heart surgical techniques and cardiopulmonary bypass. However, over the last decade, minimally invasive procedures have been developed to avoid high risks associated with conventional open-chest valve replacement techniques. Such a recent and innovative procedure represents an optimal field for conducting investigations through virtual computer-based simulations: in fact, nowadays, computational engineering is widely used to unravel many problems in the biomedical field of cardiovascular mechanics and specifically, minimally invasive procedures. In this study, we investigate a balloon-expandable valve and we propose a novel simulation strategy to reproduce its implantation using computational tools. Focusing on the Edwards SAPIEN valve in particular, we simulate both stent crimping and deployment through balloon inflation. The developed procedure enabled us to obtain the entire prosthetic device virtually implanted in a patient-specific aortic root created by processing medical images; hence, it allows evaluation of postoperative prosthesis performance depending on different factors (e.g. device size and prosthesis placement site). Notably, prosthesis positioning in two different cases (distal and proximal) has been examined in terms of coaptation area, average stress on valve leaflets as well as impact on the aortic root wall. The coaptation area is significantly affected by the positioning strategy (- 24%, moving from the proximal to distal) as well as the stress distribution on both the leaflets (+13.5%, from proximal to distal) and the aortic wall (- 22%, from proximal to distal). No remarkable variations of the stress state on the stent struts have been obtained in the two investigated cases. PMID:23402555

  8. Thromboinflammatory response and predictors of outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Sexton, Travis R; Wallace, Eric L; Chen, Amy; Charnigo, Richard J; Reda, Hassan K; Ziada, Khaled M; Gurley, John C; Smyth, Susan S

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has been increasingly used to treat patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. Despite improvements in valve deployment, patients that have undergone TAVR are at high risk for major adverse events following the procedure. Blood cell numbers, platelet function, and biomarkers of systemic inflammation were analyzed in 58 patients undergoing TAVR with the Edward's SAPIEN valve. Following valve deployment, platelet count and agonist-induced platelet activity declined and plasma markers of systemic inflammation (interleukin-6 and S100A8/A9) increased. Baseline platelet activity prior to TAVR correlated with perioperative changes plasma interleukin-6 levels. Moreover, perioperative changes in plasma inflammatory markers predicted the decline in platelet count in the days following the TAVR procedure. Additionally, a significant effect of gender on platelet count following TAVR and was observed. Finally, post-procedural mortality was associated with sustained thrombocytopenia after TAVR. Our findings suggest that TAVR elicits a thromboinflammatory state that may contribute to post-procedural thrombocytopenia. Importantly, our results add to the growing body of literature that suggests the thromboinflammatory changes that occur early after TAVR may predict long-term outcomes. PMID:26743061

  9. Pre - Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Workup in the Cardiac Catheterisation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Sarah; Gooley, Robert; McCormick, Liam; Harper, Richard; Meredith, Ian T

    2015-12-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a rapidly evolving field with exponential growth worldwide in TAVI numbers. One of the principle methods in improving outcomes with a new technique such as TAVI is to ensure that patients undergo efficient pre-procedural evaluation. Standard TAVI workup includes clinical assessment, surgical and frailty risk scoring, blood investigations, echocardiography, pulmonary function tests, computed tomography (CT) angiography and cardiac catheterisation. Patients sent to the cardiac catheterisation laboratory (CCL) for TAVI workup require a systematic and thorough approach. This can include iliofemoral angiography, aortography, aortic valve crossing, haemodynamic evaluation, coronary angiography and right heart catheterisation. In addition, several key steps are required to evaluate suitability for the percutaneous transfemoral TAVI approach. This is the first review to systematically describe steps to evaluate pre-TAVI patients in the CCL. Due to the rapidly rising TAVI numbers, this workup will likely be performed not only by TAVI operators but also by the general interventional cardiologist. PMID:26361818

  10. Aortic valve myxoma at the extreme age: a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Arshad; Zalawadiya, Sandip; Kovach, Julie; Afonso, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumours are a rare finding, with cardiac myxoma and fibroelastoma representing the majority of these tumours. Cardiac myxomas are most commonly found in the left atrium but are rarely found with attachment to the cardiac valves. The authors describe a case of aortic myxoma found in an 81-year-old man presented with peripheral arterial disease. CT angiogram of the thorax was performed to find the source of emboli and it showed a mass attached to the aortic valve and protruding into the aorta. Details of the location and texture were studied on transoesophageal echocardiography. Preoperative coronary angiography showed coronary artery disease and the patient underwent successful coronary artery bypass grafting and simultaneous resection of the mass. Histopathology revealed the mass as a myxoma. PMID:24642215

  11. Localization and tracking of aortic valve prosthesis in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karar, M.; Chalopin, C.; Merk, D. R.; Jacobs, S.; Walther, T.; Burgert, O.; Falk, V.

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a new method for localization and tracking of the aortic valve prosthesis (AVP) in 2D fluoroscopic image sequences to assist the surgeon to reach the safe zone of implantation during transapical aortic valve implantation. The proposed method includes four main steps: First, the fluoroscopic images are preprocessed using a morphological reconstruction and an adaptive Wiener filter to enhance the AVP edges. Second, a target window, defined by a user on the first image of the sequences which includes the AVP, is tracked in all images using a template matching algorithm. In a third step the corners of the AVP are extracted based on the AVP dimensions and orientation in the target window. Finally, the AVP model is generated in the fluoroscopic image sequences. Although the proposed method is not yet validated intraoperatively, it has been applied to different fluoroscopic image sequences with promising results.

  12. [Non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis of the aortic valve in a young woman].

    PubMed

    Bazán, Víctor; Evangelista, Arturo; Avegliano, Gustavo; González, M Teresa; Elorz, Cristina; García del Castillo, Herminio

    2002-12-01

    A 40-year-old woman without heart disease suffered two embolic episodes in both legs due to a thrombus of the aortic valve. Transesophageal echocardiography performed after the first episode was considered normal, but a second study performed after the second embolism demonstrated a thrombus in the non-coronary leaflet that failed to resolve with the intravenous administration of heparin for two weeks. Surgical excision of the mass revealed a thrombus on an otherwise healthy aortic valve. The case is interesting because it is an exceptional cause of systemic embolism and the patient did not present a prothrombotic status in coagulation studies. The 3 years of follow-up was uneventful. PMID:12459084

  13. Cardiac Hemodynamics in the Pathogenesis of Congenital Heart Disease and Aortic Valve Calcification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigam, Vishal

    2011-11-01

    An improved understanding of the roles of hemodynamic forces play in cardiac development and the pathogenesis of cardiac disease will have significant scientific and clinical impact. I will focus on the role of fluid dynamics in congenital heart disease and aortic valve calcification. Congenital heart defects are the most common form of birth defect. Aortic valve calcification/stenosis is the third leading cause of adult heart disease and the most common form of acquired valvular disease in developed countries. Given the high incidence of these diseases and their associated morbidity and mortality, the potential translational impact of an improved understanding of cardiac hemodynamic forces is very large. Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego

  14. Left ventricular apical papillary fibroelastoma resection via mediastinoscope through the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Toeg, Hadi Daood; Cusimano, Robert James

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes a novel minimally invasive technique for complete resection of a cardiac papillary fibroelastoma by directly visualizing the mass via an intraoperative mediastinoscope placed through the aortic valve. A 68-year-old man presented to the emergency department with two episodes of transient ischemic attack. Echocardiography demonstrated a pedunculated, mobile mass in the left ventricular apex. Cardiac surgery was consulted, and complete resection of the fibroelastoma was carried out by inserting a mediastinoscope through the aortic valve and into the left ventricle, whereby the mass was directly visualized and excised with biopsy forceps. There were no postoperative complications, and at 1-year follow-up, the patient had no further evidence of embolic events. PMID:23422811

  15. Heart valve surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Valve replacement; Valve repair; Heart valve prosthesis; Mechanical valves, Prosthetic valves ... place. The main types of new valves are: Mechanical -- made of man-made materials, such as metal ( ...

  16. Quantification of biomechanical interaction of transcatheter aortic valve stent deployed in porcine and ovine hearts.

    PubMed

    Mummert, Joseph; Sirois, Eric; Sun, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Success of the deployment and function in transcatheter aortic valve replacement is heavily reliant on the tissue-stent interaction. The present study quantified important tissue-stent contact variables of self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve stents when deployed into ovine and porcine aortic roots, such as the stent radial expansion force, stent pullout force, the annulus deformation response and the coefficient of friction on the tissue-stent contact interface. Braided Nitinol stents were developed, tested to determine stent crimped diameter vs. stent radial force from a stent crimp experiment, and deployed in vitro to quantify stent pullout, aortic annulus deformation, and the coefficient of friction between the stent and the aortic tissue from an aortic root-stent interaction experiment. The results indicated that when crimped at body temperature from 26 mm to 19, 21 and 23 mm stent radial forces were approximately 30-40% higher than those crimped at room temperature. Coefficients of friction leveled to approximately 0.10 ± 0.01 as stent wire diameter increased and annulus size decreased from 23 to 19 mm. Regardless of aortic annulus size and species tested, it appeared that a minimum of about 2.5 mm in annular dilatation, caused by about 60 N of radial force from stent expansion, was needed to anchor the stent against a pullout into the left ventricle. The study of the contact biomechanics in animal aortic tissues may help us better understand characteristics of tissue-stent interactions and quantify the baseline responses of non-calcified aortic tissues. PMID:23161165

  17. Lagrangian coherent structures and turbulence characteristics downstream of prosthetic aortic valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Tullio, Marco D.

    2015-11-01

    The flowfield through prosthetic heart valves is investigated by means of direct numerical simulations, considering the fully coupled fluid-structure interaction problem. Two different aortic valve models are modeled: a bileaflet mechanical and a biological one. In order to reveal fluid flow structures and to better understand the transport mechanics, Lagrangian coherent structures (LCS) are used. LCS are distinguished material surfaces that can be identified as boundaries to regions with dynamically distinct behavior, and are revealed as hypersurfaces that locally maximize the finite-time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) fields. Post-processing the flow simulation data, first FTLE fields are calculated integrating dense meshes of Lagrangian particles backward in time, and then attracting LCS are extracted. A three-jet configuration is distinctive of bi-leaflet mechanical valves, with higher turbulent shear stresses immediately distal to the valve leaflets, while a jet-like flow emerges from the central orifice of bio-prosthetic valves, with high turbulent shear stresses occurring at the edge of the jet. Details of the numerical methodology along with a thorough analysis of the different flow structures developing during the cardiac cycle for the two configurations will be provided.

  18. The Early Variation of Left Ventricular Strain after Aortic Valve Replacement by Three-Dimensional Echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Leilei; Fan, Li; Wang, Chunsheng; Shu, Xianhong

    2015-01-01

    Aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic incompetence (AI) are common aortic valve diseases. Both may deteriorate into irreversible myocardial dysfunction and will increase the risk of sudden death. In this study, we aimed to investigate the early variation trend of left ventricular function by three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3D-STE) in the patients who underwent cardiac surgeries for aortic valve disease. Twenty patients with severe aortic AS and 16 patients with severe AI were enrolled. All of them underwent the aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures. The patients’ global longitudinal strain (GLS) and global circumferential strain (GCS) were evaluated by 3D-STE before surgery and at 1 week after surgery. In addition, GLS and GCS were followed at 1 month as well as 3 months after AVR. In AS patients, the GCS after AVR altered little both at 1 week (p = 0.562) and at 1 month (p = 0.953) compared with the data before the surgery. And it increased significantly at 3 months of follow-up observation compared to that before AVR (p<0.05). Meanwhile, GLS increased progressively after AVR and improved significantly at 3 months after surgery (p<0.05). For the AI patients, GLS as well as GCS decreased at 1 week after AVR compared to those data at baseline (p<0.05). However, these two parameters recovered at 1 month after AVR. Furthermore, GLS and GCS improved significantly at 3 months after the surgery (p<0.05). Therefore, both GLS and GCS were influenced by AVR and would be improved at 3 months after surgery both in AS patients or AI patients. GLS and GCS can be finely evaluated by 3D-STE, and they are helpful to determine the variation tendency of left ventricular function in patients with AVR. PMID:26473730

  19. Artificial aortic valve dysfunction due to pannus and thrombus – different methods of cardiac surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Marcinkiewicz, Anna; Kośmider, Anna; Walczak, Andrzej; Zwoliński, Radosław; Jaszewski, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 60 000 prosthetic valves are implanted annually in the USA. The risk of prosthesis dysfunction ranges from 0.1% to 4% per year. Prosthesis valve dysfunction is usually caused by a thrombus obstructing the prosthetic discs. However, 10% of prosthetic valves are dysfunctional due to pannus formation, and 12% of prostheses are damaged by both fibrinous and thrombotic components. The authors present two patients with dysfunctional aortic prostheses who were referred for cardiac surgery. Different surgical solutions were used in the treatment of each case. Case study 1 The first patient was a 71-year-old woman whose medical history included arterial hypertension, stable coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and hypercholesterolemia; she had previously undergone left-sided mastectomy and radiotherapy. The patient was admitted to the Cardiac Surgery Department due to aortic prosthesis dysfunction. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed complete obstruction of one disc and a severe reduction in the mobility of the second. The mean transvalvular gradient was very high. During the operation, pannus covering the discs’ surface was found. A biological aortic prosthesis was reimplanted without complications. Case study 2 The second patient was an 87-year-old woman with arterial hypertension, persistent atrial fibrillation, and COPD, whose past medical history included gastric ulcer disease and ischemic stroke. As in the case of the first patient, she was admitted due to valvular prosthesis dysfunction. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiography revealed an obstruction of the posterior prosthetic disc and significant aortic regurgitation. Transesophageal echocardiography and fluoroscopy confirmed the prosthetic dysfunction. During the operation, a thrombus growing around a minor pannus was found. The thrombus and pannus were removed, and normal functionality of the prosthetic valve was restored. Conclusions Precise and modern diagnostic methods facilitated selection of the treatment method. However, the intraoperative view also seems to be crucial in individualizing the surgical approach. PMID:26702274

  20. Aorto-pulmonary fistula accompanied by root abscess and destruction of native aortic valve caused by brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis endocarditis is a zoonosis infection of cardiovascular system with world-wide distribution, which is endemic in many provinces of the Iran. The present report describes an exceptional case of fistulization between the aorta and pulmonary artery by Brucella melitensis in a 34-year-old patient. He presented with the complaints of fever and weight loss and congestive heart failure. He was strongly positive for Brucellosis by serological reaction and conventional microbiological cultures from blood and valve tissue were positive. Echocardiography revealed aortic root abscess, cavity formation in aortic ring, large vegetation and native aortic valve destruction with aortic regurgitation and fistula from non-coronary sinus to pulmonary artery and pericarditis. The patient underwent open heart surgery with aortic valve replacement and transpulmonary fistula repair. The patient had uneven full postoperative recovery and with good general condition discharged to home in 16th days of hospitalization. PMID:26322294

  1. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  2. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  3. Mitroaortic valve replacement after aortic transapical approach failure in a patient with essential thrombocytosis.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Martin, Maria A; Araji, Omar A; Miranda, Nuria; Barquero, Jose M

    2010-09-01

    There is a lack of published information about intraoperative and postoperative course of cardiac surgery in patients with essential thrombocytosis using cardiopulmonary bypass. Both risks of intraoperative thrombosis of extracorporeal conduits or uncontrolled postoperative bleeding are present, but its incidence and treatment are not well known. Here, we present a rare case of a patient with essential thrombocytosis, moderate mitral regurgitation and severe aortic stenosis who had a transapical aortic valve implantation with short-term severe periprosthetic regurgitation, who needed a mitroaortic replacement on cardiopulmonary bypass with no complications. PMID:20542979

  4. Bundle-branch reentry ventricular tachycardia after transcatheter aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa Riestra, Adriana; Rubio Caballero, José Amador; Freites Estévez, Alfonso; Alonso Belló, Javier; Botas Rodríguez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    An 83-year-old male suffering from severe symptomatic aortic valve stenosis received an implant of a biological aortic prosthesis through the femoral artery without complications. Seven days after dischargement he experienced a syncope. The patient was wearing an ECG holter monitor that day, which showed a wide QRS complex tachycardia of 300 beats per minute. The electrophysiological study revealed a bundle-branch reentry ventricular tachycardia as the cause of the syncope. Radio-frequency was applied on the right-bundle branch. Twelve months later, the patient has remained asymptomatic. PMID:27134443

  5. Left ventricular function in patients with ventricular arrhythmias and aortic valve disease

    SciTech Connect

    Santinga, J.T.; Kirsh, M.M.; Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.; Pitt, B.

    1983-02-01

    Forty patients having aortic valve replacement were evaluated preoperatively for ventricular arrhythmia and left ventricular ejection fraction. Arrhythmias were classified as complex or simple using the Lown criteria on the 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiogram; ejection fractions were determined by radionuclide gated blood pool analysis and contrast angiography. The ejection fractions determined by radionuclide angiography were 59.1 +/- 13.1% for 26 patients with simple or no ventricular arrhythmias, and 43.9 +/- 20.3% for 14 patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (p less than 0.01). Ejection fractions determined by angiography, available for 31 patients, were also lower in patients with complex ventricular arrhythmias (61.1 +/- 16.3% versus 51.4 +/- 13.4%; p less than 0.05). Seven of 9 patients showing conduction abnormalities on the electrocardiogram had complex ventricular arrhythmias. Eight of 20 patients with aortic stenosis had complex ventricular arrhythmias, while 2 of 13 patients with aortic insufficiency had such arrhythmias. It is concluded that decreased left ventricular ejection fraction, intraventricular conduction abnormalities, and aortic stenosis are associated with an increased frequency of complex ventricular arrhythmias in patients with aortic valve disease.

  6. Programmed Speed Reduction Enables Aortic Valve Opening and Increased Pulsatility in the LVAD-Assisted Heart.

    PubMed

    Tolpen, Sam; Janmaat, Jochem; Reider, Claudine; Kallel, Faouzi; Farrar, David; May-Newman, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Aortic valve opening (AVO) during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support aids in preventing valve fusion, incompetence, and thrombosis. The programmed low speed algorithm (PLSA) allows AVO intermittently by reducing continuous motor speed during a dwell time. AVO and hemodynamics in the LVAD-assisted heart were measured using a HeartMate II (Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA) LVAD with a PLSA controller in a mock circulatory loop. Left ventricle and aortic pressures, LVAD, and total aortic flow were measured during pre-LVAD, non-PLSA and PLSA combinations of cardiac function, and LVAD speed. The low cardiac setting corresponded to a pre-LVAD cardiac output of 2.8 L/min, stroke volume of 40 ml, and ejection fraction of 22%; the medium setting produced values of 3.5 L/min, 50 ml, and 28%, respectively. Results show that the PLSA controller set at 10 krpm, dropping to 7 krpm for dwell time of 6 s, adequately produced AVO for all tested cardiac functions with only minimal changes in cardiac output. However, AVO frequency was independent of opening area and systolic duration, which both decreased with increasing LVAD support. Furthermore, aortic pulsatility index quadrupled in the aortic root and doubled in the distal aorta during PLSA conditions, providing evidence that AVO and blood mixing are enabled by PLSA control at the appropriate speed. PMID:25961849

  7. FSI simulation of intra-ventricular flow in patient-specific ventricular model with both mitral and aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liang; Su, Boyang; Zhang, Jun-Mei; Leo, Hwa Liang; Tan, Ru San

    2013-01-01

    Investigating the intra-ventricular flow is the most important to understand the left ventricular function. In this study, we proposed a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach to simulate the blood flow in patient-specific model by combining both mitral and aortic valves. To accommodate the large mesh deformation, moving arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) meshes were used for moving ventricular wall and rotating leaflets of valves. The left ventricular wall was predescribed according to the points acquired from magnetic resonance image (MRI). Mitral and aortic valves were integrated into the model by assuming each leaflet as a rigid body. Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach was adopted to capture the rapid motion of leaflets. The simulation results were qualitatively similar to the measurements reported in literatures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first to simulate the patient-specific ventricular flow with the presence of both mitral and aortic valves. PMID:24109784

  8. Involvement of Immune Cell Network in Aortic Valve Stenosis: Communication between Valvular Interstitial Cells and Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a heart disease prevalent in the elderly characterized by valvular calcification, fibrosis, and inflammation, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Previously, aortic valve stenosis was thought to be caused by chronic passive and degenerative changes associated with aging. However, recent studies have demonstrated that atherosclerotic processes and inflammation can induce valvular calcification and bone deposition, leading to valvular stenosis. In particular, the most abundant cell type in cardiac valves, valvular interstitial cells, can differentiate into myofibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells, leading to valvular calcification and stenosis. Differentiation of valvular interstitial cells can be trigged by inflammatory stimuli from several immune cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, and mast cells. This review indicates that crosstalk between immune cells and valvular interstitial cells plays an important role in the development of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:26937229

  9. Involvement of Immune Cell Network in Aortic Valve Stenosis: Communication between Valvular Interstitial Cells and Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Choi, Jae-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Aortic valve stenosis is a heart disease prevalent in the elderly characterized by valvular calcification, fibrosis, and inflammation, but its exact pathogenesis remains unclear. Previously, aortic valve stenosis was thought to be caused by chronic passive and degenerative changes associated with aging. However, recent studies have demonstrated that atherosclerotic processes and inflammation can induce valvular calcification and bone deposition, leading to valvular stenosis. In particular, the most abundant cell type in cardiac valves, valvular interstitial cells, can differentiate into myofibroblasts and osteoblast-like cells, leading to valvular calcification and stenosis. Differentiation of valvular interstitial cells can be trigged by inflammatory stimuli from several immune cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, T cells, B cells, and mast cells. This review indicates that crosstalk between immune cells and valvular interstitial cells plays an important role in the development of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:26937229

  10. Carpentier-Edwards aortic pericardial bioprosthetic valve as a valid control in preclinical in vivo ovine studies.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Laura; Bianco, Richard; Lahti, Matthew; Carney, John; Zhang, Lindsey; Robinson, Nicholas

    2015-07-15

    To progress into clinical practice, a bioprosthetic heart valve must first pass through the preclinical evaluation phase. The International Standards Organization (ISO) recommends implantation of concurrent controls in any evaluation of a new or modified heart valve. A total of 8 adult sheep underwent aortic valve replacement, receiving either the CE Perimount Magna 3000 aortic pericardial bioprosthetic valve or the CE Perimount RSR aortic pericardial bioprosthetic valve, Model 2800. We performed serial blood sampling, echocardiography, angiography and necropsy after euthanasia. All 8 sheep survived until the end of their study term. Our 2-dimensional echocardiographic analysis showed a mean pressure gradient of 37.4±6.0mmHg at 14 days and 37.0±5.9mmHg at 90 days; mean cardiac output was 10.0±2.8l/min at 14 days and 9.6±1.6l/min at 90 days. Angiography before euthanasia showed a mean aortic transvalvular gradient of 32.3±15.3mmHg. At euthanasia, we saw no evidence of calcification in any of the valves. In our study, we found that both models of the CE bioprosthetic heart valve we tested proved to be valid controls, in the aortic position, in sheep-with no evidence of calcification. Most important, the valves we tested had a few model-related problems, allowing a clear determination of their suitability for introduction into a clinical trial. Investigators now have additional insight into the safety of these 2 models of valves and perhaps will be able to reduce the number of controls implanted. PMID:25814251

  11. Segmentation of the Aortic Valve Apparatus in 3D Echocardiographic Images: Deformable Modeling of a Branching Medial Structure

    PubMed Central

    Pouch, Alison M.; Tian, Sijie; Takabe, Manabu; Wang, Hongzhi; Yuan, Jiefu; Cheung, Albert T.; Jackson, Benjamin M.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.; Yushkevich, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    3D echocardiographic (3DE) imaging is a useful tool for assessing the complex geometry of the aortic valve apparatus. Segmentation of this structure in 3DE images is a challenging task that benefits from shape-guided deformable modeling methods, which enable inter-subject statistical shape comparison. Prior work demonstrates the efficacy of using continuous medial representation (cm-rep) as a shape descriptor for valve leaflets. However, its application to the entire aortic valve apparatus is limited since the structure has a branching medial geometry that cannot be explicitly parameterized in the original cm-rep framework. In this work, we show that the aortic valve apparatus can be accurately segmented using a new branching medial modeling paradigm. The segmentation method achieves a mean boundary displacement of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm (approximately one voxel) relative to manual segmentation on 11 3DE images of normal open aortic valves. This study demonstrates a promising approach for quantitative 3DE analysis of aortic valve morphology. PMID:26247062

  12. Percutaneous Aortic Balloon Valvuloplasty and Intracardiac Adrenaline in Electromechanical Dissociation as Bridge to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Chaara, Jawad; Meier, Pascal; Ellenberger, Christophe; Gasche, Yvan; Bendjelid, Karim; Noble, Stephane; Roffi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This report describes an emergent balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV) procedure performed under cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a 79-year-old man with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (mean gradient 78 mm Hg, valve area 0.71 cm2, and left ventricular ejection fraction 40%) awaiting surgery and who was admitted for heart failure rapidly evolving to cardiogenic shock and multiorgan failure. Decision was made to perform emergent BAV. After crossing the valve with a 6 French catheter, the patient developed an electromechanical dissociation confirmed at transesophageal echocardiography and cardiac arrest. Manual chest compressions were initiated along with the application of high doses of intravenous adrenaline, and BAV was performed under ongoing resuscitation. Despite BAV, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated no cardiac activity. At this point, it was decided to advance a pigtail catheter over the wire already in place in the left ventricle and to inject intracardiac adrenaline (1 mg, followed by 5 mg). Left ventricular contraction progressively resumed and, in the absence of aortic regurgitation, an intraaortic balloon pump was inserted. The patient could be weaned from intraaortic balloon pump and vasopressors on day 1, extubated on day 6, and recovered from multiorgan failure. In the absence of neurologic deficits, he underwent uneventful transcatheter aortic valve implantation on day 12 and was discharged to a cardiac rehabilitation program on day 30. At 3-month follow-up, he reported dyspnea NYHA class II as the only symptom. This case shows that severe aortic stenosis leading to electromechanical dissociation may be treated by emergent BAV and intracardiac administration of high-dose adrenaline. Intracardiac adrenaline may be considered in case of refractory electromechanical dissociation occurring in the cardiac catheterization laboratory. PMID:26131825

  13. Long-term results after aortic root replacement using self-assembled valve composite grafts in patients with small aortic annulus

    PubMed Central

    Urbanski, Paul P.; Dinstak, Witold; Rents, Wilko; Heinz, Nicolas; Diegeler, Anno

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The study was aimed to evaluate operative and long-term results after complete root replacement using self-assembled valve composite grafts in patients with a small aortic annulus. METHODS Among 547 consecutive patients who received the Bentall procedure between 2000 and 2012, a total of 29 patients (61 ± 10; range 42–79 years) had an annulus of ≤20 mm (mean 19.0 ± 0.9). Patients with a native aortic valve (22) suffered from stenosis, insufficiency or mixed defect in 10, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Among the remaining 7 patients with an artificial aortic valve, there were 3 symptomatic prosthesis–patient mismatches, 3 valve prosthesis deteriorations (1 structural and 2 none-structural) and 1 paravalvular leak. Indication for aortic root replacement was true or false aneurysm, porcelain aorta and intraoperative aortic wall injury in 17, 6 and 6 patients, respectively. RESULTS The composite graft for complete aortic root replacement was assembled using a mechanical (26) or biological (3) valve prosthesis placed inside a vascular graft with a median size of 24 (range 22–26) mm. The margin of the tube beneath the valve was anastomosed to the aortic annulus, and coronary ostia were implanted in the usual manner. The mean transvalvular gradient at discharge was 10.8 ± 3.9 mmHg and remained virtually unchanged at the follow-up completed for all patients. Early mortality was 0. During the mean follow-up of 95.8 ± 43.7 months, 2 patients died (54 and 146 months after surgery) due to pulmonary embolism and myocardial infarction, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In patients with a small aortic annulus who need complete aortic root replacement, an oversizing of the valve can be easily achieved using modified, self-assembled composite grafts. Offering excellent haemodynamic characteristics, these grafts lead to prevention of prosthesis–patient mismatch and result in very good and durable functional and clinical results. PMID:24179177

  14. Influence of gender on clinical outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve implantation from the UK transcatheter aortic valve implantation registry and the National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research.

    PubMed

    Al-Lamee, Rasha; Broyd, Christopher; Parker, Jessica; Davies, Justin E; Mayet, Jamil; Sutaria, Nilesh; Ariff, Ben; Unsworth, Beth; Cousins, Jonathan; Bicknell, Colin; Anderson, Jonathan; Malik, Iqbal S; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Blackman, Daniel J; Moat, Neil; Ludman, Peter F; Francis, Darrel P; Mikhail, Ghada W

    2014-02-01

    Gender differences exist in outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass graft surgery but have yet to be fully explored after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. We aimed to investigate gender differences after transcatheter aortic valve implantation in the UK National Institute for Cardiovascular Outcomes Research registry. A retrospective analysis was performed of Medtronic CoreValve and Edwards SAPIEN implantation in 1,627 patients (756 women) from January 2007 to December 2010. Men had more risk factors: poor left ventricular systolic function (11.9% vs 5.5%, p <0.001), 3-vessel disease (19.4% vs 9.2%, p <0.001), previous myocardial infarction (29.5% vs 13.0%, p <0.001), peripheral vascular disease (32.4% vs 23.3%, p <0.001), and higher logistic EuroSCORE (21.8 ± 14.2% vs 21.0 ± 13.4%, p = 0.046). Thirty-day mortality was 6.3% (confidence interval 4.3% to 7.9%) in women and 7.4% (5.6% to 9.2%) in men and at 1 year, 21.9% (18.7% to 25.1%) and 22.4% (19.4% to 25.4%), respectively. There was no mortality difference: p = 0.331 by log-rank test; hazard ratio for women 0.91 (0.75 to 1.10). Procedural success (96.6% in women vs 96.4% in men, p = 0.889) and 30-day cerebrovascular event rates (3.8% vs 3.7%, p = 0.962) did not differ. Women had more major vascular complications (7.5% vs 4.2%, p = 0.004) and less moderate or severe postprocedural aortic regurgitation (7.5% vs 12.5%, p = 0.001). In conclusion, despite a higher risk profile in men, there was no gender-related mortality difference; however, women had more major vascular complications and less postprocedural moderate or severe aortic regurgitation. PMID:24326271

  15. Transesophageal echocardiography measurements of aortic annulus diameter using biplane mode in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aortic stenosis (AS) is a relevant common valve disorder. Severe AS and symptoms and/or left ventricular dysfunction (EF <50%) have the indication for aortic valve replacement (AVR). Majority of the patients with AS are elderly often with co-morbidities and generally have high preoperative risk. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is offered in this group. Four different sizes of Corevalve prosthesis are available. Correct measurement of aortic size prior to TAVI is of great important to choose the right prosthesis size to avoid among others paravalvular leak or prosthesis patient mismatch. Aim of the study is to assess the aortic annulus diameter in patients undergoing TAVI by biplane (BP) mode using transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and compare it to two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 2DTEE using three-dimensional (3D) TEE as reference method. Methods The study population consisted of 50 patients retrospectively (24 men and 26 women, mean age 85±8 years of age) who all had undergone echocardiography examination prior to TAVI. Results The mean aortic annulus diameter was 20.4±2.2 mm with TTE, 22.3±2.5 mm with 2DTEE, 22.9±1.9 mm with BP-mode and 23.1±1.9 mm with 3DTEE. TTE underestimated the mean aortic annulus diameter in comparison to transesophageal imaging modalities (p<0.001). Using 3DTEE, 2% of patients were unsuitable for TAVI due to a too-small AoA (n=1). This figure was similar with BP (4%, n=2; p=1.00) but considerably larger with 2DTTE (36%, n=18; p < 0.001) and 2DTEE (12%, n=6; p=0.06). There was a strong correlation between BP-mode and 3DTEE for assessment of aortic annulus diameter (r-value 0.88) with small mean difference (−0.2±0.9 mm) whereas the other modalities showed larger 95% confidence interval and modest correlation (2DTTE vs. 3DTEE, –6.3 to 0.9 mm, r=0.64 and 2DTEE vs. 3DTEE, –4.8 to 3.2 mm, r=0.61). Conclusion A multi-dimensional method is preferred to assess aortic annulus diameter in TAVI patients since there is risk of underestimation using single plane. Biplane mode is the method of choice in view of speedy post-processing with no need for expensive dedicated software. Lastly, single plane methods lead to misclassification of patients as unsuitable for TAVI. This may be of major clinical importance. PMID:23360595

  16. The new generation is coming. Percutaneous implantation of the fully repositionable Lotus® aortic valve prosthesis: the first Polish experience.

    PubMed

    Grygier, Marek; Araszkiewicz, Aleksander; Lesiak, Maciej; Oko-Sarnowska, Zofia; Trojnarska, Olga; Olasińska-Wiśniewska, Anna; Misterski, Marcin; Buczkowski, Piotr; Jemielity, Marek; Grajek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is nowadays an accepted method of treatment for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are inoperable or at very high risk of classic surgical aortic valve replacement. The Lotus valve system is a new generation TAVI device composed of a self-expanding stent prosthesis with implemented bovine pericardial leaflets, which is designed to facilitate repositioning, resheathing, and retrieval, even in the fully expanded and functioning position before the final release. In addition, the Lotus valve is surrounded by a flexible membrane to seal paravalvular gaps between the prosthesis and native valve. We present the first Polish experiences with the Lotus valve system. Due to its unique features, the Lotus valve may improve the prognosis in patients with inoperable or high risk critical aortic stenosis. PMID:25299402

  17. Is cardiac magnetic resonance imaging as accurate as echocardiography in the assessment of aortic valve stenosis?

    PubMed

    Wong, Sophia; Spina, Roberto; Toemoe, Sianne; Dhital, Kumud

    2016-04-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging as accurate as echocardiography in the assessment of aortic valve stenosis? Altogether 239 papers were found using the reported search. Only 12 demonstrated the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Nine of these 12 papers found CMR to correlate well with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) or transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in the evaluation of aortic valve stenosis. When aortic valve areas were measured with cardiac tomography (CT) or cardiac catheterization (CC), four papers found CMR to be more accurate than TTE. Eight of 12 papers found CMR to have excellent reliability and reproducibility, as demonstrated by the low inter- and intraobserver variability. Four papers did not estimate intra- or interobserver variability. One paper noted a sensitivity and specificity of 96 and 100%, respectively, when using CMR to detect severe aortic stenosis (AS) that had been diagnosed during CC. A second paper noted a lower sensitivity and specificity of 78 and 89%, respectively, but this was still better than the sensitivities and specificities found when using TOE or TTE to detect severe AS, as noted on CC. We conclude that current evidence finds echocardiography and CMR to be equally reliable in assessing aortic stenosis. CMR has better inter- and intraobserver reliability and demonstrates an advantage over echocardiography in the detection of severe AS with greater specificity and sensitivity. The final choice, however, is as likely to be influenced by the availability of magnetic resonance imaging and expertise in interpreting the results as by accuracy and reliability. PMID:26718319

  18. Technical Approach Determines Inflammatory Response after Surgical and Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Erdoes, Gabor; Lippuner, Christoph; Kocsis, Istvan; Schiff, Marcel; Stucki, Monika; Carrel, Thierry; Windecker, Stephan; Eberle, Balthasar; Stueber, Frank; Book, Malte

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the periprocedural inflammatory response in patients with isolated aortic valve stenosis undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) or transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with different technical approaches. Material and Methods Patients were prospectively allocated to one of the following treatments: SAVR using conventional extracorporeal circulation (CECC, n = 47) or minimized extracorporeal circulation (MECC, n = 15), or TAVI using either transapical (TA, n = 15) or transfemoral (TF, n = 24) access. Exclusion criteria included infection, pre-procedural immunosuppressive or antibiotic drug therapy and emergency indications. We investigated interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, human leukocyte antigen (HLA-DR), white blood cell count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and soluble L-selectin (sCD62L) levels before the procedure and at 4, 24, and 48 h after aortic valve replacement. Data are presented for group interaction (p-values for inter-group comparison) as determined by the Greenhouse-Geisser correction. Results SAVR on CECC was associated with the highest levels of IL-8 and hs-CRP (p<0.017, and 0.007, respectively). SAVR on MECC showed the highest descent in levels of HLA-DR and sCD62L (both p<0.001) in the perioperative period. TA-TAVI showed increased intraprocedural concentration and the highest peak of IL-6 (p = 0.017). Significantly smaller changes in the inflammatory markers were observed in TF-TAVI. Conclusion Surgical and interventional approaches to aortic valve replacement result in inflammatory modulation which differs according to the invasiveness of the procedure. As expected, extracorporeal circulation is associated with the most marked pro-inflammatory activation, whereas TF-TAVI emerges as the approach with the most attenuated inflammatory response. Factors such as the pre-treatment patient condition and the extent of myocardial injury also significantly affect inflammatory biomarker patterns. Accordingly, TA-TAVI is to be classified not as an interventional but a true surgical procedure, with inflammatory biomarker profiles comparable to those found after SAVR. Our study could not establish an obvious link between the extent of the periprocedural inflammatory response and clinical outcome parameters. PMID:26599610

  19. Depressurization valve

    DOEpatents

    Skoda, G.I.

    1989-03-28

    A depressurization valve for use in relieving completely the pressure in a simplified boiling water reactor is disclosed. The normally closed and sealed valve is provided with a valve body defining a conduit from an outlet of a manifold from the reactor through a valve seat. A closing valve disk is configured for fitting to the valve seat to normally close the valve. The seat below the disk is provided with a radially extending annulus extending a short distance into the aperture defined by the seat. The disk is correspondingly provided with a longitudinally extending annulus that extends downwardly through the aperture defined by the seat towards the high pressure side of the valve body. A ring shaped membrane is endlessly welded to the seat annulus and to the disk annulus. The membrane is conformed over the confronted surface of the seat and disk in a C-sectioned configuration to seal the depressurization valve against the possibility of weeping. The disk is held to the closed position by an elongate stem extending away from the high pressure side of the valve body. The stem has a flange configured integrally to the stem for bias by two springs. The first spring acts from a portion of the housing overlying the disk on the stem flange adjacent the disk. This spring urges the stem and attached disk away from the seat and thus will cause the valve to open at any pressure. A second spring-preferably of the Belleville variety-acts on a latch plate surrounding and freely moving relative to the end of the stem. This second spring overcomes the bias of the first spring and any pressure acting upon the disk. This Belleville spring maintains through its spring force the valve in the closed position. At the same time, the latch plate with its freedom of movement relative to the stem allows the stem to thermally expand during valve temperature excursion.

  20. Intravascular hemolysis after mitral and aortic valve replacement with different types of mechanical prostheses.

    PubMed

    Ismeno, G; Renzulli, A; Carozza, A; De Feo, M; Iannuzzi, M; Sante, P; Cotrufo, M

    1999-05-15

    Heart valve replacement with mechanical prosthesis is associated with mild intravascular hemolysis. In this study we evaluated the incidence of hemolysis in patients with different combinations of two mechanical valves. Between 1974 and 1996, 680 patients underwent mitral and aortic valve replacement with mechanical prostheses; we selected 90 patients, divided into six groups according to the prosthetic model (Group A, ball and tilting disc; Group B, ball and bileaflet; Group C, tilting disc and tilting disc; Group D, tilting disc and bileaflet; Group E, bileaflet and tilting disc; Group F, bileaflet and bileaflet; respectively, in mitral and aortic position). Blood tests were performed to check blood hemoglobin, serum lactic dehydrogenase, percent-correlated reticulocyte fraction, serum haptoglobin, and schistocytes. Chi square test was performed for categorical data. ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were performed in order to evaluate significant statistical differences between media and variance of the hematological data. A mild degree of intravascular hemolysis was observed in 30% of patients with double mechanical prostheses. LDH values were above the normal values in all groups, although a significant difference was found only between Group B versus Groups C and D. Reticulocytes and schistocytes and serum haptoglobin values were within the normal range and no differences were found between the groups. Low levels of blood hemoglobin were found in Groups D and F. The difference was statistically significant when compared with Groups A and E. In conclusion, hemolysis is frequent but never severe in patients with mitral and aortic mechanical prostheses. A higher incidence of subclinical hemolysis was found in patients with bileaflet valves regardless of the position of the implant. PMID:10549841

  1. Meta-Analysis of the Effectiveness and Safety of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Without Balloon Predilation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yan-Biao; Meng, Yang; Zhao, Zhen-Gang; Zuo, Zhi-Liang; Li, Yi-Jian; Xiong, Tian-Yuan; Cao, Jia-Yu; Xu, Yuan-Ning; Feng, Yuan; Chen, Mao

    2016-05-15

    Evidence regarding the safety and feasibility of transcatheter aortic valve implantation without balloon predilation (BP) is scarce. A literature search of PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and major conference proceedings was performed from January 2002 to July 2015. There were 18 studies incorporating 2,443 patients included in the present study. No differences were observed in the baseline characteristics between patients without BP (no-BP) and with BP. Compared with BP, no-BP had a shorter procedure time (no-BP vs BP, 124.2 vs 138.8 minutes, p = 0.008), used less-contrast medium (no-BP vs BP, 126.3 vs 156.3 ml, p = 0.0005) and had a higher success rate (odds ratio [OR] 2.24, 95% CI 1.40 to -3.58). In addition, no-BP was associated with lower incidences of permanent pacemaker implantation (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.67), grade 2 or greater paravalvular leakage (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.83), and stroke (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.32 to 1.0). Furthermore, no-BP was associated with a 0.6-fold decreased risk for 30-day all-cause mortality (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.92). However, the difference in the risk for permanent pacemaker implantation, grade 2, or higher aortic regurgitation, stroke was noted to be significant only in the subgroup of the CoreValve-dominating studies. In conclusion, no-BP before transcatheter aortic valve implantation was not only safe and feasible but was also associated with fewer complications and short-term mortality in selected patients especially using self-expandable valve. PMID:27026641

  2. Impact of Anesthesia Type on Outcomes of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (from the Multicenter ADVANCE Study).

    PubMed

    Brecker, Stephen J D; Bleiziffer, Sabine; Bosmans, Johan; Gerckens, Ulrich; Tamburino, Corrado; Wenaweser, Peter; Linke, Axel

    2016-04-15

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become the standard of care for many patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis who are at increased risk of morbidity and mortality during surgical aortic valve replacement. However, there is still no general consensus regarding the use of general anesthesia (GA) versus local anesthesia with sedation (non-GA) during the TAVI procedure. Using propensity score-matching analysis, we analyzed the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent TAVI with either GA (n = 245) or non-GA (n = 245) in the fully monitored, international, CoreValve ADVANCE Study. No statistically significant differences existed between the non-GA and GA groups in all-cause mortality (25.4% vs 23.9%, p = 0.78), cardiovascular mortality (16.4% vs 16.6%, p = 0.92), or stroke (5.2% vs 6.9%, p = 0.57) through 2-year follow-up. Major vascular complications were more common in the non-GA group. Total hospital stay was similar between the 2 groups. Conversion from non-GA to GA occurred in 13 patients (5.3%) because of procedural complications in 9 patients and discomfort or restlessness in 4 patients. Most procedural complications were related to valve positioning or vascular issues. Two of the 13 converted patients died during the procedure. Both GA and non-GA are widely used in real-world TAVI practice, and the decision appears to be guided by only a few patient-related factors and dominated by local and national practice. The outcomes of both anesthesia modes are equally good. When conversion from non-GA did occur, the complication requiring GA affected outcomes. PMID:26892451

  3. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Under Angiographic Guidance With and Without Adjunctive Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Attizzani, Guilherme F; Ohno, Yohei; Latib, Azeem; Petronio, Anna Sonia; De Carlo, Marco; Giannini, Cristina; Ettori, Federica; Curello, Salvatore; Fiorina, Claudia; Bedogni, Francesco; Testa, Luca; Bruschi, Giuseppe; De Marco, Federico; Presbitero, Patrizia; Rossi, Marco Luciano; Boschetti, Carla; Picarelli, Silvia; Poli, Arnaldo; Barbanti, Marco; Martina, Paola; Colombo, Antonio; Tamburino, Corrado

    2015-08-15

    Although transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is still currently guided by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in a considerable number of hospitals, exclusive angiographic (Angio) guidance seems a reasonable approach in this setting. To date, however, no studies have directly compared the outcomes of TAVI according to the imaging modality used for procedural guidance. We, therefore, used data from a large multicenter data repository to compare the outcomes of TAVI guided exclusively by Angio and ATEE. All consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent TAVI with the CoreValve Revalving System (CRS) in 9 Italian centers from September 2007 to March 2014, dichotomized according to the imaging support used to guide the procedure (ATEE and Angio), were included. Thirty-day and 12-month clinical outcomes were evaluated. Propensity matching analysis was performed to adjust for baseline differences. A total of 625 patients were included (256 and 369 patients were included in the ATEE and Angio groups, respectively). Patients from the ATEE more frequently underwent TAVI under general anesthesia compared with Angio group (37.9% vs 22.8%, respectively, p <0.001). Importantly, ∼80% of the patients experienced mild or even less aortic regurgitation as assessed by angiography after the procedure, without between-group differences. Postdilation and valve-in-valve rates were equivalent (24.7% vs 25%, p = 0.934 and 5.5% vs 3.4%, respectively, p = 0.217). No differences were revealed in the rates of death, cardiovascular death, and stroke or transient ischemic attack at 12-month follow-up. These results were sustained after propensity matching analysis. In conclusion, as long as a comprehensive procedural planning is performed, TAVI with CRS may be performed exclusively under angiographic guidance without the need for associated TEE. PMID:26081069

  4. Transcriptional and phenotypic changes in aorta and aortic valve with aging and MnSOD deficiency in mice

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Carolyn M.; Hagler, Michael; Zhang, Bin; Oehler, Elise A.; Arghami, Arman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in antioxidant and age-related gene expression in aorta and aortic valve with aging, and test the hypothesis that increased mitochondrial oxidative stress accelerates age-related endothelial and aortic valve dysfunction. Wild-type (MnSOD+/+) and manganese SOD heterozygous haploinsufficient (MnSOD+/?) mice were studied at 3 and 18 mo of age. In aorta from wild-type mice, antioxidant expression was preserved, although there were age-associated increases in Nox2 expression. Haploinsufficiency of MnSOD did not alter antioxidant expression in aorta, but increased expression of Nox2. When compared with that of aorta, age-associated reductions in antioxidant expression were larger in aortic valves from wild-type and MnSOD haploinsufficient mice, although Nox2 expression was unchanged. Similarly, sirtuin expression was relatively well-preserved in aorta from both genotypes, whereas expression of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT6 were significantly reduced in the aortic valve. Expression of p16ink4a, a marker of cellular senescence, was profoundly increased in both aorta and aortic valve from MnSOD+/+ and MnSOD+/? mice. Functionally, we observed comparable age-associated reductions in endothelial function in aorta from both MnSOD+/+ and MnSOD+/? mice. Interestingly, inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin or gp91ds-tat improved endothelial function in MnSOD+/+ mice but significantly impaired endothelial function in MnSOD+/? mice at both ages. Aortic valve function was not impaired by aging or MnSOD haploinsufficiency. Changes in antioxidant and sirtuin gene expression with aging differ dramatically between aorta and aortic valve. Furthermore, although MnSOD does not result in overt cardiovascular dysfunction with aging, compensatory transcriptional responses to MnSOD deficiency appear to be tissue specific. PMID:23997094

  5. Transcriptional and phenotypic changes in aorta and aortic valve with aging and MnSOD deficiency in mice.

    PubMed

    Roos, Carolyn M; Hagler, Michael; Zhang, Bin; Oehler, Elise A; Arghami, Arman; Miller, Jordan D

    2013-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize changes in antioxidant and age-related gene expression in aorta and aortic valve with aging, and test the hypothesis that increased mitochondrial oxidative stress accelerates age-related endothelial and aortic valve dysfunction. Wild-type (MnSOD(+/+)) and manganese SOD heterozygous haploinsufficient (MnSOD(+/-)) mice were studied at 3 and 18 mo of age. In aorta from wild-type mice, antioxidant expression was preserved, although there were age-associated increases in Nox2 expression. Haploinsufficiency of MnSOD did not alter antioxidant expression in aorta, but increased expression of Nox2. When compared with that of aorta, age-associated reductions in antioxidant expression were larger in aortic valves from wild-type and MnSOD haploinsufficient mice, although Nox2 expression was unchanged. Similarly, sirtuin expression was relatively well-preserved in aorta from both genotypes, whereas expression of SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, and SIRT6 were significantly reduced in the aortic valve. Expression of p16(ink4a), a marker of cellular senescence, was profoundly increased in both aorta and aortic valve from MnSOD(+/+) and MnSOD(+/-) mice. Functionally, we observed comparable age-associated reductions in endothelial function in aorta from both MnSOD(+/+) and MnSOD(+/-) mice. Interestingly, inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin or gp91ds-tat improved endothelial function in MnSOD(+/+) mice but significantly impaired endothelial function in MnSOD(+/-) mice at both ages. Aortic valve function was not impaired by aging or MnSOD haploinsufficiency. Changes in antioxidant and sirtuin gene expression with aging differ dramatically between aorta and aortic valve. Furthermore, although MnSOD does not result in overt cardiovascular dysfunction with aging, compensatory transcriptional responses to MnSOD deficiency appear to be tissue specific. PMID:23997094

  6. Blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI compared to surgical aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Trauzeddel, Ralf Felix; Löbe, Ulrike; Barker, Alex J; Gelsinger, Carmen; Butter, Christian; Markl, Michael; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; von Knobelsdorff-Brenkenhoff, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Ascending aortic blood flow characteristics are altered after aortic valve surgery, but the effect of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is unknown. Abnormal flow may be associated with aortic and cardiac remodeling. We analyzed blood flow characteristics in the ascending aorta after TAVI in comparison to conventional stented aortic bioprostheses (AVR) and healthy subjects using time-resolved three-dimensional flow-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D-flow MRI). Seventeen patients with TAVI (Edwards Sapien XT), 12 with AVR and 9 healthy controls underwent 4D-flow MRI of the ascending aorta. Target parameters were: severity of vortical and helical flow pattern (semiquantitative grading from 0 = none to 3 = severe) and the local distribution of systolic wall shear stress (WSSsystole). AVR revealed significantly more extensive vortical and helical flow pattern than TAVI (p = 0.042 and p = 0.002) and controls (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001). TAVI showed significantly more extensive vortical flow than controls (p < 0.001). Both TAVI and AVR revealed marked blood flow eccentricity (64.7 and 66.7 %, respectively), whereas controls showed central blood flow (88.9 %). TAVI and AVR exhibited an asymmetric distribution of WSSsystole in the mid-ascending aorta with local maxima at the right anterior aortic wall and local minima at the left posterior wall. In contrast, controls showed a symmetric distribution of WSSsystole along the aortic circumference. Blood flow was significantly altered in the ascending aorta after TAVI and AVR. Changes were similar regarding WSSsystole distribution, while TAVI resulted in less helical and vortical blood flow. PMID:26493195

  7. [Percutaneous artificial heart valves: from animal experimentation to the first human implantation in a case of calcified aortic stenosis].

    PubMed

    Cribier, A; Eltchaninoff, H; Tron, C; Bash, A; Borenstein, N; Bauer, F; Derumeaux, G; Pontier, G; Laborde, F; Leon, M B

    2003-06-01

    The development of artificial cardiac valves capable of being positioned by catheter has become an important subject for research, with the objective of treating valvular patients who are not operable or at very high surgical risk. We tested an artificial valve implantable by the percutaneous route, consisting of three leaflets of bovine pericardium sutured to the inside of a stainless steel stent, deployable by inflating a balloon. Following laboratory evaluation, this valve was implanted with success in animals, then for the first time in man, in a case of calcified aortic stenosis. The patient, a 57 year old male in cardiogenic shock, had associated multiple non-cardiac pathology and could not be operated on. Implantation was carried out by the trans-septal anterograde route, the only route available due to severe end stage arteritis. The artificial valve was deposited in the centre of the native aortic valve, without obstructing the coronaries nor reaching the mitral valve. The result was spectacular with instantaneous haemodynamic improvement and excellent valvular function confirmed by transoesophageal echocardiography every 15 days after implantation. Non-cardiac complications marred the progress, dominated by aggravation of pre-existing leg ischaemia, necessitating amputation for which the consequences were fatal at 4 months. This case demonstrates that implantation of a cardiac valve by the percutaneous route is possible in calcified aortic stenosis, and that it brings rapid clinical improvement. This technique could in future constitute an important alternative therapeutic approach for selected patients. PMID:12868346

  8. An update on complications associated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation: stroke, paravalvular leak, atrioventricular block and perforation.

    PubMed

    Chiam, Paul T L; Ewe, See Hooi

    2013-09-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become an alternative therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk and the standard of care in patients who are inoperable for open aortic valve replacement. With technological evolution and increasing experience, the procedure has become more predictable. Complications of TAVI, however, are not infrequent, and can range from minor to life-threatening events. Stroke, paravalvular leak, various forms of atrioventricular block, including the need for permanent pacemakers and aortic annular and ventricular perforation will be the focus of the present review. Other complications associated with TAVI (such as vascular injury, acute kidney injury, coronary obstruction, valve malpositioning or migration) are clinically important, but are beyond the scope of this article. Understanding the occurrence and pathophysiology of these complications may provide insights into the improvement of the transcatheter devices and techniques, and aid in extending the application of TAVI to a broader population. PMID:24020674

  9. Valve lock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Guirguis, Kamal S.

    1992-11-01

    A valve security lock is provided which secures a double union ball valve. The lock is formed from a band inserted through slits in a tube, with that combination being positioned over the valve stem to be secured, and the ends of the band wrapped around the circumference of the double union ball valve. The apparatus is secured around the double union ball valve by insertion of the shank of a lock of known kind through holes in the ends of the band. In a fluid control system, the valve security lock provides a highly visible means to prevent accidental turn-ons or turn-offs during system maintenance, but which can be easily disengaged by persons having the key or combination to the shank type lock.

  10. Collagen mineralization in human aortic valve stenosis: a field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Perrotta, Ida; Davoli, Mariano

    2014-08-01

    Abstract Calcific aortic stenosis is a slowly progressive disorder characterized by an important extracellular matrix remodeling with fibrosis and massive deposition of minerals (primarily calcium) in the valve leaflet. The main structural components of human aortic valve are the large, thick collagen bundles that withstand the diastolic loading. Collagen has been studied in a number of reports that aim to clarify the mechanisms underlying the structural deterioration of heart valve substitutes, however to date, little is known regarding the morphological interaction between collagen and mineral crystals in the calcifying tissue of native aortic valve. Here, we have analyzed a total of 12 calcified native aortic valves by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) to depict the morphological appearance of mineralized collagen and to determine the location of calcium phosphate minerals in the collagen matrix of the valve cusp. Our results demonstrate that crystals probably nucleate and grow in the interior of the collagen fibers in the absence of surface events. PMID:24833324

  11. Differential Aortic and Mitral Valve Interstitial Cell Mineralization and the Induction of Mineralization by Lysophosphatidylcholine In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wiltz, Dena C.; Han, Richard I.; Wilson, Reid L.; Kumar, Aditya; Morrisett, Joel D.; Grande-Allen, K. Jane

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a serious condition with vast uncertainty regarding the precise mechanism leading to valve calcification. This study was undertaken to examine the role of the lipid lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) in a comparison of aortic and mitral valve cellular mineralization. Methods The proportion of LPC in differentially calcified regions of diseased aortic valves was determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC). Next, porcine valvular interstitial cells (pVICs) from the aortic (paVICs) and mitral valve (pmVICs) were cultured with LPC (10−1 – 105 nM) and analyzed for cellular mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPa), proliferation, and apoptosis. Results TLC showed a higher percentage of LPC in calcified regions of tissue compared to non-calcified regions. In pVIC cultures, with the exception of 105 nM LPC, increasing concentrations of LPC led to an increase in phosphate mineralization. Increased levels of calcium content were exhibited at 104 nm LPC application compared to baseline controls. Compared to pmVIC cultures, paVIC cultures had greater total phosphate mineralization, ALPa, calcium content, and apoptosis, under both a baseline control and LPC-treated conditions. Conclusions This study showed that LPC has the capacity to promote pVIC calcification. Also, paVICs have a greater propensity for mineralization than pmVICs. LPC may be a key factor in the transition of the aortic valve from a healthy to diseased state. In addition, there are intrinsic differences that exist between VICs from different valves that may play a key role in heart valve pathology. PMID:25419248

  12. Comparison of Inhospital Outcomes of Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Hospitals With and Without Availability of a Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Program (from a Nationally Representative Database).

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas; Badheka, Apurva O; Patel, Samir V; Patel, Nileshkumar J; Thakkar, Badal; Patel, Nilay; Arora, Shilpkumar; Patel, Nish; Patel, Achint; Savani, Chirag; Ghatak, Abhijit; Panaich, Sidakpal S; Jhamnani, Sunny; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Chothani, Ankit; Sonani, Rajesh; Patel, Aashay; Bhatt, Parth; Dave, Abhishek; Bhimani, Ronak; Mohamad, Tamam; Grines, Cindy; Cleman, Michael; Forrest, John K; Mangi, Abeel

    2015-10-15

    We hypothesized that the availability of a transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) program in hospitals impacts the overall management of patients with aortic valve disease and hence may also improve postprocedural outcomes of conventional surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). The aim of the present study was to compare the inhospital outcomes of SAVR in centers with versus without availability of a TAVI program in an unrestricted large nationwide patient population >50 years of age. SAVRs performed on patients aged >50 years were identified from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the years 2011 and 2012 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes. SAVR cases were divided into 2 categories: those performed at hospitals with a TAVI program (SAVR-TAVI) and those without (SAVR-non-TAVI). A total of 9,674 SAVR procedures were identified: 4,526 (46.79%) in the SAVR-TAVI group and 5,148 (53.21%) in SAVR-non-TAVI group. The mean age of the study population was 70.2 ± 0.1 years with majority (53%) of the patients aged >70 years. The mean Charlson's co-morbidity score for patients in SAVR-TAVI group was greater (greater percentage of patients were aged >80 years, had hypertension, congestive heart failure, renal failure, and peripheral arterial disease) than that of patients in SAVR-non-TAVI group (1.6 vs 1.4, p <0.001). The propensity score matching analysis showed a statistically significant lower inhospital mortality (1.25% vs 1.72%, p = 0.001) and complications rate (35.6% vs 37.3%, p = 0.004) in SAVR-TAVI group compared to SAVR-non-TAVI group. The mean length of hospital stay was similar in the 2 groups the cost of hospitalization was higher in the SAVR-TAVI group ($43,894 ± 483 vs $41,032 ± 473, p <0.0001). Having a TAVI program was a significant predictor of reduced mortality and complications rate after SAVR in multivariate analysis. In conclusion, this largest direct comparative analysis demonstrates that SAVRs performed in centers with a TAVI program are associated with significantly lower mortality and complications rates compared to those performed in centers without a TAVI program. PMID:26297512

  13. Comparison of Preoperative and Postoperative Characteristics in Octogenarians Having Isolated Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement Before Versus After Introduction of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Khounlaboud, Moukda; Donal, Erwan; Auffret, Vincent; Anselmi, Amedeo; Ingels, Anne; Flécher, Erwan; Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Daubert, Claude; Le Breton, Hervé; Mabo, Philippe; Leguerrier, Alain

    2015-09-15

    Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most frequent heart valve disease. Surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) is the reference treatment. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as an alternative treatment. New strategies for treating the AS are upcoming. The aim of the study was to assess if the clinical profile of octogenarian patients treated surgically before and after the TAVI program initiation has changed. We retrospectively included consecutive octogenarian patients, who underwent isolated SAVR, from January 2006 to December 2011 in a single high-volume center. We compared preoperative and postoperative characteristics before and after the initiation of TAVI (February 2009). Five hundred seventeen patients were included: 229 in the "pre-TAVI" group (2006 to 2008), 288 in the "post-TAVI" group (2009 to 2011). The mean age was 83.2 ± 2.0 in the "pre-TAVI" group, 83.5 ± 2.1 in the "post-TAVI" group (p = 0.106). There were no significant differences in preoperative characteristics: New York Heart Association class (p = 0.374), history of heart failure (p = 0.680), left ventricular ejection fraction (59.8 ± 12.2% in the "pre-TAVI" group, 59.9 ± 11.3% in the "post-TAVI" group, p = 0.922), coronary artery disease (p = 0.431), chronic pulmonary disease (p = 0.363), and previous cardiac surgery (p = 0.085). The logistic EuroSCORE was 7.78 ± 4.60% in the "pre-TAVI" group and 7.33 ± 3.96% in the "post-TAVI" group (p = 0.236). The operative mortality (30-day) was comparable: 5.2% in the "pre-TAVI" group, 6.9% in the "post-TAVI" group (p = 0.424). Thus, with the emergence of TAVI, the number of octogenarian patients operated on, their preoperative characteristics, and the operative mortality remained comparable. PMID:26187675

  14. Effect of asymmetry on hemodynamics in fluid-structure interaction model of congenital bicuspid aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Marom, Gil; Kim, Hee-Sun; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Raanani, Ehud; Haj-Ali, Rami

    2012-01-01

    A bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital cardiac disorder where the valve consists of only two cusps instead of three in a normal tricuspid valve (TAV). Although 97% of BAVs include asymmetric cusps, little or no prior studies investigated the blood flow through physiological three-dimensional BAV and root. This study presents four fully coupled fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models, including native TAV, asymmetric BAV with or without a raphe and an almost symmetric BAV. The FSI simulations are based on coupled structural and fluid dynamics solvers that allow accurate modeling of the pressure load on both the root and the cusps. The partitioned solver has non-conformal meshes and the flow is modeled employing an Eulerian approach. The cusps tissue in the structural model is composed of hyperelastic finite elements with collagen fiber network embedded in the elastin matrix. The tissues behavior of the aortic sinuses is also hyperelastic. The coaptation is modeled with master-slave contact algorithm. A full cardiac cycle is simulated by imposing the same physiological blood pressure at the upstream and downstream boundaries, for all the TAV and BAV models. The latter have significantly smaller opening area compared to the TAV. Larger stress values were also found in the cusps of the BAV models with fused cusps, both at the systolic and diastolic phases. The asymmetric geometry cause asymmetric vortices and much larger wall shear stress on the cusps, which is a potential cause for early valvular calcification in BAVs. PMID:23365973

  15. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma involving the aortic valve.

    PubMed

    Chist, Marcela; Vrotsos, Elena; Zamora, Carlos; Martinez, Antonio

    2013-06-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma is a neoplasm composed of monomorphic small B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes, forming proliferation centers in tissue infiltrates (Muller-Hermelink HK, Montserrat E, Catovsky D, et al. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma, in Swerdlow SH (ed). WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 2008, pp. 180-182). We report a case of a 77-year-old man with a medical history of chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with worsening chest pain over 8 weeks. Imaging studies revealed severe aortic stenosis and moderate mitral regurgitation. He subsequently underwent minimally invasive aortic valve replacement and mitral repair at our institution. Grossly, the specimen consisted of a trileaflet valve with multiple yellow-white focally hemorrhagic and calcified nodules over its surface. Histologically, a lymphocytic infiltrate composed of monotonous small cells with scant cytoplasm was seen as well as calcification and fibrosis. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for CD20, PAX5, CD5, and CD23. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an immunohistochemically documented chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma to involve a cardiac valve. PMID:22683202

  16. JenaValve.

    PubMed

    Treede, Hendrik; Rastan, Ardawan; Ferrari, Markus; Ensminger, Stephan; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Mohr, Friedrich-Wilhelm

    2012-09-01

    The JenaValve is a next-generation TAVI device which consists of a well-proven porcine root valve mounted on a low-profile nitinol stent. Feeler guided positioning and clip fixation on the diseased leaflets allow for anatomically correct implantation of the device without rapid pacing. Safety and efficacy of transapical aortic valve implantation using the JenaValve were evaluated in a multicentre prospective study that showed good short and midterm results. The valve was CE-mark released in Europe in September 2011. A post-market registry ensures on-going and prospective data collection in "real-world" patients. The transfemoral JenaValve delivery system will be evaluated in a first-in-man study in the near future. PMID:22995119

  17. Red cell distribution width in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Hellhammer, Katharina; Zeus, Tobias; Verde, Pablo E; Veulemanns, Verena; Kahlstadt, Lisa; Wolff, Georg; Erkens, Ralf; Westenfeld, Ralf; Navarese, Eliano P; Merx, Marc W; Rassaf, Tienush; Kelm, Malte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the impact of red blood cell distribution width on outcome in anemic patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). METHODS: In a retrospective single center cohort study we determined the impact of baseline red cell distribution width (RDW) and anemia on outcome in 376 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing TAVI. All patients were discussed in the institutional heart team and declined for surgical aortic valve replacement due to high operative risk. Collected data included patient characteristics, imaging findings, periprocedural in hospital data, laboratory results and follow up data. Blood samples for hematology and biochemistry analysis were taken from every patient before and at fixed intervals up to 72 h after TAVI including blood count and creatinine. Descriptive statistics were used for patient’s characteristics. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used for time to event outcomes. A recursive partitioning regression and classification was used to investigate the association between potential risk factors and outcome variables. RESULTS: Mean age in our study population was 81 ± 6.1 years. Anemia was prevalent in 63.6% (n = 239) of our patients. Age and creatinine were identified as risk factors for anemia. In our study population, anemia per se did influence 30-d mortality but did not predict longterm mortality. In contrast, a RDW > 14% showed to be highly predictable for a reduced short- and longterm survival in patients with aortic valve disease after TAVI procedure. CONCLUSION: Age and kidney function determine the degree of anemia. The anisocytosis of red blood cells in anemic patients supplements prognostic information in addition to that derived from the WHO-based definition of anemia. PMID:26981217

  18. Multimodality Imaging Strategies for the Assessment of Aortic Stenosis: Viewpoint of the Heart Valve Clinic International Database (HAVEC) Group.

    PubMed

    Dulgheru, Raluca; Pibarot, Philippe; Sengupta, Partho P; Piérard, Luc A; Rosenhek, Raphael; Magne, Julien; Donal, Erwan; Bernard, Anne; Fattouch, Khalil; Cosyns, Bernard; Vannan, Mani; Gillam, Linda; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2016-02-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most frequent valvular heart disease. In aortic stenosis, therapeutic decision essentially depends on symptomatic status, stenosis severity, and status of left ventricular systolic function. Surgical aortic valve replacement or transcatheter aortic valve implantation is the sole effective therapy in symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis, whereas the management of asymptomatic patients remains controversial and is mainly based on individual risk stratification. Imaging is fundamental for the initial diagnostic work-up, follow-up, and selection of the optimal timing and type of intervention. The present review provides specific recommendations for utilization of multimodality imaging to optimize risk stratification and therapeutic decision-making processes in aortic stenosis. PMID:26863917

  19. Magnetostrictive valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casabianca, C. C.

    1978-01-01

    Device requires no moving parts and has less stringent tolerances. Device uses magnetostrictive powdered metal and electromagnets, rather than solenoid. Device is more reliable than conventional valves.

  20. Different techniques for aortic valve repair and the associated root reconstruction – prospective long-term follow-up of the first 100 patients

    PubMed Central

    Gocol, Radosław; Malinowski, Marcin; Hudziak, Damian; Duraj, Piotr; Frackiewicz, Joanna; Kargul, Tomasz; Deja, Marek A.; Woś, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The advantages of aortic valve and aortic root reconstructive surgery include the provision of natural postoperative valve hemodynamics and the avoidance of prosthetic valve-related complications. A systematic approach based on functional classification of aortic regurgitation allows standardization and reproducibility. Its potential applicability, however, is limited by the relative lack of long-term follow-up data. Aim To achieve the long term results of aortic valve and root repair in prospectively recruited group of 100 patients operated on during first seven years. Material and methods Between the years 2003 and 2013, 225 consecutive patients (175 male, 50 female, mean age 51.3 years) with severe aortic regurgitation and aortic root enlargement underwent aortic valve repair or sparing surgery. The first 100 patients operated between 2003 and 2009 were prospectively enrolled in the study in order to achieve a 105-month follow-up. They underwent aortic valve repair and associated aortic root reconstruction. This prospective study is aimed at assessing the major endpoints of overall survival and freedom from reoperation. Additionally, log-rank testing for the risk factors associated with overall mortality, reoperation, and aortic valve repair failure was performed. Results Among 225 patients, early mortality occurred in the case of 5 patients (2.2%), while 6 (2.5%) patients experienced early valve failure. In a prospective analysis performed on the first 100 patients, long-term results achieved with Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a survival rate of 93% and freedom from reoperation at the level of 91.3%. The risk factors for overall mortality included NYHA class, creatinine level, and perioperative root replacement as reimplantation. Redo operation was associated with bicuspid aortic valve and perioperative leaflet resection with pericardial patch repair. Conclusions One hundred and five month follow-up data from this prospectively analyzed cohort of patients prove that aortic valve repair associated with aortic root reconstruction can be performed with satisfactory results. PMID:26336452

  1. A Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Approach Shows Diverging Molecular Mechanisms in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Development in Patients with Tricuspid- And Bicuspid Aortic Valve*

    PubMed Central

    Kjellqvist, Sanela; Maleki, Shohreh; Olsson, Therese; Chwastyniak, Maggy; Branca, Rui Miguel Mamede; Lehtiö, Janne; Pinet, Florence; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Eriksson, Per

    2013-01-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysm is a pathological local dilatation of the aorta, potentially leading to aortic rupture or dissection. The disease is a common complication of patients with bicuspid aortic valve, a congenital disorder present in 1–2% of the population. Using two dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis proteomics followed by mRNA expression, and alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins, differences in dilated and nondilated aorta tissues between 44 patients with bicuspid and tricuspid valves was examined. The pattern of protein expression was successfully validated with LC-MS/MS. A multivariate analysis of protein expression data revealed diverging protein expression fingerprints in patients with tricuspid compared with the patients with bicuspid aortic valves. From 302 protein spots included in the analysis, 69 and 38 spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta specifically in patients with tricuspid and bicuspid aortic valve, respectively. 92 protein spots were differentially expressed between dilated and nondilated aorta in both phenotypes. Similarly, mRNA expression together with alternative splicing analysis of the identified proteins also showed diverging fingerprints in the two patient groups. Differential splicing was abundant but the expression levels of differentially spliced mRNA transcripts were low compared with the wild type transcript and there was no correlation between splicing and the number of spots. Therefore, the different spots are likely to represent post-translational modifications. The identification of differentially expressed proteins suggests that dilatation in patients with a tricuspid aortic valve involves inflammatory processes whereas aortic aneurysm in patients with BAV may be the consequence of impaired repair capacity. The results imply that aortic aneurysm formation in patients with bicuspid and tricuspid aortic valves involve different biological pathways leading to the same phenotype. PMID:23184916

  2. In-vitro Measurements of the Synoptic Velocity Generated by a Prosthetic Aortic Valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spellings, K.; Lourenco, L.

    1997-11-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a precise means of evaluating the hydrodynamic performance of prosthetic aortic and mitral valves. Particle Image Velocimetry is used to measure the in-plane velocity components in selected planes of the flow, from which the turbulent shear stress is derived. The experimental facility used in this study is made of plexiglas tube, and has a circular cross section with a diameter that matches that of the valve. To ensure optical access the test fluid used matches the refractive index of plexiglas and the test section incorporates a square housing filled with the same fluid. The fluid used in this experiment is a mixture of glycerol, water and sodium iodide. Pulsatile flow is achieved by means of a pump and monitored in real time by means of an electronic flowmeter. Dynamic similarity is ensured in these experiments as the viscosity of the fluid mixture closely approximates that of blood.

  3. Percutaneous management of vascular access in transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation

    PubMed Central

    Dato, Ilaria; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Crea, Filippo; Ussia, Gian Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using stent-based bioprostheses has recently emerged as a promising alternative to surgical valve replacement in selected patients. The main route for TAVI is retrograde access from the femoral artery using large sheaths (16-24 F). Vascular access complications are a clinically relevant issue in TAVI procedures since they are reported to occur in up to one fourth of patients and are strongly associated with adverse outcomes. In the present paper, we review the different types of vascular access site complications associated with transfemoral TAVI. Moreover, we discuss the possible optimal management strategies with particular attention to the relevance of early diagnosis and prompt treatment using endovascular techniques. PMID:25228962

  4. Emergent use of Impella CP™ during transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Transaortic access.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vikas; Yarkoni, Alon; O'Neill, William W

    2015-07-01

    Sudden onset of hypotension is a rare but emergent event in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This primarily occurs due to coronary artery obstruction, valve misplacement/migration, ventricular perforation, cardiac tamponade, severe paravalvular regurgitation, stunned myocardium, ventricular arrhythmia, and annulus rupture. While the operator makes an attempt to identify and correct the underlying problem, an emergent placement of mechanical hemodynamic assist device may be necessary and crucial for a successful outcome. We describe a unique and challenging case of complete circulatory collapse in a patient undergoing transaortic TAVR with Edwards SAPIEN prosthesis (Edwards Lifesciences, CA) who required rescue Impella CP™ (Abiomed, Danvers, MA) placement directly through the ascending aorta due to unfavorable femoral access. PMID:25529629

  5. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: First Applications and Short Term Outcomes in Our Clinic

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Mehmet; Ince, Ilker; Ahiskalioglu, Ali; Dogan, Nazim; Colak, Abdurrahim; Sevimli, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the first applications and short term outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in our clinic, which is a new technology for the patients with high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Materials and Methods: Between January 2010 and December 2012, twenty five patients (16 males, 9 females; mean age 74.04±8.86 years) diagnosed with severe aortic stenosis, who were at high risk for surgery (EuroSCORE II: 5.58±4.20) and underwent TAVI in our clinic, were evaluated. The demographic and clinical characteristics of patients, anaesthetic management, complications during pre- and post-operative periods and the mortality rate in the first 30 days and six months were recorded. Results: Edwards SAPIEN Valve prostheses were implanted by transfemoral approach (percutaneously in 10 patients and surgically in 15 patients) in all patients. The TAVI procedure was performed under general anaesthesia. The success rate of the TAVI procedure was 100%. Three patients had limited dissection of the femoral artery; however, intervention was not needed due to good distal perfusion rate. Permanent pacemaker was implanted to four patients because of long-term atrioventricular blockage. After the procedure, all patients were transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and all patients were extubated in the ICU. The mean mechanical ventilation duration (minutes) was 166.20±39.32, the mean critical care unit stay (day) was 5.64±2.99 and the mean hospital stay (day) was 11.92±5.54. Acute renal failure was observed in one patient and stroke was observed in two patients on the first postoperative day. The mortality rate in the first 30 days and 6 months was found to be 4% and 16%, respectively. Conclusion: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is a great option for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are at high risk for SAVR. In our institute, procedural success and short term outcomes for patients underwent TAVI were found to be similar to the other studies in the national and international literature. PMID:26180492

  6. Annular rupture leading to fatal complications in an elderly patient with calcified aortic and mitral annulus undergoing transapical aortic valve implantation.

    PubMed

    Haldenwang, Peter L; Bechtel, Matthias; Schlömicher, Markus; Lindstaedt, Michael; Strauch, Justus T

    2013-08-01

    This case illustrates the awareness that must be taken of the high morphological risk due to the calcifications of both, the aortic and mitral annulus in elderly patients when performing transapical aortic valve implantation. In an 86-year-old, multimorbid woman (logistic EuroSCORE = 27%) with symptomatic aortic stenosis (annular diameter = 23.4 mm) and severe mitral annular calcification, the implantation of a 26-mm Edwards SAPIEN (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, California, United States) valve in aortic position was primary successful, with no paravalvular leakage, valve instability, or coronary malperfusion. Second, a persisting transmural bleeding led to hypovolemic shock, which could not be stabilized even after going on cardiopulmonary bypass, and the patient died in the operation room. The autopsy showed a subvalvular ventricular rupture due to a transmural perforation of the calcified fibrotic annulus during valvuloplasty. PMID:23169104

  7. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation options for treating severe aortic stenosis in the elderly: the nurse's role in postoperative monitoring and treatment.

    PubMed

    Panos, Angela M; George, Elisabeth L

    2014-01-01

    Severe calcific aortic stenosis (AS) is a progressive cardiac disease that predominantly affects elderly adults. The hallmark symptoms of AS include exertional dyspnea, angina, and syncope. Adults of advanced age do not usually seek treatment for symptoms until their quality of life is greatly diminished. The 2 standard treatments for severe AS are open aortic valve replacement and percutaneous valvuloplasty. As adults age, their comorbid medical conditions often make them too high of a surgical risk for traditional aortic valve replacement, and percutaneous valvuloplasty, although less invasive, often produces only temporary relief of AS symptoms. To provide severe AS patients with alternative less risky treatment options in their later years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices were developed. Through this overview of the disease progression of AS and the different TAVI devices and the insertion procedures, a better understanding of the initial postoperative nursing care associated with postoperative TAVI patient management will be achieved. PMID:24496250

  8. Survival after aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis with low transvalvular gradients and severe left ventricular dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, Jeremy J.; Lauer, Michael S.; Bashir, Mohammad; Afridi, Imran; Blackstone, Eugene H.; Stewart, William J.; McCarthy, Patrick M.; Thomas, James D.; Asher, Craig R.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess whether aortic valve replacement (AVR) among patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS), severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and a low transvalvular gradient (TVG) is associated with improved survival. BACKGROUND: The optimal management of patients with severe AS with severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG remains controversial. METHODS: Between 1990 and 1998, we evaluated 68 patients who underwent AVR at our institution (AVR group) and 89 patients who did not undergo AVR (control group), with an aortic valve area < or = 0.75 cm(2), LV ejection fraction < or = 35% and mean gradient < or = 30 mm Hg. Using propensity analysis, survival was compared between a cohort of 39 patients in the AVR group and 56 patients in the control group. RESULTS: Despite well-matched baseline characteristics among propensity-matched patients, the one- and four-year survival rates were markedly improved in patients in the AVR group (82% and 78%), as compared with patients in the control group (41% and 15%; p < 0.0001). By multivariable analysis, the main predictor of improved survival was AVR (adjusted risk ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.39; p < 0.0001). The only other predictors of mortality were age and the serum creatinine level. CONCLUSIONS: Among select patients with severe AS, severe LV dysfunction and a low TVG, AVR was associated with significantly improved survival.

  9. When a Mechanical Valve Goes Freestyle: A Patient Tailored Valve-In-Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Franois, J; Cathenis, K; Hamerlijnck, R

    2015-01-01

    In case of a redo operation after a full root replacement there are two possible options: replacing the entire root or performing a more conservative valve-in-valve implantation. Regarding the relatively high morbidity and mortality of a redo root replacement, the valve-in-valve implantation is the preferred choice if technically feasible. We present the case of a valve-in-valve implantation with a St. Jude mechanical valve in a Medtronic bioprosthesis in a 57-year old man. Follow-up echocardiography after 1 month showed a mean gradient of 17 mmHg and no paravalvular leakage. The combination of a St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valve implanted in a Freestyle root prosthesis has not been described. This case shows that patient tailored treatment with a St. Jude bileaflet mechanical valve in a Freestyle aortic root valve can be safely performed and might be the preferred choice for younger patients, if technically feasible. PMID:26560005

  10. Atorvastatin Inhibits Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Calcification in the Aortic Valves via the Lrp5 Receptor Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Rajamannan, Nalini M.; Subramaniam, Malayannan; Caira, Frank; Stock, Stuart R.; Spelsberg, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Calcific aortic valve disease is the most common indication for surgical valve replacement in the United States. The cellular mechanisms of valve calcification are not well understood. We have previously shown that cellular proliferation and osteoblastogenesis are important in the development of valvular heart disease. Lrp5, a known low-density receptor-related protein, plays an essential role in cellular proliferation and osteoblastogenesis via the β-catenin signaling pathway. We hypothesize that Lrp5 also plays a role in aortic valve (AV) calcification in experimental hypercholesterolemia. Methods and Results We examined the effects of cholesterol and atorvastatin in Watanabe rabbits (n=54). Group I (n=18) received a normal diet, group II (n=18) a 0.25% cholesterol diet, and group III (n=18) a 0.25% (w/w) cholesterol diet with atorvastatin for the development of calcification. The AVs were examined for cellular proliferation, Lrp5/β-catenin, and bone matrix markers. Bone formation was assessed by micro-computed tomography, calcein injection, and osteopontin expression. Low-density lipoprotein with and without atorvastatin was also tested in AV myofibroblasts for cellular proliferation and regulation of the Lrp5/β-catenin pathway. Our results demonstrate that the cholesterol diet induced complex bone formations in the calcified AVs with an increase in the Lrp5 receptors, osteopontin, and p42/44 expression. Atorvastatin reduced bone formation, cellular proliferation, and Lrp5/β-catenin protein levels in the AVs. In vitro analysis confirmed the Lrp5/β-catenin expression in myofibroblast cell proliferation. Conclusion Hypercholesterolemic AV calcification is attenuated by atorvastatin and is mediated in part by the Lrp5/β-catenin pathway. This developmental pathway may be important in the signaling pathway of this disease. PMID:16159822

  11. MRI evaluation prior to Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI): When to acquire and how to interpret.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Abhishek; Hobbs, Susan K; Ling, Fred S; Chaturvedi, Apeksha; Knight, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is increasingly being used in patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not candidates for surgery. ECG-gated CT angiography (CTA) plays an important role in the preoperative planning for these devices. As the number of patients undergoing these procedures increases, a subset of patients is being recognized who have contraindications to iodinated contrast medium, either due to a prior severe allergic type reaction or poor renal function. Another subgroup of patients with low flow and low gradient aortic stenosis is being recognized that are usually assessed for severity of aortic stenosis by stress echocardiography. There are contraindications to stress echocardiography and some of these patients may not be able to undergo this test. Non-contrast MRI can be a useful emerging modality for evaluating these patients. In this article, we discuss the emerging indications of non-contrast MRI in preoperative assessment for TAVI and describe the commonly used MRI sequences. A comparison of the most important measurements obtained for TAVI assessment on CTA and MRI from same subjects is included. Teaching Points • MRI can be used for preoperative assessment of aortic annulus. • MRI is an alternate to CTA when iodinated contrast is contraindicated. • Measurements obtained by non-contrast MRI are similar to contrast enhanced CTA. • MRI can be used to assess severity of aortic stenosis. PMID:26911969

  12. Mitral Valve Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Adult Heart Disease Diseases of the arteries, valves, and aorta, as well as cardiac rhythm disturbances ... Disease Mitral Valve Disease Tricuspid Valve Disease Mitral Valve Disease Overview The mitral valve is one of ...

  13. Advanced age and incidence of atrial fibrillation in the postoperative period of aortic valve replacement

    PubMed Central

    Pivatto Júnior, Fernando; Teixeira Filho, Guaracy Fernandes; Sant'anna, João Ricardo Michelin; Py, Pablo Mondim; Prates, Paulo Roberto; Nesralla, Ivo Abrahão; Kalil, Renato Abdala Karam

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aims to describe the correlation between age and occurrence of atrial fibrillation after aortic stenosis surgery in the elderly as well as evaluate the influence of atrial fibrillation on the incidence of strokes, hospital length of stay, and hospital mortality. Methods Cross-sectional retrospective study of > 70 year-old patients who underwent isolated aortic valve replacement. Results 348 patients were included in the study (mean age 76.8±4.6 years). Overall, post-operative atrial fibrillation was 32.8% (n=114), but it was higher in patients aged 80 years and older (42.9% versus 28.8% in patients aged 70-79 years, P=0.017). There was borderline significance for linear correlation between age and atrial fibrillation (P=0.055). Intensive Care Unit and hospital lengths of stay were significantly increased in atrial fibrillation (P<0.001), but there was no increase in mortality or stroke associated with atrial fibrillation. Conclusion Post-operative atrial fibrillation incidence in aortic valve replacement is high and correlates with age in patients aged 70 years and older and significantly more pronounced in patients aged 80 years. There was increased length of stay at Intensive Care Unit and hospital, but there was no increase in mortality or stroke. These data are important for planning prophylaxis and early treatment for this subgroup. PMID:24896162

  14. Gene Profiling of Aortic Valve Interstitial Cells under Elevated Pressure Conditions: Modulation of Inflammatory Gene Networks

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, James N.; Nanduri, Bindu; Pregonero Gamez, Carol A.; Tang, Juliet; Koback, Daniel; Muir, William M.; Burgess, Shane C.

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to identify mechanosensitive pathways and gene networks that are stimulated by elevated cyclic pressure in aortic valve interstitial cells (VICs) and lead to detrimental tissue remodeling and/or pathogenesis. Porcine aortic valve leaflets were exposed to cyclic pressures of 80 or 120 mmHg, corresponding to diastolic transvalvular pressure in normal and hypertensive conditions, respectively. Linear, two-cycle amplification of total RNA, followed by microarray was performed for transcriptome analysis (with qRT-PCR validation). A combination of systems biology modeling and pathway analysis identified novel genes and molecular mechanisms underlying the biological response of VICs to elevated pressure. 56 gene transcripts related to inflammatory response mechanisms were differentially expressed. TNF-α, IL-1α, and IL-1β were key cytokines identified from the gene network model. Also of interest was the discovery that pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was significantly upregulated under elevated pressure conditions (41-fold change). In conclusion, a gene network model showing differentially expressed inflammatory genes and their interactions in VICs exposed to elevated pressure has been developed. This system overview has detected key molecules that could be targeted for pharmacotherapy of aortic stenosis in hypertensive patients. PMID:21876831

  15. Heart valve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Vesely, Ivan

    2005-10-14

    Tissue-engineered heart valves have been proposed by physicians and scientists alike to be the ultimate solution for treating valvular heart disease. Rather than replacing a diseased or defective native valve with a mechanical or animal tissue-derived artificial valve, a tissue-engineered valve would be a living organ, able to respond to growth and physiological forces in the same way that the native aortic valve does. Two main approaches have been attempted over the past 10 to 15 years: regeneration and repopulation. Regeneration involves the implantation of a resorbable matrix that is expected to remodel in vivo and yield a functional valve composed of the cells and connective tissue proteins of the patient. Repopulation involves implanting a whole porcine aortic valve that has been previously cleaned of all pig cells, leaving an intact, mechanically sound connective tissue matrix. The cells of the patients are expected to repopulate and revitalize the acellular matrix, creating living tissue that already has the complex microstructure necessary for proper function and durability. Regrettably, neither of the 2 approaches has fared well in animal experiments, and the only clinical experience with tissue-engineered valves resulted in a number of early failures and patient death. This article reviews the technological details of the 2 main approaches, their rationale, their strengths and weaknesses, and the likely mechanisms for their failure. Alternative approaches to valvular tissue engineering, as well as the role of industry in shaping this field in the future, are also reviewed. PMID:16224074

  16. Limitations of multimodality imaging in the diagnosis of pannus formation in prosthetic aortic valve and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Soumoulou, Juan Bautista; Cianciulli, Tomás Francisco; Zappi, Andrea; Cozzarin, Alberto; Saccheri, María Cristina; Lax, Jorge Alberto; Guidoin, Robert; Zhang, Ze

    2015-01-01

    Pannus formation is a rare complication and occurs almost exclusively in mechanical prosthetic valves. It consists of fibrous tissue that covers the surface of the prosthesis either concentrically or eccentrically, resulting in valve dysfunction. The pathophysiology seems to be associated to a chronic inflammatory process that explains the late and insidious clinical presentation. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with high transvalvular gradients on transthoracic echo, and workup should be completed with fluoroscopy and transesophageal echocardiography. Treatment is always surgical and recurrence is rare. We present a case of pannus formation in a prosthetic aortic valve and a review of the literature regarding this disorder. PMID:25914791

  17. TGF-β mediates early angiogenesis and latent fibrosis in an Emilin1-deficient mouse model of aortic valve disease

    PubMed Central

    Munjal, Charu; Opoka, Amy M.; Osinska, Hanna; James, Jeanne F.; Bressan, Giorgio M.; Hinton, Robert B.

    2014-01-01

    Aortic valve disease (AVD) is characterized by elastic fiber fragmentation (EFF), fibrosis and aberrant angiogenesis. Emilin1 is an elastin-binding glycoprotein that regulates elastogenesis and inhibits TGF-β signaling, but the role of Emilin1 in valve tissue is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that Emilin1 deficiency results in AVD, mediated by non-canonical (MAPK/phosphorylated Erk1 and Erk2) TGF-β dysregulation. Using histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative gene expression analysis, immunoblotting and echocardiography, we examined the effects of Emilin1 deficiency (Emilin1−/−) in mouse aortic valve tissue. Emilin1 deficiency results in early postnatal cell-matrix defects in aortic valve tissue, including EFF, that progress to latent AVD and premature death. The Emilin1−/− aortic valve displays early aberrant provisional angiogenesis and late neovascularization. In addition, Emilin1−/− aortic valves are characterized by early valve interstitial cell activation and proliferation and late myofibroblast-like cell activation and fibrosis. Interestingly, canonical TGF-β signaling (phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3) is upregulated constitutively from birth to senescence, whereas non-canonical TGF-β signaling (phosphorylated Erk1 and Erk2) progressively increases over time. Emilin1 deficiency recapitulates human fibrotic AVD, and advanced disease is mediated by non-canonical (MAPK/phosphorylated Erk1 and Erk2) TGF-β activation. The early manifestation of EFF and aberrant angiogenesis suggests that these processes are crucial intermediate factors involved in disease progression and therefore might provide new therapeutic targets for human AVD. PMID:25056700

  18. Noticeable decreased expression of tenascin-X in calcific aortic valves.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Satoh, Kazumi; Maniwa, Tomoko; Araki, Asuka; Maruyama, Riruke; Oda, Teiji

    2012-01-01

    Calcification of aortic valves results in valvular aortic stenosis and is becoming a common valvular condition in elderly populations. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of this valve lesion is important for revealing potential biomarkers associated with the development and progression of this disease. In order to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in calcific aortic valves (CAVs) compared with those in adjacent normal valvular tissues, comprehensive analysis of differentially e