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Sample records for vannamei nutritional contribution

  1. Nutritional value of various ray fish liver oils to the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Perez-Velazquez, Martin; Gonzlez-Flix, Mayra L; Navarro-Garca, Gerardo; Valenzuela-Escalante, Erasmo

    2008-11-01

    A 32-day comparative feeding trial was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of four different ray fish liver oils to the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four feeds were prepared with liver oil extracted from Dasyatis brevis, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Aetobatus narinari, and R. bonasus. A control feed was prepared with Menhaden fish oil. Ray fish liver oils were mainly composed of poly- and highly unsaturated fatty acids and contained levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 comparable in magnitude to those of Menhaden fish oil, except for A. narinari liver oil, which had moderately low concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 but showed a particularly high level of 20:4n-6, more than six times greater than that of Menhaden fish oil. Dietary fatty acids significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle tissue, e.g., the diet with Menhaden fish oil elicited significantly higher shrimp muscle DHA level than diets with oil from D. brevis, and A. narinari, but not than diets with oil from R. steindachneri and R. bonasus. In spite of these differences, all four ray fish liver oils evaluated were as efficient in promoting growth and survival of L. vannamei as Menhaden fish oil, an ingredient known for its adequate nutritional quality to shrimp and fish. This study demonstrated one of the many possible applications of a locally-available resource that is currently being wasted. PMID:18807083

  2. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  3. Nutrition in burns: Galveston contributions.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Noe A; Jeschke, Marc G; Williams, Felicia N; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N

    2011-11-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  4. Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2003-09-01

    Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable. PMID:12936962

  5. Āyurveda's Contributions to Vegetarian Nutrition in Medicine.

    PubMed

    Manohar, Ram; Kessler, Christian S

    2016-01-01

    Āyurveda is one of the oldest codified traditional systems of medicine on a global scale. Grounded in Indian culture it has developed a sophisticated approach to healthy nutrition and nutritional therapy for the management of diseases within the framework of its whole systems paradigm. Medical interventions have been considered to be ineffective without the support of a balanced diet. Vegetarian nutrition plays a key role in customized preventive and therapeutic Āyurvedic strategies based on an individualized approach to healthcare, while broadly labeling Āyurveda as 'vegetarian medicine' would be an exaggeration. Revolt against animal slaughter, compassion through spiritual practices, and the Āyurvedic understanding of the nutritional properties of the plant kingdom led to the dominance of vegetarianism in India. Āyurveda elaborates on 8 crucial aspects to be considered with respect to a balanced diet. This paper illuminates the complex historic embedding of the Āyurvedic nutritional approach and gives a detailed text-based explanation on why and how vegetarian nutrition can be applied in both prevention and cure of diseases from the perspective of traditional Indian medicine. PMID:27159979

  6. Nutritional contributions to dementia prevention: main issues on antioxidant micronutrients.

    PubMed

    Polidori, Maria Cristina; Schulz, Ralf-Joachim

    2014-03-01

    There is an impressing body of evidence supporting the beneficial role of balanced nutrition in lowering the risk of dementia and its commonest form, Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, and despite worldwide dementia epidemic, there is much unfounded skepticism and lack of information among physicians. As a result, the diagnosis of cognitive impairment occurs still far too late, at best symptomatic drugs keep being prescribed and patients and caregivers are left with little concrete support in the hands of the natural history of the disease. This review summarizes knowledge about the impact of nutrition as part of a healthy lifestyle and of micronutrients in particular on delaying and avoiding dementia onset. PMID:24535714

  7. Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

  8. Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The learning outcome was to understand the important contribution of lean beef to total nutrient intake in diets of American adults and to determine dietary intake differences between lean beef consumers and non-consumers. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2004, 24-hour di...

  9. Mutualistic ants contribute to tank-bromeliad nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Céline; Carrias, Jean-François; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dézerald, Olivier; Brouard, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Epiphytism imposes physiological constraints resulting from the lack of access to the nutrient sources available to ground-rooted plants. A conspicuous adaptation in response to that lack is the phytotelm (plant-held waters) of tank-bromeliad species that are often nutrient-rich. Associations with terrestrial invertebrates also result in higher plant nutrient acquisition. Assuming that tank-bromeliads rely on reservoir-assisted nutrition, it was hypothesized that the dual association with mutualistic ants and the phytotelm food web provides greater nutritional benefits to the plant compared with those bromeliads involved in only one of these two associations. Methods Quantitative (water volume, amount of fine particulate organic matter, predator/prey ratio, algal density) and qualitative variables (ant-association and photosynthetic pathways) were compared for eight tank- and one tankless-bromeliad morphospecies from French Guiana. An analysis was also made of which of these variables affect nitrogen acquisition (leaf N and δ15N). Key Results All variables were significantly different between tank-bromeliad species. Leaf N concentrations and leaf δ15N were both positively correlated with the presence of mutualistic ants. The amount of fine particulate organic matter and predator/prey ratio had a positive and negative effect on leaf δ15N, respectively. Water volume was positively correlated with leaf N concentration whereas algal density was negatively correlated. Finally, the photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. CAM) was positively correlated with leaf N concentration with a slightly higher N concentration for C3-Tillandsioideae compared with CAM-Bromelioideae. Conclusions The study suggests that some of the differences in N nutrition between bromeliad species can be explained by the presence of mutualistic ants. From a nutritional standpoint, it is more advantageous for a bromeliad to use myrmecotrophy via its roots than to use carnivory via its tank. The results highlight a gap in our knowledge of the reciprocal interactions between bromeliads and the various trophic levels (from bacteria to large metazoan predators) that intervene in reservoir-assisted nutrition. PMID:23864002

  10. Anorexia nervosa and nutritional assessment: contribution of body composition measurements.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Lama; Godart, Nathalie; Melchior, Jean Claude; Pichard, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The psychiatric condition of patients suffering from anorexia nervosa (AN) is affected by their nutritional status. An optimal assessment of the nutritional status of patients is fundamental in understanding the relationship between malnutrition and the psychological symptoms. The present review evaluates some of the available methods for measuring body composition in patients with AN. We searched literature in Medline using several key terms relevant to the present review in order to identify papers. Only articles in English or French were reviewed. A brief description is provided for each body composition technique, with its applicability in AN as well as its limitation. All methods of measuring body composition are not yet validated and/or feasible in patients with AN. The present review article proposes a practical approach for selecting the most appropriate methods depending on the setting, (i.e. clinical v. research) and the goal of the assessment (initial v. follow-up) in order to have a more personalised treatment for patients suffering from AN. PMID:21382223

  11. Contribution of larval nutrition to adult reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Aguila, Jerell R; Hoshizaki, Deborah K; Gibbs, Allen G

    2013-02-01

    Within the complex life cycle of holometabolous insects, nutritional resources acquired during larval feeding are utilized by the pupa and the adult. The broad features of the transfer of larval resources to the pupae and the allocation of larval resources in the adult have been described by studies measuring and tracking macronutrients at different developmental stages. However, the mechanisms of resource transfer from the larva and the factors regulating the allocation of these resources in the adult between growth, reproduction and somatic maintenance are unknown. Drosophila melanogaster presents a tractable system in which to test cellular and tissue mechanisms of resource acquisition and allocation because of the detailed understanding of D. melanogaster development and the experimental tools to manipulate its tissues across developmental stages. In previous work, we demonstrated that the fat body of D. melanogaster larvae is important for survival of starvation stress in the young adult, and suggested that programmed cell death of the larval fat cells in the adult is important for allocation of resources for female reproduction. Here, we describe the temporal uptake of larval-derived carbon by the ovaries, and demonstrate the importance of larval fat-cell death in the maturation of the ovary and in fecundity. Larvae and adults were fed stable carbon isotopes to follow the acquisition of larval-derived carbon by the adult ovaries. We determined that over half of the nutrients acquired by the ovaries in 2-day-old adult females are dependent upon the death of the fat cells. Furthermore, when programmed cell death is inhibited in the larval fat cells, ovarian development was depressed and fecundity was reduced. PMID:23038728

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition Would you like to have more energy, stronger ... may be easier than you think! In our nutrition information section you can learn how to eat ...

  13. The Contribution Made by School Milk to the Nutrition of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Judith; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…

  14. [Contributions by food demand studies to the development of public policies in nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sarti, Flávia Mori; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2011-04-01

    Food choice in diet composition is a determinant of individual health status. Currently, there are gradually fewer conditions involving food scarcity and more involving excess food. Changes in income and relative prices generate measurable effects on the population's food intake patterns. Economic models have significant explanatory power for food demand, and the interactions between consumption, income, and prices are usually expressed as elasticity. However, the construction of some studies shows important shortcomings, especially for public policy application. This conceptual article discusses the potential contribution of food demand studies, suggesting improvements in the structural design of such studies with the inclusion of current nutritional concepts for redirecting the nutritional transition from under-nutrition to healthy eating, avoiding the present trend towards epidemic obesity. PMID:21603747

  15. Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants: a simulation model.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jay S.; Harvey, Philip W. J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide information on the potential contribution to vitamin A nutrition in infants of strategies for improving maternal vitamin A status and increasing the consumption of breast milk. METHODS: The contribution of breastfeeding to the vitamin A nutrition of children in eight age groups between 0 and 24 months was simulated under four sets of conditions involving two levels of breast milk consumption with or without maternal vitamin A supplementation. FINDINGS: During the first 6 months, optimal breastfeeding on its own (compared with withholding colostrum and then partially breastfeeding after the first week) was as effective as postpartum maternal supplementation alone, retinol intakes being increased by 59 micrograms per day and 68 micrograms per day, respectively. Combined in synergy, these strategies increase retinol intake by 144 micrograms per day, or 36% of the recommended intake. After 6 months, partial breastfeeding continued to provide a significant proportion of the recommended intakes: 42% from 6-12 months and 61% during the second year. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with a high dose of vitamin A at the time of delivery and the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices are highly effective strategies for improving vitamin A nutrition in infants and should be strengthened as key components of comprehensive child survival programmes. PMID:12751415

  16. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  17. Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Durnin, J V

    1976-07-01

    Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K. PMID:8801

  18. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  19. Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... required health education course in middle schools or high schools. • Among classes in which nutrition and dietary behavior ... 18.3 27.3 * Among elementary, middle, and high schools. † Among middle and high schools. 1 Selected changes ...

  20. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  1. Down-regulation apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 gene reduced the Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyte apoptosis in WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Feng-Hua; Chen, Yong-Gui; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yue, Hai-Tao; Bi, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Kai; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase, is crucial in various cellular responses. In the present study, we identified and characterized an ASK1 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvASK1). The full-length cDNA of LvASK1 was 5400 bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative 1420 amino acid protein. LvASK1 was highly expressed in muscle, hemocyte, eyestalk and heart. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the expression of the LvASK1 was upregulated during the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge. The knocked-down expression of LvASK1 by RNA interference significantly reduced the apoptotic ratio of the hemocytes collected from WSSV-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LvASK1 also decreased the cumulative mortality of WSSV-infected L. vannamei. These results suggested that down-regulation of LvASK1 decreased the apoptotic rate of hemocytes in WSSV-infected shrimp, and that it could contribute to the reduction of cumulative mortality in WSSV-infected L. vannamei. PMID:26806164

  2. Some Contributions for a Pedagogical Treatment of Alternative Conceptions in Biology: An Example from Plant Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz, Adelaine Neto; And Others

    This paper reports on a study that investigated the alternative conceptions of students in a biology and geology teacher education course regarding plant nutrition. Data were collected from first year and final year students using a questionnaire that had both multiple choice and descriptive items. Findings indicate common features related to the…

  3. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;

  4. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  5. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. PMID:24742878

  6. The Complex Contributions of Genetics and Nutrition to Immunity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.; Rottschaefer, Susan M.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Both malnutrition and undernutrition can lead to compromised immune defense in a diversity of animals, and “nutritional immunology” has been suggested as a means of understanding immunity and determining strategies for fighting infection. The genetic basis for the effects of diet on immunity, however, has been largely unknown. In the present study, we have conducted genome-wide association mapping in Drosophila melanogaster to identify the genetic basis for individual variation in resistance, and for variation in immunological sensitivity to diet (genotype-by-environment interaction, or GxE). D. melanogaster were reared for several generations on either high-glucose or low-glucose diets and then infected with Providencia rettgeri, a natural bacterial pathogen of D. melanogaster. Systemic pathogen load was measured at the peak of infection intensity, and several indicators of nutritional status were taken from uninfected flies reared on each diet. We find that dietary glucose level significantly alters the quality of immune defense, with elevated dietary glucose resulting in higher pathogen loads. The quality of immune defense is genetically variable within the sampled population, and we find genetic variation for immunological sensitivity to dietary glucose (genotype-by-diet interaction). Immune defense was genetically correlated with indicators of metabolic status in flies reared on the high-glucose diet, and we identified multiple genes that explain variation in immune defense, including several that have not been previously implicated in immune response but which are confirmed to alter pathogen load after RNAi knockdown. Our findings emphasize the importance of dietary composition to immune defense and reveal genes outside the conventional “immune system” that can be important in determining susceptibility to infection. Functional variation in these genes is segregating in a natural population, providing the substrate for evolutionary response to pathogen pressure in the context of nutritional environment. PMID:25764027

  7. The complex contributions of genetics and nutrition to immunity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Unckless, Robert L; Rottschaefer, Susan M; Lazzaro, Brian P

    2015-03-01

    Both malnutrition and undernutrition can lead to compromised immune defense in a diversity of animals, and "nutritional immunology" has been suggested as a means of understanding immunity and determining strategies for fighting infection. The genetic basis for the effects of diet on immunity, however, has been largely unknown. In the present study, we have conducted genome-wide association mapping in Drosophila melanogaster to identify the genetic basis for individual variation in resistance, and for variation in immunological sensitivity to diet (genotype-by-environment interaction, or GxE). D. melanogaster were reared for several generations on either high-glucose or low-glucose diets and then infected with Providencia rettgeri, a natural bacterial pathogen of D. melanogaster. Systemic pathogen load was measured at the peak of infection intensity, and several indicators of nutritional status were taken from uninfected flies reared on each diet. We find that dietary glucose level significantly alters the quality of immune defense, with elevated dietary glucose resulting in higher pathogen loads. The quality of immune defense is genetically variable within the sampled population, and we find genetic variation for immunological sensitivity to dietary glucose (genotype-by-diet interaction). Immune defense was genetically correlated with indicators of metabolic status in flies reared on the high-glucose diet, and we identified multiple genes that explain variation in immune defense, including several that have not been previously implicated in immune response but which are confirmed to alter pathogen load after RNAi knockdown. Our findings emphasize the importance of dietary composition to immune defense and reveal genes outside the conventional "immune system" that can be important in determining susceptibility to infection. Functional variation in these genes is segregating in a natural population, providing the substrate for evolutionary response to pathogen pressure in the context of nutritional environment. PMID:25764027

  8. Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience and psychological research

    PubMed Central

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A central issue when designing multi-dimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting impact (sensitive periods). In this paper we review nutritional, neuroscience and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period where biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

  9. Contributions of Intestinal Bacteria to Nutrition and Metabolism in the Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Morowitz, Michael J.; Carlisle, Erica; Alverdy, John C.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Important advances in the study of bacteria associated with the human gastrointestinal tract have significant implications for clinicians striving to meet the metabolic and nutritional needs of critically ill patients. A transition from culture-based to culture-independent studies of the intestinal microbiota has ushered in a new era of laboratory and clinical studies in this field. These studies are helping to clarify the important role of bacteria in carbohydrate metabolism, and are providing new evidence that highlights the role of bacteria in protein and lipid homeostasis. We know that during periods of caloric excess or deprivation, microbial populations in the GI tract are clearly altered; however the molecular etiology for such changes remains elusive. Similarly, little is known about how microbial ecology changes before, during, and after critical illness. Nevertheless, several approaches, e.g. probiotic administration, have been employed to manipulate gut microbial communities in the ICU. In this review we offer a broad overview of the importance of the host-microbe relationship, discuss what is currently known about the role of gut microbes in nutrition and metabolism in the healthy human host, review how gut microbes are impacted by critical illness, and discuss interventions that have already been utilized to manipulate the gut microbiome in ICU patients. PMID:21787967

  10. Taura syndrome virus from Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea.

    PubMed

    Do, Jeong Wan; Cha, Seung Ju; Lee, Nam Sil; Kim, Yi Cheong; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Jae Dong; Park, Jeong Woo

    2006-06-12

    Mass mortality occurred among Penaeus vannamei shrimp cultured in Korea in 2004. In an earlier study, we reported white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) as a causative agent of mass mortality of P. monodon shrimp in Korea (Moon et al. 2003; Dis Aquat Org 53:11-13). However, in the present study, we detected Taura syndrome virus (TSV) from the moribund 2004 P. vannamei shrimp by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In addition, during our regular screening for the TSV in stocks of P. vannamei imported from Hawaii, USA, we also detected TSV by RT-PCR. The nucleotide sequences of the partial capsid protein VP1 of 2 Korean isolates were 99% identical to each other and 96 to 99% identical to those of TSVs isolated from the Americas, Taiwan, and Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the 2 Korean isolates were closely related to TSV types from Thailand. This is the first report on the detection of TSV during an epizootic among cultured P. vannamei in Korea, and our results suggests the possibility that TSV has been introduced via the imported stock of P. vannamei. PMID:16875405

  11. Impact of ammonia exposure on coagulation in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Cheng, Winton; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), the end product of protein catabolism, is produced by decomposing organic matter. In aquaculture, shrimp are commonly exposed to high concentrations of ammonia that induces immunological and histological changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on hemolymph coagulation time, transglutaminase (TG) activity as well as TG and clottable protein (CP) genes expressions in Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to ambient ammonia-nitrogen (N) at 0, 1, 5, and 10mg/L for 0, 2, and 7 days. The actual concentrations in control and tests solution were 0.001, 1.15, 5.11, and 11.68mg/L for ammonia-N, and 7×10(-5), 0.080, 0.357, and 0.815mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). Delayed coagulation time following exposure to 5 and 10mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 7 days, and increased transglutaminase (TG) activity following exposure to 5 and 1mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were observed. Downregulated TG expression and upregulated clottable protein (CP) expression in the hemocytes of L. vannamei exposed to 10 and 5mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were shown. These results indicated that ambient ammonia-N (>5mg/L) and NH3-N (>0.357mg/L) interrupted coagulation and down-regulated TG gene expression in L. vannamei, which caused ecotoxicity on immune deficiencies and may contribute the increased susceptibility to infection by pathogens. PMID:25916769

  12. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.

    PubMed

    James, W P; Nelson, M; Ralph, A; Leather, S

    1997-05-24

    Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people. PMID:9183207

  13. [Lack of food and nutritional security in Central America: contributing factors and social exclusion].

    PubMed

    Delgado, H

    2001-12-01

    In August 2001, the XVII Meeting of the Health Sector in Central America and the Dominican Republic (RESSCAD) was held in Managua, Nicaragua. At the meeting, a resolution was adopted in support of strengthening and furthering the Central American initiative for the Promotion of Food and Nutritional Security. This paper examines the conceptual framework behind the initiative, which was approved by the XIV Central American Presidents Summit Meeting (Guatemala City, Guatemala) and launched in 1994 at the regional, national, and municipal levels (Guacimo, Costa Rica, 1994). It focuses on the accomplishments attributable to this initiative, the challenges it has faced over 2001 and those it will be facing over the next biennium, and the measures taken or recommended so far in order to ensure its long-term success. PMID:11820110

  14. Placental contribution to nutritional programming of health and diseases: epigenetics and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Tarrade, Anne; Panchenko, Polina; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The recent and rapid worldwide increase in non-communicable diseases challenges the assumption that genetic factors are the primary contributors to such diseases. A new concept of the 'developmental origins of health and disease' (DOHaD) is at stake and therefore requires a paradigm shift. Maternal obesity and malnutrition predispose offspring to develop metabolic syndrome, a vicious cycle leading to transmission to subsequent generation(s), with differences in response and susceptibility according to the sex of the individual. The placenta is a programming agent of adult health and disease. Adaptations of placental phenotype in response to maternal diet and metabolic status alter fetal nutrient supply. This implies important epigenetic changes that are, however, still poorly documented in DOHaD studies, particularly concerning overnutrition. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging knowledge on the relationships between the effect of maternal nutrition or metabolic status on placental function and the risk of diseases later in life, with a specific focus on epigenetic mechanisms and sexual dimorphism. Explaining the sex-specific causal variables and how males versus females respond and adapt to environmental perturbations should help physicians and patients to anticipate disease susceptibility. PMID:25568451

  15. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  16. Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=32...

  17. Iodised salt contribution to iodine nutrition status of pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Lv, Shengmin; Mu, Zhenguo; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yuchun; Rutherford, Shannon

    2015-07-14

    Sufficient iodine intake by pregnant and lactating women is crucial to their offspring's cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of iodised salt intake on the iodine status of pregnant and lactating women. Thirty towns were selected from 211 towns in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city using probability proportionate to size sampling in this cross-sectional survey. In each selected town, forty pregnant women and forty lactating women were randomly selected to contribute urine samples to determine iodine content. The median urinary iodine content (UIC) of 1200 pregnant women in all was 146 (interquartile range (IQR) 88-239) μg/l. The median UIC in the first, second and third trimesters were 166 (IQR 92-276) μg/l, 145 (IQR 83-248) μg/l and 134 (IQR 79-221) μg/l, respectively. The median UIC in the first trimester was significantly higher than that in the third trimester (P= 0.04). The median UIC of 1200 lactating women in all was 120 (IQR 66-195) μg/l. Their median UIC in every 4-week block was higher than the WHO criteria except in weeks 25-28 and weeks 33-36 of lactation. Pregnant women's median UIC did not correlate with median salt iodine (MSI) (P= 0.402); however, there was a linear correlation between MSI and the lactating women's median UIC (P= 0.007). Iodised salt failed to provide adequate iodine to pregnant women possibly due to limited intake of iodised salt during pregnancy, though it was found to provide adequate iodine to lactating women in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city. PMID:26058867

  18. [Nutritional care in public hospitals of four Brazilian states: contributions of health evaluation to health surveillance services].

    PubMed

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Henriques, Patrícia; de Sales, Gizene Luciana Pereira

    2010-11-01

    Considering the importance of nutritional care for the quality of care provided to hospitalized patients, the study aims to assess health care in eight public hospitals that have received support from QualiSUS in four Brazilian states. There were semi-structured interviews with nutritionists, direct observation and review of 219 records of patients admitted to the medical clinics. The findings suggest weaknesses in the hospital nutritional care, poor integration between the production of food and nutritional care in the surveyed hospitals, in addition to structural deficiencies. We highlight problems related to the nutritional care process, including its documentation. In 93% of the records there were no records on the nutritional status on admission, or nutritional assessment of patients in nutritional therapy. It was observed that the assessment made by the health surveillance in routine inspections, focusing on the verification of compliance and structural aspects, does not include the detection of a possible nutritional risk for the patient. We suggest the inclusion of other criteria and strategies for surveillance, among them a review of open medical records. PMID:21120329

  19. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

  20. Dietary supplementation of short-chain fructooligosaccharides influences gastrointestinal microbiota composition and immunity characteristics of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Burr, Gary S; Gatlin, Delbert M; Hume, Michael E; Patnaik, Susmita; Castille, Frank L; Lawrence, Addison L

    2007-12-01

    Supplementation of prebiotic compounds, including short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) has been shown to confer benefits on nutrient utilization, growth, and disease resistance of various animal species through improved gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. However, potential uses of prebiotics for shrimp have not been defined. A 6-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating system to determine the effects of scFOS supplementation on growth performance, immune functions, and GI microbiota composition of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). scFOS was supplemented in a nutritionally complete diet (35% crude protein) at 0.025, 0.0500, 0.075, 0.100, 0.200, 0.400, and 0.800% by weight. After 6 wk of feeding, shrimp fed 0, 0.1, and 0.8% scFOS were sampled for assays of immune function and GI microbiota. Dietary supplementation of scFOS did not improve weight gain, feed conversion ratio, or survival of shrimp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the basal diet was different from that of shrimp fed the scFOS diets [similarity coefficient (SC) = 74.9%)], although the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the scFOS-supplemented diets was very similar (SC = 92.3%). All the bacterial species contributing to the GI microbial differences were identified, although most of them are uncultured species. Both total hemocyte count and hemocyte respiratory burst increased (P < 0.05) by incremental dietary supplementation of scFOS (0-0.8%). This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary scFOS can selectively support growth of certain bacterial species in the GI tract of shrimp and enhance immunity, which may facilitate development of alternative strategies, including novel probiotics and synbiotics, for shrimp growth and health management. PMID:18029496

  1. Characterization of a rediscovered haplosporidian parasite from cultured Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Pantoja, Carlos R; Stokes, Nancy A; Reece, Kimberly S

    2007-02-01

    Mortalities of Penaeus vannamei, cultured in ponds in Belize, Central America, began during the last part of the grow-out cycle during the cold weather months from September 2004 through February 2005. Tissue squashes of infected hepatopancreata and histological examination of infected shrimp revealed that the mortalities might have been caused by an endoparasite. To confirm the diagnosis, DNA was extracted from ethanol preserved hepatopancreata and the small-subunit rRNA gene was sequenced. The 1838 bp sequence was novel and phylogenetic analysis placed the P. vannamei parasite within the phylum Haplosporidia as a sister taxon to a clade that includes Bonamia and Minchinia species. In situ hybridization was performed using anti-sense DNA probes that were designed to hybridize specifically with the parasite's nucleic acid. This organism presents similar characteristics to those of a haplosporidian that infected cultured P. vannamei imported from Nicaragua into Cuba, as described by Dyková et al. (1988; Fish Dis 11:15-22). PMID:17425265

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10−5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

  3. Experimental infection of Penaeus vannamei by a rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB) originating from P. monodon.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Noble, Brenda; Le Groumellec, Marc; Lightner, Donald V

    2003-03-17

    A rickettsia-like bacterium (RLB), which caused severe mortalities of commercially farmed Penaeus monodon in the southwest region of Madagascar, was investigated to determine whether the organism would produce the same disease in P. vannamei. Two series of bioassays were performed to determine whether this RLB could be transmitted to P. vannamei through injection and per os exposure. The first series of challenge bioassays used frozen, RLB-infected P. monodon tissue from Madagascar as the inoculum and feed for the injection, and per os bioassays with specific pathogen free (SPF) P. vannamei. In the second series of bioassays, frozen RLB-infected P. vannamei tissue derived from the first series of injection bioassays was used as the inoculum to challenge by injection and per os SPF P. vannamei. Disease status was determined through standard histological techniques and by in situ hybridization assays with a digoxigenin-labeled probe specific for this RLB. The results indicated that P. vannamei did develop the RLB infection when injected with either RLB infected P. monodon or P. vannamei tissue homogenates. This contrasts with results from the per os exposure to the RLB in which the disease could not be reproduced. PMID:12718469

  4. Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of alpha-linolenic acid (PFA 18:3), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  5. Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of arachidonic acid (PFA 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  6. Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 6 fatty acids (18:2 + 20:4), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  7. Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of children (9-13 Years): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NHANES, 1999-2004, 24-hr dietary recalls were used to examine the contribution of Lean Beef (LB) to total nutrient intake in diets of children 9-13 years (n=3,273), and determine dietary intake differences between LB consumers and non-consumers. LB was defined by MyPyramid Equivalents Database as be...

  8. Haemophilus Responses to Nutritional Immunity: Epigenetic and Morphological Contribution to Biofilm Architecture, Invasion, Persistence and Disease Severity

    PubMed Central

    Szelestey, Blake R.; Heimlich, Derek R.; Raffel, Forrest K.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Mason, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. PMID:24130500

  9. Contributions of ATP, GTP, and Redox State to Nutritional Stress Activation of the Bacillus subtilis σB Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuyu; Haldenwang, W. G.

    2005-01-01

    The general stress regulon of Bacillus subtilis is induced by activation of the σB transcription factor. σB activation occurs when one of two phosphatases responds to physical or nutritional stress to activate a positive σB regulator by dephosphorylation. The signal that triggers the nutritional stress phosphatase (RsbP) is unknown; however, RsbP activation occurs under culture conditions (glucose/phosphate starvation, azide or decoyinine treatment) that reduce the cell's levels of ATP and/or GTP. Variances in nucleotide levels in these instances may be coincidental rather than causal. RsbP carries a domain (PAS) that in some regulatory systems can respond directly to changes in electron transport, proton motive force, or redox potential, changes that typically precede shifts in high-energy nucleotide levels. The current work uses Bacillus subtilis with mutations in the oxidative phosphorylation and purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathways in conjunction with metabolic inhibitors to better define the inducing signal for RsbP activation. The data argue that a drop in ATP, rather than changes in GTP, proton motive force, or redox state, is the key to triggering σB activation. PMID:16267279

  10. Nutritional Therapy.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Julie

    2016-03-01

    This article provides the reader with steps needed to accurately assess patient nutrition behaviors that contribute to weight gain, inability to lose weight, or inability to sustain weight loss. Evidence-based approaches in nutrition therapy that can create the daily energy deficit needed to produce 1/2 to 2 pounds of weight loss per week, and the strategies to create the energy deficit, are presented. To optimize health, long-term weight loss maintenance is needed. The benefits of using a multidisciplinary team approach in treating obesity are highlighted. PMID:26896201

  11. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C.; Velarde-Montes, Germán J.; García-de la Parra, Luz M.; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F.; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

  12. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    PubMed

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (ν·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = Σ{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its physiological changes, further contributing to the improvement of capture and rearing technique.

  14. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR. PMID:26691577

  15. Microbiological Investigation of Persistent Mortalities in Litopenaeus vannamei Grown in Low Saline Waters in India.

    PubMed

    Sanathkumar, Hirekudel; Ravi, Charan; Padinhatupurayil, Suresh Babu; Mol, Mini; Prasad, Jilagam Krishna; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Microbial diseases are a serious hindrance to successful shrimp aquaculture. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is an exotic species recently introduced in India to supplement the failing aquaculture of the Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon due to viral diseases. However, after a brief initial success, the aquaculture of L. vannamei is also experiencing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In this study, we conducted a microbiological investigation into the problem of persistent mortalities in selected L. vannamei farms on the southeastern coast of India. The infected shrimps were positive for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by a nested PCR, though no visible white spots were present on the animals. The shrimps were heavily colonized by Vibrio parahemolyticus, which were isolated from the hepatopancreas, gills, and the body surface. The pond water, despite being low saline groundwater, harbored large numbers of V. parahemolyticus and other Vibrio species, and V. parahemolyticus isolated from L. vannamei were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins. Our results strongly suggest that the persistent mortalities of L. vannamei were due to a co-infection by V. parahemolyticus and WSSV. Received December 16, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014. PMID:25229486

  16. Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  17. Transcriptomic response to low salinity stress in gills of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxu; Pan, Luqing; Zhao, Qun; Ren, Qin

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei), is one of the most farmed species. Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects its growth and distribution. However, the molecular mechanism of the shrimp in response to salinity stress remains largely unclear. High-throughput sequencing is a helpful tool to analyze the molecular response to salinity challenge in shrimp. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of the gills in L. vannamei under low salinity stress were detected by Illumina's digital gene expression system. A total of 10,725,789 and 10,827,411 reads were generated from the non-changed and low salinity changed groups, respectively. 64,590 Unigenes with an average length of 764bp were generated. Compared with the control, 585 genes were differentially expressed under low salinity. GO functional analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated some vital genes in response to the challenge. Ten genes related to osmoregulation and ambient salinity adaption were selected to validate the DGE results by RT-qPCR. This work provides valuable information to study the mechanism of salinity adaption in L. vannamei. Genes and pathways from the results will be beneficial to reveal the molecular basis of osmoregulation. It also gives an insight into the response to the salinity challenge in L. vannamei. PMID:26210687

  18. Fruit and vegetable intakes, sources and contribution to total diet in very young children (1-4 years): the Irish National Pre-School Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Laura; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert

    2016-06-01

    Although the importance of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intakes in the prevention of chronic diseases is well established, there are limited data on intakes in very young children. This study estimates F&V intakes and sources and the contribution to the total diet using data from the National Pre-School Nutrition Survey, a nationally representative sample (n 500) of Irish children aged 1-4 years. A 4-d weighed food record was used to collect food intake data. Of 1652 food codes consumed, 740 had a fruit/vegetable component. The percentage of edible fruits and/or vegetables in each food code was calculated. Intakes (g/d), sources (g/d) and the contribution of F&V to the weight of the total diet (%) were estimated, split by age. All children consumed F&V. Intakes of total fruits, in particular fruit juice, increased with age. The contribution to total fruit intake was discrete fruits (47-56 % range across age), 100 % fruit juice, smoothies and pureés (32-45 %) as well as fruits in composite dishes (7-13 %). Total vegetable intake comprised of discrete vegetables (48-62 % range across age) and vegetables in composite dishes (38-52 %). F&V contributed on average 20 % (15 % fruit; 5 % vegetables) to the weight of the total diet and was <10 % in sixty-one children (12 %). F&V contributed 50 % of vitamin C, 53 % of carotene, 34 % of dietary fibre and 42 % of non-milk sugar intakes from the total diet. F&V are important components of the diet of Irish pre-school children; however, some aspects of F&V intake patterns could be improved in this age group. PMID:27102717

  19. Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptome Using the Next-Generation DNA Sequencing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yonggui; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Lü, Ling; Zhang, Haiqing; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    Background Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the major species of farmed shrimps in the world, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. The now available transcriptome data of L. vannamei are insufficient for research requirements, and have not been adequately assembled and annotated. Methodology/Principal Findings This is the first study that used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Solexa/Illumina GA II method, to analyze the transcriptome from whole bodies of L. vannamei larvae. More than 2.4 Gb of raw data were generated, and 109,169 unigenes with a mean length of 396 bp were assembled using the SOAP denovo software. 73,505 unigenes (>200 bp) with good quality sequences were selected and subjected to annotation analysis, among which 37.80% can be matched in NCBI Nr database, 37.3% matched in Swissprot, and 44.1% matched in TrEMBL. Using BLAST and BLAST2Go softwares, 11,153 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) categories, 8171 unigenes were assigned into 51 Gene ontology (GO) functional groups, and 18,154 unigenes were divided into 220 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. To primarily verify part of the results of assembly and annotations, 12 assembled unigenes that are homologous to many embryo development-related genes were chosen and subjected to RT-PCR for electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing analyses, and to real-time PCR for expression profile analyses during embryo development. Conclusions/Significance The L. vannamei transcriptome analyzed using the next-generation sequencing technique enriches the information of L. vannamei genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the genome background of crustaceans, and promote the studies on L. vannamei. PMID:23071809

  20. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  1. Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  2. Maternal perceptions of factors contributing to severe under-nutrition among children in a rural African setting

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, A; Holding, P; Mwangome, M; Maitland, K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In developing countries, severe undernutrition in early childhood is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, and 10–40% of hospital admissions. The current study aimed to elicit maternal perceptions of factors that contribute to severe undernutrition among children in a rural Kenyan community in order to identify appropriate and acceptable targeted interventions. Methods The study consisted of 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) of between eight and ten mothers each, in a rural coastal community in Kenya. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the FGD data. Results In all FGDs ‘financial constraints’ was the main reason given for severe undernutrition of children. The mothers reported the additional factors of inadequate food intake, ill health, inadequate care of children, heavy workload for mothers, inadequate control of family resources by women and a lack of resources for generating income for the family. The mothers also reported their local cultural belief that severe malnutrition was due to witchcraft and the violation of sexual taboos. Conclusions The mothers in the study community recognised multiple aetiologies for severe undernutrition. A multidisciplinary approach is needed address the range of issues raised and so combat severe undernutrition. Suggested interventions include poverty alleviation, medical education and psychosocial strategies. The content and approach of any program must address the need for variability, determined by individual and local needs, concerns, attitudes and beliefs. PMID:21323398

  3. Thioredoxin of Litopenaeus vannamei facilitated white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Qing-hui; Wu, Yin; Huang, Jie

    2015-07-01

    Thioredoxin (TRX), a major intracellular antioxidant, has a wide range of biological functions. It was up-regulated and targeted by WSSV. However, the relevance of TRX with WSSV infection and signaling pathway remains largely unknown. Sequence analysis indicated that TRX might interact with the WSSV030 (VP362) and WSSV454 (thymidine kinase-thymidylate kinase, TK-TMK) of WSSV. In this study, TRX, VP362 and TK-TMK were expressed and the interaction of TRX with VP362 or TK-TMK was investigated. Furthermore, how TRX affect the process of WSSV infection and the gene transcription of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase (IKK), a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (LvP38) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas was explored. Far-western blot and enzyme-linked immuno assay (ELISA) results showed that TRX interacted with VP362 and TK-TMK. The mRNA expressions of IKK, LvP38 and STAT were significantly affected by the over-presence of TRX of Litopenaeus vannamei. Neutralization experiment in vivo indicated that TRX induced the transcription expression of VP28 and increased the viral copy numbers in the early stage of WSSV infection and it may attribute to the death of shrimps infected by WSSV. PMID:26012854

  4. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P < 0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  5. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  6. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  7. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  8. Nutritional Issues in Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Missale; Bozic, Molly; Mascarenhas, Maria R

    2016-03-01

    The importance of maintaining adequate nutrition in patients with cystic fibrosis has been well known for the past 3 decades. Achieving normal growth and maintaining optimal nutrition is associated with improved lung function. Comprehensive and consistent nutritional assessments at regular intervals can identify those at risk of nutritional failure and uncover micronutrient deficiencies contributing to malnutrition. Management of malnutrition in cystic fibrosis should follow a stepwise approach to determine the causes and comorbidities and to develop a nutritional plan. Nutritional management is crucial at every stage in a person's life with cystic fibrosis and remains a cornerstone of management. PMID:26857771

  9. Digital gene expression analysis in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to low salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Hu, Dongxu

    2015-02-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has been greatly impacted by low salinity stress. To gain knowledge on the immune response in L. vannamei under such stress, we investigated digital gene expression (DEG) in L. vannamei hemocytes using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 38,155 high quality unigenes with average length 770 bp were generated; 145 and 79 genes were identified up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune signaling pathways, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, apoptosis, cellular protein synthesis, lipid transport and energy metabolism were the differentially regulated processes occurring during low salinity stress. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding environmental stress and a valuable gene information for a better understanding of immune mechanisms of L. vannamei under low salinity stress. PMID:25463292

  10. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio (P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV led to massive death of L. vannamei.

  11. Identification of cold responsive genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinxia; Wei, Pinyuan; Chen, Xiuli; Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiaohan

    2016-01-10

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world. Despite L. vannamei having tropical origins, it is being reared subtropically, with low temperature stress being one of the most severe threats to its growth, survival and distribution. To unravel the molecular basis of cold tolerance in L. vannamei, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) platform was employed to identify cold responsive genes in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Both forward and reverse cDNA libraries were constructed, followed by dot blot hybridization, cloning, sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. These approaches identified 92 cold induced and 48 cold inhibited ESTs to give a total of 37 cold induced and 17 cold inhibited contigs. Some of the identified genes related to stress response or cell defense, such as tetraspanins (TSPANs), DEAD-box helicase, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothionein (MT), which were more abundant in the forward SSH library than in the reverse SSH library. The most abundant Est was a tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) homolog dubbed LvTSPAN8. A multiple sequence alignment and transmembrane domain prediction was also performed for LvTSPAN8. LvTSPAN8 expression was also examined in the gills, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas following cold exposure and showed the highest expression levels in the hepatopancreas. Overall, this study was able to identify several known genes and novel genes via SSH that appear to be associated with cold stress and will help to provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance in L. vannamei. PMID:26407639

  12. SNP Discovery in the Transcriptome of White Pacific Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by Next Generation Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    The application of next generation sequencing technology has greatly facilitated high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping in genetic research. In the present study, SNPs were discovered based on two transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) generated from Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000. One transcriptome of L. vannamei was obtained through sequencing on the RNA from larvae at mysis stage and its reference sequence was de novo assembled. The data from another transcriptome were downloaded from NCBI and the reads of the two transcriptomes were mapped separately to the assembled reference by BWA. SNP calling was performed using SAMtools. A total of 58,717 and 36,277 SNPs with high quality were predicted from the two transcriptomes, respectively. SNP calling was also performed using the reads of two transcriptomes together, and a total of 96,040 SNPs with high quality were predicted. Among these 96,040 SNPs, 5,242 and 29,129 were predicted as non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs respectively. Characterization analysis of the predicted SNPs in L. vannamei showed that the estimated SNP frequency was 0.21% (one SNP per 476 bp) and the estimated ratio for transition to transversion was 2.0. Fifty SNPs were randomly selected for validation by Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification and 76% of SNPs were confirmed, which indicated that the SNPs predicted in this study were reliable. These SNPs will be very useful for genetic study in L. vannamei, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies. PMID:24498047

  13. Identification and functional characterization of an endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-α gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Kai; Yue, Hai-Tao; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Bi, Hai-Tao; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    In the current study, full-length sequence of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1-α (LvERO1-α) was cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. Real-time RT-PCR results showed that LvERO1-α was highly expressed in hemocytes, gills, and intestines. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge was performed, and the expression of LvERO1-α and two other downstream genes of the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase-eIF2α (PERK-α) pathway, namely, homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein (LvHERP) and acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme (LvAARE), strongly increased in the hemocytes. Flow cytometry assay results indicated that the apoptosis rate of L. vannamei hemocytes in the LvERO1-α knockdown group was significantly lower than that of the controls. Moreover, shrimps with knockdown expression of LvERO1-α exhibited decreased cumulative mortality upon WSSV infection. Downregulation of L. vannamei immunoglobulin-binding protein (LvBip), which had been proven to induce unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei, did not only upregulate LvERO1-α, LvHERP, and LvAARE in hemocytes, but also increased their apoptosis rate, as well as the shrimp cumulative mortality. Furthermore, reporter gene assay results showed that the promoter of LvERO1-α was activated by L. vannamei activating transcription factor 4, thereby confirming that LvERO1-α was regulated by the PERK-eIF2α pathway. These results suggested that LvERO1-α plays a critical role in WSSV-induced apoptosis, which likely occurs through the WSSV-activated PERK-eIF2α pathway. PMID:26631649

  14. Enhanced cellular immunity in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'vaccination'.

    PubMed

    Pope, Edward C; Powell, Adam; Roberts, Emily C; Shields, Robin J; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-01-01

    It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed 'specific immune priming', although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1:1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from 'vaccinated' shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either 'immunised' or non-immunised' shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that 'vaccination' has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of 'immune priming' reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

  15. The potential contribution of Iivestock to food and nutrition security: the application of the One Health approach in livestock policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Nabarro, D; Wannous, C

    2014-08-01

    Animal products are critical to the nutrition,food security, livelihoods and resilience of hundreds of millions of people throughout the world. Livestock accounts for 40% of worldwide income from agriculture. Demand for animal products is set to continue increasing in the next three decades, as is their market price. If not carefully managed, a worldwide increase in the production of animal-derived products would increase pressure on natural resources (particularly water and land), significantly raising levels of dangerous greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the risk of people contracting zoonotic diseases. These realities are informing governments as they encourage the managed intensification of livestock production. They seek to do this in ways that take account of poorer people's contributions to the growth of rural economies. They look for ways to link together work on agricultural productivity, efficient food systems; infrastructure development; access to energy, water and affordable health care; and the sustenance of environmental services (including the mitigation of any further stimuli for changes in the global climate). Managed intensification of livestock production would also require long-term application of a One Health approach with its focus on mitigating health risks at the interfaces between animals and humans in different ecosystems. It will stimulate the joint working of multiple interests in pursuit of a common goal - ending hunger and malnutrition. The authors would like to see the One Health approach being incorporated within all nations' animal, environmental and public health policies and into the educational agendas of medical and veterinary undergraduate students. It must also be incorporated into preparedness, contingency planning, desk-top exercises and on-site simulations to get ready for the next mega disaster - no matter how improbable it might seem. PMID:25707178

  16. An overview of the contribution of dairy and cheese intakes to nutrient intakes in the Irish diet: results from the National Adult Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Emma L; Nugent, Anne P; Mc Nulty, Breige; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Eileen R

    2016-02-01

    Dairy products are important contributors to nutrient intakes. However, dairy intakes are reportedly declining in developed populations, potentially due to concerns regarding Na and SFA in dairy foods, particularly cheese. This could impact other nutrient intakes. The present study used data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS) to (1) examine dairy intakes, with a specific focus on cheese, and (2) to examine the contribution of cheese to population nutrient intakes. The NANS captured detailed dietary intake data from a nationally representative sample (n 1500) between 2008 and 2010 using 4-d semi-weighed food diaries; 99·9 % of the population reported dairy intake. Mean daily population dairy intake was 290·0 (sd 202·1) g. Dairy products provided 8·7 % of the population intake of reported dietary Na, 19·8 % SFA, 39 % Ca, 34·5 % vitamin B12 and 10·5 % Mg. Cheese alone provided 3·9 % Na intake, 9·1 % Ca, 12·6 % retinol, 8·3 % SFA, 3·7 % protein, 3·4 % vitamin B12 and 3·2 % riboflavin. High dairy consumers had greater Ca and Mg intakes per 10 MJ, greater total energy intake, greater percentage of energy from carbohydrate and SFA and lower Na intakes compared with low dairy consumers. Similar trends were observed for high consumers of cheese for most nutrients except Na. These results demonstrate that dairy and cheese are important contributors to nutrient intakes of public health interest, such as Ca and B12. Our analysis also demonstrated that food-based dietary guidelines recommending lower-fat versions of dairy products are warranted. PMID:26675882

  17. Nutrition in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-01-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with ?-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. PMID:26544599

  18. Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae), cultivated at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Gucic, Milena; Cortés-Jacinto, Edilmar; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD) and lipids (ALD) were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP) and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP) diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50 psu) in 60 L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CP diet which had 74.0% at 50 psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35 psu, respectively). For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4%) at 5 psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50 psu (97.3 and 94.7%). This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. PMID:24027918

  19. Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-01-01

    Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

  20. Identification of bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals distinct temperature-driven patterns.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-01-01

    Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

  1. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  2. The effects of temperature and salinity on the swimming ability of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peidong; Zhang, Xiumei; Li, Jian; Huang, Guoqiang

    2007-05-01

    Swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to various temperatures (15, 20, and 25 degrees C) and salinities (15, 32, and 40 per thousand) was determined in a swimming channel against one of five flow velocities (5.41, 6.78, 8.21, 10.11, and 11.47 cm s(-1)) for up to 9000 s. No shrimp swam the full 9000 s throughout the experiment. The swimming endurance decreased as swimming speed was increased at any of the temperatures and salinities tested and was significantly affected by temperature and salinity (P<0.05). The power model (nu x t(b) = a) showed a better fit to the relationship between swimming endurance (t, in s) and swimming speed (nu, in cm s(-1)) at any of the temperatures and salinities tested. The swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = integral(0)(9000) vdt x 10(-4) (cm), was found to be temperature- and salinity-dependent in L. vannamei. The optimum temperature and salinity and corresponding maximum SAI were Topt = 21.3 degrees C and SAI(max21.3) = 7.37 cm; Sopt = 27.6 per thousand and SAI(max27.6) = 7.47 cm, respectively. The range of temperatures and salinities within which SAI is >90% of the maximum was estimated between 17.6 and 24.9 degrees C and between 18.5 and 36.7 per thousand, respectively. The results suggest that the power model fits well to the observed endurance estimates and the SAI is a good index to quantitatively describe the overall swimming ability of L. vannamei. Furthermore, temperature and salinity can limit the swimming performance of L. vannamei. PMID:17275374

  3. Cloning and characterization of a novel hemocyanin variant LvHMCV4 from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xin; Lu, Hui; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Zehui; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Yueling

    2015-10-01

    Recently, we found 3 variants of hemocyanin subunit with higher molecular weight in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Named as LvHMCV1-3). In this study, a novel L. vannamei hemocyanin variant (Named as LvHMCV4) was further cloned and characterized. Bioinformatic analysis predicted that LvHMCV4 contains one open reading frame of 2137 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 678 amino acids. It shares 84-99% cDNA sequences identity to that of the classical form of L. vannamei hemocyanin (LvHMC, AJ250830.1) and LvHMCV1-3. LvHMCV4 possesses a conserved structure characteristic of the hemocyanin family and can be clustered into one branch along with other arthropod hemocyanins in a phylogenetic tree. Further, the full-length DNA of LvHMCV4 contains 2660 bp and two introns, which are located at the 80-538 bp and 2063-2227 bp regions, respectively. In addition, the mRNA transcript of LvHMCV4 was expressed highly in the hepatopancreas, lymphoid, brain and hemocytes, and weakly in the heart, intestine and gill, while no expression was found in the muscle, stomach and gut. Infection by Escherichia coli K12, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio fluvialis, Streptococcus pyogenes or Staphylococcus aureus up-regulated significantly LvHMCV4 mRNA expression in the hepatopancreas. Furthermore, the recombinant protein of LvHMCV4 (rLvHMCV4) was prepared, which showed agglutination activities against six pathogenic bacteria at concentrations ranging from 15.6 to 125 μg/ml. When co-injected with V. parahaemolyticus in L.vannamei, rLvHMCV4 significantly increased the survival rate after 48 h injection. Together, these studies suggested that hemocyanin variant, LvHMCV4, might be involved in shrimp resistance to pathogenic infection. PMID:26115633

  4. Preoperative Nutrition and Prehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ruchir; Gan, Tong J

    2016-03-01

    Enhanced recovery after surgery is the natural evolution of what were previously referred to as fast track programs and seeks to implement a series of interventions to improve and enhance recovery after major surgical procedures. Two important preoperative aspects are nutrition and prehabilitation. Identifying nutritionally deficient patients allows preoperative intervention to optimize their nutritional status. The contribution of cardiopulmonary exercise testing to the evaluation of perioperative risk, subsequent development of a training program, and the use of indices to risk stratify and measure improvement after a training program allow a personalized preoperative program to be developed for each patient. PMID:26927744

  5. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Leobert D; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp. PMID:26503780

  6. The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7 μg/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security. PMID:25600714

  7. Immune gene expression for diverse haemocytes derived from pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Chiu; Lu, Chung-Lun; Chen, Sherwin; Liao, Wen-Liang; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2015-05-01

    In this study, diverse haemocytes from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were spread by flow cytometer sorting system. Using the two commonly flow cytometric parameters FSC and SSC, the haemocytes could be divided into three populations. Microscopy observation of L. vannamei haemocytes in anticoagulant buffer revealed three morphologically distinct cell types designated as granular cell, hyaline cell and semigranular cell. Immune genes, which includes prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide-β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin, crustin, lysozyme, penaeid-3a and transglutaminase (TGase), expressed from different haemocyte were analysed by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Results from the mRNA expression was estimated by relative level of each gene to β-actin gene. Finally, the seven genes could be grouped by their dominant expression sites. ProPO, LGBP and peroxinectin were highly expressed in granular cells, while LGBP, crustin, lysozyme and P-3a were highly expressed in semigranular cells and TGase was highly expressed in hyaline cells. In this study, L. vannamei haemocytes were firstly grouped into three different types and the immune related genes expression in grouped haemocytes were estimated. PMID:25681751

  8. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  9. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePlus

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  10. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose

  11. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  12. The Plausibility of Maternal Nutritional Status Being a Contributing Factor to the Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Influence of Zinc Status as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Keen, Carl L.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, while its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn supplemented diets or Zn injections prior to the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute phase response resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD) support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection for some of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20333752

  13. Nutritional supplements in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Genevieve Luehrs; McKinzie, Brian P; Bullington, Wendy Moore; Cooper, Tanna B; Pilch, Nicole Ann

    2011-01-01

    Poor nutritional intake during critical illness can contribute to increased morbidity and mortality. Although nutrition strategies for critically ill patients attempt to provide essential macronutrients, recent evidence suggests that certain micronutrients and supplements may improve wound healing and decrease infectious and inflammatory complications. This review will focus on mechanism of action, adverse effects and drug interactions reported in the literature, and appropriate dosing and outcomes data for specific nutritional supplements in various critically ill adult populations. PMID:22064578

  14. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  15. Whole Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Mechanisms for Molting in Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jiankai; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Molting is one of the most important biological processes in shrimp growth and development. All shrimp undergo cyclic molting periodically to shed and replace their exoskeletons. This process is essential for growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying shrimp molting remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated global expression changes in the transcriptomes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, the most commonly cultured shrimp species worldwide. The transcriptome of whole L. vannamei was investigated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) throughout the molting cycle, including the inter-molt (C), pre-molt (D0, D1, D2, D3, D4), and post-molt (P1 and P2) stages, and 93,756 unigenes were identified. Among these genes, we identified 5,117 genes differentially expressed (log2ratio ≥1 and FDR ≤0.001) in adjacent molt stages. The results were compared against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant protein/nucleotide sequence database, Swiss-Prot, PFAM database, the Gene Ontology database, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database in order to annotate gene descriptions, associate them with gene ontology terms, and assign them to pathways. The expression patterns for genes involved in several molecular events critical for molting, such as hormone regulation, triggering events, implementation phases, skelemin, immune responses were characterized and considered as mechanisms underlying molting in L. vannamei. Comparisons with transcriptomic analyses in other arthropods were also performed. The characterization of major transcriptional changes in genes involved in the molting cycle provides candidates for future investigation of the molecular mechanisms. The data generated in this study will serve as an important transcriptomic resource for the shrimp research community to facilitate gene and genome annotation and to characterize key molecular processes underlying shrimp development. PMID:26650402

  16. Identification and functional characterization of the TAB2 gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; Qian, Zhe; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2015-10-01

    In Drosophila, TAB2, an important intermediate in the IMD signaling pathway, plays critical roles in the innate immune response in response to bacterial and viral infection. However, the role of TAB-related proteins in the immune response of shrimp has not yet been established. Here, we reported the identification of a TAB2-like gene in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvTAB2. The full-length cDNA of LvTAB2 was 2160 bp with an open reading frame of 1827 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 608 amino acids including a ubiquitin binding domain (CUE) at the N-terminal and a Zinc Finger domain (ZnF) at the C-terminus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LvTAB2 was expressed in all tested tissues and the expression levels of LvTAB2 in gills and hemocytes were positively induced in response to LPS, Vibrio parahemolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) challenges. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that LvTAB2 was able to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, including Drosophila Attacin A and shrimp Penaeidins. Interestingly, over-expression of LvTAB2 could up-regulate the promoter activities of L. vannamei Vago1, Vago3 and Vago4 genes in S2 cells. To our knowledge, it was the first report that TAB2 participated in innate immune signaling to regulate the expression of Vago genes in invertebrates. Moreover, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LvTAB2 enhanced sensitivity of L. vannamei to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection and caused elevated virus loads after WSSV infection. We suggested that the LvTAB2 may play important roles in the shrimp innate immunity. PMID:26102459

  17. LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-05-01

    DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus. PMID:25703712

  18. Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Salazar, Marcela; Aranguren, Fernando; Lightner, Donald V

    2004-12-13

    Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids. In this article, we report the first pathogenic spiroplasma to be discovered in shrimp and the results of its characterization through histological evaluation, in situ hybridization assays, transmission electron microscopy, 16S rRNA sequence homology, and injection infectivity studies. In addition, molecular methods are described that were developed for the detection of this microorganism, which was determined to be the causative disease agent in Colombian farm-raised Penaeus vannamei suffering from high mortalities. Using standard histological methods and in situ hybridization assays, it was confirmed that P. vannamei was infected with this pathogenic spiroplasma. Histological analysis revealed systemic inflammatory reactions in affected organs/tissues. In an attempt to identify the bacteria, frozen infected P. vannamei samples, from the initial epizootic, were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene and develop molecular detection methods. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The sequence data were analyzed using the GenBank BLAST search and the results revealed a 98% homology with Spiroplasma citri, a pathogen of citrus trees. The 16S rRNA sequence data were evaluated for development of unique PCR primers to the putative spiroplasma. Using PCR primers developed for the spiralin gene of Spiroplasma spp., a digoxigenin-labeled probe was developed and tested. This probe was species-specific, with no positive reactions or cross-reactivity occurring with other bacterial samples tested in this format. PMID:15672883

  19. Artemia franciscana as a vector for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) to Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Lavander, Henrique David; de Santana Luna, Manuella Maria; de Melo Eloi da Silva, Ana Odete; Gálvez, Alfredo Olivera; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2015-03-01

    In 2004, the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recognized as the main cause of Litopenaeusvannamei shrimp culture's drop in Brazil. In health animal control programs, in order to reduce virus prevalence in production units it is necessary to screen live feed used. Among live diets used in aquaculture, the brine shrimp Artemia sp. is essential in crustacean larviculture and maturation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Artemiafranciscana to IMNV through an immersion challenge and virus-phytoplankton adhesion route and to elucidate its role as a vector for IMNV transmission to L.vannamei. A. franciscana adults were infected with IMNV through both routes, as demonstrated by PCR-positive reactions. However, infected A. franciscana showed no signs of infection. More than 40% of L. vannamei juveniles fed with IMNV-infected A. franciscana by virus-phytoplankton adhesion route were positive by real-time PCR, whereas only a 10% infection rate was found among shrimp fed with IMNV-infected brine shrimp using the immersion challenge. Significant differences were found in mean viral load between immersion and virus-phytoplankton adhesion shrimp treatments (p ⩽ 0.05). Moreover, the mean viral loads were 1.34 × 10(2) and 1.48 × 10(4) copies/μg(-1) of total RNA for virus-phytoplankton adhesion and IMNV-infected tissue treatments, respectively, and the difference was not significant (p ⩾ 0.05). The results indicated that A. franciscana act as a vector for IMNV transmission under the experimental conditions examined. Although no mass mortalities were detected in L. vannamei fed with IMNV-infected brine shrimp, these infected shrimp should not be disregarded as a source of IMNV in grow-out units. PMID:25676109

  20. RNAi-based inhibition of infectious myonecrosis virus replication in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Rubens Galdino; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Cunha Martins, Pedro Carlos; de Abreu, Keuly Ladislau; Oliveira-Neto, João Mafaldo; Guertler, Cristhiane; Justino, Emily Bruna; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria; Marins, Luis Fernando

    2015-05-21

    Disease in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei caused by the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) causes significant socioeconomic impacts in infection-prone shrimp aquaculture regions. The use of synthetic dsRNA to activate an RNA interference (RNAi) response is being explored as a means of disease prophylaxis in farmed shrimp. Here, survival was tracked in L. vannamei injected with long synthetic dsRNAs targeted to IMNV open reading frame (ORF) 1a, ORF1b, and ORF2 genome regions prior to injection challenge with IMNV, and real-time RT-PCR was used to track the progress of IMNV infection and mRNA expression levels of the host genes sid1, dicer2, and argonaute2. Injection of dsRNAs targeting the ORF1a and ORF1b genes but not the ORF2 gene strongly inhibited IMNV replication over a 3 wk period following IMNV challenge, and resulted in 90 and 83% shrimp survival, respectively. Host gene mRNA expression data indicated that the Sid1 protein, which forms a transmembrane channel involved in cellular import/export of dsRNA, increased in abundance most significantly in shrimp groups that were most highly protected by virus-specific dsRNA injection. Subclinical IMNV infections present in the experimental L. vannamei used increased markedly in the 2 d between injection of any of the 4 virus-specific or non-specific dsRNAs tested and IMNV challenge. While handling and injection stress are implicated in increasing IMNV replication levels, the underlying molecular factors that may have been involved remain to be elucidated. PMID:25993884

  1. Streptococcosis in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei: a new emerging bacterial disease of penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hasson, Ken W; Wyld, Ernesto Matheu; Fan, Yaping; Lingsweiller, Sonia W; Weaver, Stephanie J; Cheng, Jinling; Varner, Patricia W

    2009-09-23

    Presumptive systemic streptococcal infections were detected histologically in farmed Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles submitted from a Latin American country and the bacteria isolated. Characterization work demonstrated that the Gram-positive cocci form chains, grow aerobically and anaerobically, are oxidase- and catalase-negative, non-hemolytic, non-motile, Lancefield Group B positive and PCR positive when amplified with a universal streptococcal primer set. Differing Streptococcus identifications were obtained using API 20 Strep and Biolog systems, the former identifying the isolate as S. uberis and the latter as S. parauberis. Injection of specific pathogen-free (SPF) L. vannamei with the bacteria resulted in 100% mortality by 3 d post-injection with successful recovery of the agent from moribund test shrimp hemolymph samples. The recovered isolate was used in per os and waterborne exposure studies of SPF L. vannamei with mortalities ranging from 40 to 100% and 80 to 100%, respectively. Histologic analysis of 5 to 8 moribund shrimp from each exposure method demonstrated that all contained a severe bacteremia characterized by numerous free cocci within the hemolymph and aggregates of vacuolated hemocytes with notable intravacuolar cocci. This unique lesion type was most pronounced within the lymphoid organ and considered pathodiagnostic for this disease. Experimentally induced lesions were identical to those in naturally infected farmed shrimp and the Streptococcus sp. responsible was re-isolated, fulfilling Koch's postulates. Five freeze/thaw cycles of 10 experimentally infected shrimp were performed over a 2 mo period and the bacteria successfully cultured from all shrimp at each interval. These collective findings describe the first reported case of streptococcosis in marine penaeid shrimp in the Western Hemisphere and indicate that the agent may be disseminated via live or frozen infected shrimp. PMID:19902838

  2. Molecular characterization and function of a PTEN gene from Litopenaeus vannamei after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    PubMed

    Xie, C-Y; Kong, J-R; Zhao, C-S; Xiao, Y-C; Peng, T; Liu, Y; Wang, W-N

    2016-06-01

    PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, suppresses cell survival, growth, apoptosis, cell migration and DNA damage repair by inhibiting the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. In this study, the full-length Litopenaeus vannamei PTEN (LvPTEN) cDNA was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 59bp, an ORF of 1269bp and a 3'UTR of 146bp besides the poly (A) tail. The PTEN gene encoded a protein of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 48.3 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 7.6. Subcellular localization analysis revealed that LvPTEN was distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and the tissue distribution patterns showed that LvPTEN was ubiquitously expressed in all the examined tissues. Vibrio alginolyticus challenge induced upregulation of LvPTEN expression. Moreover, RNAi knock-down of LvPTEN in vivo significantly increased the expression of LvAKT mRNA, while reducing that of the downstream apoptosis genes LvP53 and LvCaspase3. LvPTEN knock-down also caused a sharp increase in cumulative mortality, bacterial numbers, and DNA damage in the hemolymph of L. vannamei following V. alginolyticus challenge, together with a sharp decrease in the total hemocyte count (THC). These results suggested that LvPTEN may participate in apoptosis via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in L. vannamei, and play an important role in shrimp innate immunity. PMID:26801100

  3. Taura syndrome virus in specific pathogen-free Penaeus vannamei originating from Hawaii and in P. vannamei stocks farmed in France?

    PubMed

    Lightner, Donald V; Riggs, Allen; Corbin, John S; Ostrowski, Anthony C

    2007-02-01

    It is the opinion of the authors of the Comment on Do et al. (2006), that those authors incorrectly interpreted their test results, which are more likely the result of mislabeling of samples or within-laboratory contamination, and that the TSV isolates found in Penaeus vannamei in Korea in 2004 and 2005 did not originate from Hawaii as claimed by the authors, but from a country (or countries) in southeast Asia. Finally, we believe that the authors did not follow proper international guidelines, extend a professional courtesy to the supplier of the disputed shrimp sample, nor take a critical approach in interpreting their own data. It is unfortunate that the authors did not follow through with additional testing, or seek a second opinion from an independent laboratory, before implicating shrimp imported from Hawaii as the source of TSV in Korea. PMID:17425266

  4. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. PMID:21034991

  5. Nutrition support in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Sitrin, M D

    1992-04-01

    Many patients with the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease, or ulcerative colitis have significant protein-calorie malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Factors that contribute to these nutritional deficits include inadequate nutrient intake, malabsorption, excessive nutrient secretion across the diseased gastrointestinal tract, drug-nutrient interactions, and increased nutrient requirements. In this review, the use of enteral and parenteral nutrition support as primary therapy for active Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis is discussed. Other roles for nutrition support in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, including preoperative nutrition support, nutritional treatment of intestinal fistulas and growth retardation, and home parenteral nutrition for gut failure, are also reviewed. PMID:1294879

  6. Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size = 520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

  7. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  8. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  9. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  10. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  11. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  12. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen [1]. For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...

  13. Effects of artificial infection of Litopenaeus vannamei by Micrococcus lysodeikticus and WSSV on the activity of immunity related enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Gang; Chan, Siuming F

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the activities of 5 immunity related enzymes namely acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD) and lysozyme phosphatase (LZM)) of Litopenaeus vannamei after they have been injected with different concentrations of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were examined. The cumulative mortality at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h was obtained. Copy numbers of WSSV in L. vannamei after a single infection, secondary infection and concurrent infection were measured. Hemolymph samples of M. lysodeikticus and WSSV injected shrimp were collected at 0, 6, 12 24, 48, 72, 78, 84, 96 and 120 h. The results were: (i) The cumulative mortality of L. vannamei increased as the shrimp were infected with higher concentration of the bacteria; (ii) The most sensitive changes of ACP, AKP and LZM were in the 6.2 × 10(5), 6.2 × 10(6), 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/mL M. lysodeikticus group; (iii) ACP but LZM were more sensitive to M. lysodeikticus than WSSV, and AKP, PO and POD is more sensitive to WSSV; (iv) The copies of WSSV in the co-injected group were higher than WSSV-single infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection group at 48 h. The amount of WSSV in L. vannamei of concurrent infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection groups were higher than that of the WSSV-single infection group. PMID:26117730

  14. De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei under three cultivated conditions with different salinities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Lu, Yunliang

    2016-03-10

    Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important euryhaline crustaceans, is cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater worldwide. We performed Illumina RNA sequencing of L. vannamei gills, generating 124,914,870; 119,250,450; and 105,487,350 raw reads from the shrimps cultured in seawater, brackish water, and freshwater, respectively. From these reads, 466,293 transcripts were de novo assembled and annotated. Comparative genomic analysis showed that 1752 genes were significantly differentially expressed in the freshwater group compared with the seawater group, including 1242 upregulated and 510 downregulated genes. In addition, 1246 genes were differentially expressed in the brackish group vs. the seawater water group, including 659 upregulated and 587 downregulated genes. These differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in energy metabolism, substance metabolism, ion transport and signal transduction, and genetic process. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis were used to analyze the functional significance of the differentially expressed genes, included those responding to salinity through diverse biological functions and processes and numerous potential genes associated with the osmotic response. L. vannamei responses to the three cultivated salinities were analyzed using next-generation sequencing. The transcriptional database established from the current research adds to the information available on L. vannamei and the findings expand our knowledge of the molecular basis of osmoregulation mechanisms in this species. PMID:26691500

  15. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  16. A Rac1 GTPase is a critical factor in the immune response of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    PubMed

    Cha, Gui-Hong; Wang, Wei-Na; Peng, Ting; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Yuan

    2015-08-01

    The small GTPase Rac1 acts as a molecular switch for signal transduction that regulates various cellular functions. However, its functions in crustaceans remain unclear. In this study, a cDNA encoding a RAS GTPase (LvRac1) in the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) was identified and characterized. A recombinant variant of this GTPase, rLvRac1, was expressed in the model organism P. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by mass spectrometry. Biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant protein retained GTPase activity and was expressed in all of the organism's tested tissues. Injection of the bacterium V. alginolyticus into L. vannamei induced hepatopancreatic upregulation of LvRac1 expression. Moreover, knocking down LvRac1 in vivo significantly reduced the expression of the L. vannamei p53 and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase genes (Lvp53 and LvCu/Zn SOD, respectively) while increasing that of the galectin gene (Lvgal). Hemolymph samples from control and LvRac1-silenced L. vannamei individuals were analyzed by flow cytometry, revealing that the latter exhibited significantly reduced respiratory burst activity and total hemocyte counts. Cumulative mortality in shrimp lacking LvRac1 was significantly greater than in control groups following V. alginolyticus challenge. The silencing of LvRac1 by double-stranded RNA injection thus increased the V. alginolyticus challenge sensitivity of L. vannamei and weakened its bacterial clearance ability in vivo. Suppressing LvRac1 also promoted the upregulation of Lvp53, LvCu/ZnSOD, and Lvgal following V. alginolyticus injection. Taken together, these results suggest that LvRac1 is important in the innate immune response of shrimp to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:25892021

  17. Can Nutritional Assessment Tools Predict Response to Nutritional Therapy?

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag; Omer, Endashaw; Diamond, Sarah J; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-04-01

    Traditional tools and scoring systems for nutritional assessment have focused solely on parameters of poor nutritional status in the past, in an effort to define the elusive concept of malnutrition. Such tools fail to account for the contribution of disease severity to overall nutritional risk. High nutritional risk, caused by either deterioration of nutritional status or greater disease severity (or a combination of both factors), puts the patient in a metabolic stress state characterized by adverse outcome and increased complications. Newer scoring systems for determining nutritional risk, such as the Nutric Score and the Nutritional Risk Score-2002 have created a paradigm shift connecting assessment and treatment with quality outcome measures of success. Clinicians now have the opportunity to identify high risk patients through their initial assessment, provide adequate or sufficient nutrition therapy, and expect improved patient outcomes as a result. These concepts are supported by observational and prospective interventional trials. Greater clinical experience and refinement in these scoring systems are needed in the future to optimize patient response to nutrition therapy. PMID:26936031

  18. Nitric oxide synthase-dependent immune response against gram negative bacteria in a crustacean, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Carpio, Yamila; Bolívar, Jorge; Gómez, Leonardo; Estrada, Mario Pablo; Pendón, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived radical generated by nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NO is involved in a variety of functions in invertebrates, including host defense. In previous studies, we isolated and sequenced for the first time the NOS gene from hemocytes of Panulirus argus, demonstrating the inducibility of this enzyme by lipopolysaccharide in vitro e in vivo. Hyperimmune serum was obtained from rabbits immunized with a P. argus -NOS fragment of 31 kDa produced in Escherichia coli, which specifically detected the recombinant polypeptide and the endogenous NOS from lobster hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. In the present work, we demonstrate that the hyperimmune serum obtained against P. argus NOS also recognizes Litopenaeus vannamei NOS in hemocytes by western blotting and immunofluorescence. Our data also show that while the hemolymph of L. vannamei has a strong antibacterial activity against the Gram negative bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila, the administration of the anti NOS serum reduce the natural bacterial clearance. These results strongly suggest that NOS is required for the shrimp immune defense toward Gram negative bacteria. Therefore, the monitoring of induction of NOS could be an important tool for testing immunity in shrimp farming. PMID:26804662

  19. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  20. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero (P <0.01). Moreover, these two estimates were basically the same and showed no significant differences from each other (P >0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  1. Isolation and characterization of infectious Vibrio sinaloensis strains from the Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae).

    PubMed

    del Carmen Flores-Miranda, Ma; Luna-González, Antonio; Córdova, Angel I Campa; Fierro-Coronado, Jesús A; Partida-Arangure, Blanca O; Pintado, José; González-Ocampo, Héctor A

    2012-06-01

    Infectious diseases especially those caused by bacterial and viral pathogens are serious loss factors in shrimp farming. In this study, bacteria were isolated from the gut and hepatopancreas of stressed shrimps obtained from a commercial farm. The isolates were screened on Thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose (TCBS) agar plates for the selection of Vibrio species. Presumptive vibrios were characterized through tests for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth and molecular identification. Three experimental infections were conducted in order to confirm the pathogenicity of selected bacterial strains VHPC18, VHPC23, VHPC24 and VIC30. In the third experimental challenge the LD50 was obtained, it lasted 10 days with 10 shrimp, weighing 6.9+1. Ig, per tank. The treatments in triplicate were: (1) saline solution (control group); (2) 2xl0(5)CFU/shrimp; (3) 4xl05CFU/shrimp; (4) 2x10(6)CFU/shrimp; (5) 4x10(6)CFU/shrimp, and (6) 8x10(6)CFU/shrimp. In all challenges, water parameters measured during the experimental period remained within optimum ranges. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that the mixture of four vibrio isolates, identified as Vibrio sinaloensis, was virulent for L. vannamei. The LD50 value was 1.178x10(5)CFU/g body weight. V sinaloensis may act as opportunistic pathogens for cultured L. vannamei. PMID:23894929

  2. Effect of salinity on regulation mechanism of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Wang, Lin; Miao, Jingjing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of low salinity (transferred from 31‰ to 26‰, 21‰, and 16‰) on the regulation pathways of neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network were investigated in Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that the hormones (corticotrophin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone) and biogenic amines (dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine) concentrations in lower salinity groups increased significantly within 12 h. The gene expression of biogenic amine receptors showed that dopamine receptor D4 and α2 adrenergic receptor in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h, whereas the 5-HT7 receptor significantly increased within 1d. The second messenger synthetases (adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase C) and the second messengers (cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate) of lower salinity groups shared a similar trend in which adenylyl cyclase and cyclic adenosine monophosphate reached the maximum at 12 h, whereas phospholipase C and cyclic guanosine monophosphate reached the minimum. The immune parameters (total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, crustin expression, antibacterial activity, C-type lectin expression, hemagglutinating activity) in lower salinity groups decreased significantly within 12 h. Except for the total hemocyte count, all the parameters recovered to the control levels afterwards. Therefore, it may be concluded that the neuroendocrine-immunoregulatory network plays a principal role in adapting to salinity changes as the main center for sensing the stress and causes immune response in L. vannamei. PMID:26766179

  3. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment. PMID:25952560

  4. Responses of prophenoloxidase system and related defence parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei to low salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Xie, Peng; Hu, Fawen

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of low salinity (26 and 21) on the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system and related defence parameters in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that low salinity induced a significant increase of dopamine (DA) concentration in haemolymph at 6 h of the experiment; on the other hand, total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and PO activity decreased over time to the lowest level at 24 h and remained low thereafter. Serine Protease (SP) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI) activity in the two lower salinity treatments decreased to the lowest level at 12 and 24 h, respectively, and both recovered to the control level at 72 h. In contrast, α2- macroglobulin (α2M) activity in the two lower salinity treatments peaked at 24 h and then decreased to the control level at 72 h. Therefore, it may be concluded that stress-induced DA plays an important temporary role in neurotransmission and causes immune response in L. vannamei in adapting to salinity changes.

  5. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  6. Characterization of newly revealed sequences in the infectious myonecrosis virus genome in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Loy, Duan S; Liu, Sijun; Mogler, Mark A; Dustin Loy, J; Blitvich, Bradley J; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2015-07-01

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) causes significant economic losses in farmed shrimp, where associated mortality in ponds can reach 70 %. To explore host/pathogen interactions, a next-generation sequencing approach using lymphoid organ tissue from IMNV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp was conducted. Preliminary sequence assembly of just the virus showed that there were at least an additional 639 bp at the 5' terminus and 23 nt at the 3' terminus as compared with the original description of the IMNV genome (7561 nt). Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of novel sequence at both ends of the genome. Using 5' RACE, an additional 4 nt were discovered; 3' RACE confirmed the presence of 22 bp rather than 23 bp of sequence. Based on these data, the IMNV genome is 8226 bp in length. dsRNA was used to trigger RNA interference (RNAi) and suppress expression of the newly revealed genome sections at the 5' end of the IMNV genome in IMNV-infected L. vannamei. An RNAi trigger targeting a 376 bp length of the 5' UTR did not improve survival of infected shrimp. In contrast, an RNAi trigger targeting a 381 bp sequence in ORF1 improved survival to 82.2 % as compared with 2.2 % survival in positive control animals. These studies revealed the importance of the new genome sections to produce high-titre infection, and associated disease and mortality, in infected shrimp. PMID:25838065

  7. Nucleic-acid based antivirals: augmenting RNA interference to 'vaccinate'Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Bartholomay, Lyric C; Loy, Duan S; Dustin Loy, J; Harris, D L

    2012-06-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae: Litopenaeus) has emerged as the dominant farmed shrimp species globally in tropical countries. Rearing animals at high density in semi-intensive or intensive culture systems, and translocating animals across the globe, have created optimum conditions for devastating epizootics. Of the various pathogens that impact shrimp culture, viruses are arguably the most important infectious disease agents that exact devastating economic losses to the industry. Augmenting the RNA interference (RNAi) capacity of shrimp is a promising, emerging solution to prevent disease caused by a variety of highly pathogenic shrimp viruses. Indeed RNAi functions as a primary mechanism of antiviral RNA in arthropods, as was revealed initially in studies of mosquito-virus interactions. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used as RNAi triggers in vivo in L. vannamei to reduce the pathology associated with virus infection. We explored the efficacy of those triggers as a function of the target gene in the virus genome and show that efficacy is virus-specific and cannot be predicted based on the target gene function or transcript level in an infected cell. Further, we show that carefully designed RNAi triggers provide an immune stimulus that results in specific, long-term protection and therefore suggest that these dsRNA antivirals can function as vaccines in controlling disease. PMID:22429833

  8. Effect of chronic Taura syndrome virus infection on salinity tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Jeffrey M; Anton, Lesber Salazar; Soto, M Andres

    2005-06-14

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is one of the most important shrimp viruses affecting farmed shrimp worldwide. After an acute phase during which the likelihood of mortality is elevated, infected shrimp enter a chronic phase during which shrimp appear to resume normal behavior and display no gross signs of infection. This study was designed to determine if chronically TSV-infected shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are compromised by the infection. Specifically we investigated whether chronically infected shrimp could tolerate a drop in salinity as strongly as uninfected shrimp. The study consisted of 3 trials that compared survival of uninfected and chronically TSV-infected L. vannamei after drops in salinity from 24 ppt to salinities varying from 18 to 0 ppt. Logistic regression detected a significant effect of TSV infection on survival of chronically infected shrimp (p < 0.05). Salinity drops from 24 ppt to 3 and 6 ppt resulted in statistically different survivals (p < 0.05). Survival rates were similar among groups for salinity drops to greater than 6 ppt or less than 3 ppt. Salinities at which 50% of the shrimp died (LC50) were 3.06 ppt for the uninfected and 6.65 ppt for the chronically infected groups. Moreover, histopathological analysis of chronically infected shrimp that were moribund or recently dead showed no signs of having reverted to the acute stage of the disease. These results suggest that chronically infected shrimp are not able to tolerate a salinity drop as strongly as uninfected shrimp. PMID:16042046

  9. Preparation of an novel botanic biopreservative and its efficacy in keeping quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Deng, Shanggui; Li, Jianrong

    2013-06-01

    A novel botanic biopreservative was successfully prepared by the combination of the bamboo leaves extracts and ebony extracts, designated as ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE), whose antimicrobial activity was assessed according to an inhibition zone method against 10 common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It was found that EBLCE was more effective from all the chosen microorganisms, as compared by potassium sorbate. Due to its excellent antimicrobial activity, and some additional properties like edibility, safety and economy, EBLCE was selected for further study to evaluate the efficacy in prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei during storage at 4 °C, based on periodical microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. As a result, EBLCE was observed to prevent spoilage of peeled P. vannamei efficiently as reflected by a distinct decrease in total viable count, pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, as well as a slower decline in the sensory evaluation scores. Therefore, a prolonged shelf life of 16 days was obtained for EBLCE pre-treated peeled shrimps with comparison of 6 days for the control group, demonstrating EBLCE as a promising alternative for preserving food. PMID:23463785

  10. Population genetic structure of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Mexico to Panama: microsatellite DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Valles-Jimenez, R; Cruz, P; Perez-Enriquez, R

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of wild white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from 4 geographic locations from Mexico to Panama were investigated using 5 microsatellite DNA loci. The genetic diversity between populations was indicated by the mean number of alleles per locus and mean observed heterozygosity, which ranged from 7.4 to 8.6 and from 0.241 to 0.388, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at most locations at each locus, with the exception Guatemala at Pvan0013, and were caused by high heterozygote deficiencies. Genetic differences between localities were detected by pairwise comparison based on allelic and genotypic frequencies, with the exception of locus Pvan1003. Significant pairwise F (ST) values between locations and total F (ST) showed that the white shrimp population is structured into subpopulations. However, population differentiation does not follow an isolation-by-distance model. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and structure of L.vannamei populations will be of interest for aquaculture and fisheries management to utilize and preserve aquatic biodiversity. PMID:15791491

  11. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  12. Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

    2011-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

  13. Contribution of dietary patterns to blood heavy metal concentrations in Korean adults: findings from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Kyung; Park, Ju Yeon; Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between dietary patterns and blood levels of lead and mercury in Korean adults. A total of 858 Korean adults (?20 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) V-1 2010 were included in this study. Data of biochemical measurements including blood lead and mercury levels, nutrients intakes and anthropometric measurements were acquired. 'Balanced diet', 'Grain and kimchi', and 'Alcohol and noodle' dietary patterns were derived from a factor analysis, and the subjects were divided into tertiles by each dietary pattern score. A logistic multiple regression analysis showed that the balanced diet pattern was negatively associated with blood levels of lead before and after adjustment. On the other hand, the alcohol and noodle pattern was positively associated with blood lead and mercury levels. These results indicate that the alcohol and noodle dietary pattern characterized by high alcohol consumption and lack of various foods, and the balanced dietary pattern, including vegetable, fish, meat and milk intake, was associated with the blood concentrations of heavy metals in Korean adults. PMID:24120902

  14. Assessing and improving the quality of food composition databases for nutrition and health applications in Europe: the contribution of EuroFIR.

    PubMed

    Finglas, Paul M; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

    2014-09-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25469406

  15. Assessing and Improving the Quality of Food Composition Databases for Nutrition and Health Applications in Europe: The Contribution of EuroFIR123

    PubMed Central

    Finglas, Paul M.; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

    2014-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25469406

  16. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  17. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  18. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  19. Nutrition economics: towards comprehensive understanding of the benefits of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Koponen, Aki; Sandell, Mari; Salminen, Seppo; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene

    2012-01-01

    There has been an increase in the knowledge and interest on nutrition, and functional foods have gained popularity over the last few decades, and the trend is increasing. Probiotics and prebiotics are among the most studied functional foods. Nutrition economics has been defined as the discipline dedicated to researching and characterising health and economic outcomes in nutrition for the benefit of society. The concept and its application to probiotics and prebiotics will be discussed in terms of health and economic benefits and their evaluation. Health economics and concrete applications showing how to maximise long-term nutritional benefits will contribute to motivate consumers in making food choices based on a rational understanding of their own interest. We present a model that shows that nutrition economics can be used as an analytical tool for product and service network development. PMID:23990809

  20. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  1. Assessing the Fatty Acid, Carotenoid, and Tocopherol Compositions of Amaranth and Quinoa Seeds Grown in Ontario and Their Overall Contribution to Nutritional Quality.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Chen, Peter X; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Ronghua; Hernandez, Marta; Draves, Jamie; Marcone, Massimo F; Tsao, Rong

    2016-02-10

    Various fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenoids, and their respective antioxidant contributions in 7 amaranth seed and 11 quinoa seed samples along with a new evaluation method are reported. The lipid yield was 6.98-7.22% in amaranth seeds and 6.03-6.74% in quinoa seeds, with unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) being the predominant fatty acids, 71.58-72.44% in amaranth seeds and 81.44-84.49% in quinoa seeds, respectively. Carotenoids, mainly lutein and zeaxanthin, are confirmed for the first time in amaranth seeds, while β-carotene is reported first in quinoa seeds. The predominant tocopherols in amaranth seeds are δ- and α-tocopherol, whereas γ- and α-tocopherol are the primary tocopherols in quinoa seeds. UFAs, carotenoids, and tocopherols showed good correlation with antioxidant activity. All of the amaranth seeds demonstrated lower overall lipophilic quality than quinoa seeds, with the AS1 and QS10 cultivars providing the highest scores for amaranth and quinoa seeds, respectively. Results from this study will contribute to developing quinoa seeds and related functional foods with increased benefits. PMID:26760897

  2. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  3. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

  4. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Lin, Heizhao; Qin, Jian G.; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans. PMID:26147449

  5. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Lin, Heizhao; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans. PMID:26147449

  6. Immunostimulation of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) following dietary administration of Ergosan.

    PubMed

    Montero-Rocha, A; McIntosh, D; Sánchez-Merino, R; Flores, I

    2006-03-01

    Ergosan an algal product containing 1% alginic acid, developed for use in aquaculture and reported to have immunomodulatory activity, was administered orally to intermoult adult white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for 15 days. Examination of haemolymph proteins using SDS-PAGE did not reveal any obvious differences between control and Ergosan treated shrimp. Similarly, total haemocyte counts were found to be roughly equivalent for both the control and experimental samples. However, differential analysis of haemocyte populations revealed marked changes in terms of the relative levels of hyaline, semi-granular, and particularly granular haemocytes between the two groups. Moreover, enhancement of the in vitro antimicrobial activity of haemolymph towards two shrimp pathogenic Vibrio isolates was recorded for shrimp fed with Ergosan. Finally, shrimp fed with Ergosan showed a significant increase in relative growth when compared with control groups. PMID:16490202

  7. Microbiome analyses of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from disparate geographical locations

    PubMed Central

    Seetharam, Arun S.; Kawaler, Emily; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Rothschild, Max F.; Severin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the tail muscle microbiota of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) sourced from five countries across Central and South America and Southeast Asia were determined and compared. The genomic DNA was sequenced at around 10 × coverage for each geographical location and was assembled de novo for comparative analysis. The assembled sequences for all the lines were classified based on their similarity to the sequences in the public database. We found that there is high correlation among the microbiota of shrimp from disparate regions, as well as the presence of some DNA from bacteria known to cause food poisoning in humans. Sequencing data has been deposited at NCBI-SRA database and can be found under the BioProject ID PRJNA282154. PMID:26697337

  8. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Oduori, Marietta A; Gasparich, Gail E

    2005-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP(T), isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP(T) grew at temperatures of 20-37 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 degrees C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas. PMID:16280489

  9. Inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase from cephalothoraxes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-28

    The inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from the cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Mimosine showed inhibitory activity toward PPO from white shrimp with an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa as evidenced by the decrease in the activity staining band, as compared to the control. An inhibition kinetic study revealed that mimosine exhibited the mixed type reversible inhibition on PPO from white shrimp with a Ki value of 3.7 mM. Mimosine showed copper (Cu2+) reduction and chelating capacity in a dose dependent manner. Mimosine could react with the intermediate browning product, thereby rendering lower red-brown color formation. Therefore, mimosine could inhibit PPO by different modes of inhibition and could be used to prevent melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp. PMID:21863871

  10. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  11. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  12. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  13. Microbiome analyses of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from disparate geographical locations.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Arun S; Kawaler, Emily; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Rothschild, Max F; Severin, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    In this study, the tail muscle microbiota of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) sourced from five countries across Central and South America and Southeast Asia were determined and compared. The genomic DNA was sequenced at around 10 × coverage for each geographical location and was assembled de novo for comparative analysis. The assembled sequences for all the lines were classified based on their similarity to the sequences in the public database. We found that there is high correlation among the microbiota of shrimp from disparate regions, as well as the presence of some DNA from bacteria known to cause food poisoning in humans. Sequencing data has been deposited at NCBI-SRA database and can be found under the BioProject ID PRJNA282154. PMID:26697337

  14. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kuedo, Zulkiflee; Sangsuriyawong, Anantita; Klaypradit, Wanwimol; Tipmanee, Varomyalin; Chonpathompikunlert, Pennapa

    2016-01-01

    Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior. PMID:27007359

  15. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  16. Selectively enhanced expression of prophenoloxidase activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1) at a bacteria clearance site in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prophenoloxidase-activating (PO activating) system plays an important role in the crustacean innate immunity, particularly in wound healing and pathogen defense. A key member of this system is prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE), which is the direct activator of prophenoloxidase (proPO). Despite their importance in crustacean PO activating system, the studies on them remain limited. Results Here we report on a PPAE of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (lvPPAE1), which showed 94% similarity to PPAE1 of Penaeus monodon. We found that lvPPAE1 in fluid hemocytes was down regulated after challenge by Vibrio harveyi but was enhanced when shrimps were exposed to a bacteria-rich environment for long-term. In vivo gene silence of lvPPAE1 by RNAi can significantly reduce the phenoloxidase activity (PO) and increase the susceptibility of shrimps to V. harveyi. Although lvPPAE1 was down-regulated in fluid hemocytes by Vibrio challenge, its expression increased significantly in gill after bacteria injection, which is the primary bacteria-clearance tissue. Conclusion Suppressed expression in fluid hemocytes and enhanced expression in gill indicates selectively enhanced expression at the bacterial clearance site. This is a novel feature for PPAE expression. The results will contribute to our understanding of the PO activating system in crustaceans. PMID:22208405

  17. Eye extract improves cell migration out of lymphoid organ explants of L. vannamei and viability of the primary cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans

    2015-08-01

    Since no cell line from shrimp has been established up till now, an optimization of the primary cell culture protocol is necessary. In this context, the effect of extracts (supernatant of a 1:50 (w/v) suspension) from different shrimp organs (muscle, brain, ganglia, eyestalk, ovary, and eye) on the performance of primary lymphoid cell cultures was evaluated. Ten percent of eye extract and 3% of ovary extract enhanced maximally the migration and survival of cells of the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei significantly at 48, 96, and 144 h post seeding. Extracts from the eyestalk (10%), muscle (10%), and brain (1%) significantly promoted the migration and survival of cells at 48 and 96 h post seeding but not anymore at 144 h post seeding. In conclusion, it may be advised to add 10% of eye extract or 3% of ovary extract to cells for the maximal health of primary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of L. vannamei. PMID:25792199

  18. Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

    2012-12-01

    Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

  19. A comparative study of intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture on four bottom substrates without water change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuepeng; Bao, Weiyang; Ma, Shen

    2014-08-01

    The effect of four bottom substrates, oyster shell powder (OP), sugarcane bagasse (SB), a mixture of OP and SB (OS) and fresh soil (FS), on the water quality and bacterial and zooplankton density of intensive shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) culture tanks without water change and the growth performance of cultured shrimp were compared in this study. At the end of a 110 days culturing trial, the total ammonium-N (TAN) of the water on SB and the nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) on OS was significantly lower than that on the other substrates ( P<0.05), which coincided with the high density of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the water on SB and OS, respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) increased slowly on OP, SB and OS but remained low on FS. The density of total bacteria on OP, SB and OS was one order of magnitude higher than that on FS, and the density of zooplankton on SB and OS was significantly higher than that on FS or OP ( P<0.05). The improved water quality and increased density of bacteria and zooplankton on SB and OS may have had a synergistic effect on shrimp culture, improving its growth performance (high survival rate and yield and low feed conversion rate). SB and OS were more effective for improving the growth performance of intensively cultured L. vannamei without water change than OP and FS. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence regarding the effect of different bottom substrates on intensive shrimp culture.

  20. Transcriptomic responses of juvenile Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rathburn, Charles K; Sharp, Natasha J; Ryan, James C; Neely, Marion G; Cook, Matthew; Chapman, Robert W; Burnett, Louis E; Burnett, Karen G

    2013-09-01

    Estuarine crustaceans are often exposed to low dissolved O2 (hypoxia) accompanied by elevated CO2 (hypercapnia), which lowers water pH. Acclimatory responses to hypoxia have been widely characterized; responses to hypercapnia in combination with hypoxia (hypercapnic hypoxia) are less well known. Here we used oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize changes in global gene expression in the hepatopancreas of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia for 4 or 24 h, compared with time-matched animals held in air-saturated water (normoxia). Unigenes whose expressions were significantly impacted by treatment and/or time were used to build artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify genes with the greatest sensitivity in pairwise discriminations between treatments at each time point and between times for each treatment. ANN gene sets that discriminated hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia from normoxia shared functions of translation, mitochondrial energetics, and cellular defense. GO terms protein modification/phosphorylation/cellular protein metabolism and RNA processing/apoptosis/cell cycling occurred at highest frequency in discriminating hypercapnic hypoxia from hypoxia at 4 and 24 h, respectively. For 75.4% of the annotated ANN genes, exposure to hypercapnic hypoxia for 24 h reduced or reversed the transcriptional response to hypoxia alone. These results suggest that high CO2/low pH may interfere with transcriptionally based acclimation to hypoxia or elicit physiological or biochemical responses that relieve internal hypoxia. Whether these data reflect resilience or sensitivity of L. vannamei in the face of expanding hypoxic zones and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may be important to understanding the survival of this and other estuarine species. PMID:23821614

  1. The immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following Vibrio alginolyticus injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chang-Che; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2008-12-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei injected with saline, and injected with tryptic soy broth (TSB)-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1.0 x 10(5) and 1.8 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1) were examined for hyaline cell (HC) counts, granular cell (GC) counts, total haemocyte counts (THCs), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity after 1-168 h. Shrimp that received no injection served as the control. The shrimps which received V. alginolyticus at both doses showed significant decreases in these parameters after 6-96 h. The values for HC and SOD activity decreased earlier and then RB. The time to cause maximum depletion of haemocytes (haemocytopenia), PO activity, RB, and SOD activity were 12, 72, 48, and 24 h post-injection, respectively. The HC, GC, and RB returned to the original values earlier at 72 h, followed by SOD activity at 96 h, and then PO activity at 168 h post-infection. It was concluded that an injection of V. alginolyticus rapidly reduced the shrimp's immunity by decreasing HC, GC, SOD activity, RB, and PO activity within 3-24 h, followed by a slow recovery during 72-168 h post-injection. Furthermore, white shrimp L. vannamei which received V. alginolyticus showed a 6-9 h later response in PO activity, and a 72-96 h later recovery of PO activity, compared to the responses in RB and SOD activity indicating their roles in shrimp defence and immunity. PMID:18951981

  2. Evaluation of coexposure to inorganic arsenic and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Lucas; Müller, Larissa; Gelesky, Marcos A; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) that occur concomitantly in the aquatic environment with other contaminants such as arsenic (As) is little known in crustaceans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether coexposure to nTiO2 can influence the accumulation, metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic exposure in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Organisms were exposed by dissolving chemicals in seawater (salinity = 30) at nominal concentrations of 10 μg/L nTiO2 or As(III), dosed alone and in combination. Results showed that there was not a significant accumulation of As in either tissue type, but the coexposure altered the pattern of the metabolism. In the hepatopancreas, no changes were observed in the biochemical response, while in the gills, an increase in the glutamate-cysteine-ligase (GCL) activity was observed upon exposure to As or nTiO2 alone, an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was observed upon exposure to As alone, and an increase in the total antioxidant capacity was observed upon exposure to nTiO2 or nTiO2 + As. However, these modulations were not sufficient enough to prevent the lipid damage induced by nTiO2 exposure. Our results suggest that coexposure to nTiO2 and As does not alter the toxicity of this metalloid in the gills and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei but does alter its metabolism, favoring its accumulation of organic As species considered moderately toxic. PMID:26354110

  3. Hemocyanin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Has Antiproliferative Effect against HeLa Cell In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chuandao; Liu, Shangjie; Huang, Runqing; Zhong, Mingqi; Wei, Chiju; Zhang, Yueling

    2016-01-01

    Hemocyanin (HMC) has been shown to participate in multiple roles of immune defence. In this study, we investigated the antiproliferative effect and underpinning mechanism of HMC from Litopenaeus vannamei in vitro. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay indicated that HMC could dramatically inhibit the growth of HeLa cells, but not 293T cells under the same conditions. Moreover, typical morphological features of apoptosis in HeLa cells including the formation of apoptotic body-like vesicles, chromatin condensation and margination were observed by using 4, 6-diamidino-2- phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining and fluorescence analysis. An apoptotic DNA ladder from 180 to 300 bp was also detected. Furthermore, 10 variation proteins associated with apoptosis pathway, viz. G3PDH isoforms 1/2 (G3PDH1/2), aldosereductase, ectodemal dysplasia receptor associated death receptor domain isoform CRA_a (EDARADD), heat shock 60kD protein 1 variant 1 (HSP60), heat shock 70kDa protein 5 precursor (HSP70), heat shock protein 90kDa beta member 1 precursor (HSP90), 14-3-3 protein ζ/δ, Ran and ubiquitin activating enzyme E1(UBE1), were identified from HMC-treated HeLa cells by the proteomic and quantitative real-time RT-PCR strategies. Importantly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and caspase-9/3 activities were changed significantly in HMC-treated HeLa cells. Together, the data suggests that L. vannamei HMC mediates antiproliferative properties through the apoptosis mechanism involving the mitochondria triggered pathway. PMID:27007573

  4. White spot syndrome virus VP51 interact with ribosomal protein L7 of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing-Hui; Ma, Fang-Fang; Guan, Guang-Kuo; Wang, Xiu-Fang; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2015-05-01

    The interaction between viral structural proteins and host plays key functions in viral infection. In previous studies, most research have been undertaken to explore the interaction of envelope structural proteins with host molecules. However, how the nucleocapsid proteins of WSSV interacted with host molecules remained largely unknown. In this study, the interaction of nucleocapsid protein VP51 and ribosomal protein L7 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvRPL7) was reported. Furthermore, the mRNA transcriptional response of LvRPL7 to WSSV was investigated. The results showed that LvRPL7 was widely distributed in all analyzed tissues of L. vannamei. The high expression levels of LvRPL7 were found in the tissues of muscle and gills. The temporal expression of LvRPL7 in WSSV-challenged shrimp showed that LvRPL7 was up-regulated (P < 0.5) in the muscle at 8 h and 24 h post WSSV challenge and then restored to the normal levels. But the LvRPL7 expression was up-regulated (P < 0.5) in the hepatopancreas at 8 h post WSSV challenge and down-regulated at 12 h and 24 h post WSSV challenge. Indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated that LvRPL7 was mainly located on the surface and cytoplasm of hemocytes. Far-Western blotting showed that VP51 bound with LvRPL7. Moreover, ELISA results appeared that LvRPL7 interacted with VP51 in concentration dependent manner. Neutralization assay in vivo showed that anti-LvRPL7 antibody significantly delayed WSSV infection. Our results reveal that LvRPL7 was involved in WSSV infection. PMID:25736720

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. IκB is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned IκB homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-κB family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-κB binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV. PMID:23185415

  6. dsRNA provides sequence-dependent protection against infectious myonecrosis virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Loy, J Dustin; Mogler, Mark A; Loy, Duan S; Janke, Bruce; Kamrud, Kurt; Scura, Edward D; Harris, D L Hank; Bartholomay, Lyric C

    2012-04-01

    Viral diseases are significant impediments to the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture. In addition to endemic disease, new viral diseases continue to emerge and cause significant impact on the shrimp industry. Disease caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) has caused tremendous losses in farmed Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) since it emerged in Brazil and translocated to Indonesia. There are no existing antiviral interventions, outside of pathogen exclusion, to mitigate disease in commercial shrimp operations. Here, we describe an iterative process of panning the genome of IMNV to discover RNA interference trigger sequences that initiate a robust and long-lasting protective response against IMNV in L. vannamei. Using this process, a single, low dose (0.02 µg) of an 81 or 153 bp fragment, with sequence corresponding to putative cleavage protein 1 in ORF1, protected 100 % of animals from disease and mortality caused by IMNV. Furthermore, animals that were treated with highly efficacious dsRNA survived an initial infection and were resistant to subsequent infections over 50 days later with a 100-fold greater dose of virus. This protection is probably sequence dependent, because targeting the coding regions for the polymerase or structural genes of IMNV conferred lesser or no protection. Interestingly, non-sequence specific dsRNA did not provide any degree of protection to animals as had been described for other shrimp viruses. Our data indicate that the targeted region for dsRNA is a crucial factor in maximizing the degree of protection and lowering the dose required to induce a protective effect against IMNV infection in shrimp. PMID:22218678

  7. Litopenaeus vannamei clathrin coat AP17 involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu-Fang; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Huang, Jie

    2016-05-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the main pathogen of shrimp culture, and has brought great losses of the shrimp aquaculture industry every year since it has been found. However, the specific mechanism of the virus into the cell is not very clear. Recent research suggests that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is involved in WSSV infection. By sequence analysis, clathrin coat AP17 is an σ subunit of AP-2 complex which is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. To obtain the full-length sequence of Clathrin coat AP17 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCCAP17), the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was performed to get the sequence of 3'and 5' end and splicing by DNAMAN. The full-length sequence of LvCCAP17 is 842 bp and expected to encoding 142 amino acids, and the amino acid sequence was analyzed by online software. The mRNA expression of LvCCAP17 in different tissues was carried out with quantitative real-time PCR and the LvCCAP17 was detected in all tested tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei. The transcriptional expression level of LvCCAP17 in epithelium and hepatopancreas was significantly up-regulated after WSSV infection. Far-Western blotting and ELISA assay showed that LvCCAP17 interacted with rVP26 and rVP37. Silencing of LvCCAP17 gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference significantly delay of cumulative mortality rate in WSSV infected shrimp and reduced the expression level of immediate early gene 1(ie1) and vp28. These results indicated that clathrin-meated endocytosis is responsible for WSSV infection. PMID:26988289

  8. Ultrastructural and sequence characterization of Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV) from Belize.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Navarro, Solangel A; Lightner, Donald V

    2011-05-01

    The Penaeus vannamei nodavirus (PvNV), which causes muscle necrosis in Penaeus vannamei from Belize, was identified in 2005. Infected shrimp show clinical signs of white, opaque lesions in the tail muscle. Under transmission electron microscopy, the infected cells exhibit increases in various organelles, including mitochondria, Golgi stacks, and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Cytoplasmic inclusions containing para-crystalline arrays of virions were visualized. The viral particle is spherical in shape and 19 to 27 nm in diameter. A cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from infected shrimp. Through nucleotide sequencing from the cDNA clones and northern blot hybridization, the PvNV genome was shown to consist of 2 segments: RNA1 (3111 bp) and RNA2 (1183 bp). RNA1 contains 2 overlapped open reading frames (ORF A and B), which may encode a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a B2 protein, respectively. RNA2 contains a single ORF that may encode the viral capsid protein. Sequence analyses showed the presence of 4 RdRp characteristic motifs and 2 conserved domains (RNA-binding B2 protein and viral coat protein) in the PvNV genome. Phylogenetic analysis based on the translated amino acid sequence of the RdRp reveals that PvNV is a member of the genus Alphanodavirus and closely related to Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV). In a study investigating potential PvNV vectors, we monitored the presence of PvNV by RT-PCR in seabird feces and various aquatic organisms collected around a shrimp farm in Belize. PvNV was detected in mosquitofish, seabird feces, barnacles, and zooplankton, suggesting that PvNV can be spread via these carriers. PMID:21790065

  9. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found on survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR); 2) the whole-body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  10. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  11. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  12. Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L.; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H.; Malecha, Spencer R.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

    2009-01-01

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg7-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species. PMID:19852991

  13. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

  14. Comparative studies of hemolymph physiology response and HIF-1 expression in different strains of Litopenaeus vannamei under acute hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Li, Yuhu; Qiu, Liguo; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-06-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei has a high commercial value and is the primary cultured shellfish species globally. In this study, we have compared the hemolymph physiological responses between two L. vannamei strains under acute hypoxia. The results showed that hemocyanin concentration (HC) of strain A6410 was significantly higher than strain Zhengda; Total hemocyte counts (THC) decreased significantly in both strains under hypoxic stress (p < 0.05). We also investigated the temporal and spatial variations of hypoxia inducible factors 1 (HIF-1) by qRT-PCR. The results showed that hypoxia for 12 h increased the expression levels of HIF-1α in tissues of muscle and gill from the two strains (p < 0.05). In the hepatopancreas, the expression levels of HIF-1 increased significantly in strain Zhengda and decreased significantly in strain A6410 (p < 0.05). No significant changes of HIF-1 expression were detected in the same tissues between the two strains under hypoxia for 6 h (p > 0.05), but in the gills and hepatopancreas under hypoxia for 12 h (p < 0.05). Additionally, the expression level of HIF-1 was higher in the strain Zhengda than A6410 in the same tissue under hypoxia for 12 h. It was indicated that the hypoxic tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei was closely correlated with the expression level of HIF-1, and the higher expression level of HIF-1 to hypoxia, the lower tolerance to hypoxia in the early stage of hypoxia. These results can help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of hypoxic tolerance and speed up the selective breeding process of hypoxia tolerance in L. vannamei. PMID:27016815

  15. Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

    Cancer.gov

    Food sources of total omega 3 fatty acids (18:3 + 20:5 + 22:6), listed in descending order by percentages of their contribution to intake, based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006

  16. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in the Hepatopancreas Tissue of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Lipid Sources at Low Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Qin, Jian G.; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of hepatopancreas in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed three diets with different lipid sources, including beef tallow (BT), fish oil (FO), and an equal combination of soybean oil + BT + linseed oil (SBL) for 8 weeks at 3 practical salinity unit (psu). A total of 9622 isogenes were annotated in 316 KEGG pathways and 39, 42 and 32 pathways significantly changed in the paired comparisons of FO vs SBL, BT vs SBL, or FO vs BT, respectively. The pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, fatty acid degradation, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid were significantly changed in all paired comparisons between dietary lipid sources, and the pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly changed in the FO vs SBL and BT vs SBL comparisons. These pathways are associated with energy metabolism and cell membrane structure. The results indicate that lipids sources affect the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity by providing extra energy or specific fatty acids to change gill membrane structure and control iron balance. The results of this study lay a foundation for further understanding lipid or fatty acid metabolism in L. vannamei at low salinity. PMID:26670122

  17. Vibrio cholerae pathogen from the freshwater-cultured whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei and control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; An, Jian; Zheng, Weidong; He, Shan

    2015-09-01

    Vibriosis has become a major global economic problem in freshwater-farmed whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). The prevention and control of vibriosis are now priority research topics. In this study, a pathogenic strain (QH) was isolated from vibriosis-infected freshwater-farmed P. vannamei that resulted in leg yellowing and was identified as a Vibrio cholerae isolate through phylogenetic analysis and the API 32GN system. A phylogenetic tree that was constructed using the neighbor-joining method further confirmed the QH isolate as a V. cholerae strain. A virulent outer membrane protein (ompU) gene was found to be present in the QH isolate, which further confirmed its pathogenicity. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against V. cholerae: B. bacteriovorus exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the V. cholerae pathogen, possessed a wide prey range that included Vibrio pathogens, and displayed a positive protective efficacy against experimental V. cholerae infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the control of shrimp pathogen V. cholerae with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:26146226

  18. Nutrition marketing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

  19. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need it if you Can't swallow Have problems with your appetite Are severely ... a needle or catheter placed in your vein or with a feeding tube, which goes into your ...

  20. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  1. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  2. Nutritional Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. An understanding of the patterns of growth and the changes in body composition during childhood, as well as a working knowledge of the methods used to assess the nutr...

  3. National nutrition planning: lessons of experience.

    PubMed

    Pines, J M

    1982-11-01

    National nutrition planning has failed to fulfill its initial promise because of inadequate consideration of political and administrative obstacles to applying the methodology. The political and operational contexts within which multisectoral nutrition planning has occurred are reviewed in order to draw insights and lessons from the experience of the last 10 years. Considered are the political process, macro and micro planning, the multisectoral approach, integration with agricultural and health planning, nutrition interventions, community participation, cost benefit analyses, and information systems evaluation, management and organization. Emphasis on the multisectoral causation of malnutrition has contributed substantially to nutrition programming and remains indispensable for improving nutrition, but requires more thoughtful response to practical implementation problems. Integrating nutrition concerns more effectively into health and agriculture systems offers a more promising approach than efforts to attack malnutrition by encouraging multisectoral nutrition coordinating agencies and national plans. PMID:12338585

  4. Effects of rutin from Toona sinensis on the immune and physiological responses of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Tian-Jye; Wang, Jinn-Chyi; Hu, Chun-Yi; Li, Cheng-Ta; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2008-11-01

    Rutin is a bioflavonoid with strong antioxidant activity. To investigate the regulatory roles of rutin in various functions in crustaceans, we examined physiological (haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O(2)(-)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with rutin extracted from Toona sinensis at 10, 20, or 50 microg g(-1). Results showed that PO activity and respiratory burst of L. vannamei increased obviously (P<0.05) when injected with rutin at a dose of 20 and 50 microg g(-1) after 12 and 24 h, respectively. Both the THC and SOD activities of experimental and control groups revealed no significant difference at all doses. L. vannamei injected with rutin at either dose maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge after 12-36, 24-48, and 24-60 h, respectively. The survival rate of L. vannamei that received rutin at either dose was significantly higher than that received saline after 48-72 h. It was, therefore, concluded that the immune ability and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection of L. vannamei receiving rutin at > or = 10 microg g(-1) increased. PMID:18718869

  5. Ingestion of food pellets containing Escherichia coli overexpressing the heat-shock protein DnaK protects Penaeus vannamei (Boone) against Vibrio harveyi (Baumann) infection.

    PubMed

    Sinnasamy, S; Mat Noordin, N; MacRae, T H; Ikhwanuddin Bin Abdullah, M; Bossier, P; Bin Abdul Wahid, M E; Noriaki, A; Sung, Y Y

    2016-05-01

    Feeding aquatic animals with bacterial encapsulated heat-shock proteins (Hsps) is potentially a new method to combat vibriosis, an important disease affecting aquatic animals used in aquaculture. Food pellets comprised of shrimp and containing Escherichia coli overexpressing either DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE, the prokaryotic equivalents of Hsp70-Hsp40-Hsp20, or only DnaK were fed to juveniles of the white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei, and protection against pathogenic Vibrio harveyi was determined. Maintaining pellets at different temperatures for varying lengths of time reduced the number of live adhering E. coli, as did contact with sea water, demonstrating that storage and immersion adversely affected bacterial survival and attachment to pellets. Feeding P. vannamei with E. coli did not compromise their survival, indicating that the bacteria were not pathogenic to shrimp. Feeding P. vannamei with pellets containing bacteria overproducing DnaK (approximately 60 cells g(-1) pellets) boosted P. vannamei survival twofold against V. harveyi, suggesting that DnaK plays a role in Vibrio tolerance. Pellets containing DnaK were effective in providing protection to P. vannamei for up to 2 weeks before loss of viability and that DnaK encapsulated by these bacteria enhanced shrimp resistance against Vibrio infection. PMID:26132358

  6. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  7. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  8. Nutrition and melanoma prevention.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention. PMID:21034988

  9. Nutrition in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Krok, Karen L; Lichtenstein, Gary R

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in the pathogenesis, treatment, and morbidity of Crohn disease. Approximately two thirds to three fourths of hospitalized patients with active disease and one fourth of outpatients with Crohn disease are malnourished. Malnutrition, which can be present even when Crohn disease is in remission, can affect growth, cellular and humoral immunity, bone density, and wound healing. Decreased nutrient intake, malabsorption, drug-nutrient interactions, anorexia, and protein-losing enteropathy can all contribute to the protein-calorie malnutrition and other specific nutrient deficiencies seen in Crohn disease. Therefore, by preventing and correcting nutrient deficiencies, nutritional therapy is an important component in the overall management of patients with Crohn disease. PMID:15703556

  10. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  11. [Management in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Alvarez, J; Monereo, S; Ortiz, P; Salido, C

    2004-01-01

    Terms such as management, costs, efficacy, efficiency, etc. that are so common in the discourse of managers are now beginning to appear in the vocabulary of clinicians. Management in Clinical Nutrition is an innovative aspect of interest among health-care professionals dealing with the needs of undernourished patients or those at risk of malnutrition. The basic goal of this paper is to show that the tools for clinical management of hospitals are applicable to such a multidisciplinary and complex speciality as clinical nutrition and also to propose the measures needed to improve our information systems and optimize management in this field. The very concept of hospitals has changed, as has their activity, over the years. Hospitals are nowadays no longer just a charitable institution but has become a service company, a public utility for the promotion of good health and they have to be managed in accordance with criteria of efficacy, efficiency, equity and quality. The concepts of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) and Cost-Effective Medicine (CEM) are of evident importance in the different ways of managing health-care services. Good clinical practice is the combination of EBM and CEM. This review defines the various cost studies of fundamental importance when taking decisions in hospital management and analyzes such clinical management tools as analytical accounting, Minimum Hospital Database Set (MHDS) and encoding systems, among others, thus facilitating an analysis of the usefulness of data in clinical nutrition management systems. Finally, after reviewing some specific examples, measures are proposed to optimize current information systems. The medical staff and those of us responsible for Nutrition Units operate in hospitals as part of a centralized service transferring information to the various departments where the patient is physically located (Surgery, Internal Medicine, Digestive, ICU, etc.). One of the priority goals in micro-management and middle management is to observe the quality improvement in the discharge reports for the patients admitted, including the nutritional diagnosis within the section for the main diagnosis, and also the administration of artificial nutrition (enteral or parenteral) in the section on procedures. With all of these measures we will improve the quality of the hospitals' information systems and contribute directly to ensuring that our activities in clinical nutrition have an impact on the overall results of the hospital when measured in terms of effectiveness, efficacy or quality. PMID:15211719

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  13. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  14. The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

  15. Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ≥2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

  16. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp following exposure to 28 and 22 °C. Knockdown of LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII also significantly increased the mortality of L. vannamei challenged with the pathogen V. alginolyticus. The same consequences have been confirmed in LvTGII silenced shrimp in our previous study. These results indicate that LvTGI and LvTGII not only reveal a complementary effect in gene expression levels but also play a key function in the immune defence mechanism of shrimp, by regulating the haemolymph coagulation, immune parameters and immune related gene expression, and in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. PMID:26855013

  17. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge technology using nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae can improve productivity of white shrimp by increasing the biomass and maintaining a stable water quality especially ammonium concentration.

  18. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  19. Nutrition Advice and Recipes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreas Foundation > Patient Information > Nutrition Advice & Recipes test Nutrition Advice & Recipes This is a very important section ... information on all aspects of daily life, including nutrition, medical treatments, pain management, and practical tips. For ...

  20. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  1. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

  2. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  3. A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  4. Molecular characterization of the bifunctional VHDL-CP from the hemolymph of white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Jiménez-Vega, Florinda; Romo-Figueroa, María Gabriela; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Vargas-Albores, Francisco

    2002-07-01

    A very high-density lipoprotein (VHDL) purified from the hemolymph of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei is shown to be identical to the clotting protein (CP) previously reported from the same organism based on size, subunits and N-terminal amino acid sequence. The approximately 440-kDa protein, a homodimer of approximately 200-kDa subunits, was present in KBr gradient fractions ranging in density from 1.155 to 1.212 g/ml. Samples of VHDL after purification by strong cation exchange chromatography were subjected to electrophoresis on native polyacrylamide gels. Lipids associated with the VHDL were detected by Sudan Black and Oil Red O staining and comprise 9-15% of the purified protein. Circular dichroism of VHDL-CP indicates that the alpha-helix content of the VHDL-CP is 32%, while beta-sheets correspond to 33%, closely resembling the secondary structure of CP from the shrimp Penaeus monodon and, remarkably, the secondary structure of very high-density lipophorin E (VHDLpE) from the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. PMID:12091104

  5. Enhanced immune defences in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) post-exposure to a vibrio vaccine.

    PubMed

    Powell, Adam; Pope, Edward C; Eddy, Fiona E; Roberts, Emily C; Shields, Robin J; Francis, Michael J; Smith, Patrick; Topps, Sylvie; Reid, Jim; Rowley, Andrew F

    2011-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine if exposure of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to a commercial anti-vibrio vaccine caused changes in antibacterial and cellular (phagocytosis) defences. Shrimp post-larvae were administered either Vibromax™ vaccine or a blank preparation. Whole body homogenates were prepared before (day 0), during (day 10) and after (day 20) vaccination and incubated with a selection of pathogenic vibrios. Homogenate from day 0 animals showed natural antibacterial activity towards Vibrioanguillarum which was significantly enhanced for bacteria-exposed shrimp at 10 days post-challenge. This effect of the vaccine was short-term in its duration. No antibacterial activity was observed in day 0 shrimp homogenate against Vibrio alginolyticus but it was significantly enhanced for both vaccinated and blank-vaccinated shrimp by day 10. No natural or inducible antibacterial activity was observed against Vibrio harveyi at 0, 10 or 20 days post-challenge. To determine if prior exposure of shrimp to inactivated vibrios results in elevated hemocyte phagocytic activity, juveniles were injected with either a mixture of formalin-inactivated vibrios or saline. Hemocyte monolayers made from these shrimp were overlaid with a 1:1 mix of Bacillus subtilis and these vibrios. Hemocytes from vibrio-exposed animals showed elevated levels of internalised vibrios compared with those from the saline injected group. These studies show selectively enhanced cellular defences of shrimp following 'vaccination'. PMID:21377471

  6. Melanosis and quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin during iced storage.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2009-05-13

    Melanosis, microbiological, chemical, and physical changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin were monitored during iced storage of 10 days. Whole shrimp treated with catechin solution (0.05 or 0.1%) had retarded growth of psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H(2)S-producing bacteria and enterobacteriaceae throughout storage in comparison with the control and those treated with 1.25% sodium metabisilfite (SMS) (P < 0.05). The lower increases in pH and total volatile base (TVB) content were obtained in the shrimp treated with catechin solution at both levels, compared with those of other samples (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation, loss in freshness and melanosis were lowered by catechin treatment. In general, the efficacy of catechin in lowering melanosis and quality losses increased with increasing levels used. Additionally, catechin (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1% (w/v)) showed inhibitory activity toward polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, catechin can be used as a promising melanosis inhibitor as well as an antimicrobial and an antioxidant in ice-stored shrimp. PMID:19309075

  7. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological, biochemical characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-Xia; Tian, Xin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Using thermal processing (TP) treatment (100 ℃, 1-8 min) as a control, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200-500 MPa, 2.5-20 min) on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The results showed that the efficiency of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inactivation and log reduction of total plate count (TPC) by HHP treatment were all significantly lower than by TP treatment (p < 0.05). The rate of inactivation for TPC and PPO all increased with the increase of HHP pressure and holding time (p < 0.05). The inactivation of PPO was in accordance with a first-order kinetics with the HHP treating time. Hardness of HHP-treated samples at the pressure of 300-500 MPa was higher than TP-treated samples, while the yield loss of HHP treatment was significantly lower than with TP treatment (p < 0.05), long time and high pressure of HHP treatment turned the appearance of shrimps slightly pink. PMID:26199222

  8. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis. PMID:25720979

  9. Effects of hypoxia on dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fawen; Pan, Luqing; Jing, Futao

    2009-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The results showed that hypoxia had significant effects on the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the haemolymph, haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity of haemocytes and bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity in the haemolymph ( P<0.05). The concentration of the dopamine in haemolymph reached its maximum in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups at 12 h and 6 h, and then returned to normal after 24 h and 12 h, respectively. All immune parameters decreased with the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Total haemocyte count (THC), the hyaline cells and semi-granular cells in the 3.0 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 12 h, while granular cells did so after 24 h. The THC and different haemocyte count (DHC) in the 1.5 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 24 h. Phenoloxidase activity and bacteriolytic activity in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups reached their stable levels after 24 h and 12 h respectively, while phagocytic activity and antibacterial activity became stable after 24 and 12, and 36 and 24 h, respectively. It was also indicated that the changes of dopamine concentrations in haemolymph, haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were obviously related to the exposure time under hypoxic conditions.

  10. Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov., isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanfen; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Li, Wentao; Yu, Mingchao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    One novel Gram-stain-negative, long rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile, non-flagellated and strictly aerobic strain, designated M124T, was isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Growth occurred at 16-37 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %) and at pH 7-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M124T belonged to the genus Aquimarina and showed highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina penaei P3-1T (96.4 %). The dominant fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown glycolipids and one unknown polar lipid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The DNA G+C content of strain M124T was 33.7 mol%. Based on the polyphasic analyses in this study, strain M124T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M124T ( = KCTC 42423T = MCCC 1K00498T). PMID:26463829

  11. Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

  12. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Isolation and Structural Elucidation

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Velázquez, Carlos; Ocaño-Higuera, Víctor-Manuel; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1–M15). Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from 1H and 13C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity), suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid. PMID:27006678

  13. Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions.

    PubMed

    Soares, T M; Coutinho, D A; Lacerda, L D; Moraes, M O; Rebelo, M F

    2011-02-01

    This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks) and low (outdoor tanks) Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1); hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1) and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1), Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w.) relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals. PMID:21437409

  14. Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2014-04-10

    Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection. PMID:24486504

  15. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 μg g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 μg g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 μg g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1). PMID:25303662

  16. One type of VEGFR is involved in WSSV infection to the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, Shihao; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-05-01

    VEGF signaling pathway plays vital roles in many physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, cell-cell communication, vessel permeability and virus-host interaction in mammalian species. However, the VEGF signaling pathway and its biological function are still poorly understood in crustaceans. In the present study, an essential member of VEGF signaling pathway, VEGF receptor (LvVEGFR), was isolated from Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its function during virus infection was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR possessed all common features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including a signal peptide, six IG-like domains, one immunoglobulin subtype 2 domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, a protein kinase domain separated by a kinase insert sequence, one ATP binding site and one tyrosine-protein kinase active site. LvVEGFR is mainly expressed in hemocytes and intestine. The transcriptional level of LvVEGFR could be obviously up-regulated in hemocytes and intestine after WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGFR gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference could not only lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV infected shrimp, but also reduce the mortality of shrimp during WSSV infection. These data suggested that VEGF signaling pathway might play an important role during viral infection to shrimp. PMID:25576099

  17. A galectin from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in immune recognition and bacteria phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujun; Liu, Yongjie; He, Shulin; Wang, Xianzong; Mao, Aitao; Liu, Zhigang; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-06-01

    Galectins are conserved family members with β-galactosides affinity that play multiple functions in embryogenesis, development and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. However, little functional studies were reported in crustaceans. Here, a shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei galectin (LvGal) cDNA was identified with an open reading frame of 1017 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 338 amino acids. A carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and several amino acids residues involved in dimerization were found in LvGal. LvGal mRNA was mainly expressed in gills and hemocytes and upregulated post Vibrio anguillarum challenge. Recombinant LvGal (rLvGal) was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the purified rLvGal could strongly bind G(-) bacteria V. anguillarum and G(+) bacteria Micrococcus lysodeikticus. Besides, rLvGal exhibited strong activity to agglutinate V. anguillarum and weak activity to agglutinate M. lysodeikticus but no obvious antibacterial activity was found with selected bacteria. In addition, in vivo experiments showed rLvGal could promote phagocytosis of bacteria by hemocytes. Thus, through these collective data we predicted LvGal is involved in immune recognition and functions as a potential pattern recognition receptor. PMID:25819117

  18. A multi-season survey for infectious myonecrosis in farmed shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Verônica Arns; dos Santos, Fernando L; Bezerra, Suely S; Pedrosa, Virginia F; Mendes, Paulo de P; Mendes, Emiko S

    2010-07-01

    Infectious myonecrosis (IMN), caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), is the disease of greatest impact on shrimp farming in the northeast region of Brazil. The occurrence of IMN remained restricted to northeastern Brazil until 2006, when its presence was also confirmed in Indonesia. To determine the occurrence and evolution of IMN in Litopenaeus vannamei farmed along the coast of the state of Pernambuco, Brazil, histopathological examinations were performed on 60 samples collected from four farms in both predominant seasons in the northeastern region: dry and wet seasons. Samples made up of ten specimens were collected monthly from each pond. Histopathological results were associated to wet-mount exams and rearing performance data. Lesions suggestive of IMN (coagulative necrosis, hemocytic infiltration in the musculature, ectopic spheroids in the lymphoid organ) were identified in all the farms, with a higher occurrence during the dry season. Longer rearing periods and higher stocking densities were the variables with the most significant influence (p<0.05) in the occurrence of IMN. PMID:20206633

  19. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals' stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps' responses to Cd(2+). They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses. PMID:25863597

  20. Antimutagenic Compounds of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Isolation and Structural Elucidation.

    PubMed

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Hernández, Javier; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco-Javier; Velázquez, Carlos; Ocaño-Higuera, Víctor-Manuel; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Robles-Sánchez, Maribel; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, cancer is the main cause of mortality worldwide; thus, the search of chemopreventive compounds to prevent the disease has become a priority. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been reported as a source of compounds with chemopreventive activities. In this study, shrimp lipids were extracted and then fractionated in order to isolate those compounds responsible for the antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity was assessed by the inhibition of the mutagenic effect of aflatoxin B1 on TA98 and TA100 Salmonella tester strains using the Ames test. Methanolic fraction was responsible for the highest antimutagenic activity (95.6 and 95.9% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and was further separated into fifteen different subfractions (M1-M15). Fraction M8 exerted the highest inhibition of AFB1 mutation (96.5 and 101.6% for TA98 and TA100, resp.) and, after further fractionation, four subfractions M8a, M8b, M8c, and M8d were obtained. Data from (1)H and (13)C NMR, and mass spectrometry analysis of fraction M8a (the one with the highest antimutagenic activity), suggest that the compound responsible for its antimutagenicity is an apocarotenoid. PMID:27006678

  1. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, Andr Felipe das Mercs; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.140.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain. PMID:24031779

  2. Silencing of Gonad-Inhibiting Hormone Transcripts in Litopenaeus vannamei Females by use of the RNA Interference Technology.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Rubens G; Braga, André L; Lanes, Carlos F C; Figueiredo, Márcio A; Romano, Luis A; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Nery, Luis E M; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Wasielesky, Wilson; Marins, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    The method usually employed to stimulate gonadal maturation and spawning of captive shrimp involves unilateral eyestalk ablation, which results in the removal of the endocrine complex responsible for gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) synthesis and release. In the present study, RNAi technology was used to inhibit transcripts of GIH in Litopenaeus vannamei females. The effect of gene silencing on gonad development was assessed by analyzing the expression of GIH and vitellogenin, respectively, in the eyestalk and ovaries of L. vannamei females, following ablation or injection with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D (non-related dsRNA), or saline solution. Histological analyses were performed to determine the stage of gonadal development and to assess the diameter of oocytes throughout the experimental procedure. Only oocytes at pre-vitellogenesis and primary vitellogenesis stages were identified in females injected with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D, or saline solution. Oocytes at all developmental stages were observed in eyestalk-ablated females, with predominance of later stages, such as secondary vitellogenesis and mature oocytes. Despite achieving 64, 73, and 71 % knockdown of eyestalk GIH mRNA levels by 15, 30, and 37 days post-injection (dpi), respectively, in dsRNA-GIH-injected females, the expected increase in ovary vitellogenin mRNA expression was only observed on the 37th dpi. This is the first report of the use of RNAi technology to develop an alternative method to eyestalk ablation in captive L. vannamei shrimps. PMID:26573611

  3. Roles of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 for modulating immune responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) messenger (m)RNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, designated LvRACK1, consisted a 1136-bp cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 954 bp, a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 71-bp 3'-UTR, which is a 36 kDa cytosolic protein, belonging to the Trp-Asp40 (WD40) family of proteins, characterized by containing seven highly conserved Trp-Asp40 (WD40) internal repeats, and a poly A tail. The WD repeat of LvRACK1 can be predicted to form a seven-bladed propeller structure with each WD repeat composed of four antiparallel β-sheets. The WD40 domains have been implicated in protein-protein interactions. A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that LvRACK1 was closely related to arthropods RACK1. LvRACK1 cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues detected with real-time PCR including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, subcuticular epithelium, intestines, abdominal nervous ganglia, thoracic nervous ganglia, lymphoid organ, stomach, heart, and antennal gland, especially in subcuticular epithelium and gill. LvRACK1 mRNA transcription in haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus decreased. The depletion of LvRACK1 of haemocytes in L. vannamei received its dsRNA revealed the increased respiratory bursts per haemocyte, superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and clotting time, but showed the decreased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cells (HCs), phagocytic activity, and transglutaminase (TG) activity. LvRACK1 silenced shrimp showed the upregulated gene expressions of cyMnSOD, mtMnSOD, peroxinectin (PE), and TGI, and showed the downregulated α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), clottable protein (CP), lysozyme, and crustin gene expressions. It is therefore concluded that LvRACK1 is involved in immune defense and signaling transduction in haemocytes of L. vannamei infected with V. alginolyticus. PMID:26297966

  4. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  5. Nutrition and Ageing.

    PubMed

    Minuti, Andrea; Patrone, Vania; Giuberti, Gianluca; Spigno, Giorgia; Pietri, Amedeo; Battilani, Paola; Ajmone Marsan, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The world elderly population is rapidly increasing. This demographic change represents a new challenge for the society and demands for a multisectorial intervention to promote a long, healthy, and active life span. Between the factors that contribute in fostering a long healthy life, the nutritional regime plays a central role and is recognized as a major factor in the onset of chronic diseases. A better understanding of the interaction between nutrition and ageing is essential to unravel the mechanisms responsible for these positive/negative effects and to identify diet components promoting the quality of life in the old age and to contribute to the prevention of late-life disabilities. At Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, the research activity in food science is focusing on four main objectives: food quality, food safety, functional foods and diet balancing. These objectives are the target of multidisciplinary ongoing and future research activities for a better understanding of the link between diet and ageing. Briefly, the different activities are addressed to the study of the following subjects: the most relevant factors affecting food choices and habits of old aged persons; the effects of long term low dose supplementation of conjugated linoleic acid in mouse; the use of low glycemic index and high resistant starch foods to prevent diabetes and obesity; the adjuvant effect of food bacteria for vaccination; the role of food ingredients in disease; the immunosuppression effect of mycotoxins, and its relevance in ageing people; the production of sustainable and natural antioxidant ingredients to encourage a healthy diet. Our research projects emphasize an holistic and integrated approach that, by bringing together complementary research groups, can combine the collective expertise and thus provide a comprehensive assessment of the role of nutrition in healthy ageing people. PMID:26630518

  6. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( P<0.05). After challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the cumulative mortality of shrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  7. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic on survival, growth, immune responses, and gut microbiota of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by wei...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Eric J. C.; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  10. “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei,” an Intracellular Pathogenic Enteric Bacterium in the Hepatopancreas of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja, Carlos R.; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V.

    2013-01-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei” is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order. PMID:23241970

  11. Ferritin administration effectively enhances immunity, physiological responses, and survival of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuan-Hwa; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Lo, Chu-Fang; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lian, Juang-Lin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2010-04-01

    We examined the physiological (hemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O(2)(-)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin. Results showed that the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei obviously increased (p < 0.05) 12 h after being injected with any dose of ferritin. However, the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significant higher than those of the other groups at 36-60, 60-72, and 36-60 h, respectively. SOD activities of L. vannamei 12 h after receiving 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than those receiving saline. L. vannamei injected with ferritin at any dose maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to WSSV challenge after 12-36, 24-48, and 36-60 h, respectively. The survival of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin was significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline and of control shrimp after 72 h. The ferritin messenger RNA transcripts of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline after 36 h. It was, therefore, concluded that the immune ability and resistance against WSSV infection increased in L. vannamei that had received > 0.5 ng g(-1) ferritin. Ferritin does play important roles in the innate immunity of the white shrimp. We observed higher SOD activities of L. vannamei that had received 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng ferritin after 12 h than those that had received only saline (control), and the high SOD expression remained at the same levels even after 72 h of treatment. PMID:20045064

  12. Nutritional aspects of bone health.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, René

    2014-12-01

    Bone mass, geometry and microstructure, and bony tissue material level properties determine bone strength, hence the resistance to fracture. At a given age, all these variables are the consequence of the amount accumulated and of the structure developed during growth, up to the so-called peak bone mass, and of the bone loss and microstructure degradation occurring later in life. Genetic factors primarily contribute to the variance of the determinants of bone strength. Nutritional intakes are environmental factors that influence both processes, either directly by modifying modelling and remodelling, or indirectly through changes in calcitropic hormone secretion and action. Some effects of nutrition on the offspring bone could take place during foetal life. There are interplays between genetic factors, nutritional intakes and physical exercise. Among the nutrients, sufficient dietary intakes of calcium and protein are necessary for bone health in childhood and adolescence as well as later in life. PMID:25432353

  13. In situ hybridization demonstrates that Litopenaeus vannamei, L. stylirostris and Penaeus monodon are susceptible to experimental infection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV).

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Poulos, Bonnie T; Redman, Rita M; Lightnere, Donald V

    2005-02-28

    Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recently found to be the cause of necrosis in the skeletal muscle of farm-reared Litopenaeus vannamei from northeastern Brazil. Nucleic acid extracted from semi-purified IMN virions showed that this virus contains a 7.5 kb RNA genome. A cDNA library was constructed, and a clone, designated as IMNV-317, was labeled with digoxigenin-11-dUTP and used as a gene probe for in situ hybridization (ISH). This probe specifically detected IMNV in infected tissues. To determine the susceptibility of 3 species of penaeid shrimp (L. vannamei, L. stylirostris, Penaeus monodon) to IMNV infection, juveniles were injected with purified virions and observed for clinical signs of infection and mortality over a 4 wk period. All L. vannamei exhibited typical lesions after 6 d, and lesions were visible in all L. stylirostris by Day 13. The clinical signs of opaque muscle were not seen in P. monodon, due to their highly pigmented exoskeleton precluding visual detection of lesions. Moderate mortality (20%) occurred in infected L. vannamei. No mortalities were observed in either L. stylirostris or P. monodon. Histological examination and ISH indicated that all 3 species are susceptible to IMNV infection. Using ISH, IMNV was detected in tissues including the skeletal muscle, lymphoid organ, hindgut, and phagocytic cells within the hepatopancreas and heart. In all 3 species, skeletal muscle cells produced the strongest ISH reactions. Based on the onset of clinical signs of infection and mortality, L. vannamei appears to be the most susceptible of these 3 species to IMNV infection. PMID:15819442

  14. cDNA cloning, identification, tissue localisation, and transcription profile of a transglutaminase from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection by Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Hung; Hung, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Winton

    2009-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134); tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAL78166); and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AF336805). The 2638-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2172 bp, a 55-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 411-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (757 aa) was 84.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.2. The L. vannamei TG (abbreviated LvTG) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, a putative integrin-binding motif (RGD), and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two subgroups, STGS1 and STGS2, and LvTG is more closely related to STGS1 than to STGS2. LvTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, with LvTG mainly being synthesised in haemocytes. However, the pattern of LvTG mRNA expression was not directly correlated with TG activity. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant decrease of TG activity at 3 h and a significant increase of LvTG mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease from 12 to 24 h, which indicated that cloned LvTG was involved in the immune response of shrimp. The results also imply that more than one type of TG may be involved in the defense response in L. vannamei. PMID:19782141

  15. The Global Nutrition Report 2014: actions and accountability to accelerate the world's progress on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lawrence; Achadi, Endang; Bendech, Mohamed Ag; Ahuja, Arti; Bhatia, Komal; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blössner, Monika; Borghi, Elaine; Colecraft, Esi; de Onis, Mercedes; Eriksen, Kamilla; Fanzo, Jessica; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Fracassi, Patrizia; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Nago Koukoubou, Eunice; Krasevec, Julia; Newby, Holly; Nugent, Rachel; Oenema, Stineke; Martin-Prével, Yves; Randel, Judith; Requejo, Jennifer; Shyam, Tara; Udomkesmalee, Emorn; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-04-01

    In 2013, the Nutrition for Growth Summit called for a Global Nutrition Report (GNR) to strengthen accountability in nutrition so that progress in reducing malnutrition could be accelerated. This article summarizes the results of the first GNR. By focusing on undernutrition and overweight, the GNR puts malnutrition in a new light. Nearly every country in the world is affected by malnutrition, and multiple malnutrition burdens are the "new normal." Unfortunately, the world is off track to meet the 2025 World Health Assembly (WHA) targets for nutrition. Many countries are, however, making good progress on WHA indicators, providing inspiration and guidance for others. Beyond the WHA goals, nutrition needs to be more strongly represented in the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) framework. At present, it is only explicitly mentioned in 1 of 169 SDG targets despite the many contributions improved nutritional status will make to their attainment. To achieve improvements in nutrition status, it is vital to scale up nutrition programs. We identify bottlenecks in the scale-up of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive approaches and highlight actions to accelerate coverage and reach. Holding stakeholders to account for delivery on nutrition actions requires a well-functioning accountability infrastructure, which is lacking in nutrition. New accountability mechanisms need piloting and evaluation, financial resource flows to nutrition need to be made explicit, nutrition spending targets should be established, and some key data gaps need to be filled. For example, many UN member states cannot report on their WHA progress and those that can often rely on data >5 y old. The world can accelerate malnutrition reduction substantially, but this will require stronger accountability mechanisms to hold all stakeholders to account. PMID:25740908

  16. A Janus Kinase in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway from Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in antiviral immune response.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2015-06-01

    The JAK/STAT signaling pathways are conserved in evolution and mediate diversity immune responses to virus infection. In the present study, a Janus kinase (designated as LvJAK) gene was cloned and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. LvJAK contained the characteristic JAK homology domain (JH domain) from JH1 to JH7 and showed 19% identity (34% similarity) and 21% identity (35% similarity) to Drosophila Hopscotch protein and Human JAK2 protein, respectively. The mRNA of LvJAK was highly expressed in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei and its expression level was prominently upregulated after the stimulation of Poly (I:C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. There were 10 putative STAT binding motifs in the promoter region of LvJAK, and it could be regulated by LvJAK self or (and) LvSTAT, suggesting that LvJAK is the JAK/STAT pathway target gene and could function as a positive regulator to form a positive feedback loop. In addition, the silencing of LvJAK caused higher mortality rate and virus load, suggesting that LvJAK could play an important role in defense against WSSV. This is the first report about the complete set of JAK/STAT proteins in shrimp and the results provide the evidence of the positive feedback loop mediated by JAK protein present in the JAK/STAT pathway in invertebrates. PMID:25839969

  17. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  18. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  19. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of Rab5B, Rab6A, and Rab7 from Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Y Z; Chen, X L; Zeng, D G; Yang, C L; Peng, M; Chen, X H

    2015-01-01

    The Rab protein family belongs to a superfamily of ras-like GTP-binding proteins. Rab proteins regulate many steps of membrane trafficking. In this study, three Rab family members, Rab5B, Rab6A, and Rab7, designated LvRab5B, LvRab6A, and LvRab7, were cloned from Litopenaeus vannamei. The full-length cDNA sequences of LvRab5B, LvRab6A, and LvRab7 were 1383, 873, and 767 nucleotides in length and they encoded proteins of 211, 212, and 205 amino acids, respectively. Using qRT-PCR, the mRNA expression levels of the three proteins were determined in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei at different stages after infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and white spot syndrome virus challenge. The results indicated that the mRNA expression levels of LvRab5B, LvRab6A, and LvRab7 were all significantly up-regulated after virus injection, suggesting that these genes may play essential roles in the immune response to viral infection in shrimp. PMID:26214455

  20. Trascriptome analysis of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to nitrite by RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Ye, Chao-Xia; Wang, An-Li; Xian, Jian-An; Liao, Shao-An; Miao, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Sheng-Peng

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, transcriptome of nitrite-exposed Litopenaeus vannamei was performed using a newly developed high-throughput sequencing technology (Illumina RNA-seq). As many as 42,336 unigenes were generated with 561 bp of average length and 736 bp of unigene N50 after filtering and assembly. These unigenes from the de novo assembly were further annotated using BLAST and BLAST2GO softwares. A total of 23,532 unigenes were unambiguous alignments to the reference when BLAST against non-redundant protein sequence (Nr), non-redundant nucleotide (Nt), Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology database (GO), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases available at NCBI. Numerous candidate genes associated with immune response, detoxification, apoptosis pathway were identified. Ten candidate genes related to immune responses and apoptosis were selected for validating the results of assembly and annotation by real-time quantitative PCR. Results revealed that the expressions of all these ten genes were up-regulated after nitrite exposure. Combining to our previous study, we speculate that all these selected genes may be involved in the response to nitrite stress. The study shows a systematic overview of the transcriptome analysis in L. vannamei, and provides valuable gene information for studying molecular mechanisms under nitrite exposure. PMID:24055647

  1. Effect of culture intensity and probiotics application on microbiological and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Patil, Prasanna Kumar; Muralidhar, M; Solanki, Haresh G; Patel, Pretesh P; Patel, Krishna; Gopla, Chavali

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the complex interaction among stocking density and extent of probiotic use with production and environmental parameters in Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds to suggest suitable management strategies. The study was conducted inL. vannamei culture ponds with stocking density of 35 nos sq m(-1) (Group I) and 56 nos sq m(-1) (Group II) and probiotic application @16.5 kg ha(-1) and 157 kg ha(-1), respectively. There was no significant difference noted between the two groups of ponds in respect to ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in sediment and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in water samples, whereas significantly higher levels of AOB in water samples of high intensity culture ponds (Group II) and NOB in sediment samples of Group I were observed. The levels of sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) and sulphur reducing bacteria (SRB) in Group I pond water and in Group II sediment were significantly higher than their corresponding levels in the other group. In both the groups, ammonia, nitrite and sulphide concentrations were below toxic limits prescribed for shrimp farming. Comparing the production parameters at harvest revealed that low intensity culture ponds (Group I) had higher growth rate, average body weight and significantly lower FCR and higher survival rate than high intensity culture ponds (Group II). The results indicated that application of microbial products in higher quantities did not benefit significantly, and there is a need to regulate quantum and schedule of biological product usage for economically sustainable shrimp culture. PMID:26930856

  2. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-04-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance (P < 0.05). However, salinity fluctuation of 10 only resulted in a significant variation in MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control (P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  3. Extraction and purification of a highly thermostable alkaline caseinolytic protease from wastes Penaeus vannamei suitable for food and detergent industries.

    PubMed

    Dadshahi, Zahra; Homaei, Ahmad; Zeinali, Farrokhzad; Sajedi, Reza H; Khajeh, Khosro

    2016-07-01

    A novel thermostable protease was purified from Penaeus vannamei from Persian Gulf to homogeneity level using ammonium sulfate precipitation and anion-exchange chromatography. The purified protease showed a single band on native and SDS-PAGE with a molecular weight of 24kDa on SDS-PAGE. The enzyme showed the broad highest catalytic activity for hydrolysis of the substrate with maximal activity at pH 7 and 80°C. Activity of the enzyme was inhibited by Hg(2+), Zn(2+) Co(2+) and Cu(2+), while protease activity was increased in the presence of Fe(2+) and Mn(2+) by factors of 173% and 102%, respectively. Enzyme shows a broad substrate specificity and hydrolyzes both natural and synthetic substrates. Based on the Michaelis-Menten plots, the Km with casein as substrate was 16.8μM and Vmax was 82.6μM/min. The enzyme, derived from L. vannamei, possesses unique characteristics and could be used in various industrial and biotechnological applications. PMID:26920273

  4. Highly variable polymorphism of the alpha-amylase gene family in Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Van Wormhoudt, Alain; Sellos, Daniel

    2003-12-01

    Alpha-amylase from the tropical shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei presents a high degree of polymorphism and at least eight different electromorphs are detected by electrophoresis. Based on nucleotide sequences, three cDNAs have been previously characterized. In this paper we report on the organization and the evolution of corresponding alpha-amylase genes, determined after PCR amplification. Three AMY genes have been characterized, spanning over 3.3 kb and encoding mature proteins of 495 amino acids (aa), which are all expressed in the digestive gland. The existence of nine short introns, ranging from 86 to 454 bp, located at the same positions for each of the different genes, and presenting no similarity between them, is reported. Between 11 and 15% of changes are observed in the coding aa sequences of genes II and III compared to the gene I sequence respectively. One 5' putative promoter sequence has been sequenced and shows no classical TATA box upstream to the coding sequence. Based on the intron size difference, a single PCR (producing the S-R fragments) allows the separation of a partial gene I (750 bp), corresponding to cDNA 20, from the others (650-680 bp). Sequencing different S-R PCR fragments from one shrimp shows at least eight different haplotypes. A complex microsatellite repeat is present in intron 6 of gene II. Using size and sequence differences in this repeated portion, it is possible to characterize two gene subfamilies (IIa and IIb) encoding previously described cDNAs 28 and 37, respectively. For the gene II family, two to four alleles are present in one shrimp corresponding to these two genes. Within the Panama natural population, 35 different alleles are shown at this locus. Regarding alpha-amylase gene structure in the shrimp, many recombinants are present from a set of individuals and constitute an important mechanism of evolution of alpha-amylase function. PMID:14745535

  5. Effect of salinity on transmission of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) to Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Amanda G; Lotz, Jeffrey M

    2007-05-01

    Elevated salinity and temperature have been observed prior to devastating necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) outbreaks in several geographically isolated shrimp ponds. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the NHP-bacterium (NHPB) is hindered by reduced salinity, even though the mechanism is not understood. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of salinity on transmission of NHPB. The transmission rate of NHPB was estimated through laboratory experiments whereby individuals of Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei were orally exposed to a dead NHPB-infected shrimp. For each replicate, 12 susceptible shrimp were placed with a dead NHPB-infected shrimp in a 1 m2 bottom area cylindrical tank maintained at 30 degrees C for a period of 24 h. Four salinities of 10, 20, 30, and 40 per thousand were replicated 2 times in 2 trials, giving a total of 192 shrimp exposed per os to infective material. In each trial, a negative control group was included at each salinity, giving a total of 96 shrimp exposed orally to uninfected material. After the 24 h exposure period, susceptible shrimp were individually isolated at the same physical conditions for up to 60 d to determine NHPB transmission. The NHPB was transmissible regardless of salinity: nearly a quarter of susceptible shrimp exposed to NHPB at the lowest (10 per thousand) and highest (40 per thousand) salinity examined acquired NHPB. Transmission rates were highest at the intermediate salinities of 20 and 30 per thousand, suggesting that those salinities are optimal for NHPB transmission. The observed association between high salinity and NHP outbreak in a shrimp pond is not explained by these results because reduced transmission occurred at very low and very high salinities. PMID:17629122

  6. Virulence variation of white spot syndrome virus in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Laramore, S E; Scarpa, J; Laramore, C R; Lin, J

    2009-06-01

    The virulence of seven geographic isolates of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV; genus Whispovirus; China [strain CH1995], Nicaragua [strain N2000], Honduras [strain H2000], Ecuador [strains E-L1999 and E-LT2002], and Mexico [strains M-M2001 and M-LP2001]) was compared using a series of challenge experiments, each lasting 10 d. For each isolate, four quantified dilutions (10(-6), 10(7), 10(-8), and 10(-9)) of a viral inoculum were prepared from WSSV-infected shrimp tissue. Each viral inoculum was injected into 10 specific pathogen-free juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (0.25-1.50 g); controls received injections of marine crustacean physiological saline (3.2%). The minimum dose of viral inoculum that killed 50% of injected shrimp (LD50) was calculated for dilution, tissue concentration, and viral DNA amount. The CH1995 and M-M2001 isolates were the least virulent, with LD50 values of 10(-6) to 10(-7) of viral inoculum. The isolates could be grouped into three virulence clusters (CH1995 and M-M2001; N2000 and E-LT2002; and H2000, E-L1999, and M-LP2001). Virulence clusters were not altered by LD50 values based on viral DNA concentration, although a slight shifting of order in regards to virulence was seen among the three most virulent isolates (E-L1999, H2000, and M-LP2001). Overall, results indicate that there is a measurable virulence difference among WSSV isolates, which may correspond to geographical region. PMID:19873829

  7. MKK6 from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is responsive to bacterial and WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Qian, Zhe; Wu, Zhenzhen; L, Kai; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-02-01

    p38 mitogen-actived protein kinases (MAPKs) broadly exist from yeast to mammals and participate in diverse cellular responses to various stimuli, whose activation can be induced by the MAPK kinase 6 (MKK6). In this study, a novel MKK6 homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvMKK6) was cloned and characterized. The transcript of LvMKK6 was 1465bp long with an open reading frame (ORF) of 987bp that encoded a polypeptide of 328 amino acids. LvMKK6 was a both cytoplasmic- and nuclear-localized protein and its expression was up-regulated with the treatment of different stimuli including LPS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Poly (I:C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Overexpression of LvMKK6 could lead to activate the promoter activities of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) such as PEN4. The further investigation demonstrated that LvMKK6 could interact with and phosphorylate Lvp38, suggesting LvMKK6 was an activator of Lvp38. Knockdown of LvMKK6 caused attenuate expression of several AMPs and resulted in the higher mortality of shrimp under V. parahaemolyticus infection, suggesting LvMKK6 could play vital roles in defense against bacterial infection. Interestingly, silencing of LvMKK6 led to the lower virus loads and suppressed viral gene (VP28) expression during WSSV challenge. In addition, overexpression of LvMKK6 promoted the promoter activities of 19 WSSV immediate-early genes such as wsv069, wsv249, wsv108 and wsv403. These results suggested that LvMKK6 could be used by WSSV. Above all, these data provided experimental evidences that participation of LvMKK6 in regulating AMPs and host defense against bacteria, as well as the immune response to WSSV infection. PMID:26745320

  8. Identification and characterization of MKK7 as an upstream activator of JNK in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Qian, Zhe; Li, Haoyang; L, Kai; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7) is a key signal transduction regulator in c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, which is involved in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we described the molecular cloning of a new member of MKK7 group from Litopenaeus vannamei named as LvMKK7. The full-length cDNA of LvMKK7 was 3093 bp in length, with an open reading frame (ORF) of 1440bp encoding a putative protein of 479 amino acids. LvMKK7 contained a conserved kinase domain of 261 amino acids in which there was a characteristic S-K-A-K-T motif as a potential target site of phosphorylation by MKKK. Moreover, subcellular localization showed LvMKK7 was located in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus of Drosophila S2 cells. Real-time PCR indicated that LvMKK7 was universally expressed in all tested tissues and its expression in hepatopancreas was responsive to the challenge of LPS, Poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphhylococcus aureus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In addition, co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that LvJNK was phosphorylated and activated by LvMKK7, which suggested LvMKK7 was the upper regulator of LvJNK. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LvMKK7 enhanced the sensitivity of shrimps to V. parahaemolyticus infection. Overall, our results suggested that LvMKK7 may play important roles in the shrimp innate immunity. PMID:26707780

  9. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  10. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera. PMID:26909636

  11. Cloning of Litopenaeus vannamei CD63 and it's role in white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Guan, Guang-Kuo; Liu, Qing-Hui; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

    2016-07-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is currently the most serious shrimp pathogen, which has brought huge losses to shrimp industry worldwide. CD63 of shrimp belongs to the tetraspanin superfamily, which plays an important role in signal transduction and immune process. In this paper, CD63 cDNA sequence of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned using RACE method. The amplified sequence is 1472 bp, with its ORF 744 bp, encoding 247 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the sequence of LvCD63 has 93% similarity with Penaeus monodon and 92% similarity with Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the mRNA levels of LvCD63 expressed in the tissues of hemocytes, gill, epithelial tissue, heart, lymphoid, hepatopancreas, stomach, intestines, muscle and nerve. Among these tissues the highest expression level was showed in the tissue of haemolymph, followed by epithelial tissue, hepatopancreas, and nerve. The lowest expression level of LvCD63 was appeared in the muscle tissue. After WSSV challenge, the expression levels of LvCD63 were both up-regulated in the tissues of gill and epithelial. However the expression level of LvCD63 in hepatopancreas was down-regulated. Far-western blot analysis showed that LvCD63 interacts with VP28, and both VP28N and VP28C fragments interact with LvCD63. Flow cytometry analysis showed that LvCD63 was present on the surface of hemocytes and it is required for binding of WSSV virions. Neutral experiments in vivo showed that LvCD63LEL delayed WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:26964710

  12. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced. PMID:15080336

  13. Analysis on the expression and function of syndecan in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Syndecan is considered to be a multifunctional protein which functions as a cell surface receptor involved in cell adhesion, migration, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed that syndecan in shrimp might interact with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In the present study, we experimentally studied the function of syndecan in shrimp immunity. The syndecan from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvSDC) was cloned and analyzed. The full-length cDNA of LvSDC was 1005 bp, consisting of 59 bp 5'-UTR, 253 bp 3'-UTR, and 693 bp open reading frame encoding 230 amino acids. LvSDC consisted of an extracellular domain (ED), a transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic domain (CD). TM and CD shared high similarities with those of syndecan proteins from other species. LvSDC was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest level in Oka. After WSSV challenge, the transcription level of LvSDC in Oka was apparently up-regulated. Recombinant LvSDC protein and its rabbit polyclonal antibody were prepared for detecting the location of LvSDC in hemocytes using immunocytochemistry approach. Data showed that LvSDC mainly located at the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of hemocytes. After silencing of LvSDC with siRNA, the WSSV copy numbers and mortality of shrimp after WSSV infection were both significantly decreased. These data provide useful information for understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp to WSSV infection. PMID:25847874

  14. Nutritional rickets.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) is still the most common form of growing bone disease despite the efforts of health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR ranges from isolated vitamin D deficiency (VDD) to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR cases result from VDD. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to its short- or long-term effects on skeletal development, VDD during infancy may predispose the patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer and multiple sclerosis. Among the factors responsible for the high prevalence of VDD in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries is limited sunshine exposure due to individuals' spending more time indoors (watching television and working on computer) or avoiding sun exposure intentionally for fear of skin cancer. Traditional clothing (covering the entire body except the face and hands) further limits the exposure time to sunlight and, thus, decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal VDD and exclusive breastfeeding without supplementation were reported to be the most prominent reasons leading to NR. The diagnosis of NR is established by a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. Recent reports draw attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l) - the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium and to suppress excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone. This type of prevention will also reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effect of vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:21274312

  15. Nutritionally variant streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L

    1991-01-01

    Streptococci requiring either pyridoxal or L-cysteine for growth were first observed 30 years ago as organisms forming satellite colonies adjacent to colonies of "helper" bacteria. Although they were previously considered nutritional mutants of viridans streptococcal species, the nutritionally variant streptococci (NVS) are currently thought to belong to distinct species of the genus Streptococcus. NVS strains may display pleomorphic cellular morphologies, depending on their growth conditions, and are distinguished from most other streptococci by enzymatic and serological characteristics and the presence of a cell wall chromophore. NVS are found as normal inhabitants of the oral cavity, and in addition to their participation in endocarditis, they have been isolated from a wide range of clinical specimens. Endocarditis caused by NVS is often difficult to eradicate; combinations of penicillin and an aminoglycoside are recommended for treatment. The unique physiological features of the NVS contribute to the difficulties encountered in their recovery from clinical specimens and may play a role in the problems associated with successful treatment of NVS endocarditis. PMID:2070344

  16. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progression of sarcopenia. However, the effectiveness and safety of caloric restriction for sarcopenia remained unclear. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. As optimal dietary protein intake, 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg (body weight)/day with an optimal repartition over each daily meal or 25 - 30 g of high quality protein per meal were recommended to prevent sarcopenia, which was supported by some observational studies. Protein supplementation using cheese and milk protein, essential amino acids, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and vitamin D has been investigated as a potential supplement to improve muscle quality in sarcopenic elderly people. PMID:26566405

  17. Nutrition for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-12-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progression of sarcopenia. However, the effectiveness and safety of caloric restriction for sarcopenia remained unclear. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. As optimal dietary protein intake, 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg (body weight)/day with an optimal repartition over each daily meal or 25 - 30 g of high quality protein per meal were recommended to prevent sarcopenia, which was supported by some observational studies. Protein supplementation using cheese and milk protein, essential amino acids, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and vitamin D has been investigated as a potential supplement to improve muscle quality in sarcopenic elderly people. PMID:26566405

  18. Nutrition and nail disease.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Michael W; Sloan, Steven Brett

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the nail unit (eg, hyponychium, nail bed, proximal nail fold, and matrix) and anatomic components not part of the nail unit (eg, lateral nail folds, nail plate, and eponychium). The function of each nail structure will also be presented. The chemical profile of the normal nail plate is reviewed with a discussion of its keratin content (hair type keratin vs epithelial type keratin), sulfur content, and mineral composition, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and copper. The remainder will focus on nail manifestations seen in states of malnutrition. Virtually every nutritional deficiency can affect the growth of the nail in some manner. Finally, the discussion will include anecdotal use of nutritional and dietary supplements in the setting of brittle nail syndrome as well as a brief overview of biotin and its promising utility in the treatment of nail disorders. PMID:20620759

  19. The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

  20. Nutritional disorders in tropical neurology.

    PubMed

    Román, Gustavo C

    2013-01-01

    About three-fourths of the total world population live in the tropics but consume only 6% of worldwide food production and contribute 15% of the world's net revenue explaining the short life expectancy, high infantile mortality, and poor daily caloric intake; moreover, lack of clean drinking water and deficient sanitation promote water-borne infections, diarrhea, and risk of malabsorption that contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition in the tropics. One-third of the world's population consumes insufficient iodine increasing the risk for mental retardation and deafness due to maternal hypothyroidism. The main nutritional syndromes comprise protein-energy malnutrition (marasmus and kwashiorkor); nutritional neuropathies, myelopathies and neuromyelopathies, as well as specific deficiencies of vitamins and micronutrients including iodine, iron, zinc, and selenium. PMID:23829926

  1. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  2. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

  3. [Understanding Nutritional Support in Digestive Diseases].

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong Kyung; Song, Geun Am

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of hospital malnutrition is still high in patients with digestive diseases, especially for those suffering from cancer and bowel diseases which cause malabsorption. It is well known that malnutrition is associated with delayed wound healing, impaired immunity, infection, increased complication, and poor convalenscence. Recently, nutrition screening and assessment by nutrition support team has become essential for nutrition management, and gastroenterologists comprise a dominant member of the nutrition support team. In critically ill patients and older people with chronic disease, nutritional support with enteral feeding and early feeding contributes to recovery and rehabilitation of patients. Securing enteral feeding routes, such as feeding tube insertion and placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, is an essential part of nutrition care that should be accomplished by gastroenterologists without much difficulty. It will also be necessary to recommend nutrition care as one of the clinical routines in gastrointestinal clinical practices. Therefore, education on nutrition care is strongly required as a part of gastroenterologist's training. PMID:26087686

  4. Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

    2013-11-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in coagulation of haemolymp and immune response of white shrimp, L. vannamei. PMID:24036331

  5. Living with COPD: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diseases > Lung Disease Lookup > COPD > Living With COPD Nutrition Most people are surprised to learn that the ... asking your doctor or visiting the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics at EatRight.org . Be sure to ...

  6. Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis

    MedlinePlus

    Good nutrition is important for everyone. This is especially true when you have a chronic disorder like myasthenia gravis ( ... difficulty with chewing and swallowing may interfere with nutrition and create safety issues. Diet modifications may be ...

  7. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a vein to ... babies. It can provide a better level of nutrition than regular intravenous (IV) feedings, which provide only ...

  8. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually discuss ... some resources to help you answer these questions: Nutrition, Exercise and Prostate Cancer Guide By culling data ...

  9. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  10. Nutrition and athletic performance

    MedlinePlus

    Nutrition can help enhance athletic performance. An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating well, is ... al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Nutrition and athletic performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc . 2009 ...

  11. Supporting Nutrition: Understanding Tubefeeding

    MedlinePlus

    Supporting Nutrition: Understanding Tube Feeding Families from the Cystic Fibrosis Center at Lurie Children’s share their experiences with tube ... track quickly and experience the benefits of improved nutrition. Following are the experiences of four families who ...

  12. Kiloniella litopenaei sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xiaoyi; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2015-12-01

    A cream-coloured rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain P1-1(T), was isolated from the gut microflora of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from the Taiwan Strait, China. P1-1(T) was was found to be Gram-negative, oxidase and catalase positive and motile by means of a single flagellum. Growth is observed at salinities of 0.5-7 % (w/v; optimum 3 %), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-9.0) and at 15-37 °C (optimum 28-32 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P1-1(T) belongs to the genus Kiloniella, and is closely related to Kiloniella spongiae MEBiC09566(T) (99.0 % similarity), followed by Kiloniella laminariae LD81(T) (96.6 % similarity). The genomic ANIm value between strain P1-1(T) and K. spongiae MEBiC09566(T) was found to be 81.7 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization estimate between strains P1-1(T) and MEBiC09566(T) was 24.6 %. The principal fatty acids detected were identified as summed feature 8 (C18:1 ω6c/C18:1 ω7c, 74.2 %) and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω6c/C16:1 ω7c, 9.7 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA, determined from the draft genome sequence, was found to be 46.1 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-9, while the major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and nine unidentified lipids. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain P1-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Kiloniella, for which the name Kiloniella litopenaei sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain P1-1(T) (=MCCC 1A09869(T) = LMG 27755(T)). PMID:26386704

  13. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  14. Quantitative genetics of taura syndrome resistance in pacific white shrimp (penaeus vannamei): a cure model approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In aquaculture breeding, resistance against infectious diseases is commonly assessed as time until death under exposure to a pathogen. For some diseases, a fraction of the individuals may appear as "cured" (non-susceptible), and the resulting survival time may thus be a result of two confounded underlying traits, i.e., endurance (individual hazard) and susceptibility (whether at risk or not), which may be accounted for by fitting a cure survival model. We applied a cure model to survival data of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) challenged with the Taura syndrome virus, which is one of the major pathogens of Panaeid shrimp species. Methods In total, 15,261 individuals of 513 full-sib families from three generations were challenge-tested in 21 separate tests (tanks). All challenge-tests were run until mortality naturally ceased. Time-until-event data were analyzed with a mixed cure survival model using Gibbs sampling, treating susceptibility and endurance as separate genetic traits. Results Overall mortality at the end of test was 28%, while 38% of the population was considered susceptible to the disease. The estimated underlying heritability was high for susceptibility (0.41 ± 0.07), but low for endurance (0.07 ± 0.03). Furthermore, endurance and susceptibility were distinct genetic traits (rg = 0.22 ± 0.25). Estimated breeding values for endurance and susceptibility were only moderately correlated (0.50), while estimated breeding values from classical models for analysis of challenge-test survival (ignoring the cured fraction) were closely correlated with estimated breeding values for susceptibility, but less correlated with estimated breeding values for endurance. Conclusions For Taura syndrome resistance, endurance and susceptibility are apparently distinct genetic traits. However, genetic evaluation of susceptibility based on the cure model showed clear associations with standard genetic evaluations that ignore the cure fraction for these data. Using the current testing design, genetic variation in observed survival time and absolute survival at the end of test were most likely dominated by genetic variation in susceptibility. If the aim is to reduce susceptibility, earlier termination of the challenge-test or back-truncation of the follow-up period should be avoided, as this may shift focus of selection towards endurance rather than susceptibility. PMID:21418636

  15. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  16. Nutrition in space.

    PubMed

    Smith, S M; Davis-Street, J; Rice, B L; Lane, H W

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted. PMID:11540643

  17. Much Ado About Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deringer, Shirley K.

    1973-01-01

    A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

  18. Nutrition Education for Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasswell, Anita B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A study of three hospitals' family medicine residents' knowledge of and interest in nutrition education revealed large gaps in residents' knowledge of nutritional aspects of certain conditions likely to arise in general practice. Previous medical school nutrition courses had little influence on residents' perceived knowledge. (MSE)

  19. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  20. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  1. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  2. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  3. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  4. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingqiang; Ma, Shen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2006-09-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 °C, 27°C and 32°C) and dietary carbohydrate ( CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  5. Isolation and characterisation of tropomyosin from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone) and its association property at high ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Huang, Luyao; Du, Bingjian; Bai, Guangling; Wang, Qunqun; Zhao, Guanghua; Ning, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps are important and highly demanded seafood, but they have been reported as a cause of food hypersensitive reaction. The major allergen of shrimp is tropomyosin (TM). However, so far, there has been few report on such purification procedure. In this study, we developed a strategy for the purification of TM from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone). Subsequently, we demonstrated that the apparent MW of this protein is about 66 kDa, and this protein naturally contains two subunits (38.5 and 36.6 kDa) with a ratio of 1 to 1. Interestingly, different from other known TMs from vertebrates, shrimp TM can self-assemble into nanofibres at high ionic strength induced by ATP. These findings help to understand the structure and polymerisation property of TM from shrimps. PMID:25894734

  6. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Carrasco, J Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D; Sawyer, Jason E; Johnson, Charles D; Dindot, Scott V; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Criscitiello, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

  7. Phenoloxidase activity of hemocyanin in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei: conversion, characterization of catalytic properties, and role in postmortem melanosis.

    PubMed

    García-Carreño, Fernando L; Cota, Keni; Navarrete Del Toro, María A

    2008-08-13

    Latent phenoloxidase activity of hemocyanin (Hc) in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei was assayed to determine its potential involvement in postmortem melanosis. Conversion of pure 12-mer, but not 6-mer, hemocyanin to phenoloxidase by endogenous (serine proteinases) and exogenous (SDS) effectors demonstrated the need of complex aggregation for displaying enzyme activity. Because Hc was converted to Hc-phenoloxidase (HcPO) by hemocytes extracts, the mechanism of conversion seems to be the same for polyphenoloxidases. HcPO has similar biochemical and kinetic properties as real polyphenoloxidases and uses mono- and diphenols as substrates. The kinetics of hydroxygenation of monophenols has a lag phase, typical for tyrosinases, contrary to oxidation of diphenols. Regardless of the structure of the substrate, melanin is finally formed. Because of the abundance, distribution, and resistance of Hc to freezing-thawing, involvement of Hc in black spot formation postmortem is suggested. This has important implications for commercialization of shrimp and related seafood. PMID:18611032

  8. Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by a Taura syndrome virus isolate from Belize.

    PubMed

    Côté, Isabelle; Lightner, Donald V

    2010-01-25

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of Penaeus vannamei, Kona stock-line, to infection by an isolate of Taura syndrome virus from Belize (TSV-BZ) under hyperthermic conditions (32 degrees C). Shrimp exposed to the reference Hawaii-94 isolate of TSV (TSV-HI) showed resistance to infection at 32 degrees C as demonstrated by the absence of mortality, histopathological lesions and decreased viral load by qPCR. However, at 32 degrees C, shrimp were fully susceptible to the disease caused by TSV-BZ, exhibiting high mortality, severe histopathological lesions and increased viral load. This susceptibility of shrimp to TSV-BZ infection under hyperthermic conditions was independent of the route of infection (injection vs. per os) and the salinity of the water (11 vs. 28). TSV-BZ might be a temperature-permissible mutant of TSV. PMID:20225676

  9. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

  10. [NUTRITIONAL STATUS ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC FIBROSIS].

    PubMed

    Lambe, Cécile; Mallet, Pascale; Bailly, Céline; Sermet-Gaudelus, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    Prognosis of cystic fibrosis has been largely modified over the past 30 years. Optimization of nutrition is one of the most important contributing factors of this improvement. Nutritional defect result from the conjunction of loss of calories, maldigestion, hypercatabolism and insufficient intake. Pancreatic opotherapy and ADEK vitamin administration is mandatory in pancreatic insufficient patients. Nutritional status must be evaluated at each clinics to detect nutritional defect as early as possible. Nutritional intake must be hypercaloric, normalipidic and adapted to the tastes of the patient. The clinician must be aware of at risk nutritional period: first year of life, puberty, infectious exacerbation, respiratory worsening and diabetes, In neonatal screened babies, recovery of birth weight percentile must be targeted at 6 months, and for the height must be in accordance to genetic height at 2 years. In all cases it is mandatory to treat denutrition by oral supplementation and if necessay enteral nutrition. PMID:26749717

  11. Daxx from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in activation of NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Muting; Tang, Junliang; Liang, Qianhui; Zhu, Guohua; Li, Haoyang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Death domain-associated factor 6 (Daxx) is a Fas-binding protein that mediates the activation of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and Fas-induced apoptosis. In this study, a crustacean Daxx (LvDaxx) was firstly cloned and identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDaxx cDNA was 2644 bp in length with an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 2217 bp. Sequence analysis indicated that LvDaxx contained a single Daxx domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and shared a similarity with Drosophila melanogaster Daxx. LvDaxx was a nuclear-localized protein that was expressed highest in hemocytes and could be up-regulated in pathogen- and stimulant-challenge shrimps. LvDaxx could activate the artificial promoter containing an NF-κB binding site and the promoters of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) ie1 gene and arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), suggesting LvDaxx could be involved in the activation of the NF-κB pathway. Knock-down of LvDaxx in vivo resulted in down-regulation of shrimp AMPs and reduction of WSSV copies in tissues. Furthermore, suppression of LvDaxx significantly decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimps, but increased the mortality of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus-infected shrimps. Thus, these suggested that LvDaxx could play a role in the innate immunity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in L. vannamei, while in the antiviral response, LvDaxx may be hijacked by WSSV and play a complex role in WSSV pathogenesis. PMID:25917972

  12. Glucosamine: fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and regulation under alkaline and cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Cai, D X; Wang, L; Li, J Z; Wang, W N

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal residues and chemical contaminators considered as relevant sources of aquatic environmental pollutants have a generally immunosuppressive effect on aquatic organisms, depressing metabolic activities and immune response. Glutamine: fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase (GFAT, EC2.6.1.16) is the first, and rate-limiting, enzyme in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway, and is involved in the regulation of chitin biosynthesis and glycosylation of proteins. We have isolated and characterized GFAT from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Amino acid sequence similarity of the Lv-GFAT (L.vannamei-GFAT) was highest to GFATs isolated from insects and mammals (83 % similarity to that of Haemaphysalis longicornis). The open-reading frame of the Lv-GFAT codes for a protein of 41.6 kDa with a calculated isoelectric point of 5.03. RT-PCR assays showed that endogenous Lv-GFAT mRNA is most strongly expressed in the intestine. Further analysis of Lv-GFAT gene expression in hepatopancreas by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that Lv-GFAT transcript levels increased when the shrimp were exposed to alkaline pH (9.3) and cadmium stress, but the time when its mRNA expression level peaked differed under these stresses. We also first expressed the recombinant protein of GFAT from shrimps in Escherichia coli. Western blot analyses confirmed that the Lv-GFAT protein was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas after exposure to the LC-Cd stress. These results suggest that Lv-GFAT expression is stimulated by alkaline pH and cadmium stress and that it may play important roles in resistance of shrimp to environmental stresses. PMID:25956985

  13. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P <0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11% ˜ 2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, respectively. Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11% ˜2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, although the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  14. Virulence of Vibrio harveyi responsible for the "Bright-red" Syndrome in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo; del Rio-Rodríguez, Rodolfo; Diéguez, Ana L; Romalde, Jesús L

    2012-03-01

    Vibrio harveyi (Vh) CAIM 1792 strain was isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei affected with "Bright-red" Syndrome (BRS). The strain grew in 1-10% NaCl, at 15-35°C and was resistant to ampicillin (10 μg), carbenicillin (100 μg) and oxytetracycline (30 μg). The lowest MIC was for enrofloxacine (0.5 μgml(-1)). The in vivo and in vitro toxicity of bacterial cells and the extracellular products (ECPs) of Vh CAIM 1792 grown at 1.0%, 2.0% and 4.0% NaCl were evaluated. Adherence ability, enzymatic activities and siderophore production of bacterial cell was tested. The ECPs exhibited several enzymatic activities, such as gelatinase, amylase, lipase, phospholipase and caseinase. These ECPs displayed a strong cytotoxic effect on HELA cell line at 6 and 24 h. Challenges using 10(3) CFU g(-1) caused opacity at the site of injection and over 80% shrimp mortality before 24 h p.i. (post-injection). Mortality caused by the ECPs was higher than mortalities with bacteria, especially in the first hours p.i. Bacteria were re-isolated from hemolymph samples of moribund shrimp and identified as Vh CAIM 1792 by rep-PCR. Histological analysis of shrimp L. vannamei injected with Vh CAIM 1792 revealed generalized necrosis involving skeletal muscle (MU) at the injection site, the lymphoid organ (LO), heart and connective tissues. Melanization within the MU at the site of injection was also observed as well as hemocytic nodules within the hearth and MU at 168 h p.i. LO was the target organ of BRS. Necrosis of the MU at the injection site was the main difference in comparison to other shrimp vibriosis. PMID:22306693

  15. Nutrition Informatics Applications in Clinical Practice: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    North, Jennifer C.; Jordan, Kristine C.; Metos, Julie; Hurdle, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition care and metabolic control contribute to clinical patient outcomes. Biomedical informatics applications represent a way to potentially improve quality and efficiency of nutrition management. We performed a systematic literature review to identify clinical decision support and computerized provider order entry systems used to manage nutrition care. Online research databases were searched using a specific set of keywords. Additionally, bibliographies were referenced for supplemental citations. Four independent reviewers selected sixteen studies out of 364 for review. These papers described adult and neonatal nutrition support applications, blood glucose management applications, and other nutrition applications. Overall, results indicated that computerized interventions could contribute to improved patient outcomes and provider performance. Specifically, computer systems in the clinical setting improved nutrient delivery, rates of malnutrition, weight loss, blood glucose values, clinician efficiency, and error rates. In conclusion, further investigation of informatics applications on nutritional and performance outcomes utilizing rigorous study designs is recommended. PMID:26958233

  16. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  17. Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

  18. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. PMID:25912357

  19. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

  20. Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

    2013-07-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 μg g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 μg g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

  1. Development of in situ hybridization and RT-PCR assay for the detection of a nodavirus (PvNV) that causes muscle necrosis in Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kathy F J; Pantoja, Carlos R; Redman, Rita M; Lightner, Donald V

    2007-05-01

    A nodavirus (tentatively named PvNV, Penaeus vannamei nodavirus) that causes muscle necrosis in P. vannamei was found in Belize in 2004. From 2004 to 2006, shrimp samples collected from Belize exhibited clinical signs, white, opaque lesions in the tails and histopathology similar to those of shrimps infected by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Histological examination revealed multifocal necrosis and hemocytic fibrosis in the skeletal muscle. In addition, basophilic, cytoplasmic inclusions were found in striated muscle, lymphoid organ and connective tissues. However, IMNV was not detected in these shrimps by either RT-PCR or in situ hybridization, suggesting that these lesions may be caused by another RNA virus. Thus, a cDNA library was constructed from total RNA extracted from hemolymph collected from infected shrimp. One clone (designated PvNV-4) with a 928 bp insert was sequenced and found to be similar (69% similarity when comparing the translated amino acid sequences) to the capsid protein gene of MrNV (Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus). The insert of PvNV-4 was labeled with digoxigenin-11-deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) and hybridized to tissue sections of P. vannamei with muscle necrosis collected in Belize and from laboratory bioassays. The samples were positive for PvNV infection. Positively reacting tissues included skeletal muscle, connective tissues, the lymphoid organ, and hemocytes in the heart and gills. In addition, we experimentally infected both P. vannamei and P. monodon with PvNV prepared from Belize samples. A nested RT-PCR assay developed from the PvNV-4 cloned sequence showed that both species are susceptible to PvNV infection. PMID:17629112

  2. Holobiont nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Jens; Martnez, Ins; Rose, Devin J.

    2013-01-01

    Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of the two) on fecal microbiota structure and tested for associations between the gut microbiota and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study revealed that whole grains impacted gut microbial ecology by increasing microbial diversity and inducing compositional alterations, some of which are considered to have beneficial effects on the host. Interestingly, whole grains, and in particular the combination of whole grain barley and brown rice, caused a reduction in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was linked to compositional features of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the study provided evidence that a short-term increased intake of whole grains led to compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in systemic inflammation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of the study and provide a perspective on the importance of regarding humans as holobionts when considering the health effects of dietary strategies. PMID:23645316

  3. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  4. [European nutrition policy: regulatory dynamics and trajectories].

    PubMed

    Leone, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the relationship between health and nutrition, this paper focuses on the policy strategy designed by the European institutions with regard to nutrition. Starting from the analysis of the World Declaration for Nutrition adopted by FAO and WHO in 1992, the main European regulatory measures adopted on the issue are analysed and some reflections are offered about their normative status (hard and soft law), as well as on some problematic aspects and implications. Moreover, the contribution focuses on two major European strategies in regulating nutrition, namely the health-in-all-policies and whole-of-government approaches, characterized by the combination of heterogeneous legal instruments together with the coexistence of actions undertaken by public and private actors. The framework thus conceived - though noteworthy and commendable for several reasons - turns out to be problematic in achieving the desired goals: health protection and citizens' well-being. PMID:26554694

  5. [Social inequalities in nutrition: Evidence, causes and interventions].

    PubMed

    Fekete, Christine; Weyers, Simone

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is unhealthy: obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers, and premature mortality are reliably associated with poor nutrition. However, literature reveals that some population groups are at higher risk of poor nutrition than others. More specifically, evidence shows that people with low social status are more likely to have poor nutrition than those with higher status, what may contribute to health inequalities. In this article, selected reviews and meta-analyses on social inequalities in nutrition are presented. By showing current data from the Second National Food Consumption Study, the situation in Germany is highlighted. Further, potential causes of social inequalities in nutrition are discussed, drawing on the results of current research. More specifically, socioeconomic and structural deprivation (e.g., poverty, living in deprived neighborhoods) in addition to unfavorable psychosocial (e.g., poor knowledge of nutrition, low levels of social support) and sociocultural factors (e.g., unfavorable nutritional traditions) might be associated with poor nutrition in people with low social status. Interventions promoting nutritional quality in disadvantaged groups should take into account the various influences on nutrition and meet good practice criteria for health promotion. Using three examples of interventions, conceivable concrete measures that can reduce social inequalities in nutrition are presented. PMID:26642956

  6. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  7. Proceedings from the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Holub, Bruce; Mutch, David M; Pierce, Grant N; Rodriguez-Leyva, Delfin; Aliani, Michel; Innis, Sheila; Yan, William; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Ma, David W L

    2014-07-01

    The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health. PMID:24749841

  8. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  9. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain. PMID:24679010

  10. Making a nutritional assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Pencharz, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

  11. [Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Mössner, J; Teich, N

    2008-08-01

    Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoints. In an recently published study, prebiotics were associated with a high complication rate. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:18759203

  12. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-12-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  13. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  14. Anti-nutritional Factors.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Anti-nutritional factors such as trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogen are as important as nutritional content of any edible plant part. The anti-nutritional factors can be defined as those substances generated in natural food substances by the normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms (e.g. inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of the digestive process or metabolic utilization of feed) which exert effects contrary to optimum nutrition. Hence, trypsin inhibitor, phytic acid and cyanogens present in edibles with the methods in the chapter would be helpful. PMID:26939264

  15. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Gassull, M A; Cabré, E

    2001-11-01

    Nutritional derangements are frequent in inflammatory bowel disease. In the past year significant work has been published examining the mechanisms of impaired food intake in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which allow a better understanding of these processes. Data from the same laboratory have shed further light on the relative role of underfeeding and inflammation on the growth retardation associated with intestinal inflammation. Other studies have provided further data on the risk factors and predictive biomarkers of bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The potential role of enteral nutrition as primary therapy for Crohn's disease is particularly addressed in this review. Recent contributions to the field emphasized the special importance of this modality of therapy in paediatric patients. The possible mechanisms for such a therapeutic action are not well understood. Other nutrients may have a therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease. In particular, recent data on the in-vivo anti-inflammatory actions of butyrate merit special mention. Finally, novel nutritional therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease, such as transforming growth factor-beta2-enriched enteral feeding, or hydrothermally processed cereals have recently been explored. PMID:11706295

  16. Interruptions in enteral nutrition delivery in critically ill patients and recommendations for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Melissa L

    2014-08-01

    Malnutrition is common in critically ill patients and is associated with poor outcomes for patients and increased health care spending. Enteral nutrition is the method of choice for nutrition delivery. Enteral nutrition delivery practices vary widely, and underfeeding is widespread in critical care. Interruptions in enteral nutrition due to performance of procedures, positioning, technical issues with feeding accesses, and gastrointestinal intolerance contribute to underfeeding. Strategies such as head-of-bed positioning, use of prokinetic agents, tolerance of higher gastric residual volumes, consideration of postpyloric feeding access, and use of a nutrition support protocol may decrease time spent without nutrition. PMID:25086090

  17. Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Contact Leadership Media Jobs News Contact Us Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Home Facing Pancreatic Cancer Diet and Nutrition Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en ...

  18. Norepinephrine regulates prophenoloxidase system-related parameters and gene expressions via α- and β-adrenergic receptors in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Lee, Pai-Po; Cheng, Winton

    2012-10-01

    The total (THC) and differential haemocyte counts (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and prophenoloxidase (proPO) system-related genes were investigated in haemocytes of Litopenaeus vannamei that received saline, norepinephrine (NE), and NE co-treated with various adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists both in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that semi-granular and granular cells of shrimp which received NE, NE + phentolamine (Phe), NE + prazosin (Pra), NE + propanolol (Pro) and NE + metoprolol (Met) significantly decreased, while the PO activity of the shrimp received NE + Phe in vivo was significant higher than all the other treatments. PO activities of haemocytes exposed to saline, Pra + NE, and Met + NE were significantly higher than those of haemocytes exposed to NE, Phe + NE, and Pro + NE in vitro. Similar phenomena in lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), proPO-I, proPO-II, serine proteinases (SP), and peroxinectin (PE) messenger (m)RNA expressions of haemocytes exposed to saline, NE, and NE co-treated with various AR antagonists were observed both in vivo and in vitro. No significant differences were observed for LGBP and proPO-II mRNA expressions between haemocytes treated with saline and Pra + NE, for proPO-I mRNA expression between haemocytes treated with saline and Met + NE; or for SP and PE mRNA expressions among haemocytes treated with saline, Pra + NE, and Met + NE. These results suggest that stress-induced NE may promote the migration of circulating granulocytes to the site of the injection and the existing proPO mRNA translation which had been stored in granulocytes. NE downregulated the LGBP, proPO-I, proPO-II, SP, and PE gene transcription by haemocytes via α1-, β1-, α1-, α1- and β1-, and α1- and β1-ARs, respectively, which subsequently decreased the PO activity by α1- and β1-ARs in haemocytes of L. vannamei. PMID:22971348

  19. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  20. OBESITY AND NUTRITION IN ARDS

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Renee D.; Suratt, Benjamin T.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter collectively discusses two important topics related to patients with ARDS: 1) obesity and its potential contribution to clinical outcomes through proposed biologic mechanisms and 2) current literature on provision of nutrition and micronutrients. The prevalence of obesity is rapidly increasing around the world, and more than one third of Americans are now obese. While obesity is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the general population, recent literature suggests that among critically ill patients including those with ARDS, the relationship between obesity and outcomes is quite complex. Observational data demonstrate that obese patients may be at greater risk of developing ARDS and of having longer ICU and hospital lengths of stay compared to normal weight patients. However, obesity is also associated with improved survival. Therefore, in contrast to what might be assumed by clinicians, although obesity may confer greater ICU morbidity, it appears to simultaneously decrease mortality. The mechanisms for these findings are not yet clear, but recent biologic data may begin to provide an explanation. Critical illness, and more specifically the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a catabolic state where patients demonstrate a profound inflammatory response, multiple organ dysfunction, and hypermetabolism. This is often accompanied by malnutrition, which can lead to further impairment of immune function and increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Over the past decade or more, as we have come to better understand immunologic effects of nutrition in critical illness, nutrition has begun to be thought of as therapeutic, rather than purely supportive. Additionally, the concept of pharmaconutrition has emerged. Fortunately, several recent large studies about nutrition in critical care, with some investigations specifically in patients with ARDS, have provided valuable new evidence. PMID:25453416

  1. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of

  2. Physician nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

  3. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  4. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are

  5. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  6. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  7. On-Line Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kongshem, Lars

    1995-01-01

    Several sources of nutrition information are available on the Internet. Good online sources include the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food and Consumer Service bulletin board, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, and the IFIC (International Food Information Council) Foundation On-Line. E-mail addresses…

  8. Nutrition and Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardle, Francis; Winegarner, Nola

    1992-01-01

    A Head Start center assessed and improved its nutrition program. The process involved understanding the program's flaws; developing strategies for change that emphasized mental health and education and impacted all components of the curriculum; and fostering positive staff attitudes toward nutrition. (SM)

  9. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  10. Getting Personal About Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Noecker, Cecilia; Borenstein, Elhanan

    2016-02-01

    Nutritional guidelines for maintaining healthy blood glucose levels are commonly portrayed as universally applicable. However, a new study now demonstrates that the impact of each food on blood glucose varies dramatically across individuals and largely depends on personal characteristics and gut microbiome properties, laying the foundation for the broad implementation of personalized nutrition. PMID:26776092

  11. Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Tommy

    2002-01-01

    Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

  12. Nutritional Hormesis and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional hormesis has the potential to serve as a pro-healthy aging intervention by reducing the susceptibility of the elderly to various chronic degenerative diseases and thereby extending human healthspan. Supportive evidence for nutritional hormesis arising from essential nutrients (vitamins and minerals), dietary pesticides (natural and synthetic), dioxin and other herbicides, and acrylamide will be reviewed and discussed. PMID:20221283

  13. Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

  14. Nutritional Quality of Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  15. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  16. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  17. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  18. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  19. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  20. Nutrition support of the traumatically injured warfighter.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Mary S; Fabling, Janet; Martindale, Robert; Meyer, Stephanie Ann

    2008-03-01

    Major trauma induces metabolic alterations that contribute to the systemic immune suppression in severely injured patients and increase the risk of infection and posttraumatic organ failure. Nutrition modulation of cellular processes has evolved into a high-priority therapy, backed by substantial scientific evidence. The appropriate selection, timing, and dose of nutrients required for metabolic resuscitation must be individualized and goal directed. Ideally, the nutritional interventions for warfighters will be developed strategically based on the extent of injuries and underlying deficiencies and will be designed to provide the nutrients necessary to balance hypermetabolic processes, heal wounds, and promote optimal recovery. PMID:18206585

  1. Crohn's disease: nutrition and nutritional therapy.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A; Glen, M; Ghosh, S

    1998-03-01

    Disordered nutrition is common in Crohn's disease and is multifactorial. Regular and systematic monitoring of at least a minimum set of nutrition data is an essential component of care of children and adults with Crohn's disease. However, even in children, monitoring of growth and development may be deficient. Multiple macro- and micronutrient deficiencies are common in Crohn's disease, especially in those with extensive small bowel deficiencies or after multiple surgical resections. Body composition analysis may show differences from simple starvation, and metabolic effects of inflammation are increasingly being recognized. Nutritional support is part of the management of all patients with Crohn's disease, but nutritional intervention with defined formula liquid diet is an effective specific anti-inflammatory therapy. Although meta-analysis of published trials suggest that steroids are more effective than defined formula liquid diets, objective evidence from whole gut lavage fluid analysis and from faecal excretion of radiolabelled leukocytes shows unequivocal benefit of elemental diet based on measuring parameters of tissue damage. Enteral feeding with liquid diets should be considered in patients with incomplete small bowel obstruction, severe painful perianal disease, failure of corticosteroids in active Crohn's disease, borderline intestinal failure and in children with active Crohn's disease or with growth failure. PMID:9704157

  2. Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

    This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

  3. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

  4. Molecular Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Analysis of Two Novel Penaeidin Isoforms from Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Yan-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Penaeidins were important immunity effector molecules, which played a crucial role in innate immunity system of penaeid shrimp. Here, we reported two penaeidin isoforms from Litopenaeus vannamei, which were named as Lva-PEN 2 and Lva-PEN 3 according to the respective structure features. The results of amino acid sequence multiple alignments showed that high similarities existed among these penaeidins. A signal peptide sequence and a cysteine-rich domain which contained six cysteine amino acid residues existed in each penaeidin at the same time. Besides, there was a proline-rich motif which was composed of eight proline residues existed in each penaeidin. After the expression profile analysis was studied, we found that both Lva-pen 2 and Lva-pen 3 transcripts were up-regulated at 48 h after bacteria challenge. Except for the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria like other penaeidins, these two penaeidins could strongly bind to bacteria and possessed antiproteinase activity. It was speculated that these two penaeidins could prevent bacteria pervasion through bacteria-binding activity and antiproteinase activity. Meantime, the proline-rich motif played a crucial role in these biological processes. PMID:26373944

  5. Effect of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count and prophenoloxidase system of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Hu, Fawen; Zheng, Debin

    2011-09-01

    Effects of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, serine proteinase activity, proteinase inhibitor activity and α2-macroglobulin-like activity in L. vannamei were studied. Results showed that dopamine injection resulted in a significant effect on the parameters measured ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (0.85% NaCl). In the experimental groups, the hemocyte count reached the minimum in 3 h; granular and semi-granular cells became stable after 12 h and hyaline cells and the total hemocyte count became stable after 18 h. Phenoloxidase activity reached the minimum in 6 h, and then became stable after 9 h. Serine protease activity and proteinase inhibitor activity reached the minimum in 3 h, and α2-macroglobulin-like activity reached the maximum in 3 h, and all the three parameters became stable after 12 h. The results suggest that the activating mechanisms of the proPO system triggered by dopamine are different from those triggered by invasive agents or spontaneously activated under a normal physical condition.

  6. Characterization of two types of vascular endothelial growth factor from Litopenaeus vannamei and their involvements during WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Yang, Hui; Yang, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-12-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) are important signaling proteins in VEGF signaling pathway which play key roles in inducing endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis and virus infection. In the present study, we isolated and characterized two VEGF genes, LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequences of both LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 contained a signal peptide, a typical PDGF/VEGF domain and a cysteine knot motif (CXCXC). Tissue distribution analysis showed that LvVEGF1 was predominantly expressed in lymphoid organ (Oka) while LvVEGF2 was mainly detected in gill and hemocytes. The transcriptional levels of LvVEGF1 in Oka and LvVEGF2 in gill or hemocytes were apparently up-regulated during WSSV infection. Double-stranded RNA interference was used for further functional studies. The data showed that silencing of LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 caused a decrease of the copy numbers of the virus in WSSV infected shrimp and a reduction of the cumulative mortality rate of shrimp during WSSV infection. The present study indicated that LvVEGF1 and LvVEGF2 might facilitate WSSV infection, which provided new evidence to understand the function of VEGF signaling pathway during WSSV infection in shrimp. PMID:26492995

  7. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  8. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  9. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  10. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  11. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed. PMID:26692362

  12. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  13. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) α-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) β-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA α-subunit and V-ATPase β-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA α-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA α-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA α-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  14. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Guo; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Zishen; Jang, In-Kwon; Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Mingming; Kim, Su-Kyoung

    2015-05-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen (Jang et al., 2014). For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum, immune responses of shrimp were evaluated in this study. The mRNA expression levels of five immune-related genes were analyzed by quantitative reverse real-time PCR, which included proPO-activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1), PPAE2, proPO activating factor (PPAF), masquerade-like serine proteinase (Mas) and ras-related nuclear gene (Ran). Results demonstrated that the transcription was suppressed more intensively in the multiple infection group than those in single infection groups. The transcriptional suppression was directly related to the higher mortality. The hypoimmunity could benefit pathogen invasion, replication and release of toxin in vivo. Results in this study will help to understand immune defense mechanism after shrimp were infected by multiple pathogens in aquaculture. PMID:25700782

  15. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  16. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity.

    PubMed

    Sordillo, L M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy cattle are susceptible to increased incidence and severity of both metabolic and infectious diseases during the periparturient period. A major contributing factor to increased health disorders is alterations in bovine immune mechanisms. Indeed, uncontrolled inflammation is a major contributing factor and a common link among several economically important infectious and metabolic diseases including mastitis, retained placenta, metritis, displaced abomasum, and ketosis. The nutritional status of dairy cows and the metabolism of specific nutrients are critical regulators of immune cell function. There is now a greater appreciation that certain mediators of the immune system can have a reciprocal effect on the metabolism of nutrients. Thus, any disturbances in nutritional or immunological homeostasis can provide deleterious feedback loops that can further enhance health disorders, increase production losses, and decrease the availability of safe and nutritious dairy foods for a growing global population. This review will discuss the complex interactions between nutrient metabolism and immune functions in periparturient dairy cattle. Details of how either deficiencies or overexposure to macro- and micronutrients can contribute to immune dysfunction and the subsequent development of health disorders will be presented. Specifically, the ways in which altered nutrient metabolism and oxidative stress can interact to compromise the immune system in transition cows will be discussed. A better understanding of the linkages between nutrition and immunity may facilitate the design of nutritional regimens that will reduce disease susceptibility in early lactation cows. PMID:26830740

  17. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    PubMed

    2016-03-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that the performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies. These organizations provide guidelines for the appropriate type, amount, and timing of intake of food, fluids, and supplements to promote optimal health and performance across different scenarios of training and competitive sport. This position paper was prepared for members of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Dietitians of Canada (DC), and American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), other professional associations, government agencies, industry, and the public. It outlines the Academy's, DC's and ACSM's stance on nutrition factors that have been determined to influence athletic performance and emerging trends in the field of sports nutrition. Athletes should be referred to a registered dietitian/nutritionist for a personalized nutrition plan. In the United States and in Canada, the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) is a registered dietitian/nutritionist and a credentialed sports nutrition expert. PMID:26891166

  18. Nutritional scientist or biochemist?

    PubMed

    Suttie, J W

    2011-08-21

    When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

  19. Effect of cadmium-polluted diet on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity of juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Shi-Jun; Chen, Ming; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals that have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. To investigate the effects of dietary cadmium on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity in juvenile Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) and potential protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin, five experimental diets (control, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd, 30mg/kg Cd+100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd+200mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin) were formulated. The results showed that Cd at 30mg/kg induced significant increase in weight gain, specific growth rate and visible alterations to the hepatopancreas structures of L. vannamei. Compared with control diet, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin added diet had no effect on growth performance or feed utilization, while healthier hepatopancreas and less plasma ALT, AST production was found. Moreover, 200mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin significantly ameliorated the Cd induced hepatotoxicity while 100mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin slightly ameliorated. Cd accumulation in the whole body was decreasing and Metallothioneins like was increasing in hepatopancreas with increasing dietary Zn(II)-curcumin level. The shrimp fed with dietary Zn(II)-curcumin showed higher survival rate after acute salinity change. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that hepatotoxicity and hormesis could be induced by Cd when Cd levels were 30mg/kg, Zn(II)-curcumin could mitigate the effects of dietary Cd on L. vannamei. PMID:26702716

  20. Administration of the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis enhanced the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Tayag, Carina Miranda; Lin, Yong-Chin; Li, Chang-Che; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2010-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been injected with the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), or immersed in aerated seawater containing extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1.5 x 10(6) or 1.4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. Survival rates of shrimp that received the extract of S. platensis at 6-20 microg g(-1), and those of shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 400 and 600 mg L(-1) were significantly higher than those of control shrimp after 24-96 and 48-96 h, respectively. In a separate experiment, the hyaline cell (HC) count, granular cell (GC, including semi-granular cell) count, total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and lysozyme activity were measured when shrimp were injected with the extract at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), and immersed in seawater containing the extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1). These parameters directly increased with the concentration, and significantly increased when shrimp were immersed in the seawater containing the extract at 0.5-4 h. L. vannamei that received all doses of the extract via injection or via immersion all had increased phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus at 12-72 h and 3-4 h, respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that received the hot-water extract of S. platensis had enhanced innate immunity and increased resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:20139007

  1. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. PMID:25600509

  2. Nutrition and pancreaticoduodenectomy.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Sam; Krzywda, Elizabeth; McDowell, Nadine

    2010-06-01

    Pancreaticoduodenectomy (Whipple) is the surgical procedure of choice for curative resection of pancreatic head, periampullary, and distal bile duct cancers. This procedure involves removal of the pancreatic head, duodenum, distal common bile duct, and sometimes the pylorus and gastric antrum. The 2 most common complications are pancreatic fistula and delayed gastric emptying. Preoperative nutrition status has been shown to influence surgical outcomes. This technically demanding operation involves an extensive surgical resection and alters digestive processes, which can influence nutrition long term. This review article identifies the surgical and nutrition consequences associated with pancreaticoduodenectomy. PMID:20581316

  3. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge.

    PubMed

    Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-01-01

    Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education. PMID:24899813

  4. Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

    2014-01-01

    Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education. PMID:24899813

  5. Draft genome sequence of the denitrifying strain Kiloniella sp. P1-1 isolated from the gut microflora of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xiaoyi; Shao, Zongze

    2015-12-01

    A denitrifying bacterium, Kiloniella sp. P1-1, was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from the Taiwan Strait, China. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Kiloniella sp. P1-1, which comprised 4,312,146 bp in 85 contigs with a G+C content of 46.09%. Related genes involved in the denitrification process could be identified in this genome. The genome sequence of Kiloniella sp. P1-1 may provide insights into the mechanism of denitrification. PMID:26303669

  6. Nutrition Education: A Multidisciplinary Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This guide for teachers, supervisors and administrators offers a conceptual framework and resources for developing a complete nutrition education program. Included are: (1) a statement of need for nutrition education, (2) definition of what nutrition education should encompass; (3) goals identified by teachers, curriculum specialists and nutrition

  7. USDA's Great Nutrition Adventure [Packet].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This nutrition education packet provides information to schools setting up healthy school meal programs and nutrition education programs. Team Nutrition schools will involve students, teachers, families, food service personnel, and community organizations in nutrition education activities. The packet contains fact sheets that focus on: the Great…

  8. Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition…

  9. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  10. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  11. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  12. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and

  13. Nutrition in Medicine: Nutrition Education for Medical Students and Residents

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Kelly M.; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and understanding of potential nutrition interventions. Historically, nutrition education has been underrepresented at many medical schools and residency programs. Our surveys over a decade show that most medical schools in the United States are still not ensuring adequate nutrition education, and they are not producing graduates with the nutrition competencies required in medical practice. Physicians, residents, and medical students clearly need more training in nutrition assessment and intervention. The Nutrition in Medicine (NIM) project, established to develop and distribute a core nutrition curriculum for medical students, offers a comprehensive online set of courses free of charge to medical schools. The NIM medical school curriculum is widely used in the United States and abroad. A new initiative, Nutrition Education for Practicing Physicians, offers an innovative online medical nutrition education program for residents and other physicians-in-training, but with targeted, practice-based educational units designed to be completed in 15 minutes or less. The NIM project is strengthening medical nutrition practice by providing a free, comprehensive, online nutrition curriculum with clinically relevant, evidence-based medical education for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. PMID:20962306

  14. Nutrition in medicine: nutrition education for medical students and residents.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kelly M; Kohlmeier, Martin; Powell, Margo; Zeisel, Steven H

    2010-10-01

    Proper nutrition plays a key role in disease prevention and treatment. Many patients understand this link and look to physicians for guidance diet and physical activity. Actual physician practice, however, is often inadequate in addressing the nutrition aspects of diseases such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes. Physicians do not feel comfortable, confident, or adequately prepared to provide nutrition counseling, which may be related to suboptimal knowledge of basic nutrition science facts and understanding of potential nutrition interventions. Historically, nutrition education has been underrepresented at many medical schools and residency programs. Our surveys over a decade show that most medical schools in the United States are still not ensuring adequate nutrition education, and they are not producing graduates with the nutrition competencies required in medical practice. Physicians, residents, and medical students clearly need more training in nutrition assessment and intervention. The Nutrition in Medicine (NIM) project, established to develop and distribute a core nutrition curriculum for medical students, offers a comprehensive online set of courses free of charge to medical schools. The NIM medical school curriculum is widely used in the United States and abroad. A new initiative, Nutrition Education for Practicing Physicians, offers an innovative online medical nutrition education program for residents and other physicians-in-training, but with targeted, practice-based educational units designed to be completed in 15 minutes or less. The NIM project is strengthening medical nutrition practice by providing a free, comprehensive, online nutrition curriculum with clinically relevant, evidence-based medical education for undergraduate and postgraduate learners. PMID:20962306

  15. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  16. [Nutrition of the preterm infant].

    PubMed

    Lapillonne, A; Razafimahefa, H; Rigourd, V; Granier, M

    2011-03-01

    The quality of nutritional support impacts not only the growth and quality of growth of preterm infants, but also all aspects of their development. In order to provide optimal nutrition, two main rules should be followed: optimise early parenteral nutrition and introduce appropriate enteral nutrition preferably with the mother's milk as early as possible. Recommendations have recently increased early energy and protein intake. The term "aggressive nutrition" has been introduced to qualify these changes, but we prefer the term "optimal nutrition," which more precisely reflects the physiology and needs of the preterm infant. Specific efforts should be continued to improve physician training in neonatal nutrition and to facilitate the dissemination of the most recent recommendations. Standardization of nutritional protocols in neonatal units should be promoted as a way to improve overall nutritional care. A full field of research remains open to determine the most effective nutritional strategy for preterm infants in order to maximize their growth and development. PMID:21288702

  17. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics.

    PubMed

    Williams, M H

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids may be theorized to improve performance in athletics in a variety of ways, primarily by enhancing energy efficiency, energy control or energy production. Athletes have utilized almost every nutrient possible, ranging from amino acids to zinc, as well as numerous purported nutritional substances, such as ginseng, in attempts to enhance physical performance. This review focuses primarily on nutritional ergogenic aids thought to enhance performance by favourably affecting energy metabolism. Although most purported nutritional ergogenic aids have not been shown to enhance physical performance in well-trained, well-nourished athletes, some reliable scientific data support an ergogenic efficacy of several substances, including caffeine, creatine and sodium bicarbonate, but additional research is needed to evaluate their potential for enhancing performance in specific athletics events. PMID:8897322

  18. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  19. [Carbohydrates in clinical nutrition].

    PubMed

    Lysikov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The article presents data on role of carbohydrate in clinical nutrition. The review described carbohydrate metabolism, hormonal regulation of carbohydrate, carbohydrate energy source role, carbohydrate requirements in critical study. PMID:23947170

  20. Nutritional concerns during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Marino, D D; King, J C

    1980-02-01

    Adolescent food habits often run counter to the special nutritional needs of this age group. Suggestions for nutrient supplements are offered, with particular emphasis on fulfilling the unique needs of the obese, athletic, or pregnant teenager. PMID:6445537

  1. What Is Enteral Nutrition?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Shortages Public Policy Agenda Public Policy Resources Continuing Education Certification Claim CE Credits Clinical Nutrition Week eLearning Center Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events Guidelines & Clinical Resources A.S. ...

  2. Nutrition Information Sources

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Lois

    1972-01-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  3. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  4. Personalized nutrition and obesity.

    PubMed

    Qi, Lu

    2014-08-01

    The past few decades have witnessed a rapid rise in nutrition-related disorders such as obesity in the United States and over the world. Traditional nutrition research has associated various foods and nutrients with obesity. Recent advances in genomics have led to identification of the genetic variants determining body weight and related dietary factors such as intakes of energy and macronutrients. In addition, compelling evidence has lent support to interactions between genetic variations and dietary factors in relation to obesity and weight change. Moreover, recently emerging data from other 'omics' studies such as epigenomics and metabolomics suggest that more complex interplays between the global features of human body and dietary factors may exist at multiple tiers in affecting individuals' susceptibility to obesity; and a concept of 'personalized nutrition' has been proposed to integrate this novel knowledge with traditional nutrition research, with the hope ultimately to endorse person-centric diet intervention to mitigate obesity and related disorders. PMID:24716734

  5. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  6. Nutrition in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

    2004-11-01

    It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

  7. Papaya nutritional analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

  8. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  9. [The national food and nutrition policy and its dialogue with the national food and nutrition security policy].

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Poliany de Souza; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2014-11-01

    Food is one of the determinants and conditions of health and an inherent right of all people. The consequences of food and nutrition insecurity in the population, such as obesity, malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies, impact the health sector and have historically meant that it has assumed the responsibility for food and nutrition programs and policies in Brazil. However, ensuring food and nutrition security requires a combination of public policies, among which the National Food and Nutrition Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) plays a fundamental role. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on intersectoriality and health promotion based on presenting the National Food and Nutrition Policy and discussing its role as interface between the SUS and the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and System. This perspective strongly suggests the combination of efforts to promote health and food and nutrition security in order to optimize initiatives developed in different sectors and accompanied by different policy councils that are not interrelated, enabling enhanced government and civil society action on the determinants of health and nutrition. PMID:25351300

  10. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues. PMID:26598880

  11. Effective programmes for improving nutrition in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agble, R

    1997-12-01

    This brief article identifies some lessons learned from effective programs for improving nutrition in Ghana. The Ghana nutrition program was initiated in the mid-1980s with the introduction of corn milling machines in over 50 communities. The milling machines were donated by UNICEF. The milling machines were used for the production of an improved cereal and a legume-based weaning food (Weanimix). The program included training and nutrition education. After the program was underway, an income generation component was added. The income from the sale of milled cereal was used to support other community-based activities. The number of mothers using the new weaning food increased. Maternal knowledge of basic nutrition improved in project communities compared to non-project communities. The program contributed to greater household food security and improved nutritional status of children. One important lesson learned was that, in order for community interest to remain high, there must be quality operation and few breakdowns of the milling machines. It is also important for agencies and nongovernmental groups to collaborate and define roles carefully. This program was successful in remote rural communities. Existing women's groups managed the project and maintained a simple record system to monitor progress. An appropriate amount of supervision is necessary to prevent laxness in the community from too little supervision or lack of initiative from too much supervision. The program staff was undecided regarding the use of incentives. PMID:12293189

  12. Nutrition in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Sen, D; Prakash, J

    2000-07-01

    Malnutrition is a common clinical problem in dialysis patients, which is multifactorial in origin. It is most often found in a patient of chronic renal failure (CRF) during the period when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) falls below 10 ml/min, but dialysis is yet to be started. The loss of proteins, aminoacids and other essential nutrients during the procedure of dialysis may further aggravate the malnutrition. Poor nutrition in dialysis patients is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the form of delayed wound healing, malaise, fatigue, increased susceptibility to infection and poor rehabilitation. In view of the above consequences, all patients on dialysis must undergo nutritional assessment. It is very vital to maintain good nutritional status in-patients on dialysis by adequate protein and calories intake, appropriate supplementation of iron, calcium, minerals and water-soluble vitamins and, of course, the supplementation should be individualised. Nutritional needs are enhanced in presence of stresses like infection or surgery to limit excessive tissue catabolism and therefore, these are the situations, which demand intensive nutrition therapy. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) may be required for patients on dialysis in intensive care unit, using a central venous catheter. However, enteral route is always preferred to parenteral ones, whenever possible. Even after adequate dialysis has been given, dietary counselling is often required for both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients to ensure that they ingest the recommended amount of protein, calories and essential micronutrients. PMID:11273510

  13. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  14. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  15. Recipes and nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Hertzler, A A

    1983-10-01

    Since the beginning of the science of nutrition in the 1800s, nutritionists have been concerned about the use of recipes in nutrition programs. Although research indicates that recipes may be most used by those with a high school education and with food preparation experiences, recipes appear to be valuable in providing many forms of food and nutrition information to individuals with varying education levels. Factors that should be considered in selecting recipes are: clients' nutritional and dietary status, money, equipment, literacy, information and knowledge, and life-style. Subsequently, evaluation is needed to document impact on clients' food habits and to justify the approach in nutrition education programs. This project reviewed procedures used by nutritionists to assess clientele needs and evaluated the tools they use in education programs. Although it focused on recipes, the same information could have been obtained for handouts, posters, slide series, comic books, storybooks, and demonstrations. Research is needed in nutrition education to identify standards for the use of tools, such as recipes, and to study their impact on improving dietary adequacy of clientele. Such standards should be tested within a theoretical framework so that they will be useful in other situations. PMID:6352783

  16. Nutrition assessment in the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Borrud, Lori G; McDowell, Margaret A; Wang, Chia-Yih; Radimer, Kathy; Johnson, Clifford L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the components of nutrition assessment in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of the US population. The survey participants were interviewed and completed a physical examination. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 25,316 people were included in the eligible sample, 21,004 people (83%) were interviewed, and 19,759 people (78% of the eligible sample) were examined. Dietary assessment consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall interview and questions on supplement use, food security, food-program participation, and other behaviors. Nutrition assessment included anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessment. A number of nutrition biochemistries were measured in blood and urine specimens. In addition, an assessment of cardiovascular fitness and questions on physical activity were included. Data are used to estimate population reference distributions and to monitor trends over time. Data have been used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake using the Dietary Reference Intakes, to assist in development of nutrition policies related to obesity, and to evaluate policies such as folic acid fortification. The NHANES contributes to the knowledge and understanding of nutrition and health status in the US population through public-use microdata files for use by researchers in academia, in the private sector, and in government agencies. Continuous data collection will allow the NHANES to provide more timely information for policy development and evaluation. PMID:17467380

  17. Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

  18. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  19. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  20. Molecular characterization of LvAV in response to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    He, Shulin; Song, Lei; Qian, Zhaoying; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Yongjie; Wang, Xianzong; Peng, Zhangming; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-07-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei is the most important farmed shrimp species globally, but its production is affected by several factors, including infectious disease. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), in particular, causes significant shrimp losses. To understand the shrimp's immune response against WSSV, we cloned LvAV from L. vannamei and analyzed its expression pattern in different tissues, in addition to its expression following infection. We employed dsRNA and recombinant (r)LvAV to explore the potential role of LvAV in shrimp immunity when infected with WSSV. We find that LvAV is a C-type Lectin composed of 176 amino acids with a signal peptide and a specific C-type Lectin-type domain (CTLD). It shares 81% amino acid similarity with PmAV, an antiviral-like C-type Lectin from Penaeus monodom, and it is highly expressed in the hepatopancreas. Its expression is affected by infection with both WSSV and V. parahaemolyticus. Significantly, injection with rLvAV slowed WSSV replication, while injection with LvAV dsRNA initially led to enhanced virus propagation. Surprisingly, LvAV dsRNA subsequently led to a dramatic decrease in viral load in the later stages of infection, suggesting that LvAV may be subverted by WSSV to enhance viral replication or immune avoidance. Our results indicate that LvAV plays an important, but potentially complex role in the Pacific white shrimp's immune defense. PMID:25735872

  1. Genome survey and high-density genetic map construction provide genomic and genetic resources for the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhao, Yongzhen; Huang, Long; Zheng, Hongkun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the dominant crustacean species in global seafood mariculture. Understanding the genome and genetic architecture is useful for deciphering complex traits and accelerating the breeding program in shrimp. In this study, a genome survey was conducted and a high-density linkage map was constructed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome survey was used to identify preliminary genome characteristics and to generate a rough reference for linkage map construction. De novo SNP discovery resulted in 25,140 polymorphic markers. A total of 6,359 high-quality markers were selected for linkage map construction based on marker coverage among individuals and read depths. For the linkage map, a total of 6,146 markers spanning 4,271.43 cM were mapped to 44 sex-averaged linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 0.7 cM. An integration analysis linked 5,885 genome scaffolds and 1,504 BAC clones to the linkage map. Based on the high-density linkage map, several QTLs for body weight and body length were detected. This high-density genetic linkage map reveals basic genomic architecture and will be useful for comparative genomics research, genome assembly and genetic improvement of L. vannamei and other penaeid shrimp species. PMID:26503227

  2. Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.

    PubMed

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  3. Genome survey and high-density genetic map construction provide genomic and genetic resources for the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhao, Yongzhen; Huang, Long; Zheng, Hongkun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the dominant crustacean species in global seafood mariculture. Understanding the genome and genetic architecture is useful for deciphering complex traits and accelerating the breeding program in shrimp. In this study, a genome survey was conducted and a high-density linkage map was constructed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome survey was used to identify preliminary genome characteristics and to generate a rough reference for linkage map construction. De novo SNP discovery resulted in 25,140 polymorphic markers. A total of 6,359 high-quality markers were selected for linkage map construction based on marker coverage among individuals and read depths. For the linkage map, a total of 6,146 markers spanning 4,271.43 cM were mapped to 44 sex-averaged linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 0.7 cM. An integration analysis linked 5,885 genome scaffolds and 1,504 BAC clones to the linkage map. Based on the high-density linkage map, several QTLs for body weight and body length were detected. This high-density genetic linkage map reveals basic genomic architecture and will be useful for comparative genomics research, genome assembly and genetic improvement of L. vannamei and other penaeid shrimp species. PMID:26503227

  4. Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

    2011-01-01

    Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

  5. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in the pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) when exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhu; Wei, Lin; Cao, Jiangrong; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Li, Ping; Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the genotoxic and physiological effects of acute hypoxia on the pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei), shrimps were treated firstly with three dissolved oxygen levels 6.5 ppm (control), 3.0 ppm and 1.5 ppm for 24 h, respectively, and then reoxygenated (6.5 ppm) for 24 h. The changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidases (GPX) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and DNA damage in the tissues of gill, hepatopancreas and hemolymph were examined during the period of hypoxia and reoxygenation. The results indicated SOD activity, GPX activity, MDA concentration and DNA damage all increased basically compared with the control during the period of hypoxia except for MDA concentrations in the gill at 12 h and 24 h hypoxia (3.0 ppm), and these parameters were recovered to some degree during the period of reoxygenation. Moreover, the comet assays in the tissues of gill and hepatopancreas showed an obvious time- and dose-dependent response to hypoxia, which indicated comet assay in the two tissues could be used as sensitive biomarker to detect the occurrence of hypoxia. We conclude that acute hypoxia can induce oxidative stress, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the tissues of gill, hepatopancreas and hemolymph of L. vannamei and the DNA damage may come from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26363325

  6. Effect of dietary potassium on growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulation and immunity of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in low salinity seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Tan, Beiping; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2013-11-01

    An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physiological acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+ per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

  7. Characterization of Four Novel Caspases from Litopenaeus vannamei (Lvcaspase2-5) and Their Role in WSSV Infection through dsRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogenesis, and caspases are central players in apoptosis. Here, we cloned four novel caspases (Lvcaspase2-5) from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and investigated their potential roles in WSSV replication using dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. Lvcaspase2-5 have the typical domain structure of caspase family proteins, with the conserved consensus motifs p20 and p10. Lvcaspase2 and Lvcaspase5 were highly expressed in muscle, while Lvcaspase3 was highly expressed in hemocytes and Lvcaspase4 was mainly expressed in intestine. Lvcaspase2-5 could also be upregulated by WSSV infection, and they showed different patterns in various tissues. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Lvcaspase2-5 showed different cellular localizations. Using dsRNA-medicated gene silencing, the expression of Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3, and Lvcaspase5 were effectively knocked down. In Lvcaspase2-, Lvcaspase3- or Lvcaspase5-silenced L. vannamei, expression of WSSV VP28 gene was significantly enhanced, suggesting protective roles for Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3 and Lvcaspase5 in the host defense against WSSV infection. PMID:24376496

  8. Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PMID:23405063

  9. Effects of methanolic macroalgae extracts from Caulerpa sertularioides and Ulva lactuca on Litopenaeus vannamei survival in the presence of Vibrio bacteria.

    PubMed

    Esquer-Miranda, Edgard; Nieves-Soto, Mario; Rivas-Vega, Martha Elisa; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Piña-Valdez, Pablo

    2016-04-01

    Macroalgae are potentially excellent sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that are useful for the development of new functional ingredients. This study was conducted to determine whether methanolic extracts from Caulerpa sertularioides and Ulva lactuca macroalgae might be possible alternatives for the prevention of shrimp vibriosis, which is caused by Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. Macroalgae extracts prepared with methanol as the solvent were evaluated for antibacterial activity with the microplate method. The extracts' effects on the mortality of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated at doses of 150 and 300 mg L(-1). Two independent assays for V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus were performed. The methanolic extract of C. sertularioides exhibited activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, and it had minimal inhibitory concentrations of <1000 and < 1500 μg mL(-1), respectively. L. vannamei mortality in the presence of both The methanolic extract of C. sertularioides exhibited activity against V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, and it had minimal inhibitory concentrations of <1000 and <1500 μg mL(-1), respectively. and V. alginolyticus bacteria significantly decreased after treatment with 300 mg L(-1) C. sertularioides methanolic extract. PMID:26915309

  10. Molecular cloning, expression of a galectin gene in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the antibacterial activity of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Cha, Gui-Hong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Ting; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    Galectins play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrate by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a cDNA encoding a galectin in the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) was identified and characterized. A recombinant variant of this lectin, rLvgalectin, was expressed in the model organism P. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by Western blot. Biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant protein antibacterial rLvgalectin activity and was expressed in all of the organism's tested tissues Injection of the bacterium V. alginolyticus into L. vannamei induced hemocytes upregulation of Lvgalectin. The recombinant Lvgalectin protein (rLvgalectin) could bind various microorganism including Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. And it revealed antimicrobial activity against the test Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, but did not inhibit the growth of fungus Pichia pastoris. Moreover, rLvgalectin could significantly enhance the clearance activity of V. alginolyticus in vivo. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant rLvgalectin protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. alginolyticus injection. Furthermore, Compared to their wild-type counterparts, Lvgalectin-silenced shrimp exhibited increased mortality and hemocyte apoptosis, decreased bacterial clearance ability and total hemocyte counts, and stronger expression of Lvp53, LvproPO, LvPEN3, and LvCrustin following V. alginolyticus challenge. Taken together, these results suggest that galectin is important in the innate immune response of shrimp to pathogens infection. PMID:26143399

  11. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM) is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PMID:23405063

  12. [Microorganisms effect with probiotic potential in water quality and growth of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in intensive culture].

    PubMed

    Melgar Valdes, Carolina Esther; Barba Macías, Everardo; Alvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Tovilla Hernández, Cristian; Sánchez, Alberto J

    2013-09-01

    The use of probiotics has gained acceptance in aquaculture, particularly in maintaining water quality and enhancing growth in organisms. This study analyzed the effect of the commercial (EM, Japan) natural product composed by (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) added to the water, in order to determine its effect in water quality, sediment and growth of L. vannamei under intensive culture. The evaluation included three treatments with a weekly addition of EM: i) tanks without probiotics (C), ii) tanks with a dose of 4 L/ha (EM1) and iii) tanks with a dose of 10 L/ha (EM2). The treatment C was carried out three times, while treatments EM1 and EM2 were carried out four times. A total of 4 350 shrimps were measured for total length and weight, to calculate total and porcentual weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate (TCE), and food conversion factor (FCA); besides, the survival rate was estimated. The use of probiotics allowed a shorter harvest time in treatments EM1 (90 d) and EM2 (105 d) with relation to the treatment C (120d). Treatments EM1 and EM2 were within the recommended intervals for culture, with respect to treatment C. The use of probiotic bacteria significantly regulated pH (EM1, 8.03 +/- 0.33; EM2, 7.77 +/- 0.22; C, 9.08 +/- 0.35) and reduced nitrate concentration (EM1, 0.64 +/- 0.25 mg/L; EM2, 0.39 +/- 0.26 mg/L; C, 0.71 mg/L). Water pH mostly explained the variance with respect to the treatments. Treatment EM2 presented the greatest removal of organic matter (1.77 +/- 0.45%), whereas the contents of extractable phosphorus increased significantly in treatment EM1 with 21.6 +/- 7.99 mg/kg and in treatment EM2 with 21.6 +/- 8.45 mg/kg with control relation (14.3 +/- 5.47). The shrimp growth was influenced by dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the sediment, establishing that salinity was the most important variable in the weight with a negative association. Treatment EM1 recorded an improved TCE (2.69 +/- 0.35%/d) and FCA (1.46 +/- 0.20) with relation to the control treatment (TCE, 1.88 +/- 0.25%/d; FCA, 2.13 +/- 0.48). Survival was significantly greater in treatments containing probiotics with 61 +/- 8.76% and 60 +/- 10.5% for EM1 and EM2, respectively. This study indicated the positive effect obtained with the use of this commercial probiotic, to improve culture conditions and growth parameters in an intensive culture of L. vannamei. PMID:24027919

  13. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at birth has risen. PMID:12346051

  14. Virus replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenfeng; Desmarets, Lowiese M B; De Gryse, Gaëtan M A; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Van Tuan, Vo; Van Thuong, Khuong; Bossier, Peter; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    The replication cycle of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) was investigated in secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ of Litopenaeus vannamei. The secondary cells formed a confluent monolayer at 24 h post-reseeding, and this monolayer could be maintained for 10 days with a viability of 90 %. Binding of WSSV to cells reached a maximum (73 ± 3 % of cells and 4.84 ± 0.2 virus particles per virus-binding cell) at 120 min at 4 °C. WSSV entered cells by endocytosis. The co-localization of WSSV and early endosomes was observed starting from 30 min post-inoculation (p.i.). Double indirect immunofluorescence staining showed that all cell-bound WSSV particles entered these cells in the period between 0 and 60 min p.i. and that the uncoating of WSSV occurred in the same period. After 1 h inoculation at 27 °C, the WSSV nucleocapsid protein VP664 and envelope protein VP28 started to be synthesized in the cytoplasm from 1 and 3 h p.i., and were transported into nuclei from 3 and 6 h p.i., respectively. The percentage of cells that were VP664- and VP28-positive in their nuclei peaked (50 ± 4 %) at 12 h p.i. Quantitative PCR showed that WSSV DNA started to be synthesized from 6 h p.i. In vivo titration of the supernatants showed that the progeny WSSV were released from 12 h p.i. and peaked at 18 h p.i. In conclusion, the secondary cell cultures from the lymphoid organ were proven to be ideal for examination of the replication cycle of WSSV. PMID:26067291

  15. Antimicrobial resistance profile of Vibrio species isolated from marine shrimp farming environments (Litopenaeus vannamei) at Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rebouças, Rosa Helena; de Sousa, Oscarina Viana; Lima, Anahy Sousa; Vasconcelos, Fabio Roger; de Carvalho, Patricia Barroso; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Brazilian shrimp culture industry has a great economic importance mainly to the northeast region. However, the accelerated development of this activity has resulted in the emergency of outbreaks of diseases from farming shrimp, and as a consequence the use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effect under the shrimp production. The inappropriate use of antibiotics in aquaculture is one of the causes for the high incidence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria isolated from aquatic environments that represent a danger for aquatic organisms and human health. There is little information available on the level of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria from shrimp farming environment. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic resistance profile among Vibrio isolates from hatcheries water samples and from cultivated marine shrimp hepatopancreas (L. vannamei). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out by a standard disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of oxytetracycline (OTC) for resistant Vibrio isolates was determinate by broth dilution method. The results showed a high incidence of resistance to ampicillin (45.2%) and to the tetracycline class (38.7%). Florfenicol and nitrofurantoin were 100% effective against Vibrio isolates. In this study, the OTC-resistant Vibrio spp. showed MIC values of more than 400mg/L and the presence of seawater did not influence the oxytetracycline bioactivity. The occurrence of antimicrobial multiresistance patterns was observed in 29% of Vibrio isolates. Fifty-five percent of multiresistant isolates of Vibrio lost one or more antibiotic resistance phenotype after procedure to curing of resistance plasmids. The oxytetracycline resistance was the phenotype most often lost among plasmid-cured isolates. PMID:20970784

  16. A MicroRNA-Mediated Positive Feedback Regulatory Loop of the NF-κB Pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongliang; Yuan, Jia; Chen, Yonggui; Li, Sedong; Su, Ziqi; Wei, Erman; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; Xu, Xiaopeng; He, Jianguo

    2016-05-01

    In the evolutionarily conserved canonical NF-κB pathway, degradation of the NF-κB inhibitor IκB in the cytoplasmic NF-κB/IκB complex allows the liberated NF-κB to translocate into the nucleus to activate various target genes. The regulatory mechanism governing this process needs further investigation. In this study, a novel microRNA, temporarily named miR-1959, was first identified from an invertebrate Litopenaeus vannamei miR-1959 targets the 3'-untranslated region of the IκB homolog Cactus gene and reduces the protein level of Cactus in vivo, whereas the NF-κB homolog Dorsal directly binds the miR-1959 promoter to activate its transcription. Therefore, miR-1959 mediates a positive feedback regulatory loop, in that Dorsal activates miR-1959 expression, and in turn, miR-1959 inhibits the expression of Cactus, further leading to enhanced activation of Dorsal. Moreover, miR-1959 regulates the expression of many antimicrobial peptides in vivo and is involved in antibacterial immunity. To our knowledge, it is the first discovery of a microRNA-mediated feedback loop that directly regulates the NF-κB/IκB complex. This positive feedback loop could collaborate with the known NF-κB/IκB negative loop to generate a dynamic balance to regulate the activity of NF-κB, thus constituting an effective regulatory mechanism at the critical node of the NF-κB pathway. PMID:26994223

  17. A Dicer-1 gene from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: expression pattern in the processes of immune response and larval development.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuemei; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Dong, Chaohua; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Limei; Shi, Yaohua; Zhao, Jianmin; Bi, Yongkun

    2010-10-01

    Dicer is a member of the RNAase III family which catalyzes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA to small interfering RNAs and micro RNAs, and then directs sequence-specific gene silencing. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of Dicer-1 was cloned from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvDcr1). It was of 7636 bp, including a poly A tail, a 5' UTR of 136 bp, a 3' UTR of 78 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 7422 bp encoding a putative protein of 2473 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence comprised all recognized functional domains found in other Dicer-1 homologues and showed the highest (97.7%) similarity to the Dicer-1 from tiger shrimp Penaeus mondon. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the tissue distribution of LvDcr1 mRNA, and its expression in shrimps under virus challenge and larvae at different developmental stages. The LvDcr1 mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression level in hemocyte, and was up-regulated in hemocytes and gills after virus injection. These results indicated that LvDcr1 was involved in antiviral defense in adult shrimp. During the developmental stages from fertilized egg to postlarva VII, LvDcr1 was constitutively expressed at all examined development stages, but the expression level varied significantly. The highest expression level was observed in fertilized eggs and followed a decrease from fertilized egg to nauplius I stage. Then, the higher levels of expression were detected at nauplius V and postlarva stages. LvDcr1 expression regularly increased at the upper phase of nauplius, zoea and mysis stages than their prophase. The different expression of LvDcr1 in the larval stages could provide clues for understanding the early innate immunity in the process of shrimp larval development. PMID:20599620

  18. Nutritional anemia and its control.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Deeksha; Agarwal, Kailash Nath; Agarwal, Dev Kumari

    2002-07-01

    Available studies on prevalence of nutritional anemia in India show that 65% infant and toddlers, 60% 1-6 years of age, 88% adolescent girls (3.3% had hemoglobin < 7.0 g/dl; severe anemia) and 85% pregnant women (9.9% having severe anemia) were anemic. The prevalence of anemia was marginally higher in lactating women as compared to pregnancy. The commonest is iron deficiency anemia. National programmes to control and prevent anemia have not been successful. Experiences from other countries in controlling moderately-severe anemia guide to adopt long-term measures i.e. fortification of food items like milk, cereal, sugar, salt with iron. Use of iron utensils in boiling milk, cooking vegetables etc may contribute significant amount of dietary iron. Nutrition education to improve dietary intakes in family for receiving needed macro/micro nutrients as protein, iron and vitamins like folic acid, B12, A and C etc. for hemoglobin synthesis is important. As an immediate measure medicinal iron is necessary to control anemia. Addition of folate with iron controls anemia and is neuroprotective. Evidence in early childhood suggests vitamin B12 deficiency anemia; thus it may also be given along with iron and folate. PMID:12173702

  19. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ≥150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (Σ) monounsaturated fatty acids, Σ n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less Σ n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  20. An Integrative Review of Sleep for Nutrition Professionals12

    PubMed Central

    Golem, Devon L.; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer T.; Koenings, Mallory M.; Davis, Katherine Finn; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is an essential lifestyle factor that contributes to overall health. The inverse relation between sleep duration and weight status has revealed the importance of sleep in nutritional health. This integrative review builds foundational knowledge with regard to sleep vis-à-vis nutrition by summarizing the importance and process of sleep, current sleep recommendations and trends, as well as lifestyle contributors to poor sleep. Additionally, it details the association between sleep and obesity and potential mechanisms for this association. Furthermore, guidance is offered regarding the incorporation of sleep considerations in nutrition counseling, communication, and research. Like many other lifestyle factors that contribute to nutritional health, sleep needs to be considered when examining weight management and health promotion. PMID:25398735

  1. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  2. Nutrition and pubertal development.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  3. Nutrition and pubertal development

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

  4. Nutritional assessment of surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Brown, C S; Stegman, M R

    1988-10-01

    In order to test the sensitivity and specificity of the East Orange Nutritional Screening Form (EONSF), nutritional assessments were performed on a random sample of 10% of general medical/surgical admissions at a large midwestern veteran's administration hospital. Patients were followed until discharge to determine if they met the standard criteria of additional nutritional support. The tool correctly identified patients at nutritional risk (sensitivity) 95% of the time and patients not at nutritional risk (specificity) 89% of the time. It proved to be an effective, low-cost tool for identifying patients at risk and for planning appropriate nutritional strategies. PMID:3146037

  5. Nutritional concerns in the alcoholic.

    PubMed

    Roe, D A

    1981-01-01

    In summary, nutritional concern of alcoholics as viewed by the patient differ from the concern of his/her nutrition and health advisers. Between alcoholics, nutritional concerns differ with age, sex, and life style. Caloric excess, obesity, nutrient overload, and a whole spectrum of nutritional deficiencies are found in alcoholics. Causes of malnutrition are complex. Malnutrition is commonly associated with prior alcoholic damage to tissues. Vulnerability for specific syndromes of nutritional deficiency is dependent on genetic predisposition. Optimal response to nutritional rehabilitation requires abstinence, as no nutrient or combination of nutrients will protect tissues from alcoholic damage. However, moderate intake of alcoholic beverages may offer some protection against coronary heart disease. PMID:7217555

  6. The effectiveness of nutritional interventions in malnutrition and cachexia.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Christine

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a common diagnosis and leading cause of death worldwide. Amounts of weight loss vary but it is associated with considerable morbidity, poorer quality of life and reduced survival. Nutritional intervention has the potential to maximise response to treatment and improve functioning and quality of life. The aim of this paper was to review the evidence for oral nutritional interventions in the management of weight loss in patients with cancer. Comparison of studies of nutritional support interventions in people with cancer is complicated by variations in understanding of what constitutes a compromised nutritional status. There are similarities and differences between definitions of both malnutrition and cachexia and studies of oral nutritional interventions have failed to use standard criteria at study inclusion contributing to heterogeneity amongst studies. Meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials has suggested limited evidence of benefit to nutritional and clinical outcomes but some improvements to aspects of quality of life. The presence of cachexia in patients with cancer might explain the limited efficacy of simple oral nutritional interventions, which lack a component designed to address metabolic abnormalities associated with cachexia. Novel strategies combining nutritional support with therapeutic agents designed to down-regulate the metabolic aberrations have failed to demonstrate consistent benefits and the results of multimodal treatments combining several interventions are awaited. There is a need for intervention studies recruiting patients early in the disease course, which underlines the need for definitions which predict poor outcome and hence allow early recognition of vulnerable patients. PMID:26087760

  7. Nutrition and enhancing youthful-appearing skin.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2010-01-01

    The use of nutrition, including vitamins and antioxidants, to enhance youthful-appearing skin is presented. The most current references in the area are included, but much of the material discussed has not been well studied. The use of nutricosmetics is supported by testimonial, assumption, inference, and vague language. This contribution provides an overview of the current nutricosmetic marketplace and also substantiates the lack of available scientific data. PMID:20620756

  8. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  9. The Multidimensional Nutritional Niche.

    PubMed

    Machovsky-Capuska, Gabriel E; Senior, Alistair M; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-05-01

    The dietary generalist-specialist distinction plays a pivotal role in theoretical and applied ecology, conservation, invasion biology, and evolution and yet the concept remains poorly characterised. Diets, which are commonly used to define niche breadth, are almost exclusively considered in terms of foods, with little regard for the mixtures of nutrients and other compounds they contain. We use nutritional geometry (NG) to integrate nutrition with food-level approaches to the dietary niche and illustrate the application of our framework in the important context of invasion biology. We use an example that involves a model with four hypothetical nonexclusive scenarios. We additionally show how this approach can provide fresh theoretical insight into the ways nutrition and food choices impact trait evolution and trophic interactions. PMID:26993666

  10. [Bone disorder and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Tanaka, Sarasa

    2016-03-01

    The nutrition is important for prevention and improvement in bone disorder. Especially osteoporosis associated with nutrition. It has entered the super-aged society in 2007, a further increase in osteoporosis patients are concerned in Japan. Many studies have shown that associated with calcium, vitamin D, vitamin K intake and bone density and fracture. Relationship of osteoporosis and nutrition, despite the general awareness is high, calcium intake is not at all reached the achievement to recommend dietary allowance. In addition, vitamin D deficiency rickets in children, which has been considered in the past of the disorder, there is an increasing trend from such exposure shortage to the infancy of sunlight, vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women, the recommended breastfeeding. Improvement of lifestyle and diet from young age is important for bone disorder prevention. PMID:26923974

  11. Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis. PMID:23634702

  12. Draft Genome Sequence of White Spot Syndrome Virus Isolated from Cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Anaya, Libia Zulema; Gonzalez-Galaviz, Jose Reyes; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Estrada, Karel; Ibarra-Gamez, Jose Cuauhtemoc; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    The first genome sequence of a Mexican white spot syndrome virus is presented here. White spot syndrome is a shrimp pandemic virus that has devastated production in Mexico for more than 10 years. The availability of this genome will greatly aid epidemiological studies worldwide, contributing to the molecular diagnostic and disease prevention in shrimp farming. PMID:26966222

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of White Spot Syndrome Virus Isolated from Cultured Litopenaeus vannamei in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Anaya, Libia Zulema; Gonzalez-Galaviz, Jose Reyes; Casillas-Hernandez, Ramón; Lares-Villa, Fernando; Estrada, Karel

    2016-01-01

    The first genome sequence of a Mexican white spot syndrome virus is presented here. White spot syndrome is a shrimp pandemic virus that has devastated production in Mexico for more than 10 years. The availability of this genome will greatly aid epidemiological studies worldwide, contributing to the molecular diagnostic and disease prevention in shrimp farming. PMID:26966222

  14. Nutrition in Cardioskeletal Health.

    PubMed

    Hill Gallant, Kathleen M; Weaver, Connie M; Towler, Dwight A; Thuppal, Sowmyanarayanan V; Bailey, Regan L

    2016-05-01

    Bone and heart health are linked through a variety of cellular, endocrine, and metabolic mechanisms, including the bidirectional effects of mineral-regulating hormones parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor 23. Nutrition plays an important role in the development of both cardiovascular and bone disease. This review describes current knowledge on the relations between the cardiovascular system and bone and the influence of key nutrients involved in mineral metabolism-calcium, vitamin D, and phosphorus-on heart and bone health, as well as the racial/ethnic differences in cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis and the influence that nutrition has on these disparities. PMID:27184281

  15. Nutrition and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Nutrition has a close association with cancer. Carcinogens in foods, macronutrients, micronutrients such as vitamins A, C and E and selenium, dietary fiber, the modulation of metabolism by diet, food additives and anticarcinogens in foods all affect the development of cancer. In particular, macronutrients (especially meat and animal fat) appear to have a significant effect on the development of cancer of the colon, breast and uterus. This article discusses research on the links between nutrition and cancer, and describes current dietary recommendations to decrease the likelihood of cancer. PMID:21278974

  16. Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Perea, Sally

    2012-05-01

    There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, antioxidants, and green-lipped mussel may also have some benefit in managing osteoarthritis. Additional research evaluating pets with naturally occurring disease, using validated owner questionnaires and objective measurements, is needed. PMID:22581724

  17. Parenteral nutrition: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:20661345

  18. Doorway to Nutrition: A Nutrition Education Program for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche

    The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…

  19. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)

  20. Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

    This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support

  1. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  2. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  3. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  4. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to

  5. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  6. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  7. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Development Webinars Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  8. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Tips Browse By Subject Dietary Guidance Lifecycle Nutrition Diet and Disease Food Composition Food Safety Weight and Obesity Food Labeling Dietary Supplements Nutrition Assistance Programs Surveys, Reports and Research Professional and ...

  9. Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions. PMID:25415364

  10. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crushes What's a Booger? Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > For Kids > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... is someone who knows all about food and nutrition. Each kid is different, but most kids with ...

  11. State of nutrition support teams.

    PubMed

    DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelly, Andrea True; Kelley, Andrea True

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

  12. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  13. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  14. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the

  15. Nutritional requirements in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Rogers, R

    1990-06-01

    Nutritional management of elderly persons can be difficult because of illness, drug-nutrient interactions, socioeconomic factors, and lack of precise information regarding nutrient requirements. Dietary intake and requirements, nutritional assessment, and guidelines for nutritional management of the elderly population are reviewed. PMID:2194954

  16. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  17. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  18. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  19. Food and nutrition security.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the deficits in food security in India. It is recommended that India commit to nutrition security by direct actions. Programs should provide essential staples and a nutrient distribution system with affordable prices. India should adopt an Employment Guarantee Program. Creches should provide maternal-child health care, nutrition, literacy, and employment. Government must resolve the internal conflicts of interest between overlapping sectors. India should resolve the "dysfunction" between macroeconomic policies and anti-poverty strategies. Interventions should be people oriented, rely on social mobilization, and provide information and financial resources in a nonconflict context. Efforts will require the cooperation between the private sector, voluntary organizations, state agencies, and local self-governing decentralized agencies. There is a need to build capacity and viable institutions. Poverty agencies do not have access to the minimum required cereals for the poor. The Public Distribution System (PDS) does not guarantee a minimum quantity of foodstuffs per household regardless of income level. More high quality varieties of rice are produced due to higher prices in the marketplace. Most state governments do not provide staple cereals to the PDS at affordable prices. The government sets fair prices for sugar, but not cereal. The government sells more cereal in the open market than to PDS. PDS should target poor households; that is, the 29.9% who live below the poverty line. Lack of nutrition security is due to poverty that is enhanced by ignorance and the lack of health and nutrition education. PMID:12293896

  20. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  1. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  2. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  3. Is Boron Nutritionally Relevant?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence from numerous laboratories using a variety of experimental models, including humans, shows that boron is a bioactive beneficial element. Much evidence has come from studies that did not require nutritional or environmental stressors or fastidious methods in diet preparation or environmental...

  4. Nutrition, growth, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tryfiates, G.P. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.

  5. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…

  6. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a

  7. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  8. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

  9. Immunity and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

  10. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to

  11. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

  12. Nutrition during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...

  13. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23

  14. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  15. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  16. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control

  17. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

  18. Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

  19. Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and

  20. NUTRITION AND FEEDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

  1. Health promotion: Improved nutrition.

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Appropriate nutrition is necessary for optimal growth and development, physical activity, reproduction, lactation, recovery from illness and injury, and maintenance of health throughout the life cycle. A variety of health problems can occur when persons have deficits of essential nutrients or have excessive or inappropriate consumption of some nutrients. While the role of nutrition in health problems is not fully understood, epidemiologic and laboratory studies offer important insights which may help people in making food choices to enhance their prospects of attaining or maintaining health. Current data indicate an inappropriate nutritional status for a substantial proportion of the American public. For example, for people aged 20 to 74 about 14 percent of men and 24 percent of women are classified as obese. The rates are significantly higher for women regardless of their economic status. Iron and folic acid deficiencies are common among pregnant or lactating women. It has been estimated that between 10 to 15 percent of infants and children among migratory workers and certain rural poor populations suffer growth retardation due to dietary inadequacies. And the average daily sodium ingestion is substantially higher for the U.S. population generally than the recommended intake levels. But some progress has been made over the last decade. Studies indicate that people have begun to consume less total fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol. Prevalence of breast feeding has increased to a point where it is the mode of feeding for 45 percent of newborns in the country. And a number of recent surveys indicate that more people are interested in nutrition, are more aware of the actions they can take to maintain health through their daily eating patterns, and have initiated changes in their nutritional practices. PMID:6414013

  2. Nutrition in Africa.

    PubMed

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697

  3. [Nutritional therapy of gout].

    PubMed

    Nickolai, Beate; Kiss, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition and nutritional behaviours have been found to play a major role in the development of gout. Studies show that body mass index (BMI), as well as excessive intake of alcoholic beverages, meat, soft drinks and fruit juices increase the risk of developing gout. Similarly, dairy products and coffee have been seen to decrease the risk of hyperuricemia and gout, as they increase the excretion of uric acid. Flares of gout are often caused by large meals and high alcohol consumption. Each additional intake of meat portion per day increases the risk of gout by 21 %. Taking total alcohol consumption into account, the risk of gout increases after one to two standard drinks. In contrast to previous assumptions purine-rich plant foods like legumes and vegetables do not increase the risk of gout. The current dietary guidelines take into account nutritional factors, which not only consider purine intake, but also their endogenous production and their influence on renal excretion. A balanced diet based on the Swiss healthy eating guideline pyramid as well as the Mediterranean diet is appropriate for this patient population. The treatment of gout is multi-faceted, since this patient population presents other comorbidities such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Collectively, these risk factors are diet dependent and require a treatment strategy that is centered on modifying one's nutrition and nutritional behaviours. The aim of such therapy is to educate the patient as well as treat the accompanying comorbidities with the goal of decreasing serum uric acid values. Motivated patients require consultation and follow-up care in order to be able to actively decrease the serum uric acid. PMID:27008448

  4. Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

  5. Systematic Nutritional Support in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Fuji, Shigeo; Einsele, Hermann; Savani, Bipin N; Kapp, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has become an established treatment modality for various hematological diseases. However, in allogeneic HSCT, patients often suffer from severe gastrointestinal complications caused by the conditioning regimen and acute/chronic graft-versus-host disease, which requires support by multidisciplinary nutritional support teams (NST). In addition, pretransplantation nutritional status can affect the clinical outcome after allogeneic HSCT. Therefore, it is important to refer the patient to a NST when becoming aware of nutritional problems before allogeneic HSCT. It is also important to follow nutritional status over the long term, as patients often suffer from various nutritional problems, such as malnutrition and metabolic syndrome, even late after allogeneic HSCT. In summary, NST can contribute to the improvement of nutritional status and possibly prognosis at every stage before and after allogeneic HSCT. Here, we aim to give a comprehensive overview of current understanding about nutritional support in allogeneic HSCT and try to provoke a constructive discussion to stimulate further investigation. PMID:26172477

  6. Nutrition and Anabolic Pharmacotherapies in the Care of Burn Patients.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Abdikarim; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-05-14

    Thermal injury is a devastating injury that results in a number of pathological alterations in almost every system in the body. Hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, depressed immunity, and impaired wound healing are all clinical features of burns. Failure to address each of these specific pathological alterations can lead to increased mortality. Nutrition supplementation has been recommended as a therapeutic tool to help attenuate the hypermetabolism and devastating catabolism evident following burn. Despite the wide consensus on the need of nutrition supplementation in burn patients, controversy exists with regard to the type and amount of nutrition recommended. Nutrition alone is also not enough in these patients to halt and reverse some of the damage done by the catabolic pathways activated following severe burn injury. This has led to the use of anabolic pharmacologic agents in conjunction with nutrition to help improve patient outcome following burn injury. In this review, we examine the relevant literature on nutrition after burn injury and its contribution to the attenuation of the postburn hypermetabolic response, impaired wound healing, and suppressed immunological responses. We also review the commonly used anabolic agents clinically in the care of burn patients. Finally, we provide nutrition and pharmacological recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on our practice at the Ross Tilley Burn Center in Toronto, Canada. PMID:24829299

  7. [Effects of salinity and Na+/K+ in percolating water from saline-alkali soil on the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei].

    PubMed

    Liu, Cun-Qi; Wang, Jun-Xia; Zhang, Ya-Juan; Liu, Li-Jing

    2008-06-01

    In order to develop shrimp farming with the percolating water from coastal saline-alkali soil, the effects of the salinity and Na+/K+ in this percolating water on the survival, growth, metabolism, and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamicpyruvic transaminase (GPT) and Na+-K+-ATPase activities of Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The shrimps were cultured at the salinity 5, 10 and 15 and at the Na+/K+ ratios of 20, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 90 for 20 days. The results showed that the survival rate, growth rate, and enzyme activities of the shrimps were the highest at salinity 15, and the shrimps had higher survival rate, growth rate, and enzyme activities at the Na+/K+ ratios of 40 and 50, suggesting that after an appropriate preparation, the percolating water from coastal saline-alkali soil was available to culture the shrimps. PMID:18808029

  8. Expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphofructokinase is induced in hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cota-Ruiz, Keni; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martínez-Quintana, José A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Marine organisms are exposed to hypoxia in natural ecosystems and during farming. In these circumstances marine shrimp survive and synthesize ATP by anaerobic metabolism. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) are key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we report the cDNA of FBP from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas and expression of PFK and FBP under normoxia and hypoxia. Hypoxia induces PFK and FBP expression in hepatopancreas but not in gills and muscle. Induction in hepatopancreas of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic key enzymes, PFK and FBP, suggests that PFK could be a key factor for increasing anaerobic rate, while FBP is probably involved in the activation of gluconeogenesis or the pentose-phosphates pathway during hypoxia in the highly active metabolism of hepatopancreas. PMID:25725474

  9. [Milk and dairy products for human nutrition: contribution of technology].

    PubMed

    Maubois, Jean-Louis

    2008-04-01

    The complex composition of milk has led to the development of innovative technological processes such as membrane separation. The dairy industry is now able to offer consumers safe classical products (liquid milk, raw-milk cheeses) with little or no heat treatment. Indeed, heat treatment undermines the organoleptic qualities and bioactivity of many molecules found in milk. New technologies, and especially membrane microfiltration, have allowed researchers to identify two groups of milk proteins in terms of their human absorption kinetics: slow micellar casein and fast whey proteins. The highly purified products thus obtained are used for infant foods and slimming aids, and as functional ingredients. The same technologies have been applied to colostrum, yielding a sterile "serocolostrum" containing biologically active immunoglobulins, growth factors, and polypeptides. Combined with other separation techniques, membrane technologies should soon allow the separation and purification of minor milk proteins described as having essential roles in bone calcium uptake and vitamin transport, for example. The use of enzymatic membrane reactors has led to the identification of several bioactive peptides, such as--kappa-caseinomacropeptide, which induces CCK (cholecystokinin) secretion and thus regulates food intake and lipid assimilation,--alpha(S1) CN (91-100), a compound with benzodiazepine activity,-- kappaCN (106-116), which has anti-thrombotic activity by inhibiting blood platelet binding to fibrinogen, and--alpha(S) and beta casein phosphopeptides, which are thought to increase iron and calcium absorption. PMID:19024942

  10. Nutrition situation in metropolitan Jakarta.

    PubMed

    Matulessy, P F; Asumi, R; Thamrin, M H; Husaini; Angeles, T I; Kariadi, D

    1992-01-01

    Jakarta is the capital and biggest city of Indonesia with a total population of 10 million. The National Census Office revealed a rapid increase in population through 1985 to 1990. This rapid increase has brought many devastating effects on various aspects of life such as housing, food stock and food production, health and environmental conditions, education, socio-economic and cultural life and political stability. All of these factors contribute to malnutrition in the city as well as in the country as a whole. Data obtained from the Municipal Health Offices showed an unsatisfactory health status having a crude birth rate (CBR) of 2.80%; crude death rate (CDR) of 0.68%; and family size of 5.5. Undernutrition among under-five children still is alarming with a prevalence of 27.91%. Anemia also afflicts a great number of pregnant mothers (70%) and preschool children (38.6%). Nutrition problems are worst in urban areas with their high population density; moderate and severe PEM is 5.63% in urban areas compared with 3.7% moderate PEM and no PEM in rural areas. Jakarta is experiencing rapid urbanization. The presence of slums, air and water pollution in city is a paramount factor leading to poor environmental conditions. The existing health system cannot keep pace with the increasing occurrence of infectious diseases brought about by these unfavorable conditions. Unemployment and underemployment as well as rising costs of foodstuffs cause inadequate food availability at the household level. Due to the grinding poverty experienced by the low socio-economic groups, female workers occupy almost one-third of Indonesia's labor force, hence inadequate care is given to children. All these are factors aggravating the nutritional problems in the country. PMID:1342755

  11. Nutritional management of acute diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P B

    1998-10-01

    Despite recommendations from several bodies such as the World Health Organization and others that feeding should be continued during diarrhea, the practice of withholding food during the early stages of diarrhea is still widespread. This contributes to a deterioration in patients' nutritional state. The principal controversy in the nutritional therapy of acute gastroenteritis centers on the relative risks of cows'-milk feeds. The two things that need to be considered in determining the optimum approach to feeding the child with acute diarrhea are the optimum timing for feeding children in relation to the onset of and recovery from symptoms and, secondly, the effects of specific food ingredients in the diet. Recent studies have demonstrated that the vast majority of young children with acute diarrhea can be successfully managed with continued feeding of undiluted non-human milk. Routine dilution of milk and routine use of lactose-free formula are not necessary, especially when oral rehydration therapy and early feeding (in addition to milk) form the basic approach to the clinical management of diarrhea in children. Confounding factors are the severity of the diarrhea, coexistent malnutrition, and young age (< 1 y); such infants are much more likely to have complications from early feeding with undiluted milk and some would advocate use of specifically designed lactose-free formula in such children. Children who are fed exclusively with human milk and those who receive solid foods with or without human milk may safely continue to receive their usual diets during diarrhea. Those who are fed exclusively with non-human milk--especially when very young and with severe diarrhea or malnutrition--should be closely observed if they continue to consume milk or they should receive a special formulation (e.g., a cereal-milk mixture or fermented milk product). The use of nutrient-dense mixtures of common foods may be advisable to promote compensatory growth in those who lose weight during illness or because of anorexia or malabsorption. PMID:9785356

  12. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Mullany, Luke C; Hurley, Kristen M; Katz, Joanne; Black, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    This article reviews the central role of nutrition in advancing the maternal, newborn, and child health agenda with a focus on evidence for effective interventions generated using randomized controlled trials in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). The 1000 days spanning from conception to 2 years of life are a critical period of time when nutritional needs must be ensured; failure to do so can lead to adverse impacts on short-term survival as well as long-term health and development [corrected]. The burden of maternal mortality continues to be high in many under-resourced settings; prenatal calcium supplementation in populations with low intakes can reduce the risk of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia morbidity and mortality and is recommended, and antenatal iron-folic acid use in many countries may reduce anemia, a condition that may be an underlying factor in postpartum hemorrhage. Sufficient evidence exists to promote multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy to reduce fetal growth restriction and low birth weight. Early initiation of breastfeeding (within an hour), exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months of life, and vitamin A supplementation in the first few days of life in Asia (but not in Africa) reduce infant mortality. Biannual large-dose vitamin A supplements to children 6-59 months of age and zinc for treatment of diarrhea continue to be important strategies for improving child health and survival. Early nutrition and micronutrient status can influence child development but should be integrated with early responsive learning interventions. Future research is needed that goes beyond the 1000 days to ensure adequate preconceptional nutrition and health, with special emphasis on adolescents who contribute to a large proportion of first births in many LMIC. Thus, we make the case for integrating proven nutrition interventions with those for health in pregnant women, and with those for health and child development in neonates, infants, and young children to help advance the global MNCH agenda. PMID:26166560

  13. Branchial carbonic anhydrase activity and ninhydrin positive substances in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to low and high salinities.

    PubMed

    Roy, Luke A; Davis, D Allen; Saoud, I Patrick; Henry, Raymond P

    2007-06-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, acclimated to 30 ppt salinity, was transferred to either low (15 and 5 ppt), or high (45 ppt) salinity for 7 days. Hemolymph osmolality, branchial carbonic anhydrase activity, and total ninhydrin-positive substances (TNPS) in abdominal muscle were then measured for each condition. Hemolymph osmotic concentration was regulated slightly below ambient water osmolality in shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt. At 15 and 5 ppt, shrimp were strong hyper-osmotic regulators, maintaining hemolymph osmolality between 200 and 400 mOsm above ambient. Shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt and transferred to 45 ppt salinity were strong hypo-osmotic and hypo-ionic regulators, maintaining hemolymph osmolality over 400 mOsm below ambient. Branchial carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity was low (approximately 100 micromol CO(2) mg protein(-1) min(-1)) and uniform across all 8 gills in shrimp acclimated to 30 ppt, but CA activity increased in all gills after exposure to both low and high salinities. Anterior gills had the largest increases in CA activity, and levels of increase were approximately the same for low and high salinity exposure. Branchial CA induction appears to be functionally important in both hyper- and hypo-osmotic regulations of hemolymph osmotic concentrations. Abdominal muscle TNPS made up between 19 and 38% of the total intracellular osmotic concentration in shrimp acclimated to 5, 15, and 30 ppt. TNPS levels did not change across this salinity range, over which hemolymph osmotic concentrations were tightly regulated. At 45 ppt, hemolymph osmolality increased, and muscle TNPS also increased, presumably to counteract intracellular water loss and restore cell volume. L. vannamei appears to employ mechanisms of both extracellular osmoregulation and intracellular volume regulation as the basis of its euryhalinity. PMID:17350299

  14. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  15. Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-06-01

    Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps. PMID:25447412

  16. The putative invertebrate adaptive immune protein Litopenaeus vannamei Dscam (LvDscam) is the first reported Dscam to lack a transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail.

    PubMed

    Chou, Pin-Hsiang; Chang, Hao-Shuo; Chen, I-Tung; Lin, Han-You; Chen, Yi-Min; Yang, Huey-Lang; Wang, K C Han-Ching

    2009-12-01

    It has recently been suggested that Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), plays an essential role in the alternative adaptive immune system of invertebrates. Here, we isolated and characterized the first shrimp Dscam from Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDscam protein had an extracellular domain but lacked the expected transmembrane domain and cytoplasmic tail, both of which are found in all other members of the Dscam family (and may also be found in other L. vannamei Dscams that have not yet been isolated). In nervous tissue, expression levels of LvDscam were unexpectedly low. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that LvDscam is far from the Dscams found in other invertebrates. Nevertheless, the domain architecture of the extracellular region of LvDscam is similar to other invertebrate Dscams, and it exhibits the typical configuration of 10 immunoglobulin (Ig) domains, 6 fibronectin type 3 domains (FNIII) and one cell attachment sequence (RGD). Cloning and characterization of a total of 62 cDNAs from hemocytes collected from WSSV-free, WSSV-persistent and WSSV-acute-infected shrimp revealed 23 alternative amino acid sequences in the N-terminal of Ig2, 30 in the N-terminal of Ig3 and 13 in the Ig7 domain. This implies that LvDscam can potentially encode at least 8970 unique isoforms. Further analysis suggested that the LvDscam Ig2 and Ig3 regions are more functionally important than Ig7 in the shrimp's specific immune response against WSSV. We discuss how this tail-less, soluble Dscam can still play an active role in alternative adaptive immune response even while its axonal guidance functionality may be impaired. PMID:19635499

  17. Immune responses of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), to bacterially expressed dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Madan, N; Abdul Majeed, S; Kumar, T Raj; Thamizhvanan, S; Otta, S K; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp was synthesized in Escherichia coli in large scale and studied the immune response of shrimp to dsRNA-VP28. The haematological parameters such as clotting time and total haemocytes counts, and immunological parameters such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), superoxide anion (SOA) and malondialdehyde content, as well as the mRNA expression of ten immune-related genes were examined to estimate the effect of dsRNA-VP28 on the innate immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei. The activities of proPO, SOA and SOD significantly increased in haemocyte after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, whereas MDA content did not change significantly. Among the ten immune-related genes examined, only the mRNA expression of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, lipopolysaccharides (LPs), lectin and lysozyme in haemocytes, gill and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei, was significantly upregulated at 12 h after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, while no significant expression changes were observed in Toll receptor and tumour receptor genes. The increase of proPO and SOD activities, and SOA level and mRNA expression level of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, LPs, lectin and lysozyme after dsRNA-VP28 stimulation indicate that these immune-related genes were involved in dsRNA-VP28-induced innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:24917208

  18. Knockdown of Litopenaeus vannamei HtrA2, an up-regulated gene in response to WSSV infection, leading to delayed shrimp mortality.

    PubMed

    Peepim, Termsri; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Khunrae, Pongsak; Senapin, Saengchan; Rattanarojpong, Triwit

    2016-02-10

    HtrA2 is an apoptosis-activating gene that enhances the apoptotic process by preventing the formation of the IAP-caspase complex, thereby freeing caspase to trigger the apoptosis pathway. In this study, we presented the full-length cDNA sequence of HtrA2 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHtrA2). The full-length LvHtrA2 was 1335bp, encoding 444 amino acids. This deduced amino acid sequence contained five conserved domains: a mitochondrial targeting signal (MTS), a transmembrane (TM) domain, an IAP-binding motif (IBM), a trimerization motif, a serine protease domain, and a PDZ domain normally found in the HtrA2 proteins of other organisms. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvHtrA2 clustered with the HtrA2 from other invertebrates and was closely related to Penaeus monodon HtrA2 (PmHtrA2). RT-PCR with RNA extracts from L. vannamei revealed that LvHtrA2 expression was found in several tissues, including the lymphoid organs, the haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, the gill, and the stomach, with different expression levels. When determining the role of LvHtrA2 in WSSV infection, it was found that LvHtrA2 transcription was early up-regulated in the WSSV-infected shrimp at 8h post-infection (p.i.) and expression still remained high at 48h p.i.. It also demonstrated that dsRNA specific to LvHtrA2 reduced the cumulative mortality in the WSSV-infected shrimp compared with the control group. Additionally, depletion of the LvHtrA2 transcripts reduced expression levels for caspase-3 (Cap-3) gene in shrimp. This result could suggest that LvHtrA2 may involved in apoptosis mediated mortality rather than providing immune protection during WSSV infection. PMID:26712477

  19. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  20. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189