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1

Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions  

PubMed Central

Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

2013-01-01

2

Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our manuscript shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects. It contains at least 181 substances,\\u000a is a supersaturated solution of sugars, and contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements,\\u000a vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphones. This article reviews reports on the use of honey in the treatment of human disorders,\\u000a which are

Jose Miguel Alvarez-Suarez; Sara Tulipani; Stefania Romandini; Enrico Bertoli; Maurizio Battino

2010-01-01

3

Rendered meat and bone meals as ingredients of diets for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional quality of three sources of rendered meat and bone meals (MBM) was evaluated as feed ingredients in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Two trials were conducted in this work: an in vivo apparent digestibility trial and a growth trial. The apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and amino acids of diets containing fixed percentages of each

I. P Forster; W Dominy; L Obaldo; A. G. J Tacon

2003-01-01

4

The Contribution Made by School Milk to the Nutrition of Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…

Cook, Judith; And Others

1975-01-01

5

Specific Contribution of Methionine and Choline in Nutritional Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not well established. Feeding a diet deficient in both methionine and choline (MCD) is one of the most common models of NASH, which is characterized by steatosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocellular injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. However, the individual contribution of the lack of methionine and choline in liver steatosis, advanced pathology and impact on mitochondrial S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) and glutathione (GSH), known regulators of disease progression, has not been specifically addressed. Here, we examined the regulation of mitochondrial SAM and GSH and signs of disease in mice fed a MCD, methionine-deficient (MD), or choline-deficient (CD) diet. The MD diet reproduced most of the deleterious effects of MCD feeding, including weight loss, hepatocellular injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, whereas CD feeding was mainly responsible for steatosis, characterized by triglycerides and free fatty acids accumulation. These findings were preceded by MCD- or MD-mediated SAM and GSH depletion in mitochondria due to decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity associated with a lower phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine ratio. MCD and MD but not CD feeding resulted in increased ceramide levels by acid sphingomyelinase. Moreover, GSH ethyl ester or SAM therapy restored mitochondrial GSH and ameliorated hepatocellular injury in mice fed a MCD or MD diet. Thus, the depletion of SAM and GSH in mitochondria is an early event in the MCD model of NASH, which is determined by the lack of methionine. Moreover, therapy using permeable GSH prodrugs may be of relevance in NASH.

Caballero, Francisco; Fernandez, Anna; Matias, Nuria; Martinez, Laura; Fucho, Raquel; Elena, Montserrat; Caballeria, Joan; Morales, Albert; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen

2010-01-01

6

Contribution of green and farm yard manure in the nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiment were conducted to evaluate the amount of nitrogen contributed by various organic fertilisers to the N-nutrition\\u000a of a growing sugarcane crop, at the sugarcane research farm of National Cereals Research Institute (NCRI) in 1999 and 2000.\\u000a The objective was to provide alternative source of nutrients in response to the scarcity and high cost of inorganic fertiliser\\u000a often experienced by

A. K. Gana; L. D. Busari

2006-01-01

7

Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants: a simulation model.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To provide information on the potential contribution to vitamin A nutrition in infants of strategies for improving maternal vitamin A status and increasing the consumption of breast milk. METHODS: The contribution of breastfeeding to the vitamin A nutrition of children in eight age groups between 0 and 24 months was simulated under four sets of conditions involving two levels of breast milk consumption with or without maternal vitamin A supplementation. FINDINGS: During the first 6 months, optimal breastfeeding on its own (compared with withholding colostrum and then partially breastfeeding after the first week) was as effective as postpartum maternal supplementation alone, retinol intakes being increased by 59 micrograms per day and 68 micrograms per day, respectively. Combined in synergy, these strategies increase retinol intake by 144 micrograms per day, or 36% of the recommended intake. After 6 months, partial breastfeeding continued to provide a significant proportion of the recommended intakes: 42% from 6-12 months and 61% during the second year. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with a high dose of vitamin A at the time of delivery and the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices are highly effective strategies for improving vitamin A nutrition in infants and should be strengthened as key components of comprehensive child survival programmes.

Ross, Jay S.; Harvey, Philip W. J.

2003-01-01

8

Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and near-isolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and

J. V. G. A. Durnin

1976-01-01

9

Nutritional contribution of street foods to the diet of people in developing countries: a systematic review.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: To review studies examining the nutritional value of street foods and their contribution to the diet of consumers in developing countries. DESIGN: The electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, Proquest Health and Science Direct were searched for articles on street foods in developing countries that included findings on nutritional value. RESULTS: From a total of 639 articles, twenty-three studies were retained since they met the inclusion criteria. In summary, daily energy intake from street foods in adults ranged from 13 % to 50 % of energy and in children from 13 % to 40 % of energy. Although the amounts differed from place to place, even at the lowest values of the percentage of energy intake range, energy from street foods made a significant contribution to the diet. Furthermore, the majority of studies suggest that street foods contributed significantly to the daily intake of protein, often at 50 % of the RDA. The data on fat and carbohydrate intakes are of some concern because of the assumed high contribution of street foods to the total intakes of fat, trans-fat, salt and sugar in numerous studies and their possible role in the development of obesity and non-communicable diseases. Few studies have provided data on the intake of micronutrients, but these tended to be high for Fe and vitamin A while low for Ca and thiamin. CONCLUSIONS: Street foods make a significant contribution to energy and protein intakes of people in developing countries and their use should be encouraged if they are healthy traditional foods. PMID:23680029

Steyn, Nelia Patricia; McHiza, Zandile; Hill, Jillian; Davids, Yul Derek; Venter, Irma; Hinrichsen, Enid; Opperman, Maretha; Rumbelow, Julien; Jacobs, Peter

2013-05-17

10

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

11

Genetic and Epigenetic Contributions to Human Nutrition and Health: Managing Genome–Diet Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institute of Medicine recently convened a workshop to review the state of the various domains of nutritional genomics research and policy and to provide guidance for further development and translation of this knowledge into nutrition practice and policy. Nutritional genomics holds the promise to revolutionize both clinical and public health nutrition practice and facilitate the establishment of (a) genome-informed

Patrick J. Stover; Marie A. Caudill

2008-01-01

12

Nutrition education for medical students: evaluation of the relative contribution of freshman courses in biochemistry and nutrition to performance on a standardized examination in nutrition.  

PubMed

An examination previously developed and used for assessment of nutrition knowledge of medical students in the Southeastern Regional Medical-Nutrition Education Network was used to compare the effectiveness of a basic medical biochemistry course and a 58-hour required nutrition course. The examination was administered to a cohort of freshman students upon entry to medical school, after biochemistry, and then after nutrition. Two other student groups took the examination at the end of the sophomore and senior years, respectively. In the freshman cohort, mean nutrition knowledge scores increased slightly after biochemistry, (52% to 56%), which contained 37 nutrition-related lectures. The mean score of the cohort was 75% after the nutrition course. The sophomores scored 75% and the seniors 73%. These findings suggest 1) basic science courses such as biochemistry cannot be relied upon to add significantly to nutrition knowledge, and 2) a required freshman course can be an effective way to introduce basic and clinical nutrition with good retention of knowledge in subsequent years. PMID:2520254

Morgan, S L; Weinsier, R L; Boker, J R; Brooks, C M

13

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... One-on-One or Small-Group Sessions and Eating Disorders Treatment Services Location Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Counseling * Eating Disorders Treatment † At school by health services or mental ...

14

BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

2012-05-01

15

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

16

Qualitative Investigation of Factors Contributing to Effective Nutrition Education for Navajo Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Obesity rates in American Indian and Alaskan Native children are a major health threat, yet effective ways to address this\\u000a remain elusive. Building on an earlier dietary assessment of Navajo Head Start families which indicated a gap in parental\\u000a nutrition awareness despite a strong program emphasis, the aim of this project was to identify culturally relevant nutrition\\u000a education strategies

Leslie Cunningham-Sabo; Mark Bauer; Shirley Pareo; Shirleen Phillips-Benally; Julia Roanhorse; Linda Garcia

2008-01-01

17

Men's contribution to the food and nutritional situation in the Tanzanian household  

Microsoft Academic Search

More is presently known about women's than men's role in food production and nutrition in Africa. The present article is an attempt to remedy this shortcoming. A special focus is put on the influence men exert through their labour and decision?making on the household food situation. Findings from a study in a subsistence agricultural community in Tanzania give a differentiated

Margareta Wandel

1991-01-01

18

Some Contributions for a Pedagogical Treatment of Alternative Conceptions in Biology: An Example from Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that investigated the alternative conceptions of students in a biology and geology teacher education course regarding plant nutrition. Data were collected from first year and final year students using a questionnaire that had both multiple choice and descriptive items. Findings indicate common features related to the…

Vaz, Adelaine Neto; And Others

19

Some Contributions for a Pedagogical Treatment of Alternative Conceptions in Biology: An Example from Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper reports on a study that investigated the alternative conceptions of students in a biology and geology teacher education course regarding plant nutrition. Data were collected from first year and final year students using a questionnaire that had both multiple choice and descriptive items. Findings indicate common features related to the…

Vaz, Adelaine Neto; And Others

20

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

21

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

22

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.

2012-01-01

23

Community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition

J Aranceta

2003-01-01

24

Animal Nutrition and Lipids in Animal Products and Their Contribution to Human Intake and Health  

PubMed Central

Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) through alteration of the cow’s diet are examined. Also, few people achieve minimum recommended intakes (~450–500 mg/d) of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Enrichment of EPA+DHA in poultry meat via bird nutrition is described and how this would impact on habitual intake is discussed.

Givens, Ian

2009-01-01

25

Contributions of Intestinal Bacteria to Nutrition and Metabolism in the Critically Ill  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Important advances in the study of bacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract have significant implications for clinicians striving to meet the metabolic and nutritional needs of critically ill patients. A transition from culture-based to culture-independent studies of the intestinal microbiota has ushered in a new era of laboratory and clinical studies in this field. These studies are helping to clarify the important role of bacteria in carbohydrate metabolism, and are providing new evidence that highlights the role of bacteria in protein and lipid homeostasis. We know that during periods of caloric excess or deprivation, microbial populations in the GI tract are clearly altered; however the molecular etiology for such changes remains elusive. Similarly, little is known about how microbial ecology changes before, during, and after critical illness. Nevertheless, several approaches, e.g. probiotic administration, have been employed to manipulate gut microbial communities in the ICU. In this review we offer a broad overview of the importance of the host-microbe relationship, discuss what is currently known about the role of gut microbes in nutrition and metabolism in the healthy human host, review how gut microbes are impacted by critical illness, and discuss interventions that have already been utilized to manipulate the gut microbiome in ICU patients.

Morowitz, Michael J.; Carlisle, Erica; Alverdy, John C.

2011-01-01

26

Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.  

PubMed

Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people. PMID:9183207

James, W P; Nelson, M; Ralph, A; Leather, S

1997-05-24

27

Nutritional contribution of coffee, cacao and tea phenolics to human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  The intention of this short overview is to contribute to a better understanding of the physiological effects of the coffee,\\u000a cacao and tea phenolics to human health. The paper gives a short description of the principle phenolic compounds present in\\u000a each of the food stuffs, their intake, summarises the data available on their bioavailability and metabolism and gives finally\\u000a a

H. M. Rawel; S. E. Kulling

2007-01-01

28

A stochastic approach for analysis of the influence of white spot disease, zootechnical parameters, water quality, and management factors on the variability of production of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultivated under intensive commercial conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the variability of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei production by incorporating stochastic elements into deterministic stock models and determined the contribution that white spot disease, zootechnical parameters, water quality, and alternative management strategies have on variability. The model was calibrated for intensive shrimp cultivation in the State of Nayarit, Mexico. Mean annual production increased as a consequence of improved management

Alfredo Hernández-Llamas; Javier M. J. Ruiz-Velazco; Victor M. Gomez-Muñoz

2011-01-01

29

Reproductive readiness of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei grown in a brackish water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reproductive readiness of the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (formerly Penaeus vannamei) cultured in brackish water was characterized by applying morphological, physiological, and molecular tools. The shrimp were cultured on two commercial shrimp farms in brackish water that was pumped from artesian wells that tap into a geothermal aquifer. The shrimp populations exhibited a bimodal growth curve with the females

S. Parnes; E. Mills; C. Segall; S. Raviv; C. Davis; A. Sagi

2004-01-01

30

Consumption and digestion of suspended microbes by juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae hold a key role in the diet of the world's highest-valued seafood species, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, but ingestion, digestion, and feeding mechanisms employed for consuming suspended microbes are not well studied. The goal of this work was to determine whether juvenile L. vannamei could consume and digest several microbes of varying sizes and structures in suspended monocultures.

Megan Kent; Craig L. Browdy; John W. Leffler

2011-01-01

31

A descriptive review of the factors contributing to nutritional compromise in patients with head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Malnutrition has been known to be associated with adverse outcomes in cancer patients. Patients who have been and\\/or are being\\u000a treated for head and neck cancer have a compromised nutritional status. Nutritional deficits have a significant impact on\\u000a mortality, morbidity, and quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  The wasting in cancer cachexia involves loss of muscle and fat and reflects a catabolic metabolism

Martin R. Chasen; Ravi Bhargava

2009-01-01

32

Contribution of lactic acid fermentation to improved nutritive quality vegetable juices enriched with brewer’s yeast autolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetables are rich sources of the biologically active compounds which have beneficial effects in prevention of some diseases and certain types of cancer. From the point of view of protection and health, the objective of this paper was to optimize food content in order to obtain a functional food. In order to improve the nutritive and protective properties of the

Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic; Slavica Siler-Marinkovic; Milan Maksimovic

2007-01-01

33

Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of children (9-13 Years): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NHANES, 1999-2004, 24-hr dietary recalls were used to examine the contribution of Lean Beef (LB) to total nutrient intake in diets of children 9-13 years (n=3,273), and determine dietary intake differences between LB consumers and non-consumers. LB was defined by MyPyramid Equivalents Database as be...

34

Contributions to the botany and nutritional value of some wild amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae) of Nuevo leon, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and plants of Amaranthus have been a source of food for many cultures in the world. Some species can be found as weeds\\u000a or growing wild under severe climatic and soil conditions, but their potential as food sources has not been studied. The objective\\u000a of this work was to study the nutritional quality of four wild species ofAmaranthus,A. retroflexus

Pedro Wesche-Ebeling; Ratikanta Maiti; Graciela García-Díaz; Diana I. González; Fernando Sosa-Alvarado

1995-01-01

35

The Contribution of Organic Food Production to Sustainable Nutrition: A Case Study on the Organic Niche Market in Eastern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Healthy and tasty nutrition in sufficient quantities is a basic human need. The ways in which we eat and drink are part of\\u000a human culture. At the same time, the production of food is closely linked with the natural environment and ecological cycles,\\u000a demonstrating our dependence on nature. Altogether, food production and consumption form a complex system that is an

Benjamin Nölting

36

Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.  

PubMed

This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=3273), and adolescents 14-18 y (n=4044) participating in the NHANES 1999-2004 were assessed. LB was defined as beef with ?9.28 grams [g] fat/100 g (excess was discretionary fat). Means and standard errors were determined using appropriate sample weights. Consumption of LB contributed significantly to intake of protein and many key nutrients such as vitamins B6 and B12, zinc, iron, niacin, phosphorus, and potassium by US children and adolescents without providing significantly to intakes of total fat, saturated fatty acids, or sodium. PMID:21093990

O'Neil, Carol E; Zanovec, Michael; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

2010-10-30

37

Haemophilus responses to nutritional immunity: epigenetic and morphological contribution to biofilm architecture, invasion, persistence and disease severity.  

PubMed

In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. PMID:24130500

Szelestey, Blake R; Heimlich, Derek R; Raffel, Forrest K; Justice, Sheryl S; Mason, Kevin M

2013-10-10

38

Haemophilus Responses to Nutritional Immunity: Epigenetic and Morphological Contribution to Biofilm Architecture, Invasion, Persistence and Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites.

Szelestey, Blake R.; Heimlich, Derek R.; Raffel, Forrest K.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Mason, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

39

Broadening psychology's contribution to addressing issues of HIV/AIDS, poverty and nutrition: structural issues as constraints and opportunities.  

PubMed

HIV/AIDS, more than any other public health problem, challenges dominant models of the role of psychology in health promotion and prevention. This paper focuses on poverty and resulting food insecurity as a structural risk factor for HIV infection. The paper considers the role of health psychology in global health concerns and argues that, while individual-based interventions are important, health psychology needs to shift to playing a proper role in broader level initiatives. Health psychology, in thinking about global health concerns such as HIV, needs to view an understanding of health, education and nutrition delivery programmes in low resourced contexts as at the core of the discipline. PMID:20631038

Tomlinson, Mark; Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Drimie, Scott; Kagee, Ashraf

2010-07-14

40

Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004.  

PubMed

Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B(12), iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four-hour dietary recall data from adults 19 to 50 years of age (n = 7049) and 51+ years (n = 6243) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004 were assessed. Lean beef was defined as beef with <9.28 g fat per 100 g (excess was discretionary fat). Fifty percent of adults 19 to 50 years and 41% of adults 51+ years consumed beef on the day of the dietary recall. Total beef consumed among adults 19 to 50 and 51+ years was 49.3 +/- 1.4 g (1.74 oz/d) and 37.1 +/- 1.2 g (1.31 oz/d), respectively. In adults 19 to 50 and 51+ years, LB contributed 3.9% and 3.7% to total energy; 4.5% and 4.1% to total fat, 3.8% and 3.6% to saturated fatty acids; 13% and 11% to cholesterol intake; 15% and 14% to protein; 25% and 20% to vitamin B(12); 23% and 20% to zinc; and 8% and 7% to iron, respectively. Beef was also an important food source of many other nutrients, including niacin, vitamin B(6), phosphorus, and potassium. In addition, beef provided only 1% of total sodium intake. Consumption of beef contributed significantly to intake of protein and other key nutrients by US adults. PMID:20650344

Zanovec, Michael; O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L; Nicklas, Theresa A

2010-06-01

41

Dynamic changes in digestive capability may contribute to compensatory growth following a nutritional insult in newly weaned pigs.  

PubMed

We have previously demonstrated that feeding low complexity diets (LOW) compromises growth performance of pigs during the first 3 wk after weaning and induces compensatory growth and improved feed efficiency thereafter. A study was undertaken to explore physiological mechanisms involved in compensatory growth following a nutritional insult. Fifty-six pigs were weaned at 21 ± 2 d of age and fed high complexity diets (HIGH) for 6 wk. All pigs received the same grower diet thereafter. Pigs were killed at weeks 2, 4, and 8 after weaning and proximal jejunum and distal ileum were sampled for evaluation of histology and enzyme activity. In the proximal jejunum, villus height was lower (P = 0.03) at week 2 in pigs on LOW than HIGH but not different at week 4. There was no effect of diet on crypt depth; villus height:crypt depth ratio increased (P = 0.02) from week 2 to week 4 in pigs on LOW but was not changed in pigs on HIGH. Diet did not impact gut morphology at the distal ileum. Enzyme activity was lowest (P < 0.05) at week 2 for sucrase and aminopeptidase N (APN) and lowest (P < 0.06) at week 8 for lactase. Sucrase activity was numerically higher at week 4 in pigs fed LOW but numerically higher at week 8 in pigs fed HIGH. Lactase and APN activity were not affected by diet. Compensatory growth observed in pigs following a nutritional insult after weaning may be due in part to improved digestive capability. PMID:23365341

Levesque, C L; Skinner, L; Zhu, J; de Lange, C F M

2012-12-01

42

SEMI-INTENSIVE PRODUCTION OF PENAEUS VANNAMEI  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Because marine shrimp species convenient for aquacultural purposes live mainly in warm-water environments, commercial shrimp farms are located principally along trop- ical and sub-tropical marine coastlines. Other than the South-East Asiatic countries, the Latin America countries are important shrimp producers that contribute in satisfying the international demand of marine shrimp. Part of the imported shrimp in Italy come from

43

Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.  

PubMed

Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

2008-03-01

44

Nutrition and Multifetal Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

JUDITH E BROWN; MARCIA CARLSON

2000-01-01

45

Estimating the relative contribution of parasitic infections and nutrition for anaemia among school-aged children in Kenya: a subnational geostatistical analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify geographical variation in the relative contribution of parasitic infections, socioeconomic factors and malnutrition in the aetiology of anaemia among schoolchildren across Kenya, thereby providing a rational basis for the targeting of an integrated school health package. Design Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data were collected using standard protocols. For all included children, data were recorded on haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and common parasitic infections (Plasmodium falciparum, hookworm and schistosomes) and socioeconomic indicators. Ecological proxies of malnutrition and food security were generated using Demographic and Health Survey and UN Food and Agriculture Organization food security data, respectively. Spatially explicit, multilevel models were used to quantify impact upon child Hb concentration. Setting Randomly selected schools in ecologically diverse settings across Kenya. Main outcome measures Mean Hb concentration adjusted for infection, nutritional and socioeconomic risk factors; associated risk ratios and adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) for anaemia, by region. Results Data were available for 16?941 children in 167 schools; mean Hb was 122.1?g/l and 35.3% of children were anaemic. In multivariate analysis, mean Hb was significantly lower in boys and younger children. Severe malnutrition and interactions between P falciparum and hookworm infections were significantly associated with lower Hb, with greater impacts seen for coinfected children. The contribution of risk factors to anaemia risk varied by province: in 14-year-old girls, PAFs ranged between 0% and 27.6% for P falciparum, 0% and 29% for hookworm and 0% and 18.4% for severe malnutrition. Conclusions The observed geographical heterogeneity in the burden of anaemia attributable to different aetiological factors has important implications for the rational targeting of antianaemia interventions that can be included in an integrated school health programme.

Pullan, Rachel L; Gitonga, Carol; Mwandawiro, Charles; Snow, Robert William; Brooker, Simon J

2013-01-01

46

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty.

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

47

Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.  

PubMed

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

2013-03-26

48

Nutrition Fair  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To quantify changes in nutritional knowledge in the WIC population when an alternative method of nutrition education was used.Nutrition education is a very important component of WIC program. It is aimed to further the nutritional knowledge of WIC participants resulting in improving general health of the entire family. New methods of nutrition education that involve an active participation

B. J. Kowtha; C. J. Bruce

1997-01-01

49

Childhood Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Living > Nutrition > Childhood Nutrition Healthy Living Listen Childhood Nutrition Article Body Hey , What’s to Eat? Unless ... loop, it’s likely you’ve heard about the childhood obesity epidemic. Nearly 1 in 3 children in ...

50

Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

2011-03-01

51

Acuabio 1, un estimulador del sistema inmune de camarones Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acuabio 1, an enhancer of the immune system in Litopennaeus vannamei shrimps. Acuabio 1 is a mixture of proteins and essential amino acids that exerts a stimulating effect in the development of aquatic organisms. It synchronizes and accelerates fish and shrimp larvae growth on early developmental stages, as well as increases the development and size of these animals. In this

Ramón Franco; Amilcar Arenal; Leonardo Martín; Dayamí Santiesteban; Jorge Sotolongo; Rebeca Martínez; Mario P Estrada

52

Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify the gene expression of lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response to a pathogen challenge. We quantified lysozyme transcripts with a real-time PCR method and used these data, along with total hemocyte counts, to infer patterns of hemocyte trafficking during the immune

Erin J. Burge; Daniel J. Madigan; Louis E. Burnett; Karen G. Burnett

2007-01-01

53

Effect of marine red yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on growth and antioxidant competence of Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of orally administered marine red yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on growth performance and antioxidant competence of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated in a six-week feeding trial. The shrimps were fed with three diets, including the control diet, the diet containing 1% dry yeast and the diet containing 108yeastsg?1 diet. R. paludigenum supplementation caused significant increase in WG, SGR and survival

Shi-Ping Yang; Zao-He Wu; Ji-Chang Jian; Xing-Zhong Zhang

2010-01-01

54

Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system  

SciTech Connect

Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

1986-10-01

55

Energy balance of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae fed on animal or vegetable protein based compounded feeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

L. vannamei postlarvae are normally raised with a protein dense diet (50% protein) rich in fishmeal. Part of the protein is utilized for energy purpose instead of protein synthesis. Based on a previous energy partitioning study, the effects of two isoenergetic compounded feed treatments – animal protein (AP) and vegetable protein and carbohydrates (VPC) – upon growth efficiency and energy

Luis Jiménez-Yan; Abelardo Brito; Gerard Cuzon; Gabriela Gaxiola; Tomás García; Gabriel Taboada; Luis A. Soto; Roberto Brito

2006-01-01

56

Maturation performance of Penaeus vannamei co-fed Artemia biomass preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few shrimp hatcheries successfully propagate captive broodstock on a commercial scale. Diets for acceptable maturation performance of Penaeus vannamei have typically relied on the inclusion of marine polychaetes (bloodworm) from Panama or Maine, USA, which are expensive and are of unpredictable supply. Studies were therefore undertaken at experimental and commercial scale to replace or supplement the polychaetes by frozen ongrown

E. Naessens; P. Lavens; L. Gomez; C. L. Browdy; K. McGovern-Hopkins; A. W. Spencer; D. Kawahigashi; P. Sorgeloos

1997-01-01

57

Beneficial effects of four Bacillus strains on the larval cultivation of Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of four strains of Bacillus isolated from the guts of healthy wild adult shrimp on survival and rate of development of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae to understand how endemic Bacillus probiotic strains improve the health of larvae. This included bacterial isolation, assays of hemolytic activity, antagonism against pathogenic Vibrio species, growth, and adhesion to shrimp

Irasema E. Luis-Villaseñor; María E. Macías-Rodríguez; Bruno Gómez-Gil; Felipe Ascencio-Valle; Ángel I. Campa-Córdova

2011-01-01

58

The design of intelligent shelf-life prediction device and research on shelf-life prediction algorithm of peneaus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new intelligent prediction device which can quickly and accurately predict the shelf-life of Penaeus vannamei. Because Penaeus vannamei has different corruption rate under different temperature condition and different preservation time, the theory of TTT can't accurately calculate the shelf-life under any condition, the K-means algorithm is adopted to divide the corruption rate into different clusters in

Ming Chen; Huifang Liu

2010-01-01

59

Molecular cloning and characterization of Dmc1 , a gene involved in gametogenesis, from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to gain a better understanding of the developmental processes of shrimp germ cells, the molecular cloning and characterization\\u000a of a meiosis-related gene, Dmc1, was carried out using the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The cDNA of the L. vannamei Dmc1 homologue (LvDmc1) was 1,647 bp long and contained a 1,023-bp open reading frame corresponding to 341 amino acid residues. The

Tomoyuki Okutsu; Bong Jung Kang; Misako Miwa; Goro Yoshizaki; Yukio Maeno; Marcy N. Wilder

2010-01-01

60

Nutritional risk in institutionalized older women determined by the Mini Nutritional Assessment test: what are the main factors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe assessed which factors contribute to the high level of nutritional risk detected by the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) test in institutionalized older women. To this end, we undertook a complete nutritional assessment.

M. Dolores Ruiz-López; Reyes Artacho; Patricio Oliva; Rosario Moreno-Torres; Jorge Bolaños; Carlos de Teresa; M. Carmen López

2003-01-01

61

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating, or nutrition, environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. This article reports on the development and evaluation of measures of nutrition environments in retail food stores. Methods: The Nutrition Environment Measures Study developed observational measures of the nutrition environment within retail food stores (NEMS-S)

Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Brian E. Saelens; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

62

Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae), cultivated at different salinities.  

PubMed

Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD) and lipids (ALD) were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP) and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP) diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50 psu) in 60 L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CP diet which had 74.0% at 50 psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35 psu, respectively). For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4%) at 5 psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50 psu (97.3 and 94.7%). This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. PMID:24027918

Gucic, Milena; Cortés-Jacinto, Edilmar; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael

2013-09-01

63

The plausibility of maternal nutritional status being a contributing factor to the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: the potential influence of zinc status as an example.  

PubMed

There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, whereas its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn-supplemented diets or Zn injections before the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute-phase response, resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection from some of the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20333752

Keen, Carl L; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, Wladimir W; Chambers, Christina D

64

The Plausibility of Maternal Nutritional Status Being a Contributing Factor to the Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Influence of Zinc Status as an Example  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, while its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn supplemented diets or Zn injections prior to the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute phase response resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD) support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection for some of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

Keen, Carl L.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.

2010-01-01

65

What's Nutrition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The video presents a brief history of nutrition, emphasizing the importance of forming food habits for a lifetime. It stresses attitudes toward food, nutrition, and eating, and how they affect the job of the school food service worker.

1994-01-01

66

Goat Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

After the purchase price of the animals, feed is the single largest cost associated with raising goats, typically accounting for 60 percent or more of to- tal production costs. Nutrition exerts a very large influence on flock reproduction, milk production, and kid growth. Late-gestation and lactation are the most critical periods for doe nutrition, with lactation placing the highest nutritional

Justin McDaniel; Brian Freking

67

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

68

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1991-01-01

69

Superoxide dismutase as modulator of immune function in American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory action of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its possible use as an indicator of immune responses in American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Juvenile shrimp were immersed in aerated beta-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide solutions for 6 h. SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle was quantified to evaluate whether beta-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide induce immunostimulatory activity. Haemocytes and muscle showed similar increased levels of SOD activity (1.5- and 1.4-fold that of control, respectively). Total haemocyte count decreased within the first 24 h after challenge with immunostimulants, but total haemocyte count and total soluble haemocyte protein increased over normal values after 48-120 h. Single immunostimulation with beta-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide is sufficient to generate an increase in the antioxidant activity of L. vannamei SOD. PMID:12458183

Campa-Córdova, A I; Hernández-Saavedra, N Y; Ascencio, F

2002-12-01

70

Red meat in global nutrition.  

PubMed

The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. PMID:22658075

McNeill, Shalene; Van Elswyk, Mary E

2012-04-01

71

Dodecamer is Required for Agglutination of Litopenaeus vannamei Hemocyanin with Bacterial Cells and Red Blood Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemocyanins are multi-functional proteins, although they are well known to be respiratory proteins of invertebrate to date.\\u000a In the present study, the agglutination ability of two oligomers of hemocyanin, hexamer and dodecamer, with pathogenic bacteria\\u000a and red blood cells (RBCs) is investigated in pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Hexameric hemocyanin exhibits an extremely high stability even in the absence of

Jian-yi Pan; Yue-ling Zhang; San-ying Wang; Xuan-xian Peng

2008-01-01

72

Localization and bacteriostasis of Vibrio introduced into the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous mechanisms of immune defense have been described in crustaceans, the tissue distribution and fate of live bacteria introduced into the host remain unclear. In the present study, Litopenaeus vannamei were injected with a sub-lethal dose of kanamycin-resistant Vibrio campbellii expressing green fluorescent protein. Accumulation of intact bacteria was quantified by real-time PCR, while bacteriostasis was quantified as the

Joseph E. Burgents; Louis E. Burnett; Eric V. Stabb; Karen G. Burnett

2005-01-01

73

Antioxidative activity of Mungoong, an extract paste, from the cephalothorax of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidative activity of Mungoong, an extract paste, from the cephalothorax of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Extraction media were shown to affect the antioxidative activity and properties of resulting extracts from Mungoong. Distilled water exhibited the highest efficacy in extracting the antioxidants from Mungoong, as evidenced by the highest ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging

Wanwisa Binsan; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Munehiko Tanaka; Hideki Kishimura

2008-01-01

74

Replacement of fish meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal (CEPM) and flashed dried poultry by-product meal (FD-PBM) was evaluated as replacements for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. Each meal was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial wt.±S.D., 0.37±0.015 g)

D. Allen Davis; C. R. Arnold

2000-01-01

75

Inhibitory kinetics of bromacetic acid on ?- N-acetyl- d-glucosaminidase from prawn ( Penaeus vannamei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-N-Acetyl-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase, EC.3.2.1.52), a composition of chitinases, cooperates with endo-chitinase and exo-chitinase to disintegrate chitin into N-acetylglucosamine (NAG). NAGase from prawn (Penaeus vannamei) is involved in digestion and molting processes. The investigation of enzymatic properties, functional groups and catalytic mechanism is an essential mission to its commercial application. Bromacetic acid (BrAc) is a specific modifier for the histidine residue in

Xiao-Lan Xie; Juan Du; Qiang-Sheng Huang; Yan Shi; Qing-Xi Chen

2007-01-01

76

Effect of water temperature on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio alginolyticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater at 27 °C or 28 °C were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1 or 1×105 cfu shrimp?1, and then cultivated onward at water temperatures varying from 20 to 34 °C. Over 24–144 h, mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held at 34 °C or 32 °C was significantly

Winton Cheng; Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

2005-01-01

77

Nutrition transition in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The primary objective of this review is to examine the demographic and nutrition transition in India in relation to its contribution to the emerging epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases in this country. Setting: India, the country as a whole and its different states with a population exceeding 1 billion in 2001. Subjects: The review examines demographic changes in the

Prakash S Shetty

2002-01-01

78

Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer

79

Adult nutrition assessment tutorial.  

PubMed

This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been selected to guide diagnosis that include medical/surgical history and clinical diagnosis, clinical signs and physical examination, anthropometric data, laboratories, dietary assessment, and functional outcomes. Knowledge of systematic nutrition assessment and appropriate diagnosis of malnutrition will help to guide proper interventions and expected outcomes. PMID:22402644

Jensen, Gordon L; Hsiao, Pao Ying; Wheeler, Dara

2012-03-08

80

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

81

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

82

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

83

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

84

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

85

Structure Elucidation and Anticancer Activity of 7-Oxostaurosporine Derivatives from the Brazilian Endemic Tunicate Eudistoma vannamei  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the identification of two new staurosporine derivatives, 2-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (1) and 3-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (2), obtained from mid-polar fractions of an aqueous methanol extract of the tunicate Eudistoma vannamei, endemic to the northeast coast of Brazil. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed IC50 values in the nM range and was up to 14 times more cytotoxic than staurosporine across a panel of tumor cell lines, as evaluated using the MTT assay.

Jimenez, Paula Christine; Wilke, Diego Veras; Ferreira, Elthon Gois; Takeara, Renata; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; da Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; da Cruz Lotufo, Tito Monteiro; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras

2012-01-01

86

Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition  

PubMed Central

There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in terms of health and economic benefits and their evaluation. Health economics and concrete applications showing how to maximise long-term nutritional benefits will contribute to motivate consumers in making food choices based on a rational understanding of their own interest. We present a model that shows that nutrition economics can be used as an analytical tool for product and service network development.

Koponen, Aki; Sandell, Mari; Salminen, Seppo; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

2012-01-01

87

Double-stranded RNA confers both preventive and therapeutic effects against Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) infection is found widespread in peneaid shrimp, especially in economically important species such as black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although effective prevention method for viral diseases is not well established in shrimp, the treatment with viral specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or siRNA has given promising results. In present study, dsRNAs corresponding to non-structural (ORF1 and ORF2 overlapping sequence) and structural (ORF3) genes of PstDNV were investigated for their potency to inhibit PstDNV replication in the shrimp. Periodically injection of either ORF1-2 dsRNA or ORF3 dsRNA at three days interval into L. vannamei resulted in substantial inhibition of PstDNV infection. In addition, a possibility for a therapeutic application of dsRNA in PstDNV-infected shrimp was demonstrated by the efficient suppression of PstDNV replication in L. vannamei when the ORF1-2 dsRNA was delivered into the shrimp within 24h post-PstDNV injection. Hence, our results established both the preventive and therapeutic potency of dsRNA to inhibit PstDNV in L. vannamei that could be applied as a potential treatment of PstDNV infection in shrimp. PMID:20869997

Ho, Teerapong; Yasri, Pratchayapong; Panyim, Sakol; Udomkit, Apinunt

2010-09-24

88

Effectiveness of oral Elancoban™ and Avimix-ST™ against Nematopsis (Apicomplexa: Porosporidae) gametocyts infecting the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gregarines from Nematopsis genus are a common intestinal parasite infection in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, that is cultured on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Slow growth and mortalities of white shrimp have been associated with gregarine infections. Control of gregarine infections in Mexican shrimp farms with antibiotics by empirical methods is becoming increasingly important. However, no effective chemotherapeutic control

Emma J. Fajer-Ávila; María Soledad Morales Covarrubias; Selene Abad-Rosales; Ana Roque; Pablo Meza-Bojórquez; Crisantema Hernández-González

2005-01-01

89

Survival, development and growth of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei protozoea larvae, fed with monoalgal and mixed diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The larvae of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are fed with microalgae from the stage of protozoea I (PZ I), until they change to mysis I (M I). Most hatcheries use monoalgal diets based on the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri, but there is no information on the advantages of this microalga in comparison to other species used for larval feeding,

Pablo Piña; Domenico Voltolina; Mario Nieves; Mariana Robles

2006-01-01

90

Digestibility of starch in Penaeus vannamei: in vivo and in vitro study on eight samples of various origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of carbohydrate, protein and lipid were investigated in Penaeus vannamei (18–25 g) with diets containing eight starches of various origin. Test ingredients, included at a level of 35% of diet, were native (NC) or gelatinized (GC) corn starch, waxy corn starch, either native (XC) or gelatinized (GX), high amylose corn starch (AC), potato starch, either native

Marc Cousin; Gérard Cuzon; Jean Guillaume

1996-01-01

91

Nutrition Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text VersionPage 1. 9 / Health and Human Services / US Food and Drug Administration Nutrition Initiative Enforcement Letters The front ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

92

Nutritional Disabilities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malnutrition has been identified as a cause for physical and mental disabilities in about 100 million people in the world. Nutritional disabilities are major public health problems in developing countries. This report illustrates some of the consequences ...

M. M. Ram

1981-01-01

93

Nutrition Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... All Natural Nutrition Strict ingredient standards • No added refined sugar • No artificial colors or flavors • No artificial preservatives • No modified ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

94

Nutrition Initiative  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... yrs of age because appropriate dietary levels have not been established for children in this age range. Nestle Nutrition More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/ingredientspackaginglabeling

95

Nutritional hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Hormesis, the biological and toxicological concept that small quantities have opposite effects from large quantities, is reviewed with emphasis on its relevance to nutrition.Results:Hormetic and other dose–response relationships are categorized, depicted, and discussed. Evidence for nutritional hormesis is presented for essential vitamin and mineral nutrients, dietary restriction, alcohol (ethanol), natural dietary and some synthetic pesticides, some herbicides, and acrylamide. Some

D P Hayes

2007-01-01

96

Fetal nutrition  

PubMed Central

The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy.

Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

1970-01-01

97

Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strains from the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).  

PubMed

Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9+1. Ig, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1) saline solution (control group); (2) 2xl0(5)CFU/shrimp; (3) 4xl05CFU/shrimp; (4) 2x10(6)CFU/shrimp; (5) 4x10(6)CFU/shrimp, and (6) 8x10(6)CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178x10(5)CFU/g body weight. V sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. PMID:23894929

del Carmen Flores-Miranda, Ma; Luna-González, Antonio; Córdova, Angel I Campa; Fierro-Coronado, Jesús A; Partida-Arangure, Blanca O; Pintado, José; González-Ocampo, Héctor A

2012-06-01

98

The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

2013-09-01

99

Preparation of an novel botanic biopreservative and its efficacy in keeping quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A novel botanic biopreservative was successfully prepared by the combination of the bamboo leaves extracts and ebony extracts, designated as ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE), whose antimicrobial activity was assessed according to an inhibition zone method against 10 common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It was found that EBLCE was more effective from all the chosen microorganisms, as compared by potassium sorbate. Due to its excellent antimicrobial activity, and some additional properties like edibility, safety and economy, EBLCE was selected for further study to evaluate the efficacy in prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei during storage at 4?°C, based on periodical microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. As a result, EBLCE was observed to prevent spoilage of peeled P. vannamei efficiently as reflected by a distinct decrease in total viable count, pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, as well as a slower decline in the sensory evaluation scores. Therefore, a prolonged shelf life of 16 days was obtained for EBLCE pre-treated peeled shrimps with comparison of 6 days for the control group, demonstrating EBLCE as a promising alternative for preserving food. PMID:23463785

Chen, Jing; Deng, Shanggui; Li, Jianrong

2013-03-05

100

Nutritional value of selected macroalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macroalgae are traditionally used in human and animal nutrition. Their protein and fiber content have been widely studied\\u000a and differ according to the species, their geographic origin and their seasonal conditions. In addition to their value for\\u000a human nutrition, seaweeds have multiple therapeutically applications (e.g., weight control, hypocholesterolemic, antioxidant\\u000a and antitumor activities, others) and, in general, contribute and promote human

Rita Ferreira Patarra; Lisete Paiva; Ana Isabel Neto; Elisabete Lima; José Baptista

2011-01-01

101

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

Elaine Kilmer (John Burroughs School REV)

1995-06-30

102

The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women.

Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

2011-01-01

103

Nutrition in oncologic patients during antiblastic treatment.  

PubMed

Cancer may induce weight loss and cachexia, and cancer treatment may contribute to nutritional impairment. Here, we review the literature on the mechanisms of cancer cachexia and the pharmacological interventions both in use in clinical practice and currently under development. Based on this analysis, several nutritional proposals for cancer patients are suggested and the importance of good nutritional status in candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is highlighted. PMID:23276913

Berretta, Massimiliano; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Francia, Raffaele; Cappellani, Alessandro; Rupolo, Maurizio; Galvano, Fabio; Fisichella, Rossella; Berretta, Salvatore; Tirelli, Umberto

2013-01-01

104

Nutritional epigenetics.  

PubMed

Within the last two decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression as a consequence of gene-environment interactions. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. This article aims to provide insights into the usefulness of the mouse model for epigenetic studies involving nutrition as well as the inherent limitations when compared with epigenetic phenomena in humans. Mice are one of the most versatile models for nutrition and epigenetic studies because of several features, such as short life-span, relative low cost for generating samples, the existence of well-characterized genetically engineered lines, the detailed sequencing of genomes, and the relative similarity of their metabolic processes to human metabolism. However, several limitations have to be acknowledged, such as the different location of genes on the chromosomes (and hence possibly different consequences of some epigenetic alterations), differences in the epigenetic patterns established during late embryogenesis, and possible epigenetic differences associated with cellular senescence caused by the different structure of telomeres when compared with humans. All these aspects have to be carefully analyzed when deciding whether a mouse model should be considered for a study in nutrition and epigenetics. Consequently, the results obtained from mouse studies should be carefully interpreted regarding their relevance to humans. PMID:23744966

Niculescu, Mihai D

2012-12-01

105

Nutritional Assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

106

Nutritional requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

107

Nutritional Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

108

Selectively enhanced expression of prophenoloxidase activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1) at a bacteria clearance site in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background The prophenoloxidase-activating (PO activating) system plays an important role in the crustacean innate immunity, particularly in wound healing and pathogen defense. A key member of this system is prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE), which is the direct activator of prophenoloxidase (proPO). Despite their importance in crustacean PO activating system, the studies on them remain limited. Results Here we report on a PPAE of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (lvPPAE1), which showed 94% similarity to PPAE1 of Penaeus monodon. We found that lvPPAE1 in fluid hemocytes was down regulated after challenge by Vibrio harveyi but was enhanced when shrimps were exposed to a bacteria-rich environment for long-term. In vivo gene silence of lvPPAE1 by RNAi can significantly reduce the phenoloxidase activity (PO) and increase the susceptibility of shrimps to V. harveyi. Although lvPPAE1 was down-regulated in fluid hemocytes by Vibrio challenge, its expression increased significantly in gill after bacteria injection, which is the primary bacteria-clearance tissue. Conclusion Suppressed expression in fluid hemocytes and enhanced expression in gill indicates selectively enhanced expression at the bacterial clearance site. This is a novel feature for PPAE expression. The results will contribute to our understanding of the PO activating system in crustaceans.

2011-01-01

109

Inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase from cephalothoraxes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from the cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Mimosine showed inhibitory activity toward PPO from white shrimp with an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa as evidenced by the decrease in the activity staining band, as compared to the control. An inhibition kinetic study revealed that mimosine exhibited the mixed type reversible inhibition on PPO from white shrimp with a Ki value of 3.7 mM. Mimosine showed copper (Cu2+) reduction and chelating capacity in a dose dependent manner. Mimosine could react with the intermediate browning product, thereby rendering lower red-brown color formation. Therefore, mimosine could inhibit PPO by different modes of inhibition and could be used to prevent melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp. PMID:21863871

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

2011-09-02

110

Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

2012-09-05

111

The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

112

The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

113

Transcriptomic responses of juvenile Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia.  

PubMed

Estuarine crustaceans are often exposed to low dissolved O2 (hypoxia) accompanied by elevated CO2 (hypercapnia), which lowers water pH. Acclimatory responses to hypoxia have been widely characterized; responses to hypercapnia in combination with hypoxia (hypercapnic hypoxia) are less well known. Here we used oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize changes in global gene expression in the hepatopancreas of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia for 4 or 24 h, compared with time-matched animals held in air-saturated water (normoxia). Unigenes whose expressions were significantly impacted by treatment and/or time were used to build artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify genes with the greatest sensitivity in pairwise discriminations between treatments at each time point and between times for each treatment. ANN gene sets that discriminated hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia from normoxia shared functions of translation, mitochondrial energetics, and cellular defense. GO terms protein modification/phosphorylation/cellular protein metabolism and RNA processing/apoptosis/cell cycling occurred at highest frequency in discriminating hypercapnic hypoxia from hypoxia at 4 and 24 h, respectively. For 75.4% of the annotated ANN genes, exposure to hypercapnic hypoxia for 24 h reduced or reversed the transcriptional response to hypoxia alone. These results suggest that high CO2/low pH may interfere with transcriptionally based acclimation to hypoxia or elicit physiological or biochemical responses that relieve internal hypoxia. Whether these data reflect resilience or sensitivity of L. vannamei in the face of expanding hypoxic zones and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may be important to understanding the survival of this and other estuarine species. PMID:23821614

Rathburn, Charles K; Sharp, Natasha J; Ryan, James C; Neely, Marion G; Cook, Matthew; Chapman, Robert W; Burnett, Louis E; Burnett, Karen G

2013-07-02

114

White shrimp Penaeus vannamei culture in freshwater at three densities: Condition state based on length and weight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The commercial culture of shrimp in low water salinities has been successfully achieved. However, there are no long-term studies on the growth response of shrimp culture in freshwater. In the present study white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was cultured in freshwater (0 ppt) at three densities (90, 130 and 180 shrimp m?2) and comparisons made of the resulting growth, length–weight relationship and

Marcelo Araneda; Eduardo P. Pérez; Eucario Gasca-Leyva

2008-01-01

115

Double-stranded RNA confers both preventive and therapeutic effects against Penaeus stylirostris densovirus ( PstDNV) in Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV) infection is found widespread in peneaid shrimp, especially in economically important species such as black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although effective prevention method for viral diseases is not well established in shrimp, the treatment with viral specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or siRNA has given promising results. In present study, dsRNAs

Teerapong Ho; Pratchayapong Yasri; Sakol Panyim; Apinunt Udomkit

2011-01-01

116

Knocking down a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein Lamr is lethal for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A cDNA encoding a laminin receptor protein (Lamr) has been isolated from hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv), based on primers designed from a previously published Lamr sequence of a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Pm). The deduced amino acid sequence of PvLamr shares 97% identity with PmLamr and has significant homology to laminin receptors and ribosomal protein p40 from various organisms. Tissue distribution analysis by RT-PCR revealed that Lamr transcripts were widely expressed in all tested tissues of P. monodon and Penaeus vannamei. PmLamr was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified and used to raise a polyclonal antibody. The antiserum reacted with purified recombinant PmLamr and crude muscle tissue proteins from both P. monodon and P. vannamei, but not with hemocyte-free shrimp hemolymph. Examination of protein localization by immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of Lamr positive cytoplasm in subcuticular epithelial cells, hematopoietic tissues, epithelial cells of the stomach, epithelial cells of the anterior midgut cecum, antennal gland epithelial cells, F cells of the hepatopancreas, cells in the ovarian zone of proliferation and spheroid cells in the lymphoid organ. RNA interference-mediated silencing of the messenger from Lamr in P. vannamei led to shrimp mortality and indicated an essential function of Lamr for shrimp viability. A negative consequence was that the effect of Lamr knockdown on shrimp infection by Taura syndrome virus could not be assessed. PMID:20451618

Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Anantasomboon, Gun; Sriphaijit, Thanawat; Browdy, Craig L; Flegel, Timothy W

2010-05-06

117

Oxidative stress, DNA damage and osmolality in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute low temperature stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the genotoxic, physiological and immunological effects of short-term acute low temperature stress on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we rapidly transferred shrimp from tanks at 23±2°C to aquaria at the same temperature (controls) or 12±2°C for 12h. Changes in the shrimp hemocyte respiratory burst activity and DNA damage were examined during and after exposure to the temperature

Jun Qiu; Wei-Na Wang; Li-juan Wang; Yu-Feng Liu; An-Li Wang

2011-01-01

118

The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?1 GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well

Xiao-Long Liu; Qian-Yun Xi; Lin Yang; Hong-Yi Li; Qing-Yan Jiang; Gang Shu; Song-Bo Wang; Ping Gao; Xiao-Tong Zhu; Yong-Liang Zhang

2011-01-01

119

Induction of Morphological Deformities and Moulting Alterations in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Juveniles Exposed to the Triazole-Derivative Fungicide Tilt  

Microsoft Academic Search

A tropical marine bioassay was developed with juveniles of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in order to test the acute and sublethal toxicity of Tilt, which is the commercial formulation of the fungicide propiconazole.\\u000a A 10-d acute toxicity and a 32-d sublethal test were performed. A median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined for different\\u000a exposure times, resulting in a 24-h

Miguel Betancourt-Lozano; Donald J. Baird; Ravinder S. Sangha; Fernando González-Farias

2006-01-01

120

Variation of free amino acid and carbohydrate concentrations in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Effects of continuous cold stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation of 19 free amino acids (FAA) in serum and hepatopancreas, glucose in serum and glycogen in hepatopancreas were investigated in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (IBW 5.0±0.3g) when water temperature dropped from 28 to 13°C within 4days, in order to provide basic data for biochemical changes of the species during cold stress. The results showed that, concentrations of 14 FAA

Meng Zhou; An-Li Wang; Jian-An Xian

2011-01-01

121

Knocking down a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein Lamr is lethal for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA encoding a laminin receptor protein (Lamr) has been isolated from hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv), based on primers designed from a previously published Lamr sequence of a Taura syndrome virus (TSV) binding protein of the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon (Pm). The deduced amino acid sequence of PvLamr shares 97% identity with PmLamr

Saengchan Senapin; Kornsunee Phiwsaiya; Gun Anantasomboon; Thanawat Sriphaijit; Craig L. Browdy; Timothy W. Flegel

2010-01-01

122

Evidences of SNPs in the variable region of hemocyanin Ig-like domain in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the commonest mode of genetic variation in invertebrate immune-related genes. Hemocyanin presents in the hemolymph of both mollusks and arthropods and functions as an important antigen non-specific immune protein. But people know very little about its gene polymorphism so far. In current study, bioinformatics, molecular biology and environmental challenge approaches were used to identify the SNPs within hemocyanin Ig-like domain in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 11 SNPs were found in a variable region of Ig-like domain from L. vannamei hemocyanin large subunit (1258-1460 bp, HcLV1), 5 of which (1272, 1315, 1380, 1410 and 1450) were confirmed present in both genomic DNA and cDNA by clone sequencing. Furthermore, HcLV1 showed 3, 5 and 5 SSCP bands, respectively, in 16, 25 and 30 °C-treated shrimps, suggesting that the SSCP pattern of HcLV1 could be modulated by environmental stress. In addition, HcLV1 displayed two extra bands with different mobility when shrimps treated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 6-24 h, which was not observed in the control group. In conclusion, our data suggest that shrimp L. vannamei hemocyanin Ig-like domain possesses SNPs, which may be associated with environmental stress or pathogenic challenge. PMID:24012752

Guo, Lingling; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhang, Yueling; Wang, Zehuan; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Lun, Jingsheng

2013-09-05

123

Nutrition Information and Food Labelling: an analysis on consumers' use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition information is important for consumers who are trying to follow a healthful diet and is absolutely essential for consumers who are medically advised to select foods based on their nutrient content. The label is one of the most visible nutrition contact points. In that context it is important to understand the contribution and potential of nutrition labels in consumers'

Maria Carmela Aprile; Azzurra Annunziata

124

Parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition (PN) is a technique of nutritional support, which consists of intravenous administration of macronutrients (glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides), micronutrients (vitamins and trace elements), water, and electrolytes. Early studies indicate that the use of total PN was associated with increased mortality and infectious morbidity. These detrimental effects of PN were related to hyperglycemia and overfeeding at a period when PN was administered according to the principle that the higher calories the patients received, the better their outcome would be. Enteral nutrition (EN) then replaced PN as the gold standard of nutritional care in the intensive care unit (ICU). However, EN alone is frequently associated with insufficient energy coverage, and subsequent protein-energy deficit is correlated with a worse clinical outcome. Infectious and metabolic complications of PN could be prevented if PN is used by a trained team using a validated protocol, only when indicated, not within the first 2 days following ICU admission, and limited through the time. In addition, energy delivery has to be matched to the energy target, and adapted glucose control should be obtained. In patients with significant energy deficit (>40%), the combination of PN and EN, i.e. supplemental PN, from day 4 of the ICU stay, could improve the clinical outcome of ICU patients as compared with EN alone. Therefore, PN should be integrated in the management of ICU patients with the aim of prevent the worsening of energy deficits, allowing the preservation of lean body mass loss, and reducing the risk of undernutrition-related complications. PMID:23075587

Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude

2012-10-12

125

Fetal growth factors and fetal nutrition.  

PubMed

Optimal fetal growth is important for a healthy pregnancy outcome and also for lifelong health. Fetal growth is largely regulated by fetal nutrition, and mediated via the maternal and fetal glucose/insulin/insulin-like growth factor axes. Fetal nutrition may reflect maternal nutrition, but abnormalities of placental function can also affect fetal growth, as the placenta plays a key intermediary role in nutritional signalling between mother and fetus. Fetal nutrition also impacts on the development of key fetal endocrine systems such as the glucose-insulin and insulin-like growth factor axes. This is likely to contribute to the link between both fetal growth restriction and fetal overgrowth, and increased risks of obesity and impaired glucose tolerance in later life. This review focuses on the associations between maternal and fetal nutrition, fetal growth and later disease risk, with particular emphasis on the role of insulin-like growth factors and the importance of the periconceptional period. PMID:23639574

Bloomfield, F H; Spiroski, Ana-Mishel; Harding, J E

2013-04-30

126

PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

127

Nutrition Knowledge And Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to measure the nutrition knowledge and attitudes toward nutrition of caregivers in child care programs and relate these to the behaviors of caregivers as they interact with children at mealtime. The relationship between the independent variables: caregiver nutrition knowledge, attitudes toward nutrition, years of teaching experience, prior nutrition training, and level of education was

M. L. Nahikian-Nelms; P. O. Sarvela; C. Mogharreban; S. L. Andersen

1995-01-01

128

Principles of Sports Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To measure if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles.The objectives of this study were to determine if nutrition course work enhances athletes’ knowledge of sports nutrition principles and to identify athletes’ resources for nutrition information. Questionnaires were distributed to 40 athletes at a state university. Seventeen completed surveys were returned and included members from

L. D. Tartamella; D. S. Kemler

1996-01-01

129

Nutrition for Space Exploration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily ...

S. M. Smith

2005-01-01

130

Pediatric nutrition surveillance.  

PubMed

This article illustrates trends observed in recent data from the Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) and provides recommendations for nutrition intervention, nutrition monitoring, health advances as well as health concerns in the PedNSS population. PMID:14982041

Polhamus, B; Dalenius, K; Thompson, D; Scanlon, K; Borland, E; Smith, B; Grummer-Strawn, L

131

Evaluation of sublethal biomarkers in Litopenaeus vannamei on foodborne exposure to methyl parathion.  

PubMed

Sublethal effects of foodborne exposure to methyl parathion (0.62 and 1.31 microg methyl parathion*g(-1) dry weight of food) on juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei using integrated biochemical (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ATPases) and physiological (feeding rate (FR), egestion rate (ER), and hepatosomatic index (HI)) biomarkers were evaluated. The HI was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments. The FR was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments while no significant differences were detected in the ER. AChE activity was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments (control = 0.11 +/- 0.02; solvent control = 0.11 +/- 0.03; 0.62 = 0.07 +/- 0.01; 1.31 = 0.08 +/- 0.02 microM*min(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The total-ATPase activity was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=77.90+/-12.41; solvent control = 83.69 +/- 22.05; 0.62 = 110.03 +/- 22.17; 1.31 = 121.54 +/- 19.84 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher in treatments than in controls (control = 65.14+/-10.76; solvent control = 75.12 +/- 21.10; 0.62 = 100.53 +/- 20.97; 1.31 = 108.94 +/- 17.26 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). Finally, the results obtained for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly higher in control and in 1.31 than in solvent control and in 0.62 (control = 14.06+/-2.63; solvent control=7.30 +/- 4.13; 0.62 = 7.60 +/- 3.81; 1.31 = 13.42 +/- 2.88 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The results in this study showed that pulse exposures to methyl parathion via food could elicit measurable effects on the marine shrimp L. vannamei, indicating that foodborne exposure can be a reliable toxicological procedure and, if combined with pulse exposures, could also simulate more realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:15978292

Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Roque, A; Betancourt-Lozano, M; Anguas, D; Haro, B M

2004-12-15

132

Osteoporosis: nutrition.  

PubMed Central

Nutrition has important potential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Ensuring the adequacy of calcium intake is central to any program of osteoporosis control, but it must be considered in the context of the many factors, including other nutrients, diseases, and drugs, which influence calcium absorption, utilization, and excretion. The dietary consumption of calcium by large segments of the U.S. population remains inadequate. More attention must be paid not only to increasing calcium intake, but also to maximizing its availability from food sources and its retention by the body. As individuals age, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain adequate calcium balance; dietary selection must be made with special care for older persons to ensure that all of the nutrients are consumed in sufficient quantities and that neither excessive weight loss nor weight gain occurs.

Rivlin, R S

1987-01-01

133

Molecular characterization of the bifunctional VHDL-CP from the hemolymph of white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) purified from the hemolymph of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei is shown to be identical to the clotting protein (CP) previously reported from the same organism based on size, subunits and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The approximately 440-kDa protein, a homodimer of approximately 200-kDa subunits, was present in KBr gradient fractions ranging in density from 1.155 to 1.212 g/ml. Samples of VHDL after purification by strong cation exchange chromatography were subjected to electrophoresis on native polyacrylamide gels. Lipids associated with the VHDL were detected by Sudan Black and Oil Red O staining and comprise 9-15% of the purified protein. Circular dichroism of VHDL-CP indicates that the alpha-helix content of the VHDL-CP is 32%, while beta-sheets correspond to 33%, closely resembling the secondary structure of CP from the shrimp Penaeus monodon and, remarkably, the secondary structure of very high-density lipophorin E (VHDLpE) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. PMID:12091104

Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Jiménez-Vega, Florinda; Romo-Figueroa, María Gabriela; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Vargas-Albores, Francisco

2002-07-01

134

Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil  

PubMed Central

Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14–0.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, Andre Felipe das Merces; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

2011-01-01

135

Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

SciTech Connect

The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

Chan, S.M.

1989-01-01

136

Differences in the susceptibility of American white shrimp larval substages (Litopenaeus vannamei) to four vibrio species.  

PubMed

The rapid expansion of commercial culture of penaeid shrimp is threatened by Vibrio diseases affecting survival and growth. These opportunistic microorganisms are considered part of the normal ecosystem of penaeid shrimp and cause diseases only under conditions that favor them over the host. Shrimp larvae show different susceptibility to these pathogenic agents. In the present work, we report on a comparative study of the susceptibility of all American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) larval substages to four potentially pathogenic Vibrio species (V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. alginolyticus, and V. penaeicida). Strains of these bacterial species were used to infect nauplii, protozoea I-III, mysis I-III, and postlarvae 1 by immersion challenge at 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) cfu mL(-1) for 30 min. V. alginolyticus infection had no significant effect on survival rate, compared to control, in all shrimp larvae and at all doses tested. Shrimp larvae infected with V. alginolyticus showed a high survival rate compared to other Vibrio species at the three dose levels. V. penaeicida produced a significant mortality effect (P < 0.01) in all shrimp substages and only in postlarvae 1 at low infection dose (10(3) cfu mL(-1)). V. harveyi and V. parahaemolyticus induced significant mortality rates (P < 0.01) only at high doses in shrimp larvae. In summary, shrimp larvae demonstrated an age susceptibility that depends on the Vibrio species and dose level. PMID:12009802

Aguirre-Guzmán, G; Vázquez-Juárez, R; Ascencio, F

2001-11-01

137

Eat to live, not live to eat ? ? This contribution was intended for the July\\/August special issue, Views from the Mountaintop: Looking Back, Projecting Forward, as part of the ?Nutrition, Life Cycle, and Lifestyle? section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the prevailing chronic diseases in the world have an important nutritional component by directly causing a specific disease, enhancing the risk through phenomena of promotion, exerting a beneficial effect in decreasing risk, or preventing the disease. International studies in geographic pathology have shown that a given disease may have vastly different incidence and mortality as a function of

John H Weisburger

2000-01-01

138

Bariatric surgery: nutritional considerations for patients.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients who are obese and therefore individuals considering bariatric surgery may require dietary supplementation with multivitamins and minerals before surgery. Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery are often proportional to the degree of malabsorption created by the surgical procedure or the extent of weight loss. Eating habits often contribute to nutritional deficiencies, so appropriate dietary and lifestyle counselling are essential following bariatric procedures to ensure appropriate macronutrient and micronutrient status. Nutritional supplementation following bariatric surgery commonly includes calcium with vitamin D, iron and vitamin B12 in addition to a daily multivitamin and mineral tablet. Although general guidelines exist, individual monitoring and tailoring are frequently required. This article provides an update of guidelines regarding the most common nutritional concerns and myths surrounding bariatric surgery. PMID:22930960

Rickers, Lisa; McSherry, Ciara

139

Pediatric nutrition support.  

PubMed

Pediatric patients now survive and thrive because of advancements made in nutrition support. Growth and development is of paramount importance in this population and adequate nutrition is necessary. Growth of premature infants receiving nutrition support mirrors intrauterine rates. Survival without nutrition support is not always assured because of inadequate nutrient stores. Institution of nutrition support in children with chronic illnesses also promotes growth and development. Enteral nutrition is preferred because of immunologic benefits, lower cost, and less frequent infectious complications. Parenteral nutrition should be considered when enteral nutrition fails or is contraindicated. Successful nutrition rehabilitation can result if both enteral and parenteral nutrition are initiated slowly and advanced as tolerated. Ongoing monitoring is essential while promoting "normal" growth and development. PMID:8302252

Marian, M

1993-10-01

140

Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

2010-01-01

141

Growth, survival and histological responses of the marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to three dosage levels of oxytetracycline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxicity of oxytetracycline (OTC) in prepared feed for penaeid shrimp was evaluated in a 42-day trial with Litopenaeus vannamei (initial mean weight, 10.3 g±0.504 S.D.). Four treatments consisted of: (1) 0.0 g\\/kg OTC (control feed), (2) 4.5 g\\/kg OTC (1× treatment, maximum recommended dose), (3) 13.5 g\\/kg OTC (3× treatment) and (4) 22.5 g\\/kg OTC (5× treatment). Each treatment consisted of 11 replicate tanks, with

W. A. Bray; R. R. Williams; D. V. Lightner; A. L. Lawrence

2006-01-01

142

Nutritional treatment of obesity.  

PubMed

The focus of this article is nutritional strategies for weight loss. Following a review of general nutritional principles, the evidence behind specific nutritional weight-loss strategies is presented. These strategies include nutritional supplements, nutrient-limited diets, and energy-limited diets. A brief discussion of nutritional considerations relevant to other weight-loss strategies--pharmacologic, surgical, and exercise-based--is included. Specific evidence-based recommendations are presented. PMID:19501248

Shewmake, Roger A; Huntington, Mark K

2009-06-01

143

Effects of varying levels of aqueous potassium and magnesium on survival, growth, and respiration of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inland shrimp culture is being practiced in several regions of the United States. In Alabama, the culture of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in inland low salinity well water (approximately 4.0 ppt) faces several challenges. The ionic composition of these waters is deficient in several key minerals, including potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the

Luke A. Roy; D. Allen Davis; I. Patrick Saoud; Raymond P. Henry

2007-01-01

144

Effect of calcium hydroxide, carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on water quality and zootechnical performance of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared in bio-flocs technology (BFT) systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litopenaeus vannamei (the Pacific white shrimp) is the most commonly reared species in super-intensive biofloc technology (BFT) without water renewal. In BFT, the pH may decrease due to the reduction of alkalinity and the increase of dissolved carbon dioxide. This study evaluated the effects of calcium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and bicarbonate in maintaining water quality during the cultivation of L.

Plínio S. Furtado; Luís H. Poersch; Wilson Wasielesky

2011-01-01

145

Oxidative stress, DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to acute pH stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ROS production, the percentage of dead and damaged haemocytes, the DNA Olive Tail Moment (OTM) value and the gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin (TRx), were studied in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, when exposed to acute pH stress. The increased ROS production in haemocytes and the increased OTM value

Wei-Na Wang; Jun Zhou; Peng Wang; Ting-Ting Tian; Ying Zheng; Yuan Liu; Wei-jun Mai; An-Li Wang

2009-01-01

146

Effects of supplementing two species of marine algae or their fractions to a formulated diet on growth, survival and composition of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental diets were processed by supplementing either whole algae or algae fractions to a formulated control diet to test their effects on growth, survival and composition of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii) and Nannochloropsis cultures were freeze-dried and partially extracted with acetone into a carotenoid fraction and a residue fraction. Seven diets were prepared by individually adding whole

Z. Y. Ju; I. P. Forster; W. G. Dominy

2009-01-01

147

Supplementation of potassium, magnesium and sodium chloride in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Litopenaeus vannamei in inland low salinity waters is currently being practiced in various countries around the world. These environments are often deficient in key ions essential for normal physiological function, including potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Farmers have sometimes been able to counteract ionic deficiencies in the water profile by adding mineral salts containing sources of K+

L. A. ROY; D. A. DAVIS; I. P. SAOUD; R. P. HENRY

2007-01-01

148

“On A Nutrition Mission”: A Nutrition Musical for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-five percent of the young clients who are referred to the community dietitian at this regional medical center exceed the 100th percentile weight-for-height. Obesity and other poor nutritional habits contribute to the six leading causes of death and disability in our state as reported by our state dietetic association. Early prevention strategies will not only save our state and our

C. A. Hankins; P. P. Trimble

1995-01-01

149

Ferret nutrition.  

PubMed

The unusually short intestinal tract of ferrets and closely related mustelids lacks a cecum and ileocolic valve. As a result, the transit time of ingesta in these carnivores is very rapid compared with other animals, and their food is inefficiently digested. Although the precise nutritional requirements of ferrets have not been determined by feeding defined diets, information has been compiled from experience feeding commercial and analyzed homemade diets to breeding ferrets, fitch, and mink at all stages of their lives. The requirements of spayed or neutered pet ferrets are met by allowing them constant access to drinking water and a palatable, pelleted, or extruded, 90% dry matter, premium cat or ferret food that, as fed, contains at least 15% fat and 30% high quality, meat source protein, less than 30% carbohydrates, and approximately 4 Kcal of metabolizable energy per gram. Lower density diets with more carbohydrate and less protein are associated with poor reproductive performance and growth and greater susceptibility to infectious and metabolic diseases. PMID:11228691

Bell, J A

1999-01-01

150

History of nutrition in space flight: overview.  

PubMed

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

2002-10-01

151

RNA-Seq analysis reveals genes associated with resistance to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Outbreak of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is one of the major pathogens of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Although selective breeding for improvement of TSV resistance in L. vannamei has been successfully developed and has led to a great benefit to the shrimp farming industry worldwide. The molecular mechanisms underlying the viral resistance in shrimp remain largely unknown. In the present study, we conducted the first transcriptomic profiling of host responses in hemolymph and hemocytes in order to identify the differentially expressed genes associated with resistance to TSV in L. vannamei. High-throughput RNA-Seq was employed, obtaining 193.6 and 171.2 million high-quality Illumina reads from TSV-resistant and susceptible L. vannamei lines respectively. A total of 61,937 contigs were generated with an average length of 546.26bp. BLASTX-based gene annotation (E-value<10(-5)) allowed the identification of 12,398 unique proteins against the NCBI non-redundant NR database. In addition, comparison of digital gene expression between resistant and susceptible strains revealed 1374 significantly differentially expressed contigs (representing 697 unigenes). Gene pathway analysis of the differentially expressed gene set highlighted several putative genes involved in the immune response activity including (1) pathogen/antigen recognition including immune regulator, adhesive protein and signal transducer; (2) coagulation; (3) proPO pathway cascade; (4) antioxidation; and (5) protease. The expression patterns of 22 differentially expressed genes involving immune response were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (average correlation coefficients 0.94, p-value<0.001). Our results provide valuable information on gene functions associated with resistance to TSV in L. vannamei. PMID:23921257

Sookruksawong, Suchonma; Sun, Fanyue; Liu, Zhanjiang; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

2013-08-03

152

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

153

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-02-27

154

Pathogenicity of Vibrio penaeicida for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a cysteine protease-like exotoxin as a virulence factor.  

PubMed

The pathogenicity of Vibrio penaeicida Strains KH-1 and AM101, their culture-free supernatant (CFS), and their protein fraction obtained by 40% of ammonium sulfate precipitation (PFs40) were assessed in experimental challenges against juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Live Vibrio cells, CFS, and PFs40 from the AM101 strain produced a significantly higher mortality (p < 0.05) compared to the KH-1 strain. Toxicity and median lethal doses (LD50) of Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC) products were evaluated on L. vannamei. The first FPLC fraction sample (A) from PFs40 of the AM101 strain displayed LD50 values of 1.68 and 5.61 microg protein ind.(-1), respectively. The second FPLC process from Fraction A showed a peak (A1) also with toxic effects to shrimp. PFs40, Fraction A, and Peak A1 showed a 38.5 kDa molecular band (SDS-PAGE), with activity on a gelatin protease zymogram. The lethal effect of PFs40 and Fraction A was inhibited by Proteinase K, CuCl2, E-64, and heat (60 and 100 degrees C) treatments, but was not inhibited by EDTA-Na2, aprotinin, and soy trypsin treatments. These results and the zymogram inhibition test suggest the presence of a cysteine protease-like proteinaceous exotoxin as a dominant protease, secreted by V. penaeicida Strain AM101. PMID:16408835

Aguirre-Guzmán, Gabriel; Ascencio, Felipe; Saulnier, Denis

2005-11-28

155

Injection of biogenic amines modulates osmoregulation of Litopenaeus vannamei: response of hemolymph osmotic pressure, ion concentration and osmolality effectors.  

PubMed

In this paper, we compared systematically the temporal and dose response relationship and physiological significance among biogenic amines injection, changes of ion concentration, FAA concentrations and composition and protein in context of osmoregulatory ability in marine euryhaline shrimp: Litopenaeus vannamei. The dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) injection all had transient effects on hemolymph osmolality, ion concentrations but which occurred in different time and were dose-dependent. The highest concentrations of FAAs in hemolymph of L. vannamei were alanine, glycine, argnine, proline, lysine which were considered to be specific osmotic effectors. Contrary to the reduction of hemocyanin, injection of DA 10(-6) mol shrimp(-1) and 5-HT 10(-6) mol shrimp(-1) induced notable protein increase respectively, which led to the rapid reduction of hemocyanin/protein ratio in range of 63.2% to 78.3%. The increase of hemolymph FAAs might come from the new amino acid synthesis or degradation of muscle protein to FAAs or denovo synthesis of FAAs. Our study showed that dopamine plays an important role in neurotransmission and causes osmoregulation response modulation and 5-HT has different activation mechanism on osmoregulation. PMID:18634897

Liu, Hong-yu; Pan, Lu-qing; Zheng, De-bin

2008-06-25

156

Nutritional rickets.  

PubMed

Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short- or long-term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and multiple sclerosis. Among the factors responsible for the high prevalence of VDD in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries is limited sunshine exposure due to individuals' spending more time indoors (watching television and working on computer) or avoiding sun exposure intentionally for fear of skin cancer. Traditional clothing (covering the entire body except the face and hands) further limits the exposure time to sunlight and, thus, decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal VDD and exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation were reported to be the most prominent reasons leading to NR. The diagnosis of NR is established by a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Recent reports draw attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) - the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium and to suppress excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone. This type of prevention will also reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effect of vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:21274312

Ozkan, Behzat

2010-11-01

157

Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

2013-03-01

158

Increased susceptibility of white spot syndrome virus-infected Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio campbellii.  

PubMed

The concept of polymicrobial disease is well accepted in human and veterinary medicine but has received very little attention in the field of aquaculture. This study was conducted to investigate the synergistic effect of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio campbellii on development of disease in specific pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The juvenile shrimp were first injected with WSSV at a dose of 30 SID(50) shrimp(-1) (SID(50) = shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) and 24 h later with 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) of V. campbellii shrimp(-1). Controls receiving just one of the pathogens or negative inocula were included. In the treatment with WSSV only, shrimp started to die at 48-108 h post injection (hpi) and cumulative mortality reached 100% at 268-336 hpi. In the treatment with only V. campbellii injection (10(6) cfu shrimp(-1)), cumulative mortality reached 16.7%. Shrimp in the dual treatment died very quickly after V. campbellii injection and 100% cumulative mortality was obtained at 72-96 hpi. When WSSV-injected shrimp were given sonicated V. campbellii instead of live V. campbellii, no synergistic effect was observed. Density of V. campbellii in the haemolymph of co-infected moribund shrimp collected 10 h after V. campbellii injection was significantly higher than in shrimp injected with V. campbellii only (P < 0.01). However, there was no difference in WSSV replication between shrimp inoculated with WSSV only compared with dually inoculated ones. This study revealed that prior infection with WSSV enhances the multiplication and disease inducing capacity of V. campbellii in shrimp. PMID:18616551

Phuoc, L H; Corteel, M; Nauwynck, H J; Pensaert, M B; Alday-Sanz, V; Van den Broeck, W; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

2008-07-08

159

[Hypertension and nutrition. Position paper of the Austrian Nutrition Society].  

PubMed

Arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of overall mortality and is responsible for a high proportion of deaths due to stroke as well as coronary heart disease. It is defined as a pathological elevation of blood pressure which leads to damage of the cardiovascular system. Cut-off values for hypertension are defined as blood pressure levels higher than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic). In the pathogenesis of hypertension genetic factors, age and sex play a role, as well as body weight and lifestyle factors, such as nutrition and physical exercise. Lifestyle optimization reduces the risk of developing hypertension and contributes to the treatment in patients with established hypertension. Nutritional factors associated with hypertension are discussed in this article and recommendations regarding diet are made based on the literature. The nutritional factors with the highest impact on blood pressure are reduction of salt intake, a diet rich in potassium, weight management, the DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension) diet and moderation of alcohol consumption. Salt restriction is essential in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Based on the literature, in this article recommendations for nutrition and hypertension are given. PMID:22588364

Dorner, T E; Genser, D; Krejs, G; Slany, J; Watschinger, B; Ekmekcioglu, C; Rieder, A

2012-05-17

160

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)|

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

161

Nutrition Research--USSR.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report reviews selected Soviet nutrition research having military significance in terms of meeting nutritional requirements in typical military environments, as well as in adverse natural environments in which military forces operate. Addressed are n...

V. Dibbern

1981-01-01

162

Nutrition Research Alternatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assessment is an analysis of nutrition research alternatives -- alternative goals and priorities, alternative definitions and funding, and alternative research personnel requirements. Its principal finding is that Federal human nutrition research prog...

1978-01-01

163

Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance, 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a child based public health surveillance system that monitors the nutritional status of low income children in federally funded maternal and child health programs. Data on birth weight, short stature...

2004-01-01

164

Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance, 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a child based public health surveillance system that monitors the nutritional status of low income children in federally funded maternal and child health programs. Data on birth weight, short stature...

2004-01-01

165

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

166

Much Ado About Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

Deringer, Shirley K.

1973-01-01

167

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

168

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

169

Nutrition and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

1978-01-01

170

National Nutrition Month  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To determine if consumer magazines communicate information about National Nutrition Month to Americans.National Nutrition Month (NNM) provides the public with basic nutrition knowledge, but who is aware of this campaign and does it have an educational impact on the average American? From a list of the top 200 consumer magazines 47 were chosen because they feature health related

S. C. Fredericks

1997-01-01

171

Successful Nutrition Screening Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial nutrition screening can be a labor intensive activity that is a key to the entire nutrition care process. A flow chart of a nutrition screening protocol for a tertiary care hospital revealed a need for improved timeliness and efficiency. The original screening protocol relied on medical record review and patient interviews to obtain screen data. Patient interviews were frequently

P. Fraker; J. Christy-Given

1995-01-01

172

Sports Nutrition: What the Future may Bring  

PubMed Central

The field of sports nutrition is a dynamic one. Core competencies in exercise physiology, psychology, integrated metabolism and biochemistry are the initial parameters for a successful career in sports nutrition. In addition to the academic fundamentals, it is imperative that the sports nutritionist understand the sport in which our client participates. This sport specific understanding should manifest itself in fuel utilization, mechanics of movement, as well as psychological processes that motivate the participant to perform optimally. Sports nutrition as a field has grown substantially over the past 50 years, from glycogen loading to today's scientifically validated ergogenic aids. The last ten years has seen the largest advancement of sports nutrition, with the following areas driving much of the research: the effects of exercise on protein utilization, meal timing to maximize the anabolic response, the potential for ribose to benefit those engaged in high-energy repetitive sports, and creatine and its uses within athletics and medicine. The future of sports nutrition will dictate that we 1) collectively strive for a higher standard of care and education for counseling athletes and 2) integrate different disciplines. We are in an era of unprecedented growth and the new knowledge is constantly evolving. The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) will contribute to this exciting field in many ways, and we ask for your contribution by sharing your passion, stories, research, and life experiences with us.

Kalman, Douglas S; Campbell, Bill

2004-01-01

173

Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in coagulation of haemolymp and immune response of white shrimp, L. vannamei. PMID:24036331

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

2013-09-12

174

Intellectual development and nutrition.  

PubMed

One newborn child was selected from 14 families in which kwashiorkor had occurred. Undernutrition in this test group was prevented for the first two years of life by the provision of supplementary feeding. Controls who were the siblings directly preceding each of the 14 test children received no supplementary feeding, but received medical attention and management. In each family an older child who previously had kwashiorkor (kwashiorkor group), and the nearest sibling who had received neither extra feeding nor medical management (kwasiorkor control group) were also available for comparison. A battery of psychologic tests was administered when the mean age of the test group was 8.9 years. The mean full-scale IQ of the supplementary feeding group at an average age of 8.9 years was significantly higher than that of any of the other three groups. There was no significant difference between test and control groups on nonverbal IQ. Measures of "brain damage" did not discriminate between any of the four groups. The results suggest that nutritional factors contribute especially to the elevation of verbal intelligence. Environmental stimulation (daily contact with a more alert child) apparently contributed to the elevation of the nonverbal scores of the controls. PMID:6774071

Evans, D; Hansen, J D; Moodie, A D; van der Spuy, H I

1980-09-01

175

Intuitive eating and the nutrition transition in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models of the nutrition transition focus on demographic changes and economic development. A further influence may be the adoption of western-based perceptions of beauty that lead to potentially harmful eating behaviours which contribute to overweight, obesity, and eating disorders. This paper proposes a comprehensive model of the nutrition transition that includes western influences on perceived attractiveness and subsequent eating

Steven R Hawks; Ray M Merrill; Hala N Madanat; Takeo Miyagawa BS; Jiraporn Suwanteerangkul

176

Organic school meal systems - towards a more sustainable nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and health problems related to life style alarm European governments. The interest in school meals as a lever for change is increasing because young people reside longer in public institutions and their often unsatisfactory eating patterns might be counterbalanced by healthy school food. Organic food contributes to sustainable nutrition, and hence is an interesting starting point for healthier menus

A.-K. Løes; B. Nölting

2009-01-01

177

Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

178

Generation of superoxide anion and SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle of American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as a response to beta-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide.  

PubMed

Juvenile American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were immersed in aerated beta-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide solutions for 1, 3 and 6 h. Superoxide anion and SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle were investigated to evaluate whether beta-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide induce any immunostimulatory activity. Haemocytes and muscle showed different levels of superoxide anion generation and SOD activity (2.0 and 14 times that of control, respectively) when shrimp were immersed for 6 h in aerated sea water containing beta-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide. Total haemocyte count (THC) decreased within the first 24 h after challenge with immunostimulants, but THC and total soluble haemocyte protein increased over normal values after 48-120 h. Single immunostimulation with beta-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide is capable of generating an increase in the respiratory burst of L. vannamei haemocytes. PMID:12049170

Campa-Córdova, A I; Hernández-Saavedra, N Y; De Philippis, R; Ascencio, F

2002-04-01

179

Constructing Nutrition Information Trend Indicators from the Media and Scientific Journals for Demand Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. Consumers have become increasingly concerned with health problems. Nutrition is one of the factors which directly affects health, thus credible nutritional information has become more valuable to individuals. Understanding the impact of nutritional information on consumers’ food choices will contribute to the development and implementation of effective communication strategies related to diet and health. This will not only help

Sakiko Shiratori

2009-01-01

180

Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

2008-01-01

181

Virulence of Vibrio harveyi responsible for the "Bright-red" Syndrome in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Vibrio harveyi (Vh) CAIM 1792 strain was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei affected with "Bright-red" Syndrome (BRS). The strain grew in 1-10% NaCl, at 15-35°C and was resistant to ampicillin (10 ?g), carbenicillin (100 ?g) and oxytetracycline (30 ?g). The lowest MIC was for enrofloxacine (0.5 ?gml(-1)). The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and the extracellular products (ECPs) of Vh CAIM 1792 grown at 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% NaCl were evaluated. Adherence ability, enzymatic activities and siderophore production of bacterial cell was tested. The ECPs exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as gelatinase, amylase, lipase, phospholipase and caseinase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on HELA cell line at 6 and 24 h. Challenges using 10(3) CFU g(-1) caused opacity at the site of injection and over 80% shrimp mortality before 24 h p.i. (post-injection). Mortality caused by the ECPs was higher than mortalities with bacteria, especially in the first hours p.i. Bacteria were re-isolated from hemolymph samples of moribund shrimp and identified as Vh CAIM 1792 by rep-PCR. Histological analysis of shrimp L. vannamei injected with Vh CAIM 1792 revealed generalized necrosis involving skeletal muscle (MU) at the injection site, the lymphoid organ (LO), heart and connective tissues. Melanization within the MU at the site of injection was also observed as well as hemocytic nodules within the hearth and MU at 168 h p.i. LO was the target organ of BRS. Necrosis of the MU at the injection site was the main difference in comparison to other shrimp vibriosis. PMID:22306693

Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo; del Rio-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

2012-01-28

182

Nutrition in the adolescent.  

PubMed

This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

Wahl, R

1999-02-01

183

The Effect of Low Salinity Water with Different Ionic Composition on the Growth and Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in Intensive Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of four different ionic composition low salinity water (T1, T2, T3, and T4), on growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei marine shrimp juveniles were investigated. Shrimp culture in seawater (Tm) was used as control treatment. The results indicated that there were no significant difference (P < 0.05) in growth, survival, production, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of L.

Héctor Manuel Esparza-Leal; Jesús T. Ponce-Palafox; Wenceslao Valenzuela-Quiñónez; Héctor Cabanillas Beltrán; José Luis Arredondo Figueroa

2009-01-01

184

Variable feed allowance with constant protein input for the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under semi-intensive conditions in tanks and ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Feed input may be reduced in shrimp aquaculture by increasing the protein density of the diet modifying the feeding rate so as to deliver the desired amount of nutrients. To evaluate this strategy, two parallel growth trials were conducted with juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In an outdoor tank trial, juvenile (0.57±0.01 g, n=30) shrimp were reared for 56 days and fed two practical

Jesus A. Venero; D. Allen Davis; David B. Rouse

2007-01-01

185

Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

2013-04-18

186

Pond-to-pond variability in post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei , survival and growth in inland low-salinity waters of west Alabama  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the recent success of Alabama shrimp farm- ers in culturing the Paci¢c white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in inland low-salinity waters there is large variability in growth and survival among ponds. Farmers suspect that high mortality occurs during the ¢rst weeks of culture following stocking of post- larvae (PL). In order to determine the e¡ect of pond ionic composition on

Luke A Roy; D Allen Davis; Gregory N Whitis

2009-01-01

187

Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity and ninhydrin positive substances in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to low and high salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to 30 ppt salinity, was transferred to either low (15 and 5 ppt), or high (45 ppt) salinity for 7 days. Hemolymph osmolality, branchial carbonic anhydrase activity, and total ninhydrin-positive substances (TNPS) in abdominal muscle were then measured for each condition. Hemolymph osmotic concentration was regulated slightly below ambient water osmolality in shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt. At

Luke A. Roy; D. Allen Davis; I. Patrick Saoud; Raymond P. Henry

2007-01-01

188

Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor\\/Toll-like receptor (IL-1\\/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF)

Pei-Hui Wang; Ding-Hui Wan; Zhi-Hua Gu; Xie-Xiong Deng; Shao-Ping Weng; Xiao-Qiang Yu; Jian-Guo He

2011-01-01

189

Substitution of fish meal by co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal with egg supplement was evaluated as a substitute for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. The co-extruded product was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight±standard deviation, 1.13±0.06 g) over a

Tzachi M. Samocha; D. Allen Davis; I. Patrick Saoud; Kevin DeBault

2004-01-01

190

Effect of dose and challenge routes of Vibrio spp. on co-infection with white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dose and challenge routes of Vibrio spp. on co-infection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Penaeus vannamei shrimp. Juvenile shrimp were first injected with WSSV at a dose of 30 SID50 shrimp?1 (SID50=shrimp infectious dose with 50% endpoint) and 24 h later with 103, 104, 105 or 106 CFU

Le Hong Phuoc; Mathias Corteel; Nguyen Cong Thanh; Hans Nauwynck; Maurice Pensaert; Victoria Alday-Sanz; Wim Van den Broeck; Patrick Sorgeloos; Peter Bossier

2009-01-01

191

Activating Transcription Factor 4 and X Box Binding Protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptional Regulated White Spot Syndrome Virus Genes Wsv023 and Wsv083  

PubMed Central

In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi) compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE). Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1), has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1) – (XBP1)] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE). These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.

Li, Xiao-Yun; Pang, Li-Ran; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Yi-Hong; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

192

Activating transcription factor 4 and X box binding protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptional regulated white spot syndrome virus genes Wsv023 and Wsv083.  

PubMed

In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi) compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE). Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1), has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1) - (XBP1)] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE). These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection. PMID:23638122

Li, Xiao-Yun; Pang, Li-Ran; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Yi-Hong; He, Jian-Guo

2013-04-24

193

Nutritionally related strategies for organic goat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic goat production contributes to the alleviation of poverty of producers who rely on marginal land for their livelihoods, while meeting the increasing demand for organic products globally. Nutritional strategies that are naturally occurring, low cost and easy to apply can improve the productive performance of goats and render organic production profitable and successful. Adequate protein intake enhances immunity and

Christopher D. Lu

2011-01-01

194

School nutrition environments since local wellness policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Many factors contribute to the school nutrition environment including food policies and practices, advertising and the presence of competitive foods (CF). The National School Lunch Program (NSLP) provides nutritious meals to students, however CF been shown to inhibit the dietary intake of students who have access to them. School food service (SFS) operations with tight budgets often turn to

Elizabeth Anne Wenz

2009-01-01

195

Consumer use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer interest in nutrition has led to an increased interest in nutrition labelling. Finds that over half (58 per cent) of the sample surveyed read nutrition labels. Nutrition labelling was found to have an impact on consumer purchase decisions. Of those consumers who read nutritional labels, 81 per cent use them in their evaluation of food products. Consumers have

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

196

Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional

Olson, Christine; And Others

197

Community nutrition programmes, globalization and sustainable development.  

PubMed

On an international scale, the last seventy-five years have been a period of deep social, economic and political transformation for the developing countries. They have been especially influenced by the international phenomenon of globalization, the benefits of which have been unequally distributed among countries. In this context, the strategies used to improve the general nutritional health of the population of developing countries include broad approaches integrating nutritional interventions in a context of sustainable community development, while valuing the existing relations between fields as diverse as agriculture, education, sociology, economy, health, environment, hygiene and nutrition. The community nutrition programmes are emblematic of these initiatives. Nevertheless, in spite of the increasing evidence of the potential possibilities offered by these programmes to improve the nutritional status and contribute to the development and the self-sufficiency of the community, their success is relatively limited, due to the inappropriate planning, implementation and evaluation of the programmes. In the present article, I attempt to emphasie the importance of community participation of the population of developing countries in the community nutrition programmes within the context of globalization. This process is not only an ethical imperative, but a pragmatic one. It is a crucial step in the process of liberation, democratization and equality that will lead to true sustainable development. PMID:16923245

Suárez-Herrera, José Carlos

2006-08-01

198

Antioxidant nutritional quality of tomato.  

PubMed

Regular consumption of tomatoes has been associated with decreased risk of chronic degenerative diseases. Epidemiological findings confirm the observed health effects are due to the presence of different antioxidant molecules such as carotenoids, particularly lycopene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and phenol compounds, particularly flavonoids. In this work, eight components contributing to the healthy quality of tomato (i. e. lycopene, beta-carotene, other carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, vitamins C and E, dry residue) were studied in the framework of breeding programs aiming to develop nutritional superior genotypes. Twelve tomato advanced breeding lines and six open pollinated cultivars were grown in strictly controlled conditions and analysed for their content of antioxidants. Among the 18 genotypes analysed, 10 showed a high level of total carotenoids, 6 high level of beta-carotene, 9 high lycopene levels, 15 high flavonoids and 2 relevant concentration of vitamin E. Based on such data and on a literature survey on tomato composition, an index, called index of antioxidant nutritional quality (I(QUAN)), was proposed as a tool to address the breeding programs in selecting tomato genotypes with antioxidant nutritional qualities. PMID:17427261

Frusciante, Luigi; Carli, Paola; Ercolano, Maria R; Pernice, Rita; Di Matteo, Antonio; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

2007-05-01

199

Identification and characterization of Inositol-requiring enzyme-1 and X-box binding protein 1, two proteins involved in the unfolded protein response of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE1)-X-box binding protein 1 (IRE1-XBP1) pathway is the key branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR). To investigate the role of the IRE1-XBP1 pathway in reducing environmental stress and increasing anti-viral immunity in Litopenaeus vannamei, homologues of IRE1 (designated as LvIRE1) and XBP1 (designated as LvXBP1) were identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvIRE1 is 4908bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) that encodies a putative 1174 amino acid protein. The full-length cDNA of LvXBP1 is 1746bp long. It contains two ORFs that encode putative 278 amino acid and 157 amino acid proteins, respectively. LvXBP1 mRNA has the predicted IRE1 splicing motifs CNG'CNGN located within the loop regions of two short hairpins. Sequencing of the splicing fragment induced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress showed a 3bp or 4bp frame shift from the predicted sites. The spliced form LvXBP1 (LvXBP1s) contained an ORF encodes a putative 463 amino acid protein. The reporter gene assays indicated that LvXBP1s activates the promoter of L. vannamei immunoglobulin heavy chain binding protein (LvBip), an important UPR effector. RT-PCR showed that LvXBP1 was spliced during the experiments. For heat shock treatment, the total LvXBP1 expression was increased and peaked at about 36h, whereas the percentages of the two isoforms were relatively stable. For the WSSV challenge, LvXBP1 was upregulated during the experiment and the percentage of the spliced form continuously declined after 18h of infection. Knock-down of LvXBP1 by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expression profiles of LvIRE1 and LvXBP1 in the gills, hemocytes, intestines, and hepatopancreas of the WSSV-challenged shrimp were detected using real-time RT-PCR. Taken together, these results confirm that the IRE1-XBP1 pathway is important for L. vannamei environmental stress resistance, suggest that L. vannamei IRE1-XBP1 may activated by WSSV and be annexed to serve the virus. PMID:22554476

Chen, Yi-Hong; Zhao, Li; Pang, Li-Ran; Li, Xiao-Yun; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2012-04-30

200

Neonatal weight gain and nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Newborn nutrition; Nutritional needs -- premature infants ... have trouble coordinating sucking, breathing, and swallowing. Also, newborns with breathing problems, very low oxygen levels, gagging, ...

201

Optimizing Nutrition for Toddlers  

MedlinePLUS

... for Toddlers Ages & Stages Listen Optimizing Nutrition for Toddlers Article Body Since his very first feeding, you’ve probably paid plenty of attention to what your child eats. Remember, in making dietary decisions early in your youngster’s life, your primary focus should be on good nutrition ...

202

Total parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Providing nourishment to the sick is one of the basic tenets of nursing practice. Today, as this fundamental human need is met through the modern technology of parenteral nutrition, nursing's role in providing nutritional care for patients has become more significant. Conscientious nursing management of the patient receiving TPN is essential for preventing complications and for ensuring that therapeutic goals are met. PMID:2498847

Worthington, P H; Wagner, B A

1989-06-01

203

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition.…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

204

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

205

Parents and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher

206

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

207

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)|

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

208

Nutrition Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

209

Day Care: Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

Foster, Florence P.; And Others

210

Medical Nutrition Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify improved clinical outcomes and cost savings resulting from nutrition therapy in Connecticut.Members of the Consulting Nutritionists of Connecticut and dietitians from hospitals were asked to track and report case studies documenting clinical outcomes resulting from medical nutrition therapy. We received reports on 25 patients. Dietitians included the following information: site of counseling, age, diagnoses, laboratory data

M. G. Holl; T. P. Liskov

1997-01-01

211

Nutrition in centenarians.  

PubMed

The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-01-26

212

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

213

On-Line Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several sources of nutrition information are available on the Internet. Good online sources include the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Consumer Service bulletin board, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and the IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation On-Line. E-mail addresses…

Kongshem, Lars

1995-01-01

214

Sudbury Schools' Mission Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To show RDs how to facilitate, integrate, and communicate effective nutrition education in school cafeterias, the classrooms, and the home.A grant was received from the Sudbury Education Resource Fund, Inc., (SERF) in Sudbury, Massachusetts, from September 1996 to June 1997, to facilitate the translation of nutrition awareness and education. In June of 1996, a survey was sent home

J. S. Blake; R. Skog; A. Lynch

1997-01-01

215

Nutrition and sports performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awareness of nutrition playing an important role in sports performance. Many factors can impact the performance of a sports person during competition which may be related to different domains. The most commonly encountered nutritional related problem among sports person is their failure to consume sufficient total of food energy. Food is composed of six basic substance: carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

S Manikandan; D Selvam

2010-01-01

216

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

Black, Susan

2000-01-01

217

Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

Thompson, Tommy

2002-01-01

218

Ethics of artificial nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent decades have seen dramatic improvements in our ability as a profession to care for patients with critical illness and chronic disease. One consequence of this is that patients now more often survive to a point where nutrition becomes a limiting factor in their care. In addition, we now have the skills and technology to maintain a patients’ nutritional status

John MacFie

2006-01-01

219

Implementing School Nutrition Policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schools provide an important venue for promoting healthy eating. In recent years, local and national governments have recognized that school nutrition policies can play an important role in achieving positive health outcomes for students. The New Brunswick Department of Education was at the forefront of action in 1991 when it developed the Food and Nutrition Policy for New Brunswick Schools.

Mary McKenna

220

Nutrition for winter sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable

Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle

2011-01-01

221

Nutrition of the giant clam Tridacna gigas (L.). II. Relative contributions of filter-feeding and the ammonium-nitrogen acquired and recycled by symbiotic alga towards total nitrogen requirements for tissue growth and metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the relative contributions of filter-feeding and ammonium-nitrogen translocated from algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) towards the total nitrogen requirements for tissue growth and metabolism in the giant clam Tridacna gigas. Isotope enrichments suggest that zooxanthellae effected most if not all primary assimilation from high concentrations (? 15 ?M) of 15N-ammonium. There was a net daily uptake of ammonium from natural

A. J. S. Hawkins; D. W. Klumpp

1995-01-01

222

Iatrogenic nutritional deficiencies.  

PubMed

This article catalogs the nutritional deficiencies inadvertently introduced by certain treatment regimens. Specifically, the iatrogenic effects on nutrition of surgery, hemodialysis, irradiation, and drugs are reviewed. Nutritional problems are particularly frequent consequences of surgery on the gastrointestinal tract. Gastric surgery can lead to deficiencies of vitamin B12, folate, iron, and thiamine, as well as to metabolic bone disease. The benefits of small bowel bypass are limited by the potentially severe nutritional consequences of this procedure. Following bypass surgery, patients should be monitored for signs of possible nutritional probems such as weight loss, neuropathy, cardiac arrhythmias, loss of stamina, or changes in mental status. Minimal laboratory tests should include hematologic evaluation, B12, folate, iron, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, transaminases, sodium, potassium, chloride, and carbon dioxide levels. Roentgenologic examination of the bone should also be obtained. Loss of bone substance is a major consequence of many forms of treatment, and dietary supplementation with calcium is warranted. Patients undergoing hemodialysis have shown carnitine and choline deficiencies, potassium depletion, and hypovitaminosis, as well as osteomalacia. Chronic drug use may alter intake, synthesis, absorption, transport, storage, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients. Patients vary markedly in the metabolic effects of drugs, and recommendations for nutrition must be related to age, sex, reproductive status, and genetic endowment. Moreover, the illness being treated can itself alter nutritional requirements and the effect of the treatment on nutrient status. The changes in nutritional levels induced by use of estrogen-containing oral contraceptives (OCs) are obscure; however, the effects on folate matabolism appear to be of less clinical import than previously suggested. Reduction in pyridoxine and serum vitamin B12 levels has been reported among OC users, and requirements of thiamine and riboflavin may be increased. In cases where the therapy is justified, the nutritional consequences can often be justified. However, every effort should be made to identify nutritional side effects by proper assessment procedures and to manage them by oral or parenteral supplementation where feasible. PMID:6764730

Young, R C; Blass, J P

1982-01-01

223

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

224

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

225

Nutritional scientist or biochemist?  

PubMed

When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

Suttie, J W

2011-08-21

226

Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.  

PubMed

Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282

Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

2013-09-01

227

[A relational perspective in the study of the work process in health: a contribution to a new approach starting from the study of the practice of the nutritionist in the area of institutional nutrition].  

PubMed

As part of the theoretical-conceptual review for a study of the practice of the nutritionist in an Industrial Complex, a discussion on the ways in which the notion of the work process has been dealt with and limits of such approaches were carried out. The study goes from a criticism of the classical marxist line, through Braverman and ends up with those authors who have stood out recently for their contributions to the theory of the work process, for example, Littler, Thompson, Knights, Edwards and Burawoy. Using these contributions as starting point, the nutritionist's practice is examined from both the standpoints of the Production and the Gender Relationships in a combined approach which, from the analytic point of view, try to complement each other. The study is concluded with a frame of reference the searchs through the nutritionist's practice meaning at industries to relativized both the independence of the professional subject and the structural determinism as it is portrayed in the literature produced here. PMID:12973595

Viana, S V

2003-09-03

228

2011 nutritional assessment guidelines.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. PMID:22616443

2011-12-01

229

Child nutrition and growth: butterfly effects?  

PubMed

The international symposium organised by the Danone Institute as a pre-congress satellite of the European Nutrition Societies Congress, in Paris, in July 2007, brought together experts of child nutrition and behaviour. These experts coming from several countries of Europe and North America shared their views on the impact of numerous factors affecting child eating and health in present-day developed societies. Topics included nutritional influences during foetal life, early life development of food likes and dislikes, neophobia, ability for energy regulation, impact of media and advertisement, etc. Most contributions addressed the obesity epidemics and the problems associated with body weight control. Other aspects of child health were also considered, for example the nutritional challenge of adequately feeding children with type 1 diabetes. The nine speakers were asked to underline practical strategies to improve nutrition in early life, so as to maximise health, growth and quality of life in today's environment. The present paper is a summary of the ideas expressed by the experts, highlighting agreements, convergences, and occasional disagreements between expert opinions. PMID:18257951

Bellisle, France

2008-02-01

230

Nutrition in Severe Dementia  

PubMed Central

An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

2012-01-01

231

Chronobiology and nutrition.  

PubMed

Numerous long-term studies have investigated the circadian clock system in mammals, which organizes physiological functions, including metabolism, digestion, and absorption of food, and energy expenditure. Food or nutrition can be a synchronizer for the circadian clock systems, as potent as the external light-dark signal can be. Recent studies have investigated different kinds of food, frequency of consumption, and time of consumption for optimizing body clock and ensuring healthy habits. In this review, we discuss recent studies investigating chronobiology and nutrition, and then summarize available information as "Chrono-nutrition" for the development of a new standardized research strategy. PMID:24007937

Tahara, Y; Shibata, S

2013-09-03

232

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

233

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

234

USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

235

The Economics of Nutritional Interventions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition is a basic need and as such one of the desired outcomes of economic development. There are compelling reasons for investing in nutrition other than its economic benefits. Nevertheless, quantifying these economic benefits can be useful for advocating increased resources for nutrition programs. Economic analysis can also help to make informed decisions about the type of nutrition interventions to

Susan Horton

236

Molecular Nutrition Research--The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science  

PubMed Central

In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases.

Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, J?rgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

2012-01-01

237

Nutrition and Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present available information concerning the effects of maternal nutrition upon the growth and development of the offspring is summarized. Studies in rats have indicated a widespread effect on growth, metabolism, mental development and behavior of ani...

B. F. Chow R. Q. Blackwell R. W. Sherwin

1968-01-01

238

Teach Nutrition With Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Simulated games have been designed to teach not only factual material but to provide opportunities for understanding some of the complex systems of our society. The use of this valuable tool is encouraged in the teaching of nutrition. (Author)|

NJEA Review, 1975

1975-01-01

239

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

240

Nutrition Update, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

1978-01-01

241

Nutrition in humanitarian crises.  

PubMed

It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

2004-11-01

242

Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

243

Dissemination of Nutritional Knowledge in Germany – Nutrition Circle, 3D Food Pyramid and 10 Nutrition Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Presentation of the general concept of the German Nutrition Society for a successful dissemination of nutritional knowledge. Methods: Evaluation of actual material used for nutrition education and teaching. Results: In Germany, different validated instruments on the basis of actual scientific evidence are available. Quantitative aspects can be easily enlightened with the help of the Nutrition Circle. Information concerning optimal

Peter Stehle

2007-01-01

244

The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp. PMID:21129487

Liu, Xiao-Long; Xi, Qian-Yun; Yang, Lin; Li, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Yong-Liang

2010-12-01

245

Accumulation and Elimination of Enrofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in Tissues of Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Laboratory and Farm Conditions  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to quantify the accumulation and elimination of Enrofloxacin (ENRO) and Ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory and farm conditions. Laboratory- and farm-raised shrimp were given feed supplemented with 200?mg/kg ENRO for 14 days, followed by a 16-day diet without antibiotics. The levels of ENRO and CIPRO were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the laboratory, ENRO concentrations in the muscle and hepatopancreas reached a maximum (Cmax) of 0.54 ± 0.26??g/g and 3.52 ± 1.9??g/g, respectively; Cmax values for CIPRO in the laboratory were 0.18 ± 0.13??g/g (muscle) and 1.05 ± 0.20??g/g (hepatopancreas). In farmed shrimp, Cmax values for ENRO were 0.36 ± 0.17??g/g muscle and 1.60 ± 0.82??g/g in the hepatopancreas; CIPRO Cmax values were 0.03 ± 0.02??g/g (muscle) and 0.36 ± 0.08??g/g (hepatopancreas). Two to fourteen days were necessary to eliminate both antibiotics from muscular tissue and four to more fourteen days for complete elimination of the antibiotics from the hepatopancreas. These results should be considered in terms of minimum concentrations necessary to inhibit Vibrio bacteria to determine whether the current use of this antibiotic is effective in controlling disease.

Flores-Miranda, Brisa Marisol; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angelica; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; Gonzalez-Carrillo, Hayde Hayamai; Bermudez-Almada, Maria del Carmen

2012-01-01

246

TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 ?g mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

2012-06-01

247

Transcriptional regulation of extracellular copper zinc superoxide dismutase from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV infection.  

PubMed

The cDNA encoding an extracellular copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvECSOD) was cloned from the hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. It consisted of 915 bp nucleotides with an open reading frame corresponding to a deduced protein of 178 amino acids. The LvECSOD contains a putative signal peptide of 16 amino acids, two potential N-linked glycosylation sites (N(115)GTA and N(135)ITG) and a copper zinc superoxide dismutase family signature sequence (G(162)NAGaRvACctI(173)). It was found that four copper binding sites, four zinc binding sites and two cysteines involving in the formation of the disulfide bridge were conserved in the protein. LvECSOD shared 33-58% identity to ECSODs from other organisms. Expression analysis revealed that LvECSOD mRNA was widely distributed in all the tissues examined. When the shrimp challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), expression of LvECSOD mRNA in the hepatopancreas and hemocytes was mediated responsively. Our results suggested that LvECSOD was implicated in the immune response induced by V. alginolyticus and WSSV. PMID:20974259

Tian, Jianxiao; Chen, Juan; Jiang, Dan; Liao, Shaoan; Wang, Anli

2010-10-23

248

ADHD and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal

Marianne M. Glanzman

2009-01-01

249

Perinatal and pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutritional deficiencies develop rapidly in the very low birth weight infants because of a lack of third-trimester accumulation of fat, minerals, trace elements, and fat-soluble vitamins. Symptomatic zinc deficiency and hypernatremic dehydration may occur unexpectedly in the wholly breast-fed full-term or premature infant, and nutritional adequacy should be carefully monitored even in breast-fed full-term infants. PMID:8319426

Lockitch, G

1993-06-01

250

Phylogenesis and nutrition.  

PubMed

The evolution of man is connected with a life-style of hunting and gathering, and with the development and use of tools. The success of tools promoted the evolution of brain, thinking and skills. The food sources--animal and plant--remained the same during the whole of evolution. But the proportions of foods, preferences, preparations and the attainability changed. Evolution was a process continuously based on omnivorous nutrition. Compared to modern nutrition, paleolithic nutrition is richer in animal protein, vitamins, calcium, potassium and fibre, and poorer in fat and sodium. Saccharose, lactose and alcohol play no roles. The quality of the fat is marked by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This shift from a paleolithic diet to a modern diet caused nutritional risks, partly responsible for the dramatic increase in modern chronic diseases of heart, circulation and so on. Man's metabolism works in a stable genetic frame, derived during phylogenesis. We have to adapt our nutritional behaviour to its tolerances or we may succumb to disease and premature death. While our paleolithic metabolism is overdone with modern nutrition, our psychological heritages press in the direction of overdoing. PMID:2697806

Haenel, H

1989-01-01

251

Recipes and nutrition education.  

PubMed

Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations. PMID:6352783

Hertzler, A A

1983-10-01

252

Effects of dietary protein on the activity and mRNA level of trypsin in the midgut gland of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Protein food modulates the activity of proteases of the midgut gland of Penaeus vannamei. Shrimp fed with food containing 15, 30 and 50% protein exhibited differences in trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and trypsin mRNA levels. Shrimp fed with 30% protein showed higher trypsin and chymotrypsin activities than those fed 15 or 50% protein. An additional paralogue trypsin was observed with electrophoretic analysis in shrimp fed 30% protein. Shrimp fed 30% protein showed the highest trypsin to mRNA concentration, suggesting that trypsin genes expression is regulated transcriptionally. PMID:12798946

Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; García-Carreño, Fernando L; Sánchez-Paz, J Arturo; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B

2003-06-01

253

The effects of body weight, temperature, salinity, pH, light intensity and feeding condition on lethal DO levels of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different temperatures (14.5, 21.5, 24.8, 27.8, 30.8, and 35.0 °C), salinities (9, 15, 26, 35, and 40‰), pH (3.3, 6.5, 7.7, 8.1, and 9.2), and light intensities (strong 2100 lx and weak 60 lx) at various body weights (3.0, 3.7, 4.3, 5.7, 7.8, 9.0, 9.5, 10.7, 11.9, and 13.3 g) and feeding conditions (fed

Peidong Zhang; Xiumei Zhang; Jian Li; Guoqiang Huang

2006-01-01

254

Nutritive value of prickly pear seeds, Opuntia ficus-indica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are reported on the nutritional quality of prickly pear seeds,Opuntia ficus-indica. The seeds contained 16.6% protein, 17.2% fat, 49.6% fiber and 3.0% ash. The meal showed a high amount of iron (9.45 mg %). The contents of Mg, P, K, Zn and Cu were nutritionally significant contributing approximately 10–20% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of these elements per

W. N. Sawaya; J. K. Khalil; M. M. Al-Mohammad

1983-01-01

255

Effects of humic substances on iron nutrition of lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poorly crystalline Fe oxides and organic matter are two important factors affecting Fe nutrition of plants. The main objective\\u000a of this work was to study the contribution of humic substances to Fe nutrition of a typical Fe-chlorosis sensitive plant (white\\u000a lupin, Lupinus albus L.). An experiment was performed involving two growing media (siliceous and calcareous) and different Fe sources: control

Ana de Santiago; Antonio Delgado

2007-01-01

256

Nutrition knowledge of low-income parents of obese children.  

PubMed

Minority and low-income children are overrepresented among obese US children. Lack of basic nutrition knowledge among parents may contribute to this disparity. The purpose of this study is to measure nutrition knowledge of parents of Medicaid-insured obese children using a simple low-literacy tool. Parents, recruited from pediatric clinics, demonstrated their nutrition knowledge by placing food stickers into cells on a printed grid with food groups displayed in columns and three nutrition categories displayed in rows. In general, parents (n?=?135; 74.8 % black; 79.2 % income of ?$25,000/year) correctly identified food groups (median?=?90.5 % correct). Nutritional categories were more commonly misidentified (median?=?67 % correct), with parents mostly believing foods were healthier than they were. Multivariable linear regression revealed black race (p?=?0.02), no college education (p?=?0.02) and income of <$15,000 (p?=?0.03) independently predicted misidentification of nutritional categories. Parents' understanding of food's nutritional value is variable. Black race, less education, and very low income are associated with poorer nutrition knowledge. PMID:24039639

Cluss, Patricia A; Ewing, Linda; King, Wendy C; Reis, Evelyn Cohen; Dodd, Judith L; Penner, Barbara

2013-06-01

257

Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid

Yi-Hong Chen; Xiao-Ting Jia; Xian-De Huang; Shuang Zhang; Mei Li; Jun-Feng Xie; Shao-Ping Weng; Jian-Guo He

2011-01-01

258

Effect of the Dietary Ratio of Digestible Energy to Crude Protein on Growth and Feed Conversion in Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Similar Levels of Daily Protein Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the effect of the dietary ratio of digestible energy (DE) : Crude protein (CP) on growth performance and nutrient utilization in juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed various diets with a constant daily protein input. Juveniles (weight = 0.94 ± 0.04 g [mean ± SE]; n = 30) were stocked in an indoor recirculating-water system (173-L polyethylene

Jesus A. Venero; D. Allen Davis; David B. Rouse

2008-01-01

259

SYMPOSIUM: OPTIMIZING PROTEIN NUTRITION FOR REPRODUCTION AND LACTATION Review: Effect of Protein Nutrition on Ovarian and Uterine Physiology in Dairy Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk production and dry matter intake of dairy cows are stimulated in response to increased intake of dietary protein, but, unfortunately, decreased fertility is often associated with this nutritional strategy. Ru- minally degradable protein or ruminally undegrada- ble protein in excess of requirement can contribute to reduced fertility in lactating cows. Dietary protein nutrition or utilization and the associated effects

W. R. BUTLER

260

Nutrition and growth.  

PubMed

Nutrition plays a fundamental role in determining the growth of individuals. An appropriate growth progression is considered a harbinger of adequate nutrient intake and good health. On the other hand growth deceleration with or without short stature may indicate inadequate nutrition, even when there is no body weight deficit for height. Nutritional growth retardation (NGR) is most prevalent in populations at risk of poverty. However in affluent communities patients with NGR are often referred to the specialist because of short stature and delayed sexual development. The diagnosis may be overlooked and/or be established after exhaustive evaluations, if the pattern of weight progression over time is not considered. Patients with so-called idiopathic short stature may present diminished nutrient intake and decreased IGF-I levels, however their nutritional status and body weight progression patterns are usually not addressed by pediatric endocrinologists. NGR patients may cease to gain appropriate weight and fail to grow in height, even without exhibiting body weight deficits for height. They adapt to decreased nutrient intake by decreasing growth progression and thereby achieve equilibrium by decreasing the nutrient demands. This occurs by diminishing their metabolic rates and erythrocyte Na+, K+- ATPase activity, however they may not present alterations in other clinical biochemical markers of malnutrition. Therefore accurate weights and heights plotted on the growth chart over time are necessary to detect NGR. Nutritional rehabilitation is accompanied with catch up growth, though it may be difficult to change the dietary habits of adolescents who exhibit NGR. PMID:21274290

Lifshitz, Fima

2009-05-01

261

Understanding the nutrition transition.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of nutrition transition and experiences in China and Russia with monitoring of economic and health changes. Fogel (1994) showed that improvements in nutrition were associated with significant shifts in economic productivity. Over the past 300 years, the pace of dietary change has increased to some extent worldwide. Dietary changes are evident in changes in average stature and body composition and parallel major changes in health status. The nutrition transition follows the pattern of collecting food, famine, receding famine, degenerative disease, and behavioral change. The author's first proposition is that nutritional trends and dietary change are associated with population growth, age structure, and spatial distribution. Urban population has a distinctly different diet from rural population. Urban diets include superior grains, more milled and polished grains, higher fat content, more animal products, more sugar, and more prepared and processed food. Urban and rural diets are farther apart in low-income countries. The author's second proposition is that diet and activity are affected by income, patterns of work, and socioeconomic changes. Women's role changes affect household food preparation. Income allows for the purchase of goods or services that affect diet. Income increases are related to greater expenditures on food. The third proposition is that diet changes are associated with changes in knowledge and access to mass media. The last proposition is that interaction between epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic changes determines the nature and pace of nutrition transition. PMID:12178476

Popkin, B M

1996-09-01

262

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP...State. Such other agencies may include the WIC Program which routinely offers nutrition...wishing to coordinate nutrition education with WIC shall enter into a written cooperative...

2010-01-01

263

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP...State. Such other agencies may include the WIC Program which routinely offers nutrition...wishing to coordinate nutrition education with WIC shall enter into a written cooperative...

2009-01-01

264

Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis.

2013-01-01

265

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

266

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

267

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

268

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

269

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications.  

PubMed

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei . PMID:24086466

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-09-25

270

Cloning of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) gene from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and its expression level analysis under salinity stress.  

PubMed

Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) is an intracellular membrane bound enzyme that utilizes the free energy of ATP to transport Ca(2+) against a concentration gradient. In the present study, a new SERCA gene (LvSERCA) from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was cloned using suppression subtractive hybridization and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The full-length cDNA of LvSERCA contained an open reading frame of 3,009 bp coding for 1,002 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of approximately 109.8 kDa. The identity analysis of the amino acid sequence of LvSERCA showed that it is highly conserved with 10 transmembrane ?-helices, one P-domain, one A-domain and one N-domain. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvSERCA is similar to other Arthropoda SERCA proteins. The mRNA levels of LvSERCA under salinity stress (3 and 40 g L(-1)) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that LvSERCA was expressed in all tissues detected. LvSERCA mRNA levels were significantly higher under hyper-salinity than hypo-salinity. These results highlight that Ga(2+)-ATPase plays an essential role in adjustment salinity stress, which may be useful for selective breeding of L. vannamei. PMID:24085584

Wang, Yanhong; Luo, Peng; Zhang, Lvping; Hu, Chaoqu; Ren, Chunhua; Xia, Jianjun

2013-10-02

271

Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.  

PubMed

A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. PMID:20420922

Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

2010-04-24

272

Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.  

PubMed

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

2011-06-17

273

Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

274

The peroxinectin of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is synthesised in the semi-granular and granular cells, and its transcription is up-regulated with Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  

PubMed

Peroxinectin mRNA expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-UTP-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Granular cells (GC) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) were separated by 70% Percoll gradient centrifugation. Peroxinectin was synthesised in both GC and the mixture of SGC-HC. An in situ hybridisation assay indicated that peroxinectin mRNA expression occurred in GC and SGC, but not in HC. Peroxinectin transcript up-regulated significantly, whereas haemocyte count decreased significantly at 6, 12 and 24 h post Vibrio alginolyticus-injection with slower restoration as compared to that of saline-injected shrimp. The RT-PCR assay indicated that peroxinectin exists extensively in several species of decapod crustaceans including L. vannamei, freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, common caridina Caridina pseudodenticulata, stone crab Thalamita crenata and mud crab Scylla serrata suggesting that this protein plays an important role in defence against pathogens. PMID:15683919

Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2005-01-13

275

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications  

PubMed Central

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei.

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-01-01

276

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Google+ You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to the Media Press Room Home > Media In This Section Quicklinks ... PhD, RD Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ...

277

WIC Nutrition Education Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study had four key research objectives: To assess pregnant women's nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported behaviors at the time of WIC enrollment; To describe the processes used by local agencies in delivering WIC nutrition educatio...

C. Price J. Golay M. K. Fox N. Burstein

1999-01-01

278

Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines.

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

2010-01-01

279

Molds, mycotoxins, and nutrition.  

PubMed

Many of the patients with mold and chemical exposure that come to Environmental Health Center - Dallas (EHC-D) show signs of impaired digestion. Improving their digestion improves their nutritional status and also improves their detoxification abilities. Mold and chemical exposure also affect the patient's short-term memory and executive function. This presents a challenge when it comes to teaching the patient how to improve their nutritional status and detoxification. At the EHC-D, we use several instructions methods that have resulted in the patient's grasping the concepts and then being able to implement the required changes. PMID:19854822

Overberg, Ron

280

Alternative splicing generates two lactate dehydrogenase subunits differentially expressed during hypoxia via HIF-1 in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Metabolic adjustment to low oxygen exposure (hypoxia) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei implies a shift to anaerobic metabolism. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme of the anaerobic metabolism described in most organisms. The structure and expression of the LDH gene, as well as the LDH isoenzymes in marine crustacean are not well defined. In the present study we characterized a gene that codes for two LDH subunits, measured their expression and detected the isoenzymes in tissues from white shrimp. We also silenced the transcriptional activator hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) to elucidate the regulation of LDH in tissues from white shrimp in response to hypoxia. The complete LDH gene coding sequence is 7571 bp (LvanLDH) and encodes two different LDH subunits (LDHvan-1 and LDHvan-2) generated by alternative splicing and composed of 332 amino acids with conserved domains important for the function and regulation. Phylogenetic analysis shows that LvanLDH -1 and -2 are closer to the invertebrate counterparts. The LDHvan-1 transcript increased 2.5-fold after hypoxia in gills but not in hepatopancreas, while the LDHvan-2 transcript decreased 14-fold in muscle but not in gills and hepatopancreas. Three bands with LDH activity of ?60–90 kDa were detected in hepatopancreas, while one band of ?140 kDa was detected in gills and muscle. The silencing of HIF-1 blocked the increase of LDH mRNA and activity produced by hypoxia in gills. These results demonstrate a single gene for LDH (LvanLDH) that by alternative splicing generates two different LDH subunits (LDHvan-1 and LDHvan-2) that are expressed in a tissue-specific manner during hypoxia via the HIF-1 pathway. PMID:22586706

Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Rodriguez-Armenta, Mariana; Leal-Rubio, Bertha; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

2012-05-01

281

A Dicer-1 gene from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: expression pattern in the processes of immune response and larval development.  

PubMed

Dicer is a member of the RNAase III family which catalyzes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA to small interfering RNAs and micro RNAs, and then directs sequence-specific gene silencing. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of Dicer-1 was cloned from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvDcr1). It was of 7636 bp, including a poly A tail, a 5' UTR of 136 bp, a 3' UTR of 78 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 7422 bp encoding a putative protein of 2473 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence comprised all recognized functional domains found in other Dicer-1 homologues and showed the highest (97.7%) similarity to the Dicer-1 from tiger shrimp Penaeus mondon. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the tissue distribution of LvDcr1 mRNA, and its expression in shrimps under virus challenge and larvae at different developmental stages. The LvDcr1 mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression level in hemocyte, and was up-regulated in hemocytes and gills after virus injection. These results indicated that LvDcr1 was involved in antiviral defense in adult shrimp. During the developmental stages from fertilized egg to postlarva VII, LvDcr1 was constitutively expressed at all examined development stages, but the expression level varied significantly. The highest expression level was observed in fertilized eggs and followed a decrease from fertilized egg to nauplius I stage. Then, the higher levels of expression were detected at nauplius V and postlarva stages. LvDcr1 expression regularly increased at the upper phase of nauplius, zoea and mysis stages than their prophase. The different expression of LvDcr1 in the larval stages could provide clues for understanding the early innate immunity in the process of shrimp larval development. PMID:20599620

Yao, Xuemei; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Dong, Chaohua; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Limei; Shi, Yaohua; Zhao, Jianmin; Bi, Yongkun

2010-06-25

282

Impact of Medical Nutrition Therapy on Pediatric Failure to Thrive in a Primary Care Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To recognize the positive clinical outcomes and nominal costs of medical nutrition therapy in treatment of pediatric non-organic failure to thrive in a primary care setting.Two years of quality assurance outcome data for therapeutic nutrition interventions in the primary care setting demonstrated the contribution of medical nutrition therapy to catch-up growth in non-organic failure to thrive patients in

J. M. Kildahl

1997-01-01

283

Nutritional anemias in the English-speaking Caribbean: a review of the literature.  

PubMed Central

A review of the published literature on nutritional anemias in the English-speaking Caribbean was carried out. Published articles on the subject are few in number and are concentrated in the larger islands such as Jamaica and Trinidad. Nutritional anemias are most prevalent among women of childbearing age. Iron and folate deficiencies and, to a much lesser extent, protein deficiency resulting from insufficient dietary intakes of these nutrients are the major nutritional factors contributing to this anemia.

Johnson, A A; Latham, M C; Roe, D A

1982-01-01

284

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

285

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

286

Do consumers value nutritional labels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is contemplating making the provision of nutritional labels in food products mandatory. Using data collected from food shoppers, we assessed consumers' valuation of nutritional labels by analysing their willingness to pay a premium for a box of cookies with a nutritional label. On average, the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a box of cookies with a

Maria L. Loureiro; Azucena Gracia; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2006-01-01

287

Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

288

Public nutrition: Why, What, How?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public Nutrition is a field of professional study and practice that has existed for many years without being named as such. It encompasses the disciplines that deal with factors affecting the food consumption and nutritional outcomes of populations, and goes beyond the definition of Public Health Nutrition by including the study of public policy in areas outside of health and

Beatrice Lorge Rogers

2001-01-01

289

Alabama's Child Nutrition Certification Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook presents the plan for the Alabama computerized certification program for school food service employees. The first section contains the following information and materials pertaining to the child nutrition certification program: rationale; position titles (Child Nutrition Program Director or Supervisor, Child Nutrition Program…

Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Administration and Finance.

290

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

291

Nutrition and health issues in the general Hong Kong population.  

PubMed

In Hong Kong, the chronic diseases that lead to mortality and morbidity, and contribute to disability include cardiovascular diseases, cancer, hypertension, osteoporosis, and diabetes mellitus. The role of nutrition as a risk factor for the development of these diseases has been described elsewhere. For the older population, adequate nutrition is important to maintain health, particularly with regard to the effect of nutrition on immunocompetence. Nutritional surveys of the general adult population show that although the intake pattern for cardiovascular health is good, follow-up surveys to monitor the pattern are needed. In the context of chronic disease prevention, decreasing salt consumption, increasing calcium intake, and increasing the awareness of the health value of fibre may all be beneficial actions. Educational efforts should be directed particularly at those with lower levels of education, since the poorly educated have been shown to have a less healthy diet and a greater prevalence of overweight individuals. Among the elderly, evidence of undernutrition has been documented in institutional settings and is associated with increased mortality. The diet of those residing in vegetarian homes has been shown to be deficient in many B vitamins, which results in a high frequency of nutritional anaemias. To help achieve an optimal nutritional status, nutrition screening programmes should become an integral part of the development of quality care programmes for institutions responsible for care of the elderly. PMID:11830701

Woo, J

1998-12-01

292

Nutrition for Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Day Index Nutrition for Older Men What is the best line of defense for older men to stay healthy? Eating a well-balanced diet filled with whole grains, fruits, vegetables, lean animal and ... fats. The Difference Diet Can Make Healthy eating can keep ...

293

Nutrition and stomach cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and stomach cancer is reviewed. Stomach cancer shows a distinct international variation and dramatic worldwide decline. These descriptive features suggest that dietary factors are important in determining the risk of stomach cancer. The authors assessed relevant data regarding specific dietary hypotheses in the etiology of stomach cancer. A negative association with fresh vegetables

Suminori Kono; Tomio Hirohata

1996-01-01

294

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

295

Interdisciplinary Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes and evaluates a successful one-quarter 26-curriculum hour course in clinical nutrition, which focuses on practical aspects of diet prescriptions, dietary customs, attitudes, and behavior modifications. Required for sophomore medical students and dietetic interns, the course in taught by faculty from several disciplines and includes…

Baumslag, Naomi; And Others

1976-01-01

296

Nutrition in Children's Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

Smith, Nathan J.

297

Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

298

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

299

Evaluating Nutritional Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A simple electrical board programed to provide measurement of a nutrition day camp's objectives was fun for eight and nine year old inner-city youths to use; incorporation of pictures aided comprehension. Results indicate that the testing technique was appropriate to the clientele and the program content on the right track. (AJ)

Lindsey, Daniel E.

1973-01-01

300

Nutrition Labels and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) imposed significant changes in the information about calories and nutrients that manufacturers of packaged foods must provide to consumers. This paper tests whether the release of this information impacted body weight and obesity among American adults. We estimate the effect of the new label using a difference-in-differences method. We compare the change before

Jayachandran N. Variyam; John Cawley

2006-01-01

301

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

302

Nutrition and cognitive function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work of the Medical Research Council Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, on the influence of early diet on the development of preterm infants is reviewed. Then further consideration is given to the implication of the findings. Malnutrition during a sensitive period may result in disease in adult life, and studies strongly suggest the development of the brain and retina can

Neil Gordon

1997-01-01

303

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

304

Nutrition on match day  

Microsoft Academic Search

What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

2006-01-01

305

Nutrition and pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

Andrew Prentice

2004-01-01

306

CHARACTERISTICS IN SWIMMER'S NUTRITION  

Microsoft Academic Search

In swimmers nutrition carbohydrate should participa te with at least 60% of daily energy intake or 8,8 -11 g per kilogram body mass. Swimmers should take carbohydrate with low, intermediate and high glycemic index, in dependence if they take the food before, during or after the exercise. It's the best if they take carbohydrate with high glycemic index during and

307

The Science of Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

2000-01-01

308

Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Lee, Carolyn

309

Nutrition. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is one of the courses from the Oklahoma Practical Nursing series of competency-based training programs designed to coordinate the job-related experience and knowledge needed by personnel working in a practical nursing position. The nutrition module includes several concepts that are integrated throughout the Practical Nursing…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

310

Nutrition for distance events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to

Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2007-01-01

311

Tuberculosis and nutrition  

PubMed Central

Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host's susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world.

Gupta, Krishna Bihari; Gupta, Rajesh; Atreja, Atulya; Verma, Manish; Vishvkarma, Suman

2009-01-01

312

Director of Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

sugary soft drinks, chips, and chocolate bars in school vending machines. Some school fund- raisers even enlisted students as a miniature sales force to hawk chocolate confections to pay for school trips, library books, and sports equipment. Health Canada should help establish na- tional model nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines, and fundraising activities. In the classroom, we don't

Stephen B. Schmidt; Jayne Hurley; David Schardt; Senior Nutritionists; Heather Jones; Tamara Goldis; Danielle Weinberg; Debra Brink; James Nocera; Damon Dorsey; Myriam Pierre; Louella Fennell; Cecilia Saad; Greg Hildebrandt; Chris Schmidt; Ken Waldmiller; Greta R. Bunin; Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr; Stephen Havas; David Jacobs; Norman M. Kaplan; JoAnn E. Manson; Susan Taylor Mayne; Julie Mares

2005-01-01

313

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

2008-01-01

314

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

315

Nutrition and Athletic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a

2009-01-01

316

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

317

Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

2011-01-01

318

Nutrition, sleep and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a

Shona L. Halson

2008-01-01

319

Nutrition for the sprinter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary roles for nutrition in sprints are for recovery from training and competition and influencing training adaptations. Sprint success is determined largely by the power-to-mass ratio, so sprinters aim to increase muscle mass and power. However, extra mass that does not increase power may be detrimental. Energy and protein intake are important for increasing muscle mass. If energy balance

Kevin D. Tipton; Asker E. Jeukendrup; Peter Hespel

2007-01-01

320

ISS Update: Space Nutrition  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Scott M. Smith, NASA Nutritionist, about nutrition experiments taking place aboard the International Space Station. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson and include the hashtag #askStation. For the latest news about the space station, visit http://www.nasa.gov/station.

Russell Todd D

2012-02-10

321

Nutrition in cancer patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many factors can modify nutritional status in cancer patients, including cachexia, nausea and vomiting, decreased caloric intake or oncologic treatments capable of determining malabsorption. Cachexia is a complex disease characterized not only by a poor intake of nutrients or starvation, but also by metabolic derangement. Nausea and vomiting may limit the nutrient intake and are most often the consequences of

Sebastiano Mercadante

1996-01-01

322

[Nutrition and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].  

PubMed

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a frequent complication of extreme prematurity. In preterm neonates catch-up and pulmonary alveolar growth occur during the first two years of life. However 10 to 25% of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are under-nourished after two years of age, and 30 to 60% of them also suffer from persistent airway obstruction, hyperinflation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Recommendations on nutritional requirements in this population are not yet clearly defined, but an adequate nutritional status in prenatal and early postnatal period can have long-term consequences on brain and lung development. There are a few randomised trial of nutrition for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after discharge. Caloric and protein requirements in this population are probably higher than in full-term infants. Moreover there are potential benefits in using specific nutrients: supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could decrease lung inflammation injuries, glutamine is the main source of energy of pneumocyte, vitamin A is essential for lung development, inositol is necessary for surfactant synthesis, vitamin E and selenium have anti-oxidant effects. Controlled nutritional trial are needed with a long term follow-up in late childhood in order to test their effects on growth and pulmonary status. PMID:15049287

Bott, L; Béghin, L; Pierrat, V; Thumerelle, C; Gottrand, F

2004-03-01

323

NUTRITION AND FEEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

324

Nutrition and sustainability: an emerging food policy discourse.  

PubMed

It is well known that food has a considerable environmental impact. Less attention has been given to mapping and analysing the emergence of policy responses. This paper contributes to that process. It summarises emerging policy development on nutrition and sustainability, and explores difficulties in their integration. The paper describes some policy thinking at national, European and international levels of governance. It points to the existence of particular policy hotspots such as meat and dairy, sustainable diets and waste. Understanding the environmental impact of food systems challenges nutrition science to draw upon traditions of thinking which have recently been fragmented. These perspectives (life sciences, social and environmental) are all required if policy engagement and clarification is to occur. Sustainability issues offer opportunities for nutrition science and scientists to play a more central role in the policy analysis of future food systems. The task of revising current nutrition policy advice to become sustainable diet advice needs to begin at national and international levels. PMID:23217475

Lang, Tim; Barling, David

2012-12-07

325

Effect of Peer Nutrition Education on Nutritional Status and Nutritional Knowledge of University Student-Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of peer nutrition education on nutritional status and nutrition knowledge and attitudes of university athletes. Participants were 32 female student-athletes and 4 DPD students (peer educators) at Clemson University. Each peer educator was assigned to 8 student-athletes with whom they were expected to meet 1 time per week for 7

M. E. Kunkel; Lynne B. Bell; B. D. Luccia

1999-01-01

326

Symposium: Women's Voices, Women's Choices: The Challenge of Nutrition and HIV\\/AIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

HIV-1 infection is having a devastating impact on people in developing countries. Poor nutrition and HIV-related adverse health outcomes contribute to a vicious cycle that may be slowed down by using nutritional interventions, including vitamins and minerals. Among children, periodic supplementation with vitamin A starting at 6 mo of age has been shown to be beneficial in reducing mortality and

Wafaie Fawzi; Gernard Msamanga; Donna Spiegelman; David J. Hunter

327

Interdialytic weight gain as a marker of blood pressure, nutrition, and survival in hemodialysis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interdialytic weight gain as a marker of blood pressure, nutrition, and survival in hemodialysis patients.BackgroundExcessive interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is usually related to an overload of sodium and water, and is the most important factor for arterial hypertension in dialysis. On the other hand, food intake also contributes to IDWG, and is the basic factor for nutrition. The objective of

Juan M. Lopez-Gomez; MAITE VILLAVERDE; ROSA JOFRE; PATROCINIO RODRIGUEZ-BENÍTEZ; RAFAEL PÉREZ-GARCÍA

2005-01-01

328

Do home gardens improve the nutrition of rural pre-schoolers in Lesotho?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the contribution of household gardens to the nutritional status of pre-schoolers in Lesotho was investigated. The anthropometric status of children under five years of age was measured in five randomly selected villages in five districts of Lesotho during November and December 1999. In each district, the nutritional status of an average of 538 children was assessed. Production

Likeleli Makhotla; Sheryl Hendriks

2004-01-01

329

ASAS Centennial Paper: Landmark discoveries in swine nutrition in the past century1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this centennial year of the American Society of Animal Science (ASAS), it is of interest to look back over the history of our Society and, in particular, to the many contributions made by researchers in the area of swine nutrition. A great num- ber of basic and applied research studies involving the nutrition of weanling, growing, and finishing pigs,

G. L. Cromwell

2010-01-01

330

Nutrition surveys or surveillance: one-night stands or a long-term commitment?  

Microsoft Academic Search

oor nutrition contributes to Australia's current health prob- lems in several ways. Heart disease and cancer, both strongly related to nutrition, remain the leading causes of death. At the same time, the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is alarmingly high, and deficiencies of vitamin D, iodine, and calcium are re- emerging. As a consequence, policymakers, food regulators and health professionals

Karen L Webb; Ingrid H Rutishauser; Geoffrey C Marks; Gregory Masters; Stephen R Leeder

331

Nutritional therapies for mental disorders.  

PubMed

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who have mental disorders are at a higher risk for committing suicide or being institutionalized. One way for psychiatrists to overcome this noncompliance is to educate themselves about alternative or complementary nutritional treatments. Although in the cases of certain nutrients, further research needs to be done to determine the best recommended doses of most nutritional supplements, psychiatrists can recommend doses of dietary supplements based on previous and current efficacious studies and then adjust the doses based on the results obtained. PMID:18208598

Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

2008-01-21

332

Nutritional therapies for mental disorders  

PubMed Central

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 out of the 10 leading causes of disability in the US and other developed countries are mental disorders. Major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are among the most common mental disorders that currently plague numerous countries and have varying incidence rates from 26 percent in America to 4 percent in China. Though some of this difference may be attributable to the manner in which individual healthcare providers diagnose mental disorders, this noticeable distribution can be also explained by studies which show that a lack of certain dietary nutrients contribute to the development of mental disorders. Notably, essential vitamins, minerals, and omega-3 fatty acids are often deficient in the general population in America and other developed countries; and are exceptionally deficient in patients suffering from mental disorders. Studies have shown that daily supplements of vital nutrients often effectively reduce patients' symptoms. Supplements that contain amino acids also reduce symptoms, because they are converted to neurotransmitters that alleviate depression and other mental disorders. Based on emerging scientific evidence, this form of nutritional supplement treatment may be appropriate for controlling major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), addiction, and autism. The aim of this manuscript is to emphasize which dietary supplements can aid the treatment of the four most common mental disorders currently affecting America and other developed countries: major depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Most antidepressants and other prescription drugs cause severe side effects, which usually discourage patients from taking their medications. Such noncompliant patients who have mental disorders are at a higher risk for committing suicide or being institutionalized. One way for psychiatrists to overcome this noncompliance is to educate themselves about alternative or complementary nutritional treatments. Although in the cases of certain nutrients, further research needs to be done to determine the best recommended doses of most nutritional supplements, psychiatrists can recommend doses of dietary supplements based on previous and current efficacious studies and then adjust the doses based on the results obtained.

Lakhan, Shaheen E; Vieira, Karen F

2008-01-01

333

Sports nutrition for young athletes.  

PubMed

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the nutrition knowledge of athletes and their sources of nutrition information. Topics covered include energy, carbohydrate, protein, fat and micronutrient needs, hydration requirements, timing of meals, and issues related to age, gender, and specific sports. Other issues addressed include "making weight" and ergogenic aids. Proper nutrition for young athletes is critical not only to their athletic success, but more importantly to their growth, development, and overall health. Nutritional recommendations should be based on the most current scientific data; we provide information about appropriate resources for the school nurse when advising student athletes and their coaches and parents. PMID:16419340

Cotunga, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E; McBee, Sheldon

2005-12-01

334

Models linking nutritional deficiencies to maternal and child mental health.  

PubMed

The primary goal of this article was to illustrate how nutritional deficiencies can translate into adult or child mental health problems. Whereas brain development and function play an essential role in the etiology and maintenance of mental health problems, what is required are models that go beyond nutrition-brain relations and integrate the contributions of nutritionally related contextual and behavioral characteristics. Four such models are presented. The multiple risks model derives from evidence showing covariance between nutritional deficiencies and other life stressors. Given that poorly nourished adults may be less able to actively cope with stressors, nutritional deficiencies may accentuate the negative impact of stress exposure on mental health. The cross-generational model is based on evidence showing less adequate patterns of mother-child interactions when mothers are poorly nourished. Impairments in mother-child interactions increase the likelihood of child mental health problems and the risk of subsequent child nutritional deficiencies. The attachment model derives from evidence showing that poorly nourished infants may be less likely to elicit the types of maternal child-rearing patterns that translate into secure infant-mother attachments. Insecure attachments in infancy are associated with an increased risk of both short-term and long-term child mental health problems. The temperament model is based on evidence documenting that certain patterns of infant temperament are related to an increased risk of later behavioral problems. Infant nutritional deficiencies can influence the development of temperament, and certain temperament patterns can contribute to an increased risk of infant nutritional deficiencies. PMID:19176736

Wachs, Theodore D

2009-01-28

335

Nutritional essentiality of vanadium  

SciTech Connect

Evidence to support the essentiality of vanadium is inconclusive. Thus, it cannot be unequivocally stated that vanadium is an essential nutrient. The basis for this statement can be appreciated more fully if the following definitions are accepted. In this section, a substance is considered nutritionally essential if a dietary deficiency consistently results in a suboptimal biological function that is preventable or reversible by physiological amounts of the element. In this definition, physiological is construed as those quantities usually found in biological material. For vanadium, the usual amounts are measured in nanograms per gram, or parts per billion. The other term that should be defined is pharmacologic action. Here it means the effect of a relatively high dietary intake of a substance that alleviates an abnormality caused by something other than a nutritional deficiency.

Nielsen, F.H.

1986-02-01

336

Nutrition and aging.  

PubMed

Nutritional concerns are common among older adults seen in the primary care office. The food pyramid for people over the age of 70 years is a useful starting point for discussions about what reasonably healthy older adults should be eating and drinking. If there is a decline in the ability to perform IADLs or if there is a decrease in appetite or the discovery of unintended weight loss, careful assessment followed by targeted interventions may improve health outcomes and the quality of life. Restrictive diets are often not well tolerated, especially by frail older adults. Dietary recommendations blending the elements of the pyramid and the essential components of accepted medical nutritional therapy that are most consistent with the patient's lifelong eating patterns are most likely to succeed. PMID:16140121

Noel, Mary; Reddy, Mohan

2005-09-01

337

[Sports and nutrition].  

PubMed

A varied, well-balanced, healthy diet, rich in carbohydrates, is one of the cornerstones of sports nutrition. In addition, an equilibrated supply in energy and nitrogen, the ideal distribution of the nutrients (6 to 9 g carbohydrates per kilogram body weight, 1 to 1.5 g fat per kilogram body weight, 1.2 to 1.8 g protein per kilogram body weight), a well-balanced fluid intake and the choice of food with a high density of nutrients constitute an important cornerstone. All the forementioned elements, which are contained in a basic nutrition, guarantee the needs of the micro- and macronutrients in combination with a cautious substitution of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The endurance capacity is supported by this high-quality basic diet which can be modified minimally during performance and for regeneration. PMID:7481288

Mannhart, C

1995-09-01

338

Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.  

PubMed

As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be used as tools to mitigate the negative effects of space travel on humans? How does nutrition interrelate with other physiological systems (such as muscle, bone, and cardiovascular system) and their adaptation to microgravity? Much research has been done over the decades in both actual spaceflight and ground-based analogs. We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. PMID:19004188

Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

2008-01-01

339

Study Questions Nutrition Labeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Utilize the data in the table below that you obtained on the nutrient content of your cereal product (actual amount per serving)\\u000a to help develop a nutrition label that meets FDA requirements under the NLEA. Use appropriate rounding rules to complete the\\u000a blank columns. Can you make a “low fat” claim? Explain you answer. Could you use the term “healthy”

S. Suzanne Nielsen

340

Nutrition, sirtuins and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beyond our inherited genetic make-up environmental factors are central for health and disease and finally determine our life\\u000a span. Amongst the environmental factors nutrition plays a prominent role in affecting a variety of degenerative processes\\u000a that are linked to aging. The exponential increase of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in industrialized nations as\\u000a a consequence of a long-lasting caloric supernutrition is an

Uwe Wenzel

2006-01-01

341

Nutrition for adventure racing.  

PubMed

Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

Ranchordas, Mayur K

2012-11-01

342

Colorectal cancer and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of death in the Western world. It is multifactorial in origin, combining genetic and\\u000a environmental causes. Certain lifestyle factors, including nutrition, have been associated with a higher cancer risk. A high\\u000a body mass index and a diet low in fruits, vegetables, fiber, and calcium and high in red and processed meat, with high alcohol

Irit Chermesh; Raanan Shamir

2006-01-01

343

[Taurine in pediatric nutrition].  

PubMed

Taurine was long considered as an end product of the metabolism od sulfur-containing amino-acids. A number of evidences accumulated in the last decade which suggest one major nutritional role of taurine and its conditional essentiality in man are presented. Some conditions associated with taurine deficiency in man and the need for dietary provision of taurine in infancy and in such conditions are discussed. PMID:1327218

B?dulescu, M

344

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

345

Nutrition for runners.  

PubMed

Good nutrition plays an important role in a runner's overall health and fitness. The recommended diet for runners includes a proper balance of protein, carbohydrates, and fats to ensure good energy and performance. Specific requirements for vitamins and minerals are essential for recovery and preventing injuries. Fluids and proper hydration are key components in preventing dehydration, fatigue, and poor performance for all runners. PMID:11417160

Felesky-Hunt, S

2001-04-01

346

Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and health: Evidence from low-income individuals in Tennessee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigate the factors that contribute to participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and the effects of such participation on self-assessed health (SAH). An endogenous switching ordered probability model is developed with alternative error distributional assumptions, ...

347

Developing a nutrition and health education program for primary schools in Zambia.  

PubMed

School-based health and nutrition interventions in developing countries aim at improving children's nutrition and learning ability. In addition to the food and health inputs, children need access to education that is relevant to their lives, of good quality, and effective in its approach. Based on evidence from the Zambia Nutrition Education in Basic Schools (NEBS) project, this article examines whether and to what extent school-based health and nutrition education can contribute directly to improving the health and nutrition behaviors of school children. Initial results suggest that gains in awareness, knowledge and behavior can be achieved among children and their families with an actively implemented classroom program backed by teacher training and parent involvement, even in the absence of school-based nutrition and health services. PMID:17996629

Sherman, Jane; Muehlhoff, Ellen

348

Nutrition education: towards a whole-school approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Schools are widely accepted as having the potential to make substantial contributions to promoting healthy eating habits in children and adolescents. This paper aims to present a case study from an Australian school of how a whole-school approach, planned and implemented through a health promoting school framework, can foster improved nutrition in schools by creating a supportive environment

Fiona Rowe; Donald Stewart; Shawn Somerset

2010-01-01

349

The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aging is associated with declined immunity, particularly T cell-mediated activity, which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease and cancer in the elderly. Studies have shown that nutritional intervention may be a promising approach to reversing impaired immune func...

350

The laboratory as a guide in nutritional problems in pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

From time immemorial the question as to why ini~mts are so t~equently aflkcted with nutritional disturbances has occupied the attention of practical and theoretic pediatrists as well as social hygienists 4. Directly or indirectly still it makes the major contribution to infant mortality. Many theoretical questions await answers and the significance of individual disease processess, specially the definition and classification

R. P. Misra

1959-01-01

351

The laboratory as a guide in nutritional problems in pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

From time immemorial the question as to why infants are so frequently affected with nutritional disturbances has occupied the attention of practical and theoretic pediatrists as well as social hygienists 4. Directly or indirectly still it makes the major contribution to infant mortality. Many theoretical questions await answers and the significance of individual disease processess, specially the definition and classification

R. P. Misra

1959-01-01

352

Developmental Perspectives on Nutrition and Obesity From Gestation to Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity results from a complex combination of fac- tors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmen- tal perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development.

Layla Esposito; Jennifer O. Fisher; Julie A. Mennella; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Terry T. Huang

353

DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

354

Enteral versus parenteral nutrition: a pragmatic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy persists as to the optimal means of providing adjuvant nutritional support. The aim of this study was to compare enteral nutrition (EN) and parenteral nutrition (TPN) in terms of adequacy of nutritional intake, septic and nonseptic morbidity, and mortality. This was a prospective pragmatic study, whereby the route of delivery of nutritional support was determined by the attending clinician’s

Nicholas P Woodcock; Dietmar Zeigler; M. Diane Palmer; Paul Buckley; Charles J Mitchell; John MacFie

2001-01-01

355

Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease. S.K. Pingleton. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1996. ABSTRACT: Nutritional assessment and management is an important therapeutic modality in patients with respiratory disease. Malnutrition adversely affects res- piratory function. Nutritional therapy for the spontaneously breathing patient should include an appropriate diet plus the consideration of nutritional supplements. Complete nutritional support should be undertaken with enteral

S. K. Pingleton

1996-01-01

356

The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs.

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Obeid, Omar

2011-01-01

357

Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

2009-12-01

358

Identification and functional studies of Akirin, a potential positive nuclear factor of NF-?B signaling pathways in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

As conserved nuclear factors, Akirins play critical roles in regulating antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) transcription downstream of NF-?B dependent signaling pathways in insects and mammals. However, no any functional studies was reported in penaeid shrimp. The identification and functional analysis of Akirin in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were made in this research. The 833 nucleotides cDNA of Litopenaeus vannamei Akirin (LvAkirin) was obtained with an open reading frame of 639bp, which encodes a putative protein of 212 amino acids. The molecular weight of LvAkirin is about 23.7kDa with theoretical pI of 9.05. Two predicted nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were found and amino acid sequence alignments showed that Akirins are highly conserved between insects and mammals. The constitutive expression of LvAkirin mRNA was confirmed in all the examined tissues and high level appeared in testis followed by hemocytes and gill. LvAkirin mRNA was strongly induced in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. Silencing LvAkirin by dsRNA significantly reduced the expression of NF-?B dependent anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, crustin and penaeidin3a as well as transcription factors, Dorsal and Relish post Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum) and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (M. lysodeikticus) challenge. Antibacterial activities of shrimp plasma was analyzed and high cumulative mortality was found in LvAkirin-silenced shrimps post bacteria challenge. Hence, we proposed LvAkirin might function as a positive nuclear factor of NF-?B dependent signaling pathways in shrimp innate immunity. PMID:23962743

Hou, Fujun; Wang, Xianzong; Qian, Zhaoying; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Yongjie; He, Shulin; Mi, Xiao; Bai, Cheng; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

2013-08-17

359

Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing

2007-01-01

360

Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families.

Chen, Angela

1985-01-01

361

Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave

362

Small Business Nutrition Labeling Exemption  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Small Business Nutrition Labeling Exemption. The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requires packaged foods and ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

363

Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)

Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.

1974-01-01

364

Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that

Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2005-01-01

365

Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition.  

PubMed

There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Dapoigny, M; Dubois, D; van Ganse, E; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Jones, P; Mittendorf, T; Poley, M J; Salminen, S; Nuijten, M J C

2010-08-27

366

Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)|

Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.

1974-01-01

367

Nutrition Camp--A Method for Human Nutrition Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A nutrition camp for preadolescent children makes it possible to study the nutritional needs of normal individuals. Aspects involved in this program are discussed: recruitment of subjects, personnel, training and coordination, menus, payment to subjects, medical, critical times, adjustment period, equipment and space needs, collection of excreta,…

Ritchey, S. J.; Korslund, Mary K.

1976-01-01

368

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book “Space Nutrition  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children’s book he co-authored called “Space Nutrition.” The book talks about the history of space flight, the various space programs and of course space food.

Mark Garcia

2012-12-14

369

Do Data Support Nutrition Support? Part II. Enteral Artificial Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial nutrition is widely advocated as adjunctive care in patients with a variety of underlying diseases. In recent years more emphasis has been placed on delivering it directly into the gastrointestinal tract through tubes in the stomach or proximal small intestine (enteral nutrition). Because the efficacy of any therapeutic intervention is best established by demonstrating it in one or more

Ronald L. Koretz

2007-01-01

370

Assessment of nutritional status on hospital admission: nutritional scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition is still a largely unrecognized problem in hospitals. Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is generally related to increasing morbidity and mortality, and costs and length of stay. The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status of patients on admission to a general hospital using different nutritional scores and to test the sensitivity and specificity of these scores.

A M Rocandio Pablo; M Arroyo Izaga; L Ansotegui Alday

2003-01-01

371

The changing nutrition scenario.  

PubMed

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C

2013-09-01

372

Fibre and enteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

The recent launch of a number of fibre enriched polymeric diet in the United States and Europe has stimulated considerable interest in the topic of fibre and enteral nutrition, and several commercial concerns appear to be under considerable pressures from their consumers to produce similar products. As a means of identifying areas of potential application of fibre to enteral nutrition some of the recent knowledge gained about the physical properties of dietary fibre and the processes involved in the intestinal assimilation of fibre has been reviewed. Two areas of interest are identifiable. The first relates to the bulking properties of fibre and the application of this to the regulation of bowel function in enterally fed patients. It is clear from the clinical studies that have been reviewed that there remains a paucity of controlled data, and a great deal more research is needed before widespread use of fibre supplemented diets can be supported. Perhaps of greater interest academically is the potentially beneficial effects that appear to be exerted by the VFA's, liberated as a consequence of colonic bacterial fermentation of fibre, on morphology and function of ileal and colonic mucosa. Although there are a number of potential applications of fibre supplemented enteral diets in this area, more research is required before any firm recommendations can be made about recommending their use. The one exception concerns patients with the nutritionally inadequate short bowel syndrome. There does seem to be sufficient experimental evidence to suggest that clinical studies should be commenced using a pectin supplemented predigested 'elemental' diet in these patients. Overall therefore, one is forced to conclude that the increasing interest and use of fibre supplemented enteral diets is being driven more by market than scientific forces. Nevertheless, the promotion of these diets has already provided a powerful stimulus to the scientific community, and it remains entirely possible that many of the potential applications of these diets will be realised in the near future.

Silk, D B

1989-01-01

373

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 17-21, 2008 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

374

Norms and Tables for Animal Nutrition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Nutrition norms and rations for domestic animals (Cattle feeding norms and rations, Nutrition norms and rations for swine, Nutrient requirements and rations for sheep, Nutrient requirements and rations for horses, Nutrition norms and rations for...

M. Fedorovic-Tome M. Obradovic D. Stosic

1970-01-01

375

7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities...

2013-01-01

376

7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities...

2009-01-01

377

7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150... Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities...

2010-01-01

378

Standardised parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become an integral part of clinical management of very low birth weight premature neonates. Traditionally different components of PN are prescribed individually considering requirements of an individual neonate (IPN). More recently, standardised PN formulations (SPN) for preterm neonates have been assessed and may have advantages including better provision of nutrients, less prescription and administration errors, decreased risk of infection, and cost savings. The recent introduction of triple-chamber bag that provides total nutrient admixture for neonates may have additional advantage of decreased risk of contamination and ease of administration. PMID:23538938

Simmer, Karen; Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Deshpande, Girish

2013-03-28

379

Nutrition 3: Got Broccoli?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.

Science Netlinks;

2001-10-20

380

Nutrition and cardiomyopathy: lessons from spontaneous animal models.  

PubMed

Spontaneously occurring dilated cardiomyopathy in dogs and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in cats are common diseases and are vastly underutilized as models of human cardiac disease. The goals of nutrition are no longer limited to a low-sodium diet, as research is now showing that nutrients can modulate disease and be an important adjunct to medical therapy. Deficiencies of certain nutrients can contribute to cardiomyopathies, as with taurine, but some nutrients-such as n-3 fatty acids, carnitine, and antioxidants-may have specific pharmacologic benefits. Dogs and cats with spontaneous cardiomyopathies are an exciting and promising model for studying nutritional modulation of cardiac disease. PMID:17521500

Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E

2007-06-01

381

HIV\\/AIDS and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet and nutrition are directly involved in patient care protocols that reflect a shift in the treatment of HIV\\/AIDS as a chronic disease, with an emphasis on quality of life and expanded life trajectory. Research concerning HIV\\/AIDS and nutrition is multidisciplinary, yielding study results that appear in a wide variety of scholarly journals. The purpose of this research was to

Jeffrey T. Huber; William K. Schoonover; Maisie Kashka

2000-01-01

382

Nutritional Lifestyles of College Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A lifestyle characterized by inactivity and poor nutrition is the leading cause of premature death in the U.S., second only to smoking. The purpose of this study is to explore the nutritional lifestyle of college women, and to determine if there are diffe...

M. M. Harmon

2001-01-01

383

Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

Evans, T. N.

1972-01-01

384

Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

1982-01-01

385

Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

1982-01-01

386

Nutrition Education Curriculum. Kindergarten Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

387

Nutritional issues in cancer management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

1996-01-01

388

The New Nutrition: Student's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

389

Artificial nutrition in anorexia nervosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In view of the paucity of studies and recognized difficulties in conducting randomized clinical trials in anorexia nervosa, evidence-based guidelines for enteral and parenteral nutrition in these patients are lacking, and current recommendations are based on the opinions of experts. After reviewing the available studies on this topic, we shall attempt to outline practice recommen- dations for artificial nutrition in

L. CAREGARO; M. NARDI

2007-01-01

390

Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and illustrate using data from insects an integrative approach to modelling animal nutrition. This framework enables the unification within simple geometrical models of several nutritionally relevant measures. These include: the optimal balance and amounts of nutrients required to be ingested and allocated to growth by an animal over a given time period (the intake and growth targets, respectively);

D. Raubenheimer; S. J. Simpson

1999-01-01

391

Children's Interpretation of Nutrition Messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to further our understanding of how children understand and use nutrition messages. As part of formative assessment for the development of nutrition messages for elementary age school children, focus groups and one-on-one interviews were conducted with 141 students, grades K to 6. Children were asked to interpret the messages found in the Dietary Guidelines

Leslie A. Lytle; Alison l. Eldridge; Krista Kotz; Janice Piper; Sarah Williams; Barbara Kalina

1997-01-01

392

Nutritional influences on pork quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the literature relating to the potential impact of swine nutrition on pork quality attributes. Supra-nutritional levels of vitamin E have been shown to increase muscle vitamin E content and reduce lipid oxida- tion; however, the impact on muscle color and water holding capacity has been variable. Selenium is also potential- ly involved in reducing lipid oxidation; there

Michael Ellis; Floyd McKeith; Andrzej Sosnicki

393

TV Commercials Can Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In California non-commercial "commercials" short spots of pantomime and bilingual messages fitted into and around television's entertainment programs, are used as a means of providing nutrition education to urban and rural low-income people. As revealed by audience requests for nutritional information offered, the commercials are popular and…

Brent, Catherine

1974-01-01

394

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TAEKWONDO ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ROSSI, L.; GOYA, R. E.; MATAYOSHI, M. A. V.; PEREIRA, C. C. C.; SILVA, J. B. Nutritional evaluation of taekwondo athletes. Brazilian Journal Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 2, p. 159-166, 2009. This work aimed to evaluate food intake by Brazilian high-rank taekwondo athletes in order to assess nutritional adequacy and draw comparisons with other sport modalities of fight. The study

Luciana Rossi; Rosecler Elen Goya; Magna Aparecida; Veridiano Matayoshi; Carla Cristine; Cardoso Pereira; Juliana Bernardo da Silva

395

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

396

The challenges for molecular nutrition research 2: quantification of the nutritional phenotype  

PubMed Central

In quantifying the beneficial effect of dietary interventions in healthy subjects, nutrition research meets a number of new challenges. Inter individual variation in biomarker values often is larger than the effect related to the intervention. Healthy subjects have a remarkable capacity to maintain homeostasis, both through direct metabolic regulation, metabolic compensation of altered diets, and effective defence and repair mechanisms in oxidative and inflammatory stress. Processes involved in these regulatory activities essentially different from processes involved in early onset of diet related diseases. So, new concepts and approaches are needed to better quantify the subtle effects possibly achieved by dietary interventions in healthy subjects. Apart from quantification of the genotype and food intake (these are discussed in separate reviews in this series), four major areas of innovation are discussed: the biomarker profile concept, perturbation of homeostasis combined with omics analysis, imaging, modelling and fluxes. All of these areas contribute to a better understanding and quantification of the nutritional phenotype.

Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Elliott, Ruan; Drevon, Christian A.; McArdle, Harry; Gibney, Mike; Muller, Michael

2008-01-01

397

Updates in pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

Ongoing research in several areas of pediatric nutrition has new practical applications for community-based pediatricians. For example, a fresh understanding of risk factors for rickets persuades pediatricians to recognize and treat this disease, which was thought to be nearly extinct in the modern industrialized world. Similarly, an expanded awareness of the antibacterial components of breast milk encourages a more complete dialogue between pediatricians and new mothers about the potential benefits of breast-feeding. For those infants with feeding intolerance, new data help to refine the indications for hypoallergenic formulas, which are increasingly recommended for children with a variety of symptoms. The past year also has seen breakthroughs in our understanding of supplemental nutrition for children. Vitamin A may provide direct benefits for the most vulnerable of children, namely premature infants at high risk for lung disease. At the other end of the pediatric spectrum, adolescent athletes seeking to enhance their performance are consuming poorly studied sports supplements that may not be beneficial and may even be toxic. Finally, a greater appreciation for the epidemic of obesity that is sweeping the United States and other countries suggests that children at high risk may represent a far more diverse population than had been recognized previously. PMID:11389365

Oken, E; Lightdale, J R

2001-06-01

398

Updates in pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

There have been many remarkable advances in pediatric nutrition. Solid scientific evidence now supports certain fundamental assumptions long held in the pediatric community. For example, obesity in children has for some time been believed to have adverse health effects; recent large scale studies now confirm relationships between childhood obesity and specific morbidities. Likewise, the beneficial effects of human breast milk on growth and development have been the focus of recent prospective studies of full term and preterm infants. There has been active research in the area of formula intolerance and allergy, allowing practicing physicians to better counsel parents about dietary choices. Although many health problems are caused by the abundance of high fat and high calorie foods in the average US child's diet, a large number of children remain at risk for hunger in the United States. Other research provides important breakthroughs in our understanding of the impact of pediatric nutrition on lifelong health. Retrospective epidemiological studies have uncovered relationships between prenatal factors and health later in life. These studies have lead to ongoing prospective observational trials that should provide further information about the extent to which certain health factors are determined before birth. In addition, basic science research has revealed previously unknown mechanisms by which essential minerals, such as iron, are transported into the body. In sum, this section reviews exciting new information in the areas of childhood diet quality, obesity, breast milk, formula intolerance, and iron metabolism. PMID:10836167

Oken, E; Lightdale, J R

2000-06-01

399

Nutrition inequities in Canada.  

PubMed

In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities. PMID:20383227

Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

2010-04-01

400

Fifty-five-year personal experience with human nutrition worldwide.  

PubMed

By 1950 the vitamins had been identified, but little was known of their functions. Beriberi, pellagra, and ariboflavinosis were disappearing, but kwashiorkor and/or marasmus were common in most developing countries. Requirements for protein were still uncertain, and those for essential amino acids or essential fatty acids were unknown. The author's contributions in the field of vitamins began in the 1950s and have been reported in more than 650 publications and in 20 books or monographs. These contributions include establishing the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the World Hunger Program of the United Nations University, and the International Nutrition Foundation. His scientific contributions include identification of synergistic interactions of nutrition and infection, use of potassium iodate for fortifying crude moist salt, research in the epidemiology of kwashiorkor and marasmus, development of a successful low-cost protein-rich food for infants and young children, establishment of human protein requirements, and investigation of single-cell protein for food use. PMID:17506667

Scrimshaw, Nevin S

2007-01-01

401

New nutrition science in practice.  

PubMed

A number of imperatives require a re-think of science in general and of nutrition science in particular. Nutrition science has never been a body of knowledge in its own right and many other sciences have been nutritional in their orientation. At its best "nutrition science" has been integrative as well as reductionist. It has worked across disciplines. The IUNS, (International Union of Nutritional Sciences) undertook to re-examine nutrition science from a policy point of view and to do so with knowledge-makers in general and with the International Science Council. There is now a Sciences for Health and Wellbeing (SHWB) initiative involving all branches of science. It is expected that innovative, integrative, sustainable, and cost-effective approaches to human well-being and health will emerge. Some of the pressing needs for such collaboration have been in the areas of sustainable food systems, potable water, more nutritious crops, food and human behaviour, to reduce the burden of nutritionally-related disease (NRD) and make health care affordable. An IUNS Task Force met in Giessen in 2005. It concluded that nutrition science should develop on 3 fronts, the biomedical, societal and environmental. This will encourage new and more effective initiatives for nutrition and its partners to address local, regional and global concerns about planetary and personal health and well-being. Some important and critical areas already require collective attention. Unlike our predecessors in nutrition science, we will be unable to fulfil the expectations of us unless we progress this wider and less anthropocentric form of our science. PMID:18296290

Wahlqvist, Mark L

2008-01-01

402

Socio-demographic and nutritional assessment of the elderly Yorubas in Nigeria.  

PubMed

Three hundred and five Nigerian elderly from the Yoruba tribe of both rural and urban areas in the south Western zone of Nigeria were studied. The objective was to assess their nutritional status and identify indicators of nutritional vulnerability. Using a structured household questionnaire, anthropometric measurement and checklist of nutritional vulnerability, nutritional status was assessed and classified into various levels of vulnerability. The demographic characteristics showed that half of the population studied were between 60-69 years, 53% male, 61% married and 58% had no formal education. Based on Body Mass Index (BMI), more than half of the respondents had an acceptable nutritional status with a BMI between 18- 25 (63%male; 58% female) whilst 15% of the males and 14% of the females were underweight with BMIs below 18 and 3% of the males had severe malnutrition (BMI below 15). According to the nutritional vulnerability checklist, only 10% of the males and 4% of the females were not nutritionally vulnerable. The majority were either moderately vulnerable or (50% male; 50% female) or highly vulnerable (39% male and 46% female). Stepwise regression analysis identified ten factors contributing to nutritional vulnerability in the elderly: environmental health; food intake, food security; family life; psychological situation; functional capacity; health status; economic situation; alcoholism; and bereavement, with the coefficient of multiple determination of 0.94 at P < 0.05 (R = 0.94 P<0.05). In conclusion, under nutrition was common among the Yoruba elders and women were more vulnerable than men. PMID:16500884

Olayiwola, Ibiyemi Olasunbo; Ketiku, Adegboyega Olubode

2006-01-01

403

Selenium in pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

Se is an essential nutrient that provides antioxidant protection in concert with vitamin E. Several selenoproteins have been identified, but only one, SeGSHpx, has a known function, that of neutralizing toxic hydroperoxides. Plasma Se concentration, being responsive to changes in Se intake, is the most practical and widely used measure of nutritional Se status. The plasma Se concentrations of the majority of healthy infants and children fall within the range of 50 to 150 micrograms/L. Although SeGSHpx activity measures the metabolically functional form of Se, the lack of a standardized analytical method has limited its usefulness as an index of nutritional Se status. Se deficiency was first observed in animals, but it is now recognized to occur in humans. Two human diseases associated with severe nutritional Se deficiency have been reported from China: a juvenile cardiomyopathy named Keshan disease and a chondrodystrophy named Kaschin-Beck disease. Long-term TPN, which provides negligible amounts of intrinsic Se, has been demonstrated in some cases to result in biochemical and clinical impairment. Although there are no consistent signs and symptoms characteristic of TPN-associated Se deficiency in addition to the low blood selenium levels, some patients will experience leg muscle pain and altered serum transaminase and creatine kinase activities. These manifestation of Se deficiency usually take years to develop. Recent information about the amount of dietary Se needed to maximize plasma SeGSHpx activity in adult men has allowed for better estimates of the Se requirement for humans. Recommended daily dietary allowances published recently by the National Academy of Sciences have been revised for infants and children in this paper by making appropriate adjustments for the protein requirements of these age-groups. These recommended intakes for Se can generally be met by consuming adequate amounts of cereals, meat, eggs, dairy products, human milk, and infant formula, which are good sources of highly available Se and are of low risk of providing excess amounts of Se. Suboptimal Se intakes by pregnant women may predispose their infants to low Se status at birth, which in turn may affect the infants ability to maintain adequate Se status during the first few months of life. In those situations where protein intake is restricted, such as in phenylketonuria and maple syrup urine disease, Se-supplemented formulas should be used. The most critical situation for Se supplementation is in pediatric patients receiving long-term TPN therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2000274

Litov, R E; Combs, G F

1991-03-01

404

The role of the media in influencing children's nutritional perceptions.  

PubMed

Recently the mass media environment of children, in particular food advertising, has come under scrutiny as a contributing factor in the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. Focus groups were used to explore how children's appraisals of various forms of media inform their health-related perceptions about eating and nutrition. Ninety participants aged 10 to 12 years were recruited from schools throughout Auckland, New Zealand. Schools were randomly selected from among those rated with low, medium, and high socioeconomic status. Results show that the media is a key factor shaping how young people conceptualize healthy eating and healthy bodies. Mass media food messages were not seen as a credible source of health information; rather, they assist in constructing and reinforcing dominant misconceptions about food, healthy eating, and nutrition. Nutritional messages embedded in both health promotion and advertising were perceived to be conflicting and ambiguous, and might serve to undermine the trustworthiness of health promotion initiatives. PMID:19380500

Dorey, Enid; McCool, Judith

2009-05-01

405

Metabolic changes after polytrauma: an imperative for early nutritional support  

PubMed Central

Major trauma induces marked metabolic changes which contribute to the systemic immune suppression in severely injured patients and increase the risk of infection and posttraumatic organ failure. The hypercatabolic state of polytrauma patients must be recognized early and treated by an appropriate nutritional management in order to avoid late complications. Clinical studies in recent years have supported the concept of "immunonutrition" for severely injured patients, which takes into account the supplementation of ?-3 fatty acids and essential aminoacids, such as glutamine. Yet many aspects of the nutritional strategies for polytrauma patients remain controversial, including the exact timing, caloric and protein amount of nutrition, choice of enteral versus parenteral route, and duration. The present review will provide an outline of the pathophysiological metabolic changes after major trauma that endorse the current basis for early immunonutrition of polytrauma patients.

Hasenboehler, Erik; Williams, Allison; Leinhase, Iris; Morgan, Steven J; Smith, Wade R; Moore, Ernest E; Stahel, Philip F

2006-01-01

406

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

407

[Nutritional value of beef].  

PubMed

Beef has specific nutritional qualities relative to other meats. In humans, a balanced diet, based on a ten-day period, requires intake of several nutrient classes, including iron (in the form of heme, for its high bioavailability), zinc and selenium, vitamin B12, B vitamins (especially B2 (PP) and B6), and biologically useful proteins. The lipid profile of beef depends largely on the cut. It is also influenced by the fatty acid profile of the animalfeed, andby the race andage of the animal. Adequate meat intake is recommended for all individuals, and especially those most at risk of malnutrition, such as adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, the elderly, and those individuals with a high level sports activity. PMID:22844741

Bourre, Jean-Marie

2011-11-01

408

Nutrition and the Athlete  

PubMed Central

The importance of good nutrition cannot be over emphasized for both the athlete and the non-athlete. The difference is essentially in the number of calories. Both need a well balanced diet, normally taken as three meals a day. Modifications on the day of participation require planning as well as understanding. Many myths have developed from a false impression that some advantage will be gained over an opponent or that performance will be enhanced. Scientific evidence does not support these claims. The physician should be aware of the recommendations contained in the Canadian Food Guide for the basic diet. He should also be prepared to discuss variations in dietary habits which have entered the sports scene.

Bullard, J. A.

1978-01-01

409

Nutrition and HIV infection.  

PubMed

Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is characterized by progressive destruction of the immune system, which leads to recurrent opportunistic infections and malignancies, progressive debilitation and death. Malnutrition is one major complication of HIV infection and is recognized as a significant prognostic factor in advanced disease. Malnutrition is multifactorial and poorly treated during the course of HIV. Even if a standardized approach to the management of active weight loss has not been well established, early nutritional intervention is important in HIV infected patients to maximize gain of lean body mass. From early in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), an initial decreased incidence of malnutrition was noted only in western countries while a variety of changes in the distribution of body fat and associated metabolic abnormalities have been recognized under the banner of lipodystrophy. PMID:11895147

Salomon, J; De, Truchis P; Melchior, J C

2002-01-01

410

Contribution of Pollinator-Mediated Crops to Nutrients in the Human Food Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of nutrients from animal pollinated world crops has not previously been evaluated as a biophysical measure for the value of pollination services. This study evaluates the nutritional composition of animal-pollinated world crops. We calculated pollinator dependent and independent proportions of different nutrients of world crops, employing FAO data for crop production, USDA data for nutritional composition, and pollinator

Elisabeth J. Eilers; Claire Kremen; Sarah Smith Greenleaf; Andrea K. Garber; Alexandra-Maria Klein; Guy Smagghe

2011-01-01

411

Uncultivated Foods in Southern Veracruz, Mexico: Establishing the Links between Ecosystem Health, Food Availability, and Human Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uncultivated foods have received little attention in the scientific literature and nutrition programs of Mexico because they are usually seen as complementary to agricultural activities, i.e., corn planting and harvesting. Using an ecosystem approach to human health, this article examines the availability, nutritional contribution, and consumption patterns by gender and age of such foods in Ixhuapan and Ocozotepec, two native

Verónica Vázquez-García; María de Lourdes de Godínez-Guevara; Ana Silvia Ortiz-Gómez; Margarita Montes-Estrada

2004-01-01

412

Factors Influencing Adoption and Implementation of Cooking with Kids, an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition

Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.

2011-01-01

413

Transculturalization of a diabetes-specific nutrition algorithm: Asian application.  

PubMed

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Asia is growing at an alarming rate, posing significant clinical and economic risk to health care stakeholders. Commonly, Asian patients with T2D manifest a distinctive combination of characteristics that include earlier disease onset, distinct pathophysiology, syndrome of complications, and shorter life expectancy. Optimizing treatment outcomes for such patients requires a coordinated inclusive care plan and knowledgeable practitioners. Comprehensive management starts with medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in a broader lifestyle modification program. Implementing diabetes-specific MNT in Asia requires high-quality and transparent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that are regionally adapted for cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors. Respected CPGs for nutrition and diabetes therapy are available from prestigious medical societies. For cost efficiency and effectiveness, health care authorities can select these CPGs for Asian implementation following abridgement and cultural adaptation that includes: defining nutrition therapy in meaningful ways, selecting lower cutoff values for healthy body mass indices and waist circumferences (WCs), identifying the dietary composition of MNT based on regional availability and preference, and expanding nutrition therapy for concomitant hypertension, dyslipidemia, overweight/obesity, and chronic kidney disease. An international task force of respected health care professionals has contributed to this process. To date, task force members have selected appropriate evidence-based CPGs and simplified them into an algorithm for diabetes-specific nutrition therapy. Following cultural adaptation, Asian and Asian-Indian versions of this algorithmic tool have emerged. The Asian version is presented in this report. PMID:22311609

Su, Hsiu-Yueh; Tsang, Man-Wo; Huang, Shih-Yi; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Marchetti, Albert

2012-04-01

414

[Nutritional health messages transmitted through television advertising. Trends and errors].  

PubMed

The present study analyzes de publicity messages with a alimentary-nutritional content (n = 448), aired by 2 television channels (one public and one private), during 6 hours a day in the first week of October 1993, examining the most frequent tendencies and errors, and whether or not they are adhering to the nutritional standards intended to improve the health of the population. With this aim, a questionnaire was designed, which was submitted to a control prior to doing the study, and which permitted the same study during the years 1991, 1992, and 1993. The message which was most used to promote the sales of the products, was the taste, followed by quality, novelty, health, nutritional and natural. The messages indicating that the product reduces or minimizes fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, alcohol, ... are few or lower than those observed in other populations. In some cases the messages may be useful in re-enforcing the standards of the nutritional educators and health care professionals who try to improve the diet and the health of the public. However, in the majority of cases, the message of the advertisements may mislead or confuse the consumer with irrelevant or incomplete information. They also frequently contribute to the promotion of an extremely thin body image, which guides the food choice of a large percentage of the population. The results of the study may help in the planning of nutritional education of the population, and they emphasize the need for a greater supervision and control of the advertisements. PMID:8599617

Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Jiménez, L M; Ortega, A

415

Maternal Nutrition Knowledge and Children's Diet Quality and Nutrition Intakes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We found significant evidence that greater maternal knowledge of health and nutrition leads to better diet quality for preschoolers but not necessarily for school-age children after accounting for the influence of maternal background characteristics, heal...

B. H. Lin J. N. Variyam J. R. Blaylock

1999-01-01

416

Place of nutrition in yoga.  

PubMed

Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

Desai, B P

1990-01-01

417

Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

418

Nutritional factors, cognitive decline, and dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional factors and nutritional deficiencies have been repeatedly associated with cognitive impairment. Most of the evidence is based on cross-sectional studies, which cannot prove whether a nutritional deficit is the cause or the consequence of an impaired cognitive status. In fact, cognitive impairment, in turn, can determine changes in dietary habits and consequent nutritional deficiencies. We reviewed clinical and epidemiological

Angelo Del Parigi; Francesco Panza; Cristiano Capurso; Vincenzo Solfrizzi

2006-01-01

419

NUTRITION MARKETING AND THE WORLDWIDE OBESITY EPIDEMIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition used to market food products on a wide scale is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early 1990s very few products used nutrition marketing (health claims or nutrition information on labels beyond minimum requirements) to market their products. Over a 15-year period, the use of nutrition ma...

420

Nutrition Knowledge Test for Older Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purposes were to assess the effectiveness of an instrument designed to measure nutrition knowledge of older adults, and to use this instrument to compare nutrition krowledge of older adults according to age, sex, education, occupation and sources of nutrition information. A 24-item nutrition knowledge test was adapted for use with older adults, and was administered to 104 subjects (60 years

Rose Mwonya; Penny A Ralston; Irene Beavers

1987-01-01

421

Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

422

Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a

Jayachandran N. Variyam

2008-01-01

423

French consumers' use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To survey consumers living in Paris, France, to determine the extent to which they use nutrition labels, and to determine the percentage of French consumers who use nutrition labels, how often they use nutrition labels, and how they would like to see current nutrition labels improved. The researchers also wanted to determine the reasons why consumers do not

Ashley Mannell; Patricia Brevard; Jr Rodolfo Nayga; Pierre Combris; Robert Lee; Janet Gloeckner

2006-01-01

424

Clinical nutrition practice in Italian Gastroenterology Units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Nutritional status affects the course, ensuing complications and prognosis of virtually all diseases.Aims. To define the role of nutrition in Gastroenterology Units by means of two investigations that analyse: a) availability of devices for assessing nutritional status; b) nutritional treatment in clinical practice: incidence and frequency of indications for its use, together with type of treatment adopted.Patients and Methods.

F. W. Guglielmi; C. Panella; A. Losco; G. Budillon; D. Conte; C. Del Vecchio Blanco; G. Gasbarrini; C. Loguercio; M. Merli; G. Mingrone; G. Nardone; O. Riggio; A. Francavilla

2000-01-01

425

Use of Nutrition Screening to Develop and Target Nutrition Education Interventions for Nevada's Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Screening Initiative tools and approaches were utilized to enhance the nutritional health of Nevada's elderly through nutrition screening, education and counseling. Participants (n = 2037) were recruited primarily from senior nutrition programs, including congregate meal sites and home health care programs. Each was screened using the “DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist.” The intensity of the intervention was then

Jamie A. Benedict; David Wilson; Gwenn Snow; Peggy Nipp; Valentina Remig; Mary Spoon; Carolyn Leontos; Marsha Read

2000-01-01

426

Nutrition and Health with an Evaluation on Nutritional Surveillance in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on America's self-knowledge about its nutritional health, this report deals with the availability of nutrition evaluation and counseling to individuals and the adequacy of the national nutrition monitoring system. Bureaucratic and political problems of applying nutritional health considerations to food policy are also examined. Nutrition

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

427

Meta-Analysis of Enteral Nutrition versus Total Parenteral Nutrition in Patients with Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the safety of enteral nutrition and total parenteral nutrition in nutrition support of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Methods: Data sources: Medline, Embase, and manual search. Study selection: 295 articles were screened for randomized controlled studies (RCTs) that compared enteral nutrition with total parenteral nutrition in patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Finally, six RCTs were identified and

Yunfei Cao; Yinglong Xu; Tingna Lu; Feng Gao; Zengnan Mo

2008-01-01

428

Enteral nutrition: better navigation, yet unknown destination?  

PubMed Central

The nutrition dose truly absorbed by a patient is crucial information in the management or the investigation of nutrition during critical illness. In the present issue of Critical Care, assessment of nutritional losses in stools was studied. These losses together with enteral nutrition lost in gastric fluids and enteral nutrition prescribed but never infused make up the difference between the dose supposedly given to a patient and the amount effectively taken up. Additionally, the optimal dosing and timing of nutrition during critical illness are still debated. When enteral nutrition is insufficient, the options are limited.

2011-01-01

429

The evolution of nutrition research.  

PubMed

"The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human frame with drugs, but will rather cure and prevent disease with nutrition". Thomas Edison's contemplation may come to fruition if the nutritional revolution continues in its current course. Two realizations have propelled the world into a new age of personalized nutrition: (i) food can provide benefits beyond its intrinsic nutrient content, and (ii) we are not all created equal in our ability to realize to these benefits. Nutrigenomics is concerned with delineating genomic propensities to respond to various nutritional stimuli and the resulting impact on individual health. This review will examine the current technologies utilized by nutrigeneticists, the available literature regarding nutrient-gene interactions, and the translation of this new awareness into public health. PMID:23627837

Isaak, Cara K; Siow, Yaw L

2013-01-18

430

Changing Attitudes in Community Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of a semantic differential instrument which evaluates attitude changes. Results are given from the testing of a twenty-five bipolar adjective scale intended to identify descriptors of nutrition education. (Author/SA)

Carruth, Betty Ruth; Musgrave, Katherine O.

1979-01-01

431

Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

Reber, Robert J.

1991-01-01

432

Nutrition: What Your Body Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-12-23

433

Nutritional management of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission.

Yann, Lee H.; Lal, Simon

2013-01-01

434

Nutrition communication in the Pacific.  

PubMed

This paper summarises the findings of a scoping study to analyse and guide nutrition communication in some countries in the Pacific region. Nutrition is fundamental to achieving good health and preventing the rising prevalence of non-communicable disease. Dietary patterns are influenced by many factors and complex interactions, such as income, food prices, individual preference and beliefs, cultural traditions, as well as geographical, environmental and social factors. These interactions, the quantitative and qualitative changes in the diet, and the accompanying lifestyle changes seen in recent years, make a collaborative approach to behaviour change essential. This study suggests that by supporting nutritionists to promote nutrition, improve public awareness and by addressing key areas influencing nutrition communication, gains towards improving public health can be made at a regional level. PMID:19588610

White, Leticia; Saweri, Wila

2007-09-01

435

Undergraduate Training in Nutritional Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses need to establish minimum standards of training for nutrition educators,'' and standardized curricula at the undergraduate level. Gives attention to definitions, adequate training, and suggested guidelines as a starting point for further discussion. (LK)|

Briggs, George M.

1972-01-01

436

Child Nutrition in Developing Countries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In recent years international recognition has accumulated to emphasize the magnitude of the problem of childhood nutrition. This handbook will help nontechnical workers recognize the significance of the problem of malnutrition in young children and help g...

D. B. Jelliffe

1968-01-01

437

Nutrition Policy and the Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brief, historical review serves to demonstrate that federal food, nutrition, and agricultural support activities were developed by specific agencies in response to particular needs or problems at different times for highly diverse political constitue...

M. Nestle P. R. Lee J. Fullarton

1983-01-01

438

Nutrition and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

1999-08-01

439

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

440

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

441

Nutritional issues in treating phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet is the mainstay of phenylketonuria (PKU) treatment, and, in recent years, the nutritional\\u000a management of PKU has become more complex in order to optimize patients’ growth, development and diet compliance. Dietary\\u000a restriction of Phe creates a diet similar to a vegan diet, and many of the nutritional concerns and questions applicable to\\u000a vegans who wish to

François Feillet; Carlo Agostoni

2010-01-01

442

Media Representation Of Nutrition Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will be able to apply a three-point strategy for interpreting nutrition reports in the newspaper.The researchers studied discrepancies between newspaper reports of nutrition-related scientific research and the actual research. The purpose was to answer the following:• Do newspaper headlines accurately represent scientific research?• What areas of the research are likely to be misrepresented?• Does the journalist state

E. M. Hackman

1996-01-01

443

Molecular mechanisms of pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

Over the last years, major scientific advances allowed to decrypt the human genome with over 22,000 protein-coding genes. We do know some of these genes, but yet only few of their functions and even less of their control and regulation as well as the complex interplay between different genes and their products. Genotyping allows to analyze particular genes, but it cannot predict phenotypes. What can we expect from the recent scientific advances with regard to the needs of the developing child or adult and the intention to prevent disease and/or to improve life quality? We address two particular points in this review: the (direct/indirect) interaction of nutrition with genes of the host and the impact of genetic variations (polymorphisms) on requirements, tolerance or metabolism of nutrition. Over the last 5 years, major research efforts were made to address the potential interaction of nutrition and genes, now named nutrigenomics (interaction of nutrition and genes) and nutrigenetics (impact of gene variants on nutrition and/or their metabolism). We give in this review examples of molecular approaches in the understanding of this bidirectional interaction between nutrition and genes, focusing also on epigenetic imprinting. PMID:20664216

Ruemmele, Frank

2010-07-21

444

Selenoproteins and maternal nutrition.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element of fundamental importance to health due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive properties attributed to its presence within at least 25 selenoproteins (Sel). Sel include but not limited to glutathione peroxidases (GPx1-GPx6), thioredoxin reductases (TrxR1-TrxR3), iodothyronine deiodinases (ID1-ID3), selenophosphate synthetase 2 (SPS2), 15-kDa Sel (Sel15), SelH, SelI, SelK, SelM, SelN, SelO, SelP, SelR, SelS, SelT, SelV, SelW, as well as the 15-kDa Sel (Fep15), SelJ and SelU found in fish. In this review, we describe some of the recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms of Sel synthesis. The impact of maternal Se intake on offspring is also discussed. The key regulatory point of Sel synthesis is Se itself, which acts predominantly at post-transcriptional levels, although recent findings indicate transcriptional and redox regulation. Maternal nutrition affects the performance and health of the progeny. Both maternal and offspring Se supplementations are essential for the antioxidant protection of the offspring. Prenatal Se supplementation provides an effective antioxidant system that is already in place at the time of birth while, postnatal Se supplementation becomes the main determinant of progeny Se status after the first few days of progeny life. PMID:18790070

Pappas, A C; Zoidis, E; Surai, P F; Zervas, G

2008-08-27

445

Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition.  

PubMed

Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as an important modifiable protective factor for bone health. Several nutrients, including magnesium, potassium, vitamin C, vitamin K, several B vitamins, and carotenoids, have been shown to be more important than previously realized. Rather than having a negative effect on bone, protein intake appears to benefit bone status, particularly in older adults. Regular intake of cola beverages shows negative effects and moderate alcohol intake shows positive effects on bone, particularly in older women. Current research on diet and bone status supports encouragement of balanced diets with plenty of fruit and vegetables, adequate dairy and other protein foods, and limitation of foods with low nutrient density. PMID:19968914

Tucker, Katherine L

2009-12-01

446

Nutrition and immunological responsiveness  

PubMed Central

The progeny of mothers subjected to marginal lipotrope or moderately low protein diets exhibit deficient humoral immune responses. Serum antibody titres and numbers of antibody-forming cells to sheep erythrocytes (SRBC) are lower in the offspring of mothers whose diets were limited in either percentage protein or percentage lipotropes than in offspring whose mothers were fed a complete diet. Immune lymphocyte stimulation by SRBC antigens was marginal and not measurably different between the progeny of malnourished mothers and controls. The in vitro response of spleen cells from offspring of nutritionally deprived mothers to the T-cell mitogen phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) is considerably less than that of controls. Thymus cells from marginal lipotrope offspring respond well to PHA, suggesting that PHA-reactive cell migration may be inhibited in these animals. These results, obtained using a T-dependent antigen (SRBC) and a T-dependent mitogen (PHA), support the conclusion that maternal dietary deficiency can adversely affect T-cell function in rat offspring.

Gebhardt, B. M.; Newberne, P. M.

1974-01-01

447

Comparison of four nutritional screening tools to detect nutritional risk in hospitalized patients: a multicentre study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:The prevalence of malnutrition in hospitals is high. No nutritional screening tool is considered the gold standard for identifying nutritional risk. The aims of this study were to evaluate nutritional risk in hospitalized patients using four nutritional screening tools.Subjects\\/Methods:Four nutritional screening tools were evaluated: nutritional risk screening (NRS-2002), the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST), the subjective global assessment (SGA) and

C Velasco; E García; V Rodríguez; L Frias; R Garriga; J Álvarez; P García-Peris; M León

2011-01-01

448

Consumer understanding and nutritional communication: key issues in the context of the new EU legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Nutrition communication by means of nutrition and health claims and otherwise, holds the potential to contribute to public\\u000a health by stimulating informed healthier food choices and enhanced health-focussed competition in the market place, provided\\u000a that the health messages are trustworthy (i.e. scientifically substantiated) and correctly used and interpreted by the consumer.\\u000a Not surprisingly, these two considerations constitute the cornerstone of

Hans C. M. van Trijp

2009-01-01

449

National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.  

PubMed

Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758

Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

2013-07-25

450

Nutrition education training of health workers and other field staff to support chronically deprived communities.  

PubMed

This paper focuses on the provision of adequate training in nutrition education to health and other community development workers for their improved performance and achievement. The difficulties encountered and special care needed when dealing with low-income, chronically deprived communities are raised. A brief analysis of past and present trends in nutrition education is presented to show the progress made from restricted, authoritative and not very successful proposals to more comprehensive and participatory approaches. The need to train and update regional and field-level personnel on the new approaches, theories and models offered by nutrition education is highlighted, but the scant availability of resources for training activities may be a great limitation for this undertaking. The contribution of educational, social, psychological and communication sciences, as well as marketing, in improving and broadening the performance of health and nutrition education is recognised. Some successful nutrition education projects, implemented in different regions, using various approaches, have managed to improve the nutrition situation of low-income groups and could be used as good examples to be followed. Recommendations for implementing nutrition education projects or activities need to consider some prerequisites, such as good knowledge and analysis of the nutrition situation, careful selection of the strategies and methods, careful planning and implementation, and clear definition of the procedures and instruments for follow-up and evaluation. PMID:11918493

Calderon, T A

2001-12-01

451

[Current problems in determining children's nutritional needs].  

PubMed

Meeting children's nutritional needs is of fundamental importance for their immediate and later health, well-being, and performance. Age-adapted reference values of nutrient intake form the basis for analysis of the current situation and for policy planning, but for many nutrients they cannot be precisely defined due to inadequate scientific data. Therefore, such values are often extrapolated from adult reference values based on age-adapted mean body weight or body surface data, although such extrapolation does not reflect age-related physiological changes. There are considerable differences between various expert recommendations, in part also due to differences in definitions and underlying concepts for deriving reference values. Improvements and international harmonization are urgently needed. Nutritional needs of many children and adolescents are not adequately met at present. A particularly obvious indication is the epidemic-like increase of pediatric overweight and obesity, which could result in markedly increased prevalences of later metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. Contributing to increasing childhood obesity are low physical activity, changing eating culture and behavior, frequent consumption of high-fat foods with high energy density, and increasing portion sizes. Changes are urgently needed and might be achievable with close collaboration between scientists, public institutions, and industry. PMID:15205790

Koletzko, B; Toschke, A M; Von Kries, R

2004-03-01

452

Dietary administration of zingerone to enhance growth, non-specific immune response, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles.  

PubMed

Zingerone, one of the active components of ginger, is a phenolic alkanone with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The effects of zingerone supplementation on the growth, immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles were studied. Four experimental diets, including a control diet (without zingerone enrichment) and 1, 2.5, and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) were used. After 56 days of culture, shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1, 2.5, and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) had significantly greater weight gain and feed efficiency than the controls. Furthermore, after 56 days of culture, shrimp fed all doses of the zingerone diet had higher survival rates compared to the controls after 24-72 h of challenge by the pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. Significantly increased phenoloxidase levels were found in shrimp fed the zingerone diets at all doses, and respiratory bursts, lysozyme and phagocytic activities of shrimp fed 2.5 and 5 mg zingerone (kg diet)(-1) also significantly increased. Neither the total hemocyte count nor superoxide dismutase activity of the experimental and control groups revealed significant differences at any dose. The results indicate that zingerone can be recommended as a supplement to shrimp feed to increase growth, immunity, and disease resistance against the pathogen, V. alginolyticus. Use of zingerone as appetizer and immunostimulant in shrimp is promising. PMID:22173270

Chang, Yueh-Ping; Liu, Chun-Hung; Wu, Chih-Chung; Chiang, Chi-Ming; Lian, Juang-Lin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

2011-12-06

453

N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading microbial enrichment cultures isolated from Penaeus vannamei shrimp gut and their probiotic properties in Brachionus plicatilis cultures.  

PubMed

Three bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) were isolated from the digestive tract of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, by growing the shrimp microbial communities in a mixture of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules. The ECs, characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and subsequent rRNA sequencing, degraded AHL molecules in the degradation assays. Apparently, the resting cells of the ECs also degraded one of the three types of quorum-sensing signal molecules produced by Vibrio harveyi in vitro [i.e. harveyi autoinducer 1 (HAI-1)]. The most efficient AHL-degrading ECs, EC5, was tested in Brachionus experiments. EC5 degraded the V. harveyi HAI-1 autoinducer in vivo, neutralizing the negative effect of V. harveyi autoinducer 2 (AI-2) mutant, in which only the HAI-1- and CAI-1-mediated components of the quorum-sensing system are functional on the growth of Brachionus. This suggests that EC5 interferes with HAI-1-regulated metabolism in V. harveyi. These AHL-degrading ECs need to be tested in other aquatic systems for their probiotic properties, preferably in combination with specific AI-2-degrading bacteria. PMID:17784866

Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Asanka Gunasekara, R A Y S; Boon, Nico; Dierckens, Kristof; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2007-09-05

454

Pediatric nutrition assessment: identifying children at risk.  

PubMed

Nutrition services are important in the prevention of disabilities as well as in the treatment and/or habilitation of children with chronic illness. Level 1 nutrition care requires some basic knowledge of nutrition to screen for nutritional risk factors, knowledge of and access to referral systems for children identified to be at risk, and ability to use general nutrition education materials. Level 2 involves individualized nutrition assessment and intervention for problems such as anemia, chronic constipation, low- or high-calorie diets, feeding problems, and growth monitoring. Level 3 nutrition services are for children with identified disabilities such as cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and metabolic disorders that require specific complex nutrition interventions. The five major components of assessment of nutritional status in children are: anthropometric, clinical, biochemical, dietary, and feeding skill development. PMID:9336567

Baer, M T; Harris, A B

1997-10-01

455

Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Americans are increasingly eating out, but nutrition environments in restaurants are poorly understood. An observational measure was developed to assess factors believed to contribute to food choices in restaurants, including availability of more healthy foods, facilitators and barriers to healthful eating, pricing, and signage\\/promotion of healthy and unhealthy foods. Methods: Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed in 217 sit-down

Brian E. Saelens; Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

456

Determinants of Choice Regarding Food with Nutrition and Health Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health is an increasingly important topic in the food market. The regulation (EC) No 1924\\/2006 on nutrition and health claims is meant to facilitate healthy food choices of consumers. However, research studies about claim perception and choice behaviour are scarce in Europe up to this point, especially those focusing on revealed preferences or a close-to-realistic study design. This contribution reports

J. Aschemann; Ulrich Hamm

2008-01-01

457

“Eat Healthy. Your Kids are Watching.” Pilot Nutrition Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that too many Americans fail to recognize the diet\\/health link, while those who do recognize it often lack the information they need to change. A nutrition campaign was developed and used a two-step approach to change negative consumption patterns and the social and cultural influences that contribute to them. First, the program used an innovative, focus-group tested message

P. Kerr; P. Hammerschmidt; L. Himebaugh

1999-01-01

458

[Nutrition and osteoporosis: a nutritional analysis of women in postmenopause].  

PubMed

In a cross-sectional study the effects of several nutritional factors on the manifestations of osteoporosis were investigated in 23 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 70 years. Twelve women (group 1) with osteoporosis and eleven healthy control subjects (group 2) were instructed to keep a seven-day nutritional record. Body mass index (BMI) was recorded, and radiological and bone mineral density investigations were undertaken. The daily total energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, fiber, oxalic acid, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sodium, fluoride, zinc, copper, manganese, vitamin C, D, and K intake were analysed within the framework of a nutritional science program. No intergroup differences were observed with regard to total energy intake, nutritional components and BMI; however, age and years since the menopause differed significantly (p < 0.05). The results suggest that the manifestation of osteoporosis in women is influenced to a greater extent by age and years since the menopause than by the distribution of nutritional factors in a normal mixed diet. However, further studies are essential to evaluate the role of dietary composition on the manifestations of osteoporosis. PMID:7668001

Preisinger, E; Leitner, G; Uher, E; Alacamlioglu, Y; Seidl, G; Marktl, W; Resch, K L

1995-01-01

459

[Esthetic nutrition: body and beauty enhancement through nutritional care].  

PubMed

Nowadays, there is an increasing quest for beauty and the models proposed by fashion goods and service segments, to achieve the perfect body. The standard of beauty corresponds to a thin body, without considering health aspects. The number of women who go on diets to control weight is increasing; and taking this into consideration the objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical review and extract data on esthetics and body image to support the practice of nutritional care. Socio-cultural aspects, which motivate the quest for the perfect body, as well as body, beauty, esthetics, nutritional counseling and cognitive behavior therapy were examined in this survey. On the basis of this work, it is possible to conclude that the continuing obsession with the body may lead the person to go on diets and other drastic methods to control weight, such as surgical procedures. In this respect, nutritional care is far more than merely recommending a standard diet or giving information, as it represents providing an effective model for nutritional reeducation, prioritizing improvement in the style and quality of life. This article provides data about enhancing esthetics and beauty by means of appropriate nutrition. PMID:21987334

Witt, Juliana da Silveira Gonçalves Zanini; Schnider, Aline Petter

2011-09-01

460

Parenteral Nutrition Combined with Enteral Nutrition for Severe Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims. Nutritional support in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is controversial concerning the merits of enteral or parenteral nutrition in the management of patients with severe acute pancreatitis. Here, we assess the therapeutic efficacy of gradually combined treatment of parenteral nutrition (PN) with enteral nutrition (EN) for SAP. Methods. The clinical data of 130 cases of SAP were analyzed retrospectively. Of them, 59 cases were treated by general method of nutritional support (Group I) and the other 71 cases were treated by PN gradually combined with EN (Group II). Results. The APACHE II score and the level of IL-6 in Group II were significantly lower than Group I (P < 0.05). Complications, mortality, mean hospital stay, and the cost of hospitalization in Group II were 39.4 percent, 12.7 percent, 32 ± 9 days, and 30869.4 ± 12794.6 Chinese Yuan, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in Group I. The cure rate of Group II was 81.7 percent which is obviously higher than that of 59.3% in Group I (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study indicates that the combination of PN with EN not only can improve the natural history of pancreatitis but also can reduce the incidence of complication and mortality.

Singh, Akanand; Chen, Ming; Li, Tao; Yang, Xiao-Li; Li, Jin-Zheng; Gong, Jian-Ping

2012-01-01

461

Nutritional therapies in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Advise patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) to consume a balanced diet, with special attention to adequate intake of dietary fiber, fluids, and macro- and micronutrients. Regularly reassess patients' nutritional history and anthropomorphic measures (height and weight), particularly in patients with advanced disease. PD-related psychosocial as well as physical and cognitive limitations increase susceptibility to subacute and chronic malnutrition. Nutritional requirements may change with PD progression or after surgical therapy for PD. Patients and caregivers may benefit from counseling by a dietician who is knowledgeable about the nutritional risks and needs of PD. Regularly inquire about dysphagia symptoms, and consider speech therapy consultation for clinical and modified barium-swallowing evaluations and management recommendations. Although non-oral delivery options of dopaminergic therapy are increasing, severe dysphagia may warrant percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube placement for nutritional support and more reliable PD medication dosing. Analyze vitamin B(12) and D concentrations at regular intervals. Both vitamins are frequently deficient in elderly persons but may not be routinely checked by primary care physicians. Record over-the-counter and nutritional supplement medications at each visit, and assist patients in periodically re-evaluating their potential benefits, side effects, drug interactions, and costs. To date, clinical trials of antioxidant vitamins and nutritional supplements have provided insufficient evidence to support routine use for PD in the clinic. Data from several clinical trials of antioxidant vitamins/nutritional supplements are expected in the near future. Consider altering medication dosing in relation to meals to help with mild to moderate motor fluctuations. Patients with severe motor fluctuations may benefit from adapting the 5:1 carbohydrate-to-protein ratio in their daily meals and snacks. Following a "protein redistribution" diet is logistically more difficult and less palatable, and therefore less frequently recommended. To ensure adequate protein intake, a registered dietician should supervise patients who follow either of these diets. PMID:17445497

Evatt, Marian L

2007-05-01

462

Children's work, earnings, and nutrition in urban Mexican shantytowns.  

PubMed

For many children living in conditions of urban poverty, earning money can provide additional resources to them and their families, and this raises interesting questions about the potential biological consequences (costs and benefits) of children's work in 'modern' settings. This study uses time allocation, ethnographic, dietary, and anthropometric data collected with 96 urban Mexican shantytown children (aged 8-12 years) and their older and younger siblings (aged 1-18 years) to test hypotheses related to the effects of children's cash earning and cash contributions to their households for their own and their sibs' nutritional status. Regression models show that children's contributions to household income and the time they allocate to working outside the home makes no difference to their own or their younger siblings' nutritional status assessed anthropometrically. Dietary quality, based on food recalls, is worse in working than non-working children, even taking household income into account. Children's allocation of time to work and their cash contributions to the household do however significantly improve the weight of their older siblings, especially sisters. This suggests children's work in urban ecologies might have different constraints and opportunities for their own and siblings' growth and nutrition than typically observed in subsistence settings. PMID:19533611

Brewis, Alexandra; Lee, Sarah

463

Nutrition and cognitive function.  

PubMed

The work of the Medical Research Council Dunn Nutrition Unit, Cambridge, on the influence of early diet on the development of preterm infants is reviewed. Then further consideration is given to the implication of the findings. Malnutrition during a sensitive period may result in disease in adult life, and studies strongly suggest the development of the brain and retina can be affected. This may be due to the lack of essential fatty acids, and will particularly involve premature babies born at a time when cell membrane development is especially vulnerable. These findings must sometimes be viewed with caution, as genetic and environmental influences can be paramount. There are many reasons to favour breast feeding, rather than giving formula feeds, including improved cognition and visual function. For example breast milk contains docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid, essential for normal brain development, and often absent or in short supply in formula feeds. Although the advantages in developmental status may be due, in part anyhow, to factors such as the mother's ability and education, and to the child being given greater opportunities, the evident importance of the composition of human breast milk cannot be denied. Formula feeds do contain a higher nutrient value than breast milk, which can result in improved height and weight of infants fed in this way: if it is necessary to use them the challenge for future research is to improve their composition. Although this may be of more importance for premature babies, term babies can also be affected; this has both medical and social implications. PMID:9134186

Gordon, N

1997-04-01

464

Carbohydrate nutrition and fatigue.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates are important substrates for contracting muscle during prolonged, strenuous exercise, and fatigue is often associated with muscle glycogen depletion and/or hypoglycaemia. Thus, the goals of carbohydrate nutritional strategies before, during and after exercise are to optimise the availability of muscle and liver glycogen and blood glucose, with a view to maintaining carbohydrate availability and oxidation during exercise. During heavy training, the carbohydrate requirements of athletes may be as high as 8 to 10 g/kg bodyweight or 60 to 70% of total energy intake. Ingestion of a diet high in carbohydrate should be encouraged in order to maintain carbohydrate reserves and the ability to train intensely. Ingestion of a high carbohydrate meal 3 to 4 hours prior to exercise ensures adequate carbohydrate availability and enhances exercise performance. Although hyperinsulinaemia associated with carbohydrate ingestion in the hour prior to exercise may result in some metabolic alterations during exercise, it may not necessarily impair exercise performance and may, in some cases, enhance performance. Carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged, strenuous exercise, where performance is often limited by carbohydrate availability, delays fatigue. This is due to maintenance of blood glucose levels and a high rate of carbohydrate oxidation, rather than a slowing of muscle glycogen utilisation, although liver glycogen reserves may be spared. During recovery from exercise, muscle glycogen resynthesis is critically dependent upon the ingestion of carbohydrate. Factors influencing the rate of muscle glycogen resynthesis include the timing, amount and type of carbohydrate ingested and muscle damage. Adequate carbohydrate availability before, during and after exercise will maintain carbohydrate oxidation during exercise and is associated with enhanced exercise performance. PMID:1561511

Costill, D L; Hargreaves, M

1992-02-01

465

Nutrition, sirtuins and aging.  

PubMed

Beyond our inherited genetic make-up environmental factors are central for health and disease and finally determine our life span. Amongst the environmental factors nutrition plays a prominent role in affecting a variety of degenerative processes that are linked to aging. The exponential increase of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in industrialized nations as a consequence of a long-lasting caloric supernutrition is an expression of this environmental challenge that also affects aging processes. The most consistent effects along the environmental factors that slow down aging - from simple organisms to rodents and primates - have been observed for caloric restriction. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, sirtuins (silencing information regulators) have been identified to mediate as "molecular sensors" the effects of caloric restriction on aging processes. Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases that are activated when e.g. cell energy status is low and the NAD(+) over NADH ratio is high. As a consequence transcription rates of a variety of genes including that of the apoptosis inducing p(53) gene are reduced. Moreover, in C. elegans, sirtuins were shown to interact with proteins of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling cascade of which several members are known to extend life span of the nematodes when mutated. Downstream targets of this pathway include genes that encode antioxidative enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD) whose transcription is activated when receptor activation by insulin/IGF is low or when sirtuins are active and the ability of cells to resist oxidative damage appears to determine their life span. Amongst dietary factors that activate sirtuins are certain polyphenols such as quercetin and resveratrol. Whereas their ability to affect life span has been demonstrated in simple organisms, their efficacy in mammals awaits proof of principle. PMID:18850202

Wenzel, Uwe

2006-06-01

466

School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives.  

PubMed

Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices. PMID:11255503

Pérez-Rodrigo, C; Aranceta, J

2001-02-01

467

Nutritional management of patients with chemosensory disturbances.  

PubMed

The effect of a chemosensory disturbance on nutrition and quality of life is not clear and may show individual variance. It is important for the clinician to become sensitive to this relationship and pursue appropriate nutritional management. Nutritional management of an individual with a chemosensory disorder requires nutritional assessment with appropriate dietary intake measurements, dietary and weight history, food behavior questions, and anthropometric measures. A registered dietitian can identify potential nutritional problems and provide guidance for weight control, dietary modification, and use of food-related compensatory mechanisms to maintain the nutritional status and quality of life in the person suffering from chemosensory disturbances. PMID:2663436

Duffy, V B; Ferris, A M

1989-05-01

468

Family medicine obstetrics: pregnancy and nutrition.  

PubMed

This article discusses pregnancy and nutrition in 3 main timeframes, the prepregnancy nutritional health evaluation, nutrition during pregnancy, and nutrition during the puerperium, and also includes comments on nutrition and lactation. This article begins with a brief review of the risks of obesity (increased body mass index [BMI]) and anorexia (decreased BMI), with special attention to these undesired conditions during pregnancy, followed by a section on nutrients other than calories. Information on body weight, minerals, and vitamins during pregnancy is reviewed. This article ends with information on nutrition in the postpartum period. PMID:22309580

Harnisch, Jean M; Harnisch, Patricia H; Harnisch, David R

2012-03-01

469

Celss nutrition system utilizing snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

470

Innovations in national nutrition surveys.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to describe innovations taking place in national nutrition surveys in the UK and the challenges of undertaking innovations in such settings. National nutrition surveys must be representative of the overall population in characteristics such as socio-economic circumstances, age, sex and region. High response rates are critical. Dietary assessment innovations must therefore be suitable for all types of individuals, from the very young to the very old, for variable literacy and/or technical skills, different ethnic backgrounds and life circumstances, such as multiple carers and frequent travel. At the same time, national surveys need details on foods consumed. Current advances in dietary assessment use either technological innovations or simplified methods; neither lend themselves to national surveys. The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) rolling programme, and the Diet and Nutrition Survey of Infants and Young Children (DNSIYC), currently use the 4-d estimated diary, a compromise for detail and respondent burden. Collection of food packaging enables identification of specific products. Providing space for location of eating, others eating, the television being on and eating at a table, adds to eating context information. Disaggregation of mixed dishes enables determination of true intakes of meat and fruit and vegetables. Measurement of nutritional status requires blood sampling and processing in DNSIYC clinics throughout the country and mobile units were used to optimise response. Hence, innovations in national surveys can and are being made but must take into account the paramount concerns of detail and response rate. PMID:23336562

Stephen, Alison M; Mak, Tsz Ning; Fitt, Emily; Nicholson, Sonja; Roberts, Caireen; Sommerville, Jill

2013-02-01

471

Nutrition and metabolism in spaceflight.  

PubMed

The United States Space Station being planned for the 1990s will accommodate six or more crew members on 90-d flights in low earth orbit. Adequate nutrition will be essential for maintaining crew health, effectiveness and morale. Although much is known from prior space experience about in-flight metabolism, nutrition and associated food technology, important gaps in knowledge exist that need additional research, development and analysis to meet Space Station requirements. This paper is a synopsis of a report prepared by the Life Sciences Research Office (LSRO), FASEB, from a study of the nutritional and metabolic aspects of spaceflight. It reviews available data on the metabolic responses to spaceflight including extravehicular activity, physiological responses to microgravity that influence metabolism and energy needs, in-flight nutritional experience, space menus, food packaging, in-flight food service methodology, water supply and disposal of food wastes. The LSRO ad hoc Working Group identified critical gaps in knowledge and suggested corresponding research approaches for acquiring essential new data. The 38 research suggestions detailed in the report address in-flight metabolic needs, nutrient requirements, food systems and nutritional countermeasures. PMID:3572555

Altman, P L; Talbot, J M

1987-03-01

472

Clinical use of enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Enteral Nutrition is among the most developed disciplines in modern Medicine. Technological advances, a better knowledge of malnutrition physiopathology and its involvement in the evolution of several clinical entities have made it possible to improve the nutritional attention paid to our patients. The use of EN has expanded as a first choice practice in patients with undernutrition or at risk of undernutrition that have a minimally functional intestine and are unable to cover their total calorie and protein requirements with natural or supplemented diets. Terms like "medical food" or "organ- or system-specific nutrition" or "pathology-specific nutrition" have revolutionized the EN field in the last 20 years with the emergence of specifically defined formulations. EN has been shown to be cost-effective in patients with malnutrition when the indication is established early. Home and Ambulatory Artificial Nutrition techniques are administratively regulated and, as they are widespread in our country, they allow some cost reductions in certain processes. Occasionally, the introduction, use or withdrawal of EN may constitute a situation of ethical dilema that should be avoided by making use of respect, companionship and shared information between the health team, patients and their substitutes. PMID:16771076

Alvarez Hernández, J; Peláez Torres, N; Muñoz Jiménez, A

2006-05-01

473

Current challenges in pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

In pediatric nutrition the most important overall theme is breastfeeding. While there is no alternative in most mammals--and offspring would die if the mother had no milk or could not feed the newborn--human mothers were offered alternative ways of infant feeding. Today restoring breastfeeding is a major goal for pediatricians, midwifes, and lactation advisers. Feeding the premature baby and adding long chain fatty acids and prebiotics to formula is an area of growing interest. Undernutrition is a special challenge for nutritional care because even in recent years severely undernourished children die of inadequate management with too much volume and too much protein in the initial phase. Much knowledge has been gained about parenteral nutrition for children with gut failure. Even children with very short bowel length at birth have a good prognosis and can often achieve enteral adaptation. New solutions for parenteral nutrition, new materials, and new care concepts have been identified. Problems considered inherent to parenteral nutrition are widely preventable. PMID:21939906

Krawinkel, Michael B

2011-10-01

474

Factors Contributing to Mental Health Treatment of the Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to understand the factors which contribute to the need for mental health treatment, the present study compared two groups of elderly individuals age 55 or older. One group was in an outpatient mental health program and the other attended senior nutrition sites. Comparison of variables known to affect mental health status were made between the admission characteristics

Lawrence Schonfeld; Juanita Garcia; Patricia Streuber

1985-01-01

475

Food and Nutrient Contribution of Breakfast to the Total Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To examine the role of breakfast in the diets of Americans including contribution to daily food and nutrient intake.The nutritional role of breakfast in American diets was examined by computing mean food and nutrient intakes from breakfast and the total diet, from food intake records from the USDA's 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The study

S. A. Bowman

1997-01-01

476

Preadmission nutrition screening: expanding hospital-based nutrition services by implementing earlier nutrition intervention.  

PubMed

The need to screen patients earlier than within the first 24 hours of hospital admission has resulted in the development of preadmission nutrition screening. At Providence Saint Joseph Medical Center (PSJMC), a 455-bed acute-care facility, this procedure has been used since 1994. The preadmission screening method was developed because of the use of critical pathways for patients in specific diagnosis-related groups. Critical pathways specified that registered dietitians must assess these patients within 24 hours of admission at PSJMC. However, at that time there was minimal data in the chart from which to assess the patient's nutritional status and the ability to interview the patient was often limited as a result of intubation or postoperative pain. Family members were not always available at the hospital to discuss a patient's preadmission nutritional status. To address this problem, we developed a system to call people at home before their admission to the hospital to obtain specific nutrition information. To analyze the effectiveness of the procedure, the Food and Nutrition Services Department developed a process to assess this method of screening and to improve the system. Patients were enrolled in a study over a 1-month period, demographics were identified for this sample population, and patient satisfaction was determined via an interview conducted by a dietetic technician after the patient was admitted. Most patients found this to be a very helpful process and an example is presented here on the role of preadmission nutrition screening in improving patient outcome. To better define the population of the case study presented, additional information was gathered on a second study group of patients screened before admission who were admitted for hip and knee surgery, one of the specific diagnosis-related groups with a critical pathway. Our findings indicate that preadmission nutrition screening has the potential to improve patient outcomes by increasing nutrient intake before their hospital admission, reducing hospitalization length, and enhancing patient satisfaction during their hospital stay. PMID:10646009

Schwartz, D B; Gudzin, D

2000-01-01

477

Improving nutrition and health through non-timber forest products in Ghana.  

PubMed

Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p < 0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana. PMID:21608423

Ahenkan, Albert; Boon, Emmanuel

2011-04-01

478

9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2013-01-01