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1

Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

. In 2009, shrimp aquaculture yields were estimated at 3.1 million metric tons (MMT) with total farmed shrimp landings valued at US$ 12.9 billion (FAO 2011). Until 2001, black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, was the main species cultured comprising 70... to begin culturing the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In 2003, the production of L. vannamei exceeded black tiger shrimp by 309,172 MT (59% of world production - FAO 2011) and it is projected that for 2013, this species will represent about...

Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

2012-07-16

2

Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.  

PubMed

Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

2014-04-23

3

Do Pollinators Contribute to Nutritional Health?  

PubMed Central

Despite suggestions that animal pollinators are crucial for human nutritional health, no studies have actually tested this claim. Here, we combined data on crop pollination requirements, food nutrient densities, and actual human diets to predict the effects of pollinator losses on the risk of nutrient deficiency. In four developing countries and across five nutrients, we found that 0 to 56% of populations would become newly at risk if pollinators were removed. Increases in risk were most pronounced for vitamin A in populations with moderate levels of total nutrient intake. Overall, the effects of pollinator decline varied widely among populations and nutrients. We conclude that the importance of pollinators to human nutrition depends critically on the composition of local diets, and cannot be reliably predicted from global commodity analyses. We identify conditions under which severe health effects of pollinator loss are most likely to occur. PMID:25575027

Ellis, Alicia M.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ricketts, Taylor H.

2015-01-01

4

Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our manuscript shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects. It contains at least 181 substances,\\u000a is a supersaturated solution of sugars, and contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements,\\u000a vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphones. This article reviews reports on the use of honey in the treatment of human disorders,\\u000a which are

Jose Miguel Alvarez-Suarez; Sara Tulipani; Stefania Romandini; Enrico Bertoli; Maurizio Battino

2010-01-01

5

Mutualistic ants contribute to tank-bromeliad nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epiphytism imposes physiological constraints resulting from the lack of access to the nutrient sources available to ground-rooted plants. A conspicuous adaptation in response to that lack is the phytotelm (plant-held waters) of tank-bromeliad species that are often nutrient-rich. Associations with terrestrial invertebrates also result in higher plant nutrient acquisition. Assuming that tank-bromeliads rely on reservoir-assisted nutrition, it was hypothesized that the dual association with mutualistic ants and the phytotelm food web provides greater nutritional benefits to the plant compared with those bromeliads involved in only one of these two associations. Methods Quantitative (water volume, amount of fine particulate organic matter, predator/prey ratio, algal density) and qualitative variables (ant-association and photosynthetic pathways) were compared for eight tank- and one tankless-bromeliad morphospecies from French Guiana. An analysis was also made of which of these variables affect nitrogen acquisition (leaf N and ?15N). Key Results All variables were significantly different between tank-bromeliad species. Leaf N concentrations and leaf ?15N were both positively correlated with the presence of mutualistic ants. The amount of fine particulate organic matter and predator/prey ratio had a positive and negative effect on leaf ?15N, respectively. Water volume was positively correlated with leaf N concentration whereas algal density was negatively correlated. Finally, the photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. CAM) was positively correlated with leaf N concentration with a slightly higher N concentration for C3-Tillandsioideae compared with CAM-Bromelioideae. Conclusions The study suggests that some of the differences in N nutrition between bromeliad species can be explained by the presence of mutualistic ants. From a nutritional standpoint, it is more advantageous for a bromeliad to use myrmecotrophy via its roots than to use carnivory via its tank. The results highlight a gap in our knowledge of the reciprocal interactions between bromeliads and the various trophic levels (from bacteria to large metazoan predators) that intervene in reservoir-assisted nutrition. PMID:23864002

Leroy, Céline; Carrias, Jean-François; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dézerald, Olivier; Brouard, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

2013-01-01

6

Contribution of surface and subsurface layers of soil on wheat nutrition under fertilized and unfertilized conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted to study the contribution of surface and subsurface layers of soil on wheat nutrition under fertilized and unfertilized conditions. Artificial columns of soils were used for this purpose. A column consisted of three layers of different soils, varying in their native P, and concomitant chemical and physical properties.A rise in the surface fertility increased the

I. M. Chhibba; G. S. Sekhon

1983-01-01

7

Nutritional enhancement of rice for human health: the contribution of biotechnology.  

PubMed

Micronutrient malnutrition is widespread, especially in poor populations across the globe where daily caloric intake is confined mainly to staple cereals. Rice, which is a staple food for over half of the world's population, is low in bioavailable micronutrients required for the daily diet. Improvements of the plant-based diets are therefore critical and of high economic value in order to achieve a healthy nutrition of a large segment of the human population. Rice grain biofortification has emerged as a strategic priority for alleviation of micronutrient malnutrition. Nutritional enhancement of crops through conventional breeding is often limited by the low genetic variability for required dietary micronutrient levels. In this case, biotechnology strategies offer effective and efficient perspectives. In this review, we discuss genetic engineering approaches that have been successful in the nutritional enhancement of rice endosperm. These advancements will make substantial contributions to crop improvement and human nutrition. Their practical application, however, also demands visionary changes in regulatory policies and a broader consumer acceptance. PMID:22343216

Bhullar, Navreet K; Gruissem, Wilhelm

2013-01-01

8

BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

2012-05-01

9

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Mrs. Huish

2009-11-02

10

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... One-on-One or Small-Group Sessions and Eating Disorders Treatment Services Location Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Counseling * Eating Disorders Treatment † At school by health services or mental health ...

11

Relative contribution of seed phosphorus reserves and exogenous phosphorus uptake to maize ( Zea mays L.) nutrition during early growth stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate phosphorus (P) nutrition during early stages is critical for maize growth. Our objective was to evaluate the relative\\u000a contribution of seed P reserves and exogenous P to maize nutrition during early growth stages. Seedlings were grown with labeled\\u000a nutrient solution (32P). Seedlings were harvested periodically over the course of the three-week study. Initially, 87% and 77% of the total

Muhammad Nadeem; Alain Mollier; Christian Morel; Alain Vives; Loïc Prud’homme; Sylvain Pellerin

12

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

13

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... about meeting with a nutritionist to create a nutrition plan designed just for you. Not only will they help with meal planning, but you'll also have someone supporting and monitoring your progress. NEXT: ... to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email ...

14

Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp. PMID:22619583

Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

2012-01-01

15

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp. PMID:22958647

2012-01-01

16

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

17

Some Contributions for a Pedagogical Treatment of Alternative Conceptions in Biology: An Example from Plant Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reports on a study that investigated the alternative conceptions of students in a biology and geology teacher education course regarding plant nutrition. Data were collected from first year and final year students using a questionnaire that had both multiple choice and descriptive items. Findings indicate common features related to the…

Vaz, Adelaine Neto; And Others

18

Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience and psychological research  

PubMed Central

A central issue when designing multi-dimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting impact (sensitive periods). In this paper we review nutritional, neuroscience and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period where biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

Wachs, Theodore D.; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce

2014-01-01

19

The contribution of associative and symbiotic nitrogen fixation to the nitrogen nutrition of non-legumes  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the past 10 years estimates of N2 fixation associated with sugar cane, forage grasses, cereals and actinorhizal plants grown in soil with and without addition of inoculum have been obtained using the 15N isotope dilution technique. These experiments are reviewed in this paper with the aim of determining the proportional and absolute contribution of N2 fixation to the N

P. M. Chalk

1991-01-01

20

Nutritional contribution of coffee, cacao and tea phenolics to human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  The intention of this short overview is to contribute to a better understanding of the physiological effects of the coffee,\\u000a cacao and tea phenolics to human health. The paper gives a short description of the principle phenolic compounds present in\\u000a each of the food stuffs, their intake, summarises the data available on their bioavailability and metabolism and gives finally\\u000a a

H. M. Rawel; S. E. Kulling

2007-01-01

21

Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

22

Dietary supplementation of short-chain fructooligosaccharides influences gastrointestinal microbiota composition and immunity characteristics of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, cultured in a recirculating system.  

PubMed

Supplementation of prebiotic compounds, including short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) has been shown to confer benefits on nutrient utilization, growth, and disease resistance of various animal species through improved gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota. However, potential uses of prebiotics for shrimp have not been defined. A 6-wk feeding trial was conducted in a recirculating system to determine the effects of scFOS supplementation on growth performance, immune functions, and GI microbiota composition of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). scFOS was supplemented in a nutritionally complete diet (35% crude protein) at 0.025, 0.0500, 0.075, 0.100, 0.200, 0.400, and 0.800% by weight. After 6 wk of feeding, shrimp fed 0, 0.1, and 0.8% scFOS were sampled for assays of immune function and GI microbiota. Dietary supplementation of scFOS did not improve weight gain, feed conversion ratio, or survival of shrimp. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis suggested the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the basal diet was different from that of shrimp fed the scFOS diets [similarity coefficient (SC) = 74.9%)], although the intestinal tract microbial community from shrimp fed the scFOS-supplemented diets was very similar (SC = 92.3%). All the bacterial species contributing to the GI microbial differences were identified, although most of them are uncultured species. Both total hemocyte count and hemocyte respiratory burst increased (P < 0.05) by incremental dietary supplementation of scFOS (0-0.8%). This study is the first to our knowledge to show that dietary scFOS can selectively support growth of certain bacterial species in the GI tract of shrimp and enhance immunity, which may facilitate development of alternative strategies, including novel probiotics and synbiotics, for shrimp growth and health management. PMID:18029496

Li, Peng; Burr, Gary S; Gatlin, Delbert M; Hume, Michael E; Patnaik, Susmita; Castille, Frank L; Lawrence, Addison L

2007-12-01

23

Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

2013-01-01

24

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

2011-01-01

25

Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

2009-01-01

26

Can fog contribute to the nutrition of Chamaecyparis obtusa var. formosana? Uptake of a fog solute tracer into foliage and transport to roots.  

PubMed

Yellow cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl. var. formosana (Hayata) Rehder) is the predominant tree species of Taiwan's nutrient-poor, mountain fog forests. Little is known about the potential contribution of solute uptake from fog to the overall nutrition of these trees. Shoots of yellow cypress seedlings were misted with artificial fog containing the tracer rubidium (Rb) in laboratory and field experiments to determine if there is solute uptake from the fog. After misting shoots for six weeks, substantial amounts of tracer were detected in unexposed roots by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy bulk analysis. Possible routes of entry were examined by element imaging with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Direct uptake of the tracer into leaves across the cuticle and epidermis was small, excluding this as the major uptake path. Accumulations of Rb were found on leaf surfaces along the edges of the leaves. The almost daily changes in fog coverage and air humidity may enhance the accumulation of fog solutes at leaf edges. Accumulation of Rb was also found in narrow clefts between opposite leaves and between the outermost and underlying alternating stacked leaves. The clefts provide a direct passage from the leaf surface to the space beneath the imbricate leaves and the underlying alternate leaves, possibly facilitating solute uptake from fog, which in turn may contribute to the nutrition of yellow cypress. PMID:17403653

Lai, I-Ling; Schroeder, Walter H; Wu, Jiunn-Tzong; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long; Mohl, Carola; Chou, Chang-Hung

2007-07-01

27

The metallothionein gene from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Characterization and expression in response to hypoxia.  

PubMed

Aquatic animals encounter variation in oxygen tension that leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can harm the organisms. Under these circumstances some organisms have evolved to tolerate hypoxia. In mammals, metallothioneins (MTs) protect against hypoxia-generated ROS. Here we report the MT gene from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvMT). LvMT is differentially expressed in hemocytes, intestine, gills, pleopods, heart, hepatopancreas and muscle, with the highest levels in hepatopancreas and heart. LvMT mRNA increases during hypoxia in hepatopancreas and gills after 3 h at 1.5 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO). This gene structure resembles the homologs from invertebrates and vertebrates possessing three exons, two introns and response elements for metal response transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and p53 in the promoter region. During hypoxia, HIF-1/MTF-1 might participate inducing MT to contribute towards the tolerance to ROS toxicity. MT importance in aquatic organisms may include also ROS-detoxifying processes. PMID:25299575

Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martinez-Quintana, José A; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

2014-10-01

28

Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (?·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = ?{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its physiological changes, further contributing to the improvement of capture and rearing technique.

Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.

2013-11-01

29

Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium and zinc in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a globally important cultured prawn species, is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. In this study, L. vannamei was exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) for up to 28d. Histopathological alterations in the hepatopancreas were observed

Jui-Pin Wu; Hon-Cheng Chen; Da-Ji Huang

2008-01-01

30

Microbiological Investigation of Persistent Mortalities in Litopenaeus vannamei Grown in Low Saline Waters in India.  

PubMed

Abstract Microbial diseases are a serious hindrance to successful shrimp aquaculture. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is an exotic species recently introduced in India to supplement the failing aquaculture of the Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon due to viral diseases. However, after a brief initial success, the aquaculture of L. vannamei is also experiencing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In this study, we conducted a microbiological investigation into the problem of persistent mortalities in selected L. vannamei farms on the southeastern coast of India. The infected shrimps were positive for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by a nested PCR, though no visible white spots were present on the animals. The shrimps were heavily colonized by Vibrio parahemolyticus, which were isolated from the hepatopancreas, gills, and the body surface. The pond water, despite being low saline groundwater, harbored large numbers of V. parahemolyticus and other Vibrio species, and V. parahemolyticus isolated from L. vannamei were resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins. Our results strongly suggest that the persistent mortalities of L. vannamei were due to a co-infection by V. parahemolyticus and WSSV. Received December 16, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014. PMID:25229486

Sanathkumar, Hirekudel; Ravi, Charan; Padinhatupurayil, Suresh Babu; Mol, Mini; Prasad, Jilagam Krishna; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

2014-09-01

31

Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

2013-11-01

32

Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

33

Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.  

PubMed

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

2013-01-01

34

Identification and functional characterization of heat shock transcription factor1 in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Heat shock transcription factors belong to the heat shock factor (HSF) protein family, which are involved in heat shock protein (HSP) gene regulation. They are critical for cell survival upon exposure to harmful conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a HSF1 (LvHSF1) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, with a full-length cDNA of 2841 bp and an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 632 amino acids. Through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was revealed that LvHSF1 was closed to insect HSF family, which contained a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, oligomerization domains with HR-A/B, and a nuclear localization signal. Tissues distribution showed that LvHSF1 was widely expressed in all tissues tested. And it was upregulated in hemocytes and gills after Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that LvHSF1 activated the promoters of L. vannamei HSP70 (LvHSP70) and L. vannamei Cactus (LvCactus), while inhibited the expressions of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Atta, Mtk, and L. vannamei AMP PEN4 through NF-?B signal transduction pathway modification. Knocked-down expression of LvHSF1 by dsRNA resulted in downregulations of LvHSP70 and LvCactus, as well as cumulative mortality decreasing under V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection in L. vannamei. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that LvHSF1 is involved in LvHSP70 regulation, therefore plays a great role in stress resistance. And it also takes part in LvCactus/LvDorsal feedback regulatory pathway modification of L. vannamei, which is in favor of V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection. PMID:24508618

Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Xiao-Yun; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

2014-03-01

35

[Effects of probiotics on Penaeus vannamei pond sediments].  

PubMed

This paper studied the effects of probiotics on the sediment of Penaeus vannamei pond during 117 days of culture period. The results showed that probiotics application significantly decreased the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and sulfide in sediment, but no significant difference was observed in total plate count (TPC) of microbes between treated and control ponds. The final average presumptive vibrio count (PVC) of treated pond sediment (3.65 x 10(3) cfu x g(-1)) was significantly lower than that of the control (1.16 x 10(5) cfu x g(-1)), while the average number of BS (Bacillus), AB (ammonifying bacteria), PSOB (presumptive sulphur oxidizing bacteria) and SRB (sulphur reducing bacteria) in treated pond sediment was higher than that of the control. These data showed that probiotics could decrease the nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and sulfur) accumulation and improve the composition of bacterial populations in pond sediment, and thus, supply a good sediment environment for the healthily culture of the shrimp. PMID:17147196

Wang, Yanbo; Zha, Longying; Xu, Zirong

2006-09-01

36

Nutrition and nutritional supplementation  

PubMed Central

Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

Manissier, Patricia

2009-01-01

37

Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

2011-03-01

38

Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

39

Biochemical responses during starvation and subsequent recovery in postlarval Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931, were held individually in cages and exposed to two feeding regimes. One group was starved for 12 d and then fed during the following 12 d. A second group was fed throughout the 24 d study. Four individuals were sampled from each of the two groups on Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12,

K. C. Stuck; S. A. Watts; S. Y. Wang

1996-01-01

40

Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei DAVID A Carolina 29412 Abstract. We hypothesized that aggregation of bacteria and hemocytes at the gill, which was determined during the first 4 h after injection and after 24 h. Injection of bacteria decreased oxygen uptake

Burnett, Louis E.

41

PRODUCTION OF LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOW-SALINITY INLAND PONDS IN ARKANSAS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is being cultured in ponds far from coastal areas that have been filled with low-salinity (2-5 ppt) ground water or brine transported from the coast and diluted on site. The ionic composition of low-salinity ground water often differs from dilute seawa...

42

Digital gene expression analysis in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to low salinity stress.  

PubMed

The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has been greatly impacted by low salinity stress. To gain knowledge on the immune response in L. vannamei under such stress, we investigated digital gene expression (DEG) in L. vannamei hemocytes using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 38,155 high quality unigenes with average length 770 bp were generated; 145 and 79 genes were identified up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune signaling pathways, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, apoptosis, cellular protein synthesis, lipid transport and energy metabolism were the differentially regulated processes occurring during low salinity stress. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding environmental stress and a valuable gene information for a better understanding of immune mechanisms of L. vannamei under low salinity stress. PMID:25463292

Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Hu, Dongxu

2015-02-01

43

SNP Discovery in the Transcriptome of White Pacific Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The application of next generation sequencing technology has greatly facilitated high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping in genetic research. In the present study, SNPs were discovered based on two transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) generated from Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000. One transcriptome of L. vannamei was obtained through sequencing on the RNA from larvae at mysis stage and its reference sequence was de novo assembled. The data from another transcriptome were downloaded from NCBI and the reads of the two transcriptomes were mapped separately to the assembled reference by BWA. SNP calling was performed using SAMtools. A total of 58,717 and 36,277 SNPs with high quality were predicted from the two transcriptomes, respectively. SNP calling was also performed using the reads of two transcriptomes together, and a total of 96,040 SNPs with high quality were predicted. Among these 96,040 SNPs, 5,242 and 29,129 were predicted as non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs respectively. Characterization analysis of the predicted SNPs in L. vannamei showed that the estimated SNP frequency was 0.21% (one SNP per 476 bp) and the estimated ratio for transition to transversion was 2.0. Fifty SNPs were randomly selected for validation by Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification and 76% of SNPs were confirmed, which indicated that the SNPs predicted in this study were reliable. These SNPs will be very useful for genetic study in L. vannamei, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies. PMID:24498047

Yu, Yang; Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

44

Nutritional Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

45

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after ‘Vaccination’  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

46

Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae), cultivated at different salinities.  

PubMed

Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD) and lipids (ALD) were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP) and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP) diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50 psu) in 60 L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CP diet which had 74.0% at 50 psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35 psu, respectively). For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4%) at 5 psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50 psu (97.3 and 94.7%). This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. PMID:24027918

Gucic, Milena; Cortés-Jacinto, Edilmar; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael

2013-09-01

47

Studying the nutritional beliefs and food practices of Malagasy school children parents. A contribution to the understanding of malnutrition in Madagascar.  

PubMed

Madagascar is severely affected by the problem of children malnutrition. The present study aimed at exploring school children Malagasy parents' food practices and beliefs structures about the nutritional value of foods, to better understand the causes of this malnutrition. A combination of Focus Groups (72 participants), and questionnaires (1000 interviewees) was used to evaluate the food beliefs and the nutritional habits of low income parents of school age children in urban and rural areas of Antananarivo and Antsiranana. The respondents' beliefs were shown to focus not only on the nutrient and energetic composition of food, but also to involve more general relations between food and health and particularly the sanitary properties of food. Compared with such sanitary properties, nutrient content was not considered to be the priority in food choice and food preparation. The food category considered to be the most nutritive was cereals, ahead of protein foods, or vegetables and fruit. Nutritional beliefs were not the same in the Antananarivo and Antsiranana areas, nor between urban and rural areas of Antsiranana. Different socio-economic contexts, food availability and information may explain these differences. This study could guide actors involved in nutrition promotion to adapt to specific areas their nutrition programmes in the fight against malnutrition. PMID:24887056

Ramaroson Rakotosamimanana, Vonimihaingo; Arvisenet, Gaëlle; Valentin, Dominique

2014-10-01

48

Intraspecific variation in the marine shrimps Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris and Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei  

E-print Network

INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE MARINE SHRIMPS PENAEUS (LITOPENAEUS) STYLIROSTRIS PENAEUS (LITOPENAEUS) VANNAMEI A Thesis by SCOTT EDWARD HORTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... HORTON Approved as to style and content by: Davi J Sc mi y, S Chairma of Committe ison L. awrence, nda H. Pequegna , 0 Ho ce R. ur e, Ent Wa ace ussman, WFS Head of Department December 1981 ABSTRACT INTRASPECIFIC VARIATION IN THE MARINE SHRIMPS...

Horton, Scott Edward

2012-06-07

49

Oral health and nutrition.  

PubMed

The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250

Pla, G W

1994-03-01

50

Nutritional Support  

MedlinePLUS

Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

51

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

52

Report on Clinical Nutrition Research Units.  

PubMed

The National Institutes of Health support seven Clinical Nutrition Research Units, which are designed to create or strengthen nutrition research, training, and education through coordinated effort, intellectual stimulation, and use of shared resources. Research at the participating institutions focuses on the role of nutrition in cancer, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, digestive diseases, cystic fibrosis, diabetes, and other illnesses. Contributing substantially to the development of this nutrition research base have been Clinical Nutrition Research Unit-supported pilot studies, core laboratories, and new investigators. In the clinical setting, Clinical Nutrition Research Unit Nutritional Support Services assist in the care of patients receiving total parenteral nutrition and those with anorexia nervosa, burns, cancer, and a spectrum of nutrition-related problems. Participation of Clinical Nutrition Research Unit staff in training activities range from undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate education courses for medical students and other health professionals to continuing education workshops, lecture series, and information programs for professional and lay audiences. PMID:6486093

Combs, G F; Auld, M E; Gardner, L; DeWys, W D

1984-10-01

53

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

54

Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

Chauliac, Michel; And Others

1991-01-01

55

Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer

56

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Cactin gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Cactin (Cactus interactor) is a conserved protein which was initially discovered as a novel interactor of Drosophila IkB protein Cactus. Cactin was always characterized as a negative regulator of many different developmental processes, but only found to play an immune role in humans. To better know the immune function of Cactin gene, Litopenaeus vannamei Cactin (LvCactin) was identified and characterized in this study. The full-length cDNA of LvCactin is 3, 150 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a Cactin_mid domain in the N-terminus 356–547 residues and a CactinC_cactus domain in the C-terminal 731–855 residues. The LvCactin protein was located in the cytoplasm and LvCactin mRNA was constitutively expressed in healthy L. vannamei, with the highest expression level in the eyestalk. LvCactin could be regulated in hemocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvCactin inhibited the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Knockdown of LvCactin by RNA interference (RNAi) increased the expression of shrimp AMP genes PEN4, crustin and ALF2 but not Lyz2. However, the mortality rates of LvCactin-knockdown shrimp in response to V. parahaemolyticus or WSSV infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, all the results suggested that LvCactin may play a role in innate immune in L. vannamei. PMID:25462455

Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; Yang, Qi-Hui; Dong, Xiao-Hui; Chi, Shu-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yu; Tan, Bei-Ping

2014-12-01

57

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

58

Structure Elucidation and Anticancer Activity of 7-Oxostaurosporine Derivatives from the Brazilian Endemic Tunicate Eudistoma vannamei  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the identification of two new staurosporine derivatives, 2-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (1) and 3-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (2), obtained from mid-polar fractions of an aqueous methanol extract of the tunicate Eudistoma vannamei, endemic to the northeast coast of Brazil. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed IC50 values in the nM range and was up to 14 times more cytotoxic than staurosporine across a panel of tumor cell lines, as evaluated using the MTT assay. PMID:22822359

Jimenez, Paula Christine; Wilke, Diego Veras; Ferreira, Elthon Gois; Takeara, Renata; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; da Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; da Cruz Lotufo, Tito Monteiro; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras

2012-01-01

59

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

60

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

61

Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

62

A sex-specific linkage map of the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei based on AFLP markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the construction of sex-specific linkage maps for the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Penaeidae; Crustacea). Linkage information was generated using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers in a mapping panel consisting of 42 individuals derived from a commercial cross. We used 103 primer combinations that produced 741 segregating bands. From them, 477 segregated in a 1:1 model, 181

Franklin Perez; Constanza Erazo; Ch. de

63

Digestibility of starch in Penaeus vannamei: in vivo and in vitro study on eight samples of various origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of carbohydrate, protein and lipid were investigated in Penaeus vannamei (18–25 g) with diets containing eight starches of various origin. Test ingredients, included at a level of 35% of diet, were native (NC) or gelatinized (GC) corn starch, waxy corn starch, either native (XC) or gelatinized (GX), high amylose corn starch (AC), potato starch, either native

Marc Cousin; Gérard Cuzon; Jean Guillaume

1996-01-01

64

Evaluation of Elevated Dietary Iron and Aluminum on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of high levels of dietary Fe and Al on Litopenaeus vannamei. For the first experiment, a semi-purified basal diet was evaluated using ten diets containing graded levels...

Morgan, Jessica LeAnne

2013-11-19

65

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

66

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

67

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

68

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24 and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition Zielenkievicz at 732-932-9459 #12;The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout

Jornsten, Rebecka

69

Incorporating nutritional considerations when addressing food insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the challenges of global food security will benefit from the simultaneous incorporation of nutritional priorities\\u000a that contribute to the good health of populations. Inclusion of nutritional considerations, when increasing availability and\\u000a access to food, broadens the scope and objectives of agriculture and food production and thus contributes to an integrated\\u000a concept of food and nutrition security. The poor quality

Prakash Shetty

2009-01-01

70

Identification and functional analysis of a Hemolin like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Hemolin is a specific immune protein belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and firstly identified in insects. Growing evidences suggest that Hemolin can be activated by bacterial and viral infections and may play an important role in antimicrobial immunity. In this paper, we firstly identified a Hemolin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHemolin). Sequence analysis showed that LvHemolin shares high similarity with insect Hemolins and is mainly composed of seven immunoglobulin (Ig) domains which form a 'horseshoe' tertiary structure. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that LvHemolin mainly expressed in stomach, gill, epithelium and pyloric cecum of L. vannamei. After challenge with pathogens or stimulants, expression of LvHemolin was significantly up-regulated in both gill and stomach. Agglutination analysis demonstrated that recombinant LvHemolin protein purified from Escherichia coli could accelerate the agglutination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis in the presence of Ca(2+). To verify the immune function of LvHemolin in vivo, shrimps were injected with gene-specific dsRNA, followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or V. parahaemolyticus. The results revealed that silence of LvHemolin could increase the cumulative mortalities of shrimps challenged by pathogens and increase the WSSV copies in shrimp tissues. These suggested that Hemolin could play an important role in shrimp innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25527138

Zuo, Hongliang; Li, Haoyang; Wei, Erman; Su, Ziqi; Zheng, Jieyao; Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yonggui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2015-03-01

71

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-10-01

72

Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil.  

PubMed

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; Dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

2011-01-01

73

Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts  

PubMed Central

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

1999-01-01

74

Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil  

PubMed Central

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

2011-01-01

75

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-01-01

76

Responses of prophenoloxidase system and related defence parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei to low salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effects of low salinity (26 and 21) on the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system and related defence parameters in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that low salinity induced a significant increase of dopamine (DA) concentration in haemolymph at 6 h of the experiment; on the other hand, total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and PO activity decreased over time to the lowest level at 24 h and remained low thereafter. Serine Protease (SP) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI) activity in the two lower salinity treatments decreased to the lowest level at 12 and 24 h, respectively, and both recovered to the control level at 72 h. In contrast, ?2- macroglobulin (?2M) activity in the two lower salinity treatments peaked at 24 h and then decreased to the control level at 72 h. Therefore, it may be concluded that stress-induced DA plays an important temporary role in neurotransmission and causes immune response in L. vannamei in adapting to salinity changes.

Pan, Luqing; Xie, Peng; Hu, Fawen

2010-09-01

77

Probiotics in the intestinal tract of juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: modulation of the bacterial community.  

PubMed

Molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA of the intestinal microbiota of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was examined to investigate the effect of a Bacillus mix (Bacillus endophyticus YC3-b, Bacillus endophyticus C2-2, Bacillus tequilensisYC5-2) and the commercial probiotic (Alibio(®)) on intestinal bacterial communities and resistance to Vibrio infection. PCR and single strain conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analyses were then performed on DNA extracted directly from guts. Injection of shrimp with V. parahaemolyticus at 2.5 × 10(5) CFU g(-1) per shrimp followed 168 h after inoculation with Bacillus mix or the Alibio probiotic or the positive control. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community resulting from the Bacillus mix had the highest diversity and evenness and the bacterial community of the control had the lowest diversity. The bacterial community treated with probiotics mainly consisted of ?- and ?-proteobacteria, fusobacteria, sphingobacteria, and flavobacteria, while the control mainly consisted of ?-proteobacteria and flavobacteria. Differences were grouped using principal component analyses of PCR-SSCP of the microbiota, according to the time of inoculation. In Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected shrimp, the Bacillus mix (~33 %) induced a significant increase in survival compared to Alibio (~21 %) and the control (~9 %). We conclude that administration of the Bacillus mix induced modulation of the intestinal microbiota of L. vannamei and increased its resistance to V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:23161451

Luis-Villaseñor, Irasema E; Castellanos-Cervantes, Thelma; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Carrillo-García, Angel E; Campa-Córdova, Angel I; Ascencio, Felipe

2013-02-01

78

Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts.  

PubMed

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

Vandenberghe, J; Verdonck, L; Robles-Arozarena, R; Rivera, G; Bolland, A; Balladares, M; Gomez-Gil, B; Calderon, J; Sorgeloos, P; Swings, J

1999-06-01

79

Immune responses and gene expression in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, induced by Lactobacillus plantarum.  

PubMed

The total haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus, as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), serine protein (SP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcription of L. vannamei, and its susceptibility to V. alginolyticus when the shrimp were fed diets containing Lactobacillus plantarum at 0 (control), 10(7), and 10(10) cfu (kg diet) (-1) for 48 and 168 h were evaluated. The results indicated that PO activity, SOD activity, clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus, proPO and PE mRNA transcription, and the survival rate after challenge with V. alginolyticus all significantly increased, but the total haemocyte counts significantly decreased in shrimp fed a diet containing Lac. plantarum at 10(10) cfu (kg diet) (-1) for 168 h. However, no significant differences in phagocytosis, LGBP, or SP mRNA expression of shrimp were observed among the different treatments. It was concluded that administration of Lac. plantarum in the diet at 10(10) cfu (kg diet) (-1) induced immune modulation and enhanced the immune ability of L. vannamei, and increased its resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:17337209

Chiu, Chiu-Hsia; Guu, Yuan-Kuang; Liu, Chun-Hung; Pan, Tzu-Ming; Cheng, Winton

2007-08-01

80

Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

2014-08-01

81

Ferritin protect shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from WSSV infection by inhibiting virus replication.  

PubMed

Iron is considered as an essential element for all living organisms. Therefore, limiting iron availability may be key part of the host's innate immune response to various pathogens. Ferritin is a major iron storage protein in living cells and plays an important role in iron homeostasis. One way the host can transiently reduce iron bioavailability is by ferritin over expression. In invertebrates, ferritin was found to be up-regulated after pathogens challenge and is considered to be an important element in the innate immune system. This study was designed to investigate the involvement of ferritin in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei defense against WSSV. We discovered that the viral load of shrimp injected with recombinant ferritin protein was lower than that of control group. The suppression of ferritin by dsRNA increased susceptibility to WSSV with 3-fold high viral copies. The present study documented that ferritin protected shrimp L. vannamei from WSSV by inhibiting virus replication. We presume that ferritin reduce iron availability, leading to inhibit the activity of ribonucleotide reductase and delay the replication of virus genome. This study provided new insights into the understanding of molecular responses and defense mechanisms in shrimp against WSSV. PMID:25449379

Ye, Ting; Wu, Xiaoting; Wu, Wenlin; Dai, Congjie; Yuan, Jianjun

2015-01-01

82

Nutritional Science  

Cancer.gov

This group plans, develops, directs, and coordinates external research programs in diet and nutrition, including micronutrients as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior, to help establish a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of bioactive food components.

83

Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

84

Assessing and improving the quality of food composition databases for nutrition and health applications in Europe: the contribution of EuroFIR.  

PubMed

Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25513332

Finglas, Paul M; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

2014-09-01

85

Assessing and improving the quality of food composition databases for nutrition and health applications in Europe: the contribution of EuroFIR.  

PubMed

Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25469406

Finglas, Paul M; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

2014-09-01

86

Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... such as Fosamax®), calcitonin, and fluoride. What is nutritional support? Because IBD, especially Crohn's disease, may improve with nutritional support, it may be necessary to provide nutrition by ...

87

Nutritional surveillance*  

PubMed Central

The concept of nutritional surveillance is derived from disease surveillance, and means “to watch over nutrition, in order to make decisions that lead to improvements in nutrition in populations”. Three distinct objectives have been defined for surveillance systems, primarily in relation to problems of malnutrition in developing countries: to aid long-term planning in health and development; to provide input for programme management and evaluation; and to give timely warning of the need for intervention to prevent critical deteriorations in food consumption. Decisions affecting nutrition are made at various administrative levels, and the uses of different types of nutritional surveillance information can be related to national policies, development programmes, public health and nutrition programmes, and timely warning and intervention programmes. The information should answer specific questions, for example concerning the nutritional status and trends of particular population groups. Defining the uses and users of the information is the first essential step in designing a system; this is illustrated with reference to agricultural and rural development planning, the health sector, and nutrition and social welfare programmes. The most usual data outputs are nutritional outcome indicators (e.g., prevalence of malnutrition among preschool children), disaggregated by descriptive or classifying variables, of which the commonest is simply administrative area. Often, additional “status” indicators, such as quality of housing or water supply, are presented at the same time. On the other hand, timely warning requires earlier indicators of the possibility of nutritional deterioration, and agricultural indicators are often the most appropriate. Data come from two main types of source: administrative (e.g., clinics and schools) and household sample surveys. Each source has its own advantages and disadvantages: for example, administrative data often already exist, and can be disaggregated to village level, but are of unknown representativeness and often cannot be linked with other variables of interest; sample surveys provide integrated data of more or less known representativeness, but sample sizes usually do not allow disaggregation to, for example, specific villages. A combination of these sources, with a capability for ad hoc surveys (formal or informal) is often the best solution. Finally, much depends on adequate facilities for data analysis, even though simple, comprehensible data outputs are what is required. Intersectoral cooperation is needed to provide realistic options for the decision-making process. PMID:6606498

Mason, John B.; Mitchell, Janice T.

1983-01-01

88

A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on (1)H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

Liu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Qing-Hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

2015-01-01

89

Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

Wahlqvist, M L

1993-09-01

90

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

91

Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

PubMed Central

An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

2010-01-01

92

Nutritional Support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

93

Nutritional carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Human beings are often being exposed to carcinogenic factors during their life, some of which are the nutritional factors. From the mechanistic view, nutritional factors are classified into genotoxic and non-genotoxic agents. Genotoxic agent begins their action at the DNA level, causing DNA damage through several mechanisms, e.g. gene point mutations, deletions and insertions, recombinations, rearrangements and amplifications, as well as chromosomal aberrations. Most genotoxic agents are micro components of nutrition, i.e. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) or heterocyclic amines (HCAs), aflatoxin, and N-nitrosamine. Non-genotoxic agents are less defined in their modes of action, but they are presumed to indirectly affect the cell through tumor promoters. These agents are generally macro components, e.g. high fat. Moreover, epigenetic factors, including changes in the DNA methylation pattern, and peroxidation process resulting reactive oxygen species (ROS), are also known to cause cancer. On the other hand, it is also well recognized that diet and nutrition contain components that can reduce the risk of cancer, in some cases by decreasing the effects of food mutagens, or through carcinogen detoxification, or protection of DNA from electrophilic carcinogen. Thus nutritionally related cancer ultimately develops from an imbalance of carcinogenesis and anti-carcinogenesis process. PMID:20305331

Sutandyo, Noorwati

2010-01-01

94

cDNA cloning and expression analysis of myostatin/GDF11 in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily. In vertebrates, MSTN is known to negatively regulate skeletal muscle growth, and GDF11 is found to inhibit neurogenesis. In invertebrates, only one ortholog of vertebrate MSTN and GDF11 (MSTN/GDF11) existed. Little attention has been paid on its role to date. In this study, the cDNA that encodes a 422-amino-acid MSTN/GDF11 protein (LvMSTN/GDF11) was characterized from a crustacean species, the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Sequence analysis revealed that the overall protein sequence and specific functional sites of LvMSTN/GDF11 were highly conserved with those in other crustacean species. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique demonstrated its tissue-specific, larval developmental stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression pattern, respectively. After in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone (20E), LvMSTN/GDF11 transcripts were declined in the abdominal (A) and pleopod (P1) muscles, increased in the pereiopod (P2) muscle, and not affected in the thoracic (T) muscle. The observed expression profiles suggest multiple functions of LvMSTN/GDF11 in L. vannamei and its role differs during the larval development and natural molt cycle. The different responses of LvMSTN/GDF11 to acute increases of 20E in the A, P1, P2 and T muscles may indicate that LvMSTN/GDF11 is transcriptionally regulated via ecdysteroids to coincide with its specific roles in the former three muscles, while its role may be independent of 20E regulation in the T muscle. PMID:23402749

Qian, Zhaoying; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Xianzong; He, Shulin; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Xiaolin

2013-05-01

95

An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. PMID:22792387

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

2012-01-01

96

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work: Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications for Public Relations Professionals FriedmanSchoolofNutritionScienceandPolicy #12;Students entering

Tufts University

97

The Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei , in Asia: The World’s Most Widely Cultured Alien Crustacean  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is native to the western Pacific coast of Latin America, from Peru to Mexico where water temperatures are normally over\\u000a 20oC throughout the year. It was introduced into Asia experimentally from 1978 to 1979, but commercially only since 1996 into\\u000a Taiwan and China and subsequently to several countries in southeast and south Asia. In

I Chiu Liao; Yew-Hu Chien

98

Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg7-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species. PMID:19852991

Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L.; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H.; Malecha, Spencer R.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

2009-01-01

99

Effect of dietary traditional Chinese medicines on apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of crude protein (CP), lipid, phosphorus, essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and fatty acids were determined for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). One type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comprising a mixture of equal proportions of six herbs and plant materials was used at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g kg?1 in

Hei-Zhao Lin; Zhuo-Jia Li; Yong-Qing Chen; Wen-Hui Zheng; Keng Yang

2006-01-01

100

Beneficial effects of Bacillus licheniformis on the intestinal microflora and immunity of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

When Bacillus licheniformis was administered to the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, although the total bacterial counts in the intestinal tract of the shrimp remained constant, Vibrio numbers significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Haemocyte counts together with phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activities of the shrimp were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in treatments than in the control. Thus, administration of B. licheniformis can improve the white shrimp's intestinal microflora and its immune ability. PMID:17333467

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tianling; Tian, Yun; Xi, Feng; Yuan, Jianjun; Zhang, Guozheng; Hong, Huasheng

2007-04-01

101

Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

2015-01-01

102

Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary administration of a yeast culture food supplement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A yeast culture feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture®, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier), or 1.0% XP daily for 4 weeks. To

Joseph E. Burgents; Karen G. Burnett; Louis E. Burnett

2004-01-01

103

Association of dual viral infection with mortality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in culture ponds in India.  

PubMed

Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei has been introduced recently for culture practice in India. Though SPF stocks are imported for larval production and thereafter culture practice, these are prone to infection with the existing viruses in the environment. Here we report mortality of L.vannamei in several farms in India with minimum biosecurity. The shrimp were harvested early within 50-72 days of culture due to the onset of disease and consequent mortality. As per the analysis carried out, the shrimp were infected with two virus, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). About 80 % of the samples collected had either or both of the viruses. A majority of these samples (60 %) had dual infection with WSSV and IHHNV. Infection of shrimp with WSSV and IHHNV could be detected both by PCR and histopathology. Some of the samples had either exclusively WSSV infection or IHHNV infection and were also harvested before the completion of the required culture period. All the samples analyzed were negative for taura syndrome virus, yellow head virus and infectious myonecrosis virus. While it is difficult to point out the exact etiological agent as the cause of mortality, strict biosecurity measures are advisable for the continuity of L. vannamei culture in India. PMID:24426311

Otta, S K; Arulraj, R; Ezhil Praveena, P; Manivel, R; Panigrahi, A; Bhuvaneswari, T; Ravichandran, P; Jithendran, K P; Ponniah, A G

2014-01-01

104

Nutrition in oncologic patients during antiblastic treatment.  

PubMed

Cancer may induce weight loss and cachexia, and cancer treatment may contribute to nutritional impairment. Here, we review the literature on the mechanisms of cancer cachexia and the pharmacological interventions both in use in clinical practice and currently under development. Based on this analysis, several nutritional proposals for cancer patients are suggested and the importance of good nutritional status in candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is highlighted. PMID:23276913

Berretta, Massimiliano; Michieli, Mariagrazia; Di Francia, Raffaele; Cappellani, Alessandro; Rupolo, Maurizio; Galvano, Fabio; Fisichella, Rossella; Berretta, Salvatore; Tirelli, Umberto

2013-01-01

105

Nutrition marketing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Given the obesity epidemic, marketing of non-nutrient dense food has been debated as a policy issue. This research sought to determine how frequently nutrition marketing (health claims, nutrient content claims, or implied claims) is used on labels of foods containing high amounts (>20% daily value) ...

106

Nutritional Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

107

Nutritional requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

108

The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

109

Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

2014-02-01

110

Pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

Greco, Deborah S

2014-03-01

111

The involvement of bacterial quorum sensing in the spoilage of refrigerated Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Quorum-sensing signals in refrigerated shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) undergoing spoilage were examined using bioreporter assays, thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the results revealed the presence of three types of autoinducers including acetylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) (i.e., N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone), autoinducer-2, and cyclic dipeptides (i.e., cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe)). Autoinducer-2, rather than any AHL, was detected in extracts from pure cultures of the specific spoilage organisms (SSO), i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens (SS01) and Shewanella baltica (SA02). As for the cyclic peptides, only SA02 was determined to produce cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu). According to the transcription levels of LuxR (the master quorum-sensing regulator) in the SSO in response to exogenous autoinducers, the SSO could sense AHLs and cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu), rather than autoinducer-2, cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). In accordance with the results of LuxR expression, the production of biofilm matrixes and extracellular proteases in the SSO was regulated by exogenous AHLs and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), rather than 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the autoinducer-2 precursor), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). Exogenous N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) increased the growth rates and population percentages of the SSO in shrimp samples under refrigerated storage, and interestingly, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione also increased the population percentages of the SSO in vivo by inhibiting the growth of the competing bacteria. However, according to the levels of TVB-N and the volatile organic components in the shrimp samples, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione did not accelerate the shrimp spoilage process as N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) did. In summary, our results suggest that quorum sensing involves the spoilage of refrigerated Litopenaeus vannamei. PMID:25305441

Zhu, Suqin; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying; Wang, Ying

2015-01-01

112

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis have changed. Early enteral nutrition widely replaced parenteral nutrition alone in severe acute pancreatitis. First trials suggest early oral refeeding as nutritional treatment of choice in patients with mild acute pancreatitis. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:20922640

Teich, N; Mössner, J

2010-10-01

113

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

114

PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

115

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B2, B3, B6, B12, C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa.

Danielle Marie Thomas; Ginat W. Mirowski

2010-01-01

116

Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.  

PubMed

Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W

2010-01-01

117

Nutrition for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

Smith, Scott M.

2005-01-01

118

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

119

Nutrition.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural ... scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) in Beltsville, Maryland. Nutrition.gov ...

120

[Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].  

PubMed

The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species. PMID:17944366

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

2007-08-01

121

Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions.  

PubMed

This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks) and low (outdoor tanks) Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1); hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1) and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1), Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w.) relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals. PMID:21437409

Soares, T M; Coutinho, D A; Lacerda, L D; Moraes, M O; Rebelo, M F

2011-02-01

122

Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

123

One type of VEGFR is involved in WSSV infection to the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

VEGF signaling pathway plays vital roles in many physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, cell-cell communication, vessel permeability and virus-host interaction in mammalian species. However, the VEGF signaling pathway and its biological function are still poorly understood in crustaceans. In the present study, an essential member of VEGF signaling pathway, VEGF receptor (LvVEGFR), was isolated from Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its function during virus infection was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR possessed all common features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including a signal peptide, six IG-like domains, one immunoglobulin subtype 2 domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, a protein kinase domain separated by a kinase insert sequence, one ATP binding site and one tyrosine-protein kinase active site. LvVEGFR is mainly expressed in hemocytes and intestine. The transcriptional level of LvVEGFR could be obviously up-regulated in hemocytes and intestine after WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGFR gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference could not only lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV infected shrimp, but also reduce the mortality of shrimp during WSSV infection. These data suggested that VEGF signaling pathway might play an important role during viral infection to shrimp. PMID:25576099

Li, Shihao; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-05-01

124

Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13?gg(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363?gg(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33?gg(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09?gg(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423?gg(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44?gg(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1). PMID:25303662

Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

2015-01-01

125

Specific, nonradioactive detection of the NHP bacterium in Penaeus vannamei by in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) is a disease of farm-raised Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) caused by a pleomorphic intracellular bacterium. A DNA probe that is specific for the etiologic agent of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis was devised and tested in an in situ hybridization assay. A procedure was developed for labeling a single-stranded DNA probe with digoxigenin by the polymerase chain reaction. The DNA probe encompasses the V1 and V2 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and is designed to hybridize to complementary sequences of the 16S rRNA of the NHP bacterium. The probe was tested on fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens, and an intense, specific hybridization signal was localized to the cytoplasm of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells that were infected with the NHP bacterium, as demonstrated by serial sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin or the Steiner and Steiner method. Negative results were obtained from normal shrimp and from shrimp infected with Vibrio spp. The specificity of the probe was confirmed using either mammalian or avian tissues infected with other intracellular bacteria, including Ehrlichia canis, Salmonella enteritidis, Brucella abortus, and Chlymidia spp., and using another species of shrimp (P. monodon) infected with a different rickettisa-like intracellular bacterium. PMID:8844575

Loy, J K; Frelier, P F

1996-07-01

126

Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

127

A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-11-01

128

Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234  

PubMed Central

Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

2012-01-01

129

Flightless-I (FliI) is a potential negative regulator of the Toll pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Flightless-I (FliI) is a protein negatively modulates the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway through interacting with Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). To investigate the function of FliI in innate immune responses in invertebrates, Litopenaeus vannamei FliI (LvFliI) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvFliI is 4, 304 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 1292 amino acids, including 12 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains at the N-terminus and 6 gelsolin homology (GEL) domains at the C-terminus. The LvFliI protein was located in the cytoplasm and LvFliI mRNA was constitutively expressed in healthy L. vannamei, with the highest expression level in the muscle. LvFliI could be up-regulated in hemocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvFliI to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Upon LPS stimulation, overexpression of LvFliI in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to downregulation of Drosophila and shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Knockdown of LvFliI by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in an increase of the expression of three shrimp AMP genes (PEN2, crustin, and Lyz1). However, the mortality rates of LvFliI-knockdown shrimp in response to V. parahaemolyticus, S. aureus or WSSV infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, all the results suggested that LvFliI may play a negative role in TLR signaling response in L. vannamei. PMID:25449702

Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2015-02-01

130

Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

2010-01-01

131

Identification of ecdysteroid signaling late-response genes from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. This study was carried out to seek the late target genes of ecdysteroid signaling from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, eight isoforms of ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), two isoforms of retinoic acid X receptor (RXR), and one homolog of E75 were characterized from L. vannamei. The overall protein sequences and specific functional sites of EcR, RXR and E75 among crustacean species were found highly conserved. Tissue-specific, development stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression patterns of LvEcR, LvRXR, and LvE75 were detected by qPCR. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of any one of the three genes LvEcR, LvRXR and LvE75 caused specific expression changes of the other two, and resulted in corresponding expression changes of two molting related genes Cathepsin-L (LvCHSL) and Hemocyanin (LvHCyn) in the hepatopancreas, two chitin metabolism related genes chitin synthase (LvChS) and chitinase isoenzyme (LvChi2) in the epidermis, and two muscle growth related genes LvActin and myosin heavy chain (LvMHC) in the muscle. In correspondence, after in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone, specific expression changes of LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle were also observed, respectively. Results in our study indicate multiple functions of ecdysteroids signaling in L. vannamei and the function may be time- and space-specific; ecdysteroids may act through different pathways via its functional receptor heterodimer EcR-RXR and the early responsive gene E75 to perform specific regulation roles on the target genes in different shrimp tissues; LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle are potential targets for ecdysteroid control. This is the first report on nuclear receptors in the economically important shrimp L. vannamei. PMID:24556071

Qian, Zhaoying; He, Shulin; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Xianzong; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaolin

2014-06-01

132

Inhibitory activity of probiotic Bacillus subtilis UTM 126 against vibrio species confers protection against vibriosis in juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis UTM 126 produced antimicrobial activity against pathogenic Vibrio species, including V. alginolyticus, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. harveyi. The probiotic effect of B. subtilis was tested by feeding juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) food supplemented with B. subtilis (10(5 )CFU/g) for 28 days before an immersion challenge with V. harveyi at 10(5 )CFU/mL for 24 h. The treatment with B. subtilis UTM 126 decreased final mortality to 18.25%, compared with 51.75% in the control group. Bacillus subtilis UTM 126 has potential applications for controlling pathogenic V. harveyi in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:17680306

Balcázar, José Luis; Rojas-Luna, Tyrone

2007-11-01

133

Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( P<0.05). After challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the cumulative mortality of shrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

2014-09-01

134

Supplementation of potassium, magnesium and sodium chloride in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Litopenaeus vannamei in inland low salinity waters is currently being practiced in various countries around the world. These environments are often deficient in key ions essential for normal physiological function, including potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Farmers have sometimes been able to counteract ionic deficiencies in the water profile by adding mineral salts containing sources of K+

L. A. ROY; D. A. DAVIS; I. P. SAOUD; R. P. HENRY

2007-01-01

135

Characterization and experimental infection of Flexibacter maritimus (Wakabayashi et al. 1986) in hatcheries of post-larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931.  

PubMed

A preliminary study to characterize filamentous bacteria, whose presence is related to high mortality of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae cultured in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is reported. The extract of infected larvae was diluted in different concentrations, cultured in marine agar (Difco, Marine Agar 2216) and incubated at 30 degrees C for 48 hours. The biochemical characterization included hydrolytic reactions of starch, gelatin and tyrosine, growth in TCBS agar, growth in 0 and 37 per thousand salinity, pigment production in tyrosine agar, production of H2S, nitrate reduction, congo red reaction, oxidase and catalase. The isolated bacteria belong to the species Flexibacter maritimus, Gram-negative bacilli of 0.4-0.5 microm width and 15 microm length. Experiments were carried out on pathogenicity of F. maritimus in post-larvae of L. vannamei. Survival and symptoms in L. vannamei post-larvae 24 hours after inoculation with F. maritimus and its growth in marine agar were evaluated. Mortality was detected around 92,5% as well as symptoms like melanized lesions in several parts of body, discolouration of gills, bad formation of appendages and of the last abdominal segment, low motility and feeding reduction. The experimental infection results suggested that isolated bacteria of the genus Flexibacter are pathogenic to the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae. PMID:18470394

Mouriño, J L P; Vinatea, L; Buglione-Neto, C; Ramirez, C T; Vieira, F N; Pedrotti, F; Martins, M L; Derner, R B; Aguilar, M A; Beltrame, E

2008-02-01

136

Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla

1982-01-01

137

Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (P<0.05) growth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (P<0.05) than in controls. Levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of the treated shrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water. PMID:22595137

Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

2012-10-12

138

Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

2010-09-01

139

A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

140

Aquimarina penaei sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain designated P3-1(T) was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Zhangpu, Fujian province, China. The isolate was found to be Gram-negative, long rod shaped, oxidase- and catalase- positive. Growth was observed at 1-7 % sea salt (w/v, optimum, 3 %), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 10-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The isolate was capable of hydrolysing gelatin, casein, starch and DNA but unable to degrade Tween 20, 40, 80 and cellulose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P3-1(T) belongs to the genus Aquimarina, with highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina gracilis PSC32(T) (96.2 %), followed by Aquimarina intermedia KMM 6258(T) (96.1 %), Aquimarina spongiae A6(T) (95.9 %) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020(T) (95.8 %). The principal cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3OH, C16:1 ?7c/?6c, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C17:1 ?9c/C16:0 10-methyl and C16:0. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 33.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6 (100 %). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain P3-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina penaei sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain P3-1(T) (=MCCC 1A09871(T) = LMG 27943(T)). PMID:25253586

Li, Xiaoyi; Wang, Liping; Huang, Hui; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

2014-12-01

141

Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

2013-03-01

142

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

143

History of nutrition in space flight: overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

2002-01-01

144

Parenteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutritional insufficiency, leading to early growth deficits has long-lasting effects, including short stature and poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. Early enteral feeding is commonly limited by immaturity of gastrointestinal motor function in preterm neonates. To ensure that a stressed premature infant receives an adequate but not excessive amount of glucose, the amount of carbohydrate delivered in the form of dextrose is commonly initiated at the endogenous hepatic glucose production and utilization rate of 4 to 6 mg/kg/min; and 8 to 10 mg/kg/min in ELBW infants. The early provision of protein is critical to attain positive nitrogen balance and accretion as premature babies lose approximately 1% of their protein stores daily. Aminoacid can be used at concentrations of 3-3.5 g/kg/day and lipid at 3.5-4 g/kg/day as long as the fat intake remains less than 60% of nonprotein calories. Sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus need to be provided in PN solution as per their daily needs. Hospital-acquired infection (HAI) is a major complication of PN. All efforts should be made to avoid it. PMID:18536894

Chawla, Deepak; Thukral, Anu; Agarwal, Ramesh; Deorari, Ashok K; Paul, Vinod K

2008-04-01

145

Optimal Nutrition For HIV\\/AIDS Wellness  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will understand basic concepts of optimal nutrition for HIV\\/AIDS Wellness by identifying key foods and nutrients, along with lifestyle changes, that contribute to a strengthened immune system.HIV\\/AIDS Wellness is an interdisciplinary, integrated approach to long term survival, development and improved quality of life for people living with this disease. Optimal nutrition for HIV\\/AIDS Wellness includes foods and

J. Zimmerman

1997-01-01

146

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

147

Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

2013-01-01

148

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... Psychological Services Social Services Outreach Sponsorship Provider List Support Groups Other organizations: Painted Turtle ICF Make-A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, due to hemolytic ...

149

[Total parenteral nutrition and the usefulness of CV ports].  

PubMed

Management of nutrition in cancer patients plays an important role in supporting anti-cancer treatment. Parenteral nutrition is considered to assist with nutrition in cancer patients. Central venous catheters(CVC)are useful for intravenous infusion of not only nutrients with high osmotic pressure but also chemotherapeutic drugs and other substances. Central venous access through CV ports reduces patient's burden and complications, and it contributes to maintaining a patient's quality of life(QOL). PMID:25335701

Washizawa, Naohiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Koike, Junichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Kaneko, Hironori

2014-10-01

150

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

PubMed Central

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-01-01

151

Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards. PMID:25029962

Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

2014-09-01

152

Nutrition And Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition has a crucial role in determining the health and welfare of an animal. Owners have a responsibility to ensure that their cats receive a nutritionally complete and safe diet. The food should be offered in accordance with their natural feeding behaviour and physiology. Cats are obligate carnivores, with significantly different nutritional requirements from dogs and humans. As a result

Kit Sturgess; Karyl J. Hurley

153

Nutrition During Weight Gain  

E-print Network

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

154

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

155

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

156

Nutritional Assessment in Pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional status affects every pediatric patient’s response to illness. Good nutrition is important for achieving normal growth and development. Nutritional assessment therefore should be an integral part of the care for every pediatric patient. Routine screening measures for abnormalities of growth should be performed on all pediatric patients. Those patients with chronic illness and those at risk for malnutrition should

Maria R. MASCARENHAS; Babette Zemel; Virginia A. Stallings

1998-01-01

157

Administration of hot-water extract of brown seaweed Sargassum duplicatum via immersion and injection enhances the immune resistance of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (10.42+/-1.39 g) were immersed in seawater (34 per thousand) containing hot-water extract of brown alga Sargassum duplicatum at 100, 300 and 500 mg l(-1), or injected with hot-water extract of S. duplicatum at 2, 6, 10 and 20 microg g(-1). These parameters increased significantly when the shrimp were immersed in seawater containing hot-water extract at 300 and 500 mg l(-1) after 1 h, or when the shrimp were injected with hot-water extract at 10 and 20 microg g(-1) after 1 day. L. vannamei that were injected with hot-water extract at 6, 10 and 20 microg g(-1) had increased phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus after 1-6 days. In another experiment, L. vannamei which had been immersed in seawater containing hot-water extract at 100, 300 and 500 mg l(-1), or injected with hot-water extract at 2, 6, 10 or 20 microg g(-1) were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 1 x 10(6), or 1.4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. The survival of shrimp that received hot-water extract at either dose was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 2 days, as well as at the termination of the experiment (6 days after the challenge). It is therefore concluded that L. vannamei that were immersed in hot-water extract of S. duplicatum at 300 mg l(-1), or the shrimp that were injected with hot-water extract at 10 microg g(-1) or less had increased immune ability as well as resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:16005643

Yeh, Su-Tuen; Lee, Chiu-Sha; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2006-03-01

158

Trophic Transfer of Lead Through a Model Marine Four-Level Food Chain: Tetraselmis suecica , Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei , and Haemulon scudderi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain:\\u000a Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) ? Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) ? Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) ? Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences\\u000a in Pb

M. F. Soto-Jiménez; C. Arellano-Fiore; R. Rocha-Velarde; M. E. Jara-Marini; J. Ruelas-Inzunza; F. Páez-Osuna

2011-01-01

159

Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

160

Lack of evidence for Litopenaeus vannamei Toll receptor (lToll) involvement in activation of sequence-independent antiviral immunity in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of non-specific dsRNA initiates a broad-spectrum innate antiviral immune response in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, however, the receptor involved in recognition of this by-product of viral infections remains unknown. In vertebrates, dsRNA sensing is mediated by a class of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and results in activation of the interferon system. Because a TLR (lToll) was recently characterized

Yannick Labreuche; Nuala A. O’Leary; Enrique de la Vega; Artur Veloso; Paul S. Gross; Robert W. Chapman; Craig L. Browdy; Gregory W. Warr

2009-01-01

161

Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

162

A personal view of nutrition in Spain.  

PubMed

This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain. PMID:24679010

Zamora, Salvador

2014-01-01

163

Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

2013-01-01

164

Consumer use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing consumer interest in nutrition has led to an increased interest in nutrition labelling. Finds that over half (58 per cent) of the sample surveyed read nutrition labels. Nutrition labelling was found to have an impact on consumer purchase decisions. Of those consumers who read nutritional labels, 81 per cent use them in their evaluation of food products. Consumers have

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

165

Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition

Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

166

The role of nucleotides in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary NT are reported to have significant effects upon lymphoid, intestinal and hepatic tissues, and lipid metabolism (Table 3). The mechanism remains unknown, and the nutritional role of NT remains controversial. However, maintenance of the endogenous NT supply via de novo synthesis and salvage is metabolically costly. Preformed NT supplied by the diet may contribute to tissue NT pools and

Jane D. Carver; W. Allan Walker

1995-01-01

167

[Nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional concepts in acute pancreatitis are undergoing a rapid change. An early start of nutrition via nasojejunal tubes is about to replace parenteral nutrition. Yesterday it was believed that the pancreas had to be put at rest. Thus, stimulation of pancreatic secretion by enteral nutrition was believed to be detrimental. However, on comparing the results of enteral with those of parenteral nutrition, the pancreatic infection rates, rate of surgical interventions, days of hospital stay, and costs are found to be significantly reduced. Whether or not enteral nutrition decreases mortality has not been clearly proven. Pancreatitis is associated with the risk of paralytic ileus. Thus, data suggesting that one does not have to feed via a nasojejunal tube but rather via an easier to place nasogastric tube, are provocative. Numerous questions still have to be answered such as composition of tube diet, nutrition in mild to moderate pancreatitis, ways to reduce pain and composition of diet when oral refeeding is started. The nutrition of tomorrow may implicate immunonutrition. There are only a few small studies suggesting beneficial effects by supplementation of tube feeding with MCT/LCT triglycerides, glutamine, arginin, omega-3-fatty acids, nucleotides. So far, these supplements have failed to show efficacy for clinically relevant endpoints. In an recently published study, prebiotics were associated with a high complication rate. In this review, we summarise the current knowledge on nutrition in acute pancreatitis and discuss future developments. PMID:18759203

Mössner, J; Teich, N

2008-08-01

168

What Is Enteral Nutrition?  

MedlinePLUS

... to Action Public Policy Resources Continuing Education Clinical Nutrition Week Certification Professional Development Self-Study Programs Live Programs Claim CE Credits Calendar of Events Guidelines & Clinical Resources ...

169

Nutrition for Children with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... Treatment » Children and Cancer » When Your Child Has Cancer » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Share this Page Close ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ...

170

The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and this could be exacerbated by the possibility of horizontal transmission revealed by laboratory challenge tests. Thus, it is recommended that the PCR and in situ hybridization methods developed herein be used to identify the natural reservoir species so they can be eliminated from the shrimp rearing system. PMID:23856195

2013-01-01

171

Identification of a C-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a CTL from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL3) was identified. LvCTL3 contains a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp CTLs and has a mutated 'EPD' motif in Ca(2+)-binding site 2. LvCTL3 mRNA can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of LvCTL3 in gills was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting activation responses of LvCTL3 to bacterial, virus and immune stimulant challenges. The 5'flanking regulatory region of LvCTL3 was cloned and we identified a NF-?B binding motif in the LvCTL3 promoter region. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that over-expression of L. vannamei dorsal can dramatically up regulate the promoter activity of LvCTL3, suggesting that LvCTL3 expression could be regulated through NF-?B signaling pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on signaling pathway involve in shrimp CTLs expression. The recombinant LvCTL3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified LvCTL3 can agglutinate Gram-negative microbe Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in the presence of calcium ions, but cannot agglutinate Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae. The agglutination activity of LvCTL3 was abolished when Ca(2+) was chelated with EDTA, suggesting the function of LvCTL3 is Ca(2+)-dependent. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant LvCTL3 protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. parahemolyticus and WSSV infection, indicating LvCTL3 might play significant roles in shrimp innate immunity defense against bacterial and viral infection. PMID:24792214

Li, Ming; Li, Chaozheng; Ma, Chunxia; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Xiaohan; Zeng, Digang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2014-10-01

172

Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

2014-09-01

173

Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

Jones, Anna Marie

174

Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge  

PubMed Central

Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education. PMID:24899813

Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

2014-01-01

175

WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Careful assessment of the nutritional needs of cats and dogs must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. The goal of these World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific

Lisa Freeman; Iveta Becvarova; Nick Cave; Clayton MacKay; Patrick Nguyen; Betina Rama; Gregg Takashima; Ross Tiffin; Peter van Beukelen; S Yathiraj

2011-01-01

176

Day Care: Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

Foster, Florence P.; And Others

177

Parents and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher

178

Nutrition Education for Today  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To help people understand what constitutes good nutrition, why it is important, and how it can be incorporated in the daily diet, as well as how to recognize false or misleading claims about food is the responsibility in the 1970's, of nutrition educators. (Editor/MU)

Harker, Charlotte S.; Kupsinel, Penelope E.

1971-01-01

179

Geological impacts on nutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

180

Physician nutrition education.  

PubMed

Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T

2014-06-01

181

Community and International Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this investigation was to assess the relationship between smoking status and nutrient intakes using a meta-analysis. Publications in English were sought through a Medline search using the following key words: food habits, eating, feeding behavior, diet, food, nutrition, nutritional status or assessment, tobacco use disorder, tobacco, nicotine and smoking. Scanning relevant reference lists of articles and hand

Jean Dallongeville; Nadine Marecaux; Jean-Charles Fruchart; Philippe Amouyel

182

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

Goldsmith, Robert H.

183

Teaching about Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

1983-01-01

184

Nutrition for winter sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable

Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle

2011-01-01

185

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

Black, Susan

2000-01-01

186

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

187

[Perioperatory artificial nutrition].  

PubMed

Malnutrition increases post surgical morbimortality, hospital stance and economical costs. Possibilities of nutritional intervention in surgical patients are important. Early enteral nutrition is better than total parenteral nutrition in patients under surgery. Periroperaoty nutritional support must be administrated to patients with severe or middle undernutrition and will be under surgery, during 7-14 days before surgical intervention, if this intervention could be delayed. Total parenteral nutrition will be not used regularly in patients under mayor digestive surgical procedures. Inmunonutrition has been demonstrated useful in surgical patients. Evidence demonstrates that inmunotritional formulas decrease incidence of infections, hospital stance and time of ventilation in patients in UCI wards. New research areas have been explored in this topic area, carbohydrate utility in presurgical patients and probiotic in enteral formulas. PMID:19295980

de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Izaola, O

2008-06-01

188

Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

2002-01-01

189

Recombinant expression and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin7) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are widely known to its inhibitory role on proteases involved in the immune responses. Herein, a novel serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin7), encoding for 411 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 46.29 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.98 was characterized from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Lvserpin7 shared 92.9% identities to Penaeus monodon serpin7. Among the tested tissues, Lvserpin7 was mainly expressed in hemocytes and gill. The expression profiles analysis indicated that Lvserpin7 was significantly up-regulated in the early stage upon Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysodeikticus or White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection. Fusion protein expression was induced by IPTG, and the purified recombinant Lvserpin7 protein (rLvserpin7) binds to both the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also rLvserpin7 exhibited inhibitory activity against the proteases secreted by Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, rLvserpin7 showed inhibition role on prophenoloxidase activation. To recap, we proposed that Lvserpin7 was implicated in the shrimp immunity via the inhibition of bacterial proteases and proteases involved in prophenoloxidase system. PMID:25462553

Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Wang, Xianzong; Liu, Xiaolin

2015-02-01

190

Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties. PMID:21917644

Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

2011-08-01

191

Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

2015-02-01

192

Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) ?-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) ?-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA ?-subunit and V-ATPase ?-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA ?-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA ?-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA ?-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

2014-06-01

193

Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp. PMID:24120486

Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

2013-11-19

194

Enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20.  

PubMed

Effects of Bacillus subtilis E20 isolated from fermented soybean on immune parameters and the disease resistance of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 98 days of B. subtilis E20 feeding were evaluated in this study. Shrimp fed B. subtilis E20-containing diets at concentrations of 10(6) (E206), 10(7) (E207), and 10(8) (E208)cfu kg(-1), respectively, had significantly increased survival rates of 13.3%, 16.7%, and 20%, compared to the control (fed no probiotic) after being challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus. There were no significant differences in the total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, or superoxide dismutase glutathione peroxidase among all treatments. Shrimp fed a higher concentration of the probiotic (E208) exhibited significant increases in phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency compared to control shrimp. In addition, B. subtilis E20 showed a weaker inhibitory effect against the growth of Aeromona hydrophila with around a 0.3-cm inhibitory zone, but showed no inhibitory effects against other selected pathogens, such as white shrimp pathogens: V. alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus. These results suggest that the increased resistance of shrimp after B. subtilis E20 consumption occurs through immune modifications, such as increases in phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus. PMID:19111620

Tseng, Deng-Yu; Ho, Pei-Lin; Huang, Sung-Yan; Cheng, Sheng-Chi; Shiu, Ya-Li; Chiu, Chiu-Shia; Liu, Chun-Hung

2009-02-01

195

Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

2013-09-01

196

Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen: a potential oral treatment to protect Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome.  

PubMed

The envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is considered a candidate antigen for use in a potential vaccine to this important shrimp pathogen (the cause of white spot syndrome, WSS). Here, we used spores of Bacillus subtilis to display VP28 on the spore surface. Trials were conducted to evaluate their ability to protect shrimps against WSSV infection. The gene cotB-vp28 was integrated into the chromosome of the laboratory strain B. subtilis PY79, and expression of CotB-VP28 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Expression of CotB-VP28 was equivalent to 1000 molecules per spore. PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores were mixed with pellets for feeding of whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei), followed by WSSV challenge. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase activities and mortality rates of the two shrimp groups were evaluated. Groups fed with PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores at day 7 had increased SOD activities of 29% and increased phenoloxidase activities of 15% and 33%, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Fourteen days postchallenge, 35% of vaccinated shrimps had died compared to 49% of those fed naked spores (PY79) and 66% untreated, unchallenged animals. These data suggest that spores expressing VP28 have potential as a prophylactic treatment of WSS. PMID:25066511

Nguyen, Anh T V; Pham, Cuong K; Pham, Huong T T; Pham, Hang L; Nguyen, Anh H; Dang, Lua T; Huynh, Hong A; Cutting, Simon M; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

2014-09-01

197

Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.  

PubMed

Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (p<0.05). The increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and p-anisidine value (AV) of lipids were noticeable when autolysis time increased (p<0.05). However, no changes in free fatty acid (FFA) content were observed within the first 60 min of autolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (p<0.05). No differences in fatty acid profiles of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas without and with 60 min prior autolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. PMID:23107697

Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat

2012-09-15

198

Evaluation of the productive and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei infected with WSSV and fed diets enriched with Dunaliella sp.  

PubMed

An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the productive and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei that were infected with WSSV and fed diets enriched with Dunaliella sp., which had a high ?-carotene content induced by nitrogen reduction in the culture medium. A basal diet containing 35% crude protein and experimental diets T1 and T2, which included 1% and 2% microalgae meal, respectively, were evaluated. Positive (infected juveniles) and negative (non-infected) controls were also evaluated. Survival was significantly higher (80%) in the two treatment groups compared to the positive control group (56%). In the negative control group, survival was 100%. Some variation was recorded for hemolymph metabolites among treatments and at distinct times post-infection; although the tendencies were not clear, some metabolites (glucose and triglycerides) appeared to decrease on the last days of the trial, probably due to their use as energy for the shrimp to thrive despite the infection. The results of the study suggest a positive effect of the dietary inclusion of Dunaliella meal on shrimp survival and an unclear effect on hemolymph metabolites. PMID:24424376

Medina-Félix, Diana; López-Elías, José A; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R; López-Torres, Marco A; Hernández-López, Jorge; Rivas-Vega, Martha E; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando

2014-03-01

199

Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high. PMID:12235191

Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

2002-10-01

200

Accumulation and Elimination of Enrofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in Tissues of Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Laboratory and Farm Conditions  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to quantify the accumulation and elimination of Enrofloxacin (ENRO) and Ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory and farm conditions. Laboratory- and farm-raised shrimp were given feed supplemented with 200?mg/kg ENRO for 14 days, followed by a 16-day diet without antibiotics. The levels of ENRO and CIPRO were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the laboratory, ENRO concentrations in the muscle and hepatopancreas reached a maximum (Cmax) of 0.54 ± 0.26??g/g and 3.52 ± 1.9??g/g, respectively; Cmax values for CIPRO in the laboratory were 0.18 ± 0.13??g/g (muscle) and 1.05 ± 0.20??g/g (hepatopancreas). In farmed shrimp, Cmax values for ENRO were 0.36 ± 0.17??g/g muscle and 1.60 ± 0.82??g/g in the hepatopancreas; CIPRO Cmax values were 0.03 ± 0.02??g/g (muscle) and 0.36 ± 0.08??g/g (hepatopancreas). Two to fourteen days were necessary to eliminate both antibiotics from muscular tissue and four to more fourteen days for complete elimination of the antibiotics from the hepatopancreas. These results should be considered in terms of minimum concentrations necessary to inhibit Vibrio bacteria to determine whether the current use of this antibiotic is effective in controlling disease. PMID:22779008

Flores-Miranda, Brisa Marisol; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angelica; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; López-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; González-Carrillo, Haydé Hayamaí; Bermúdez-Almada, María del Carmen

2012-01-01

201

Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics  

E-print Network

is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

McConnell, Terry

202

HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

203

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

204

Nutrition humaine et sant Mention : Nutrition, sant, aliments  

E-print Network

Nutrition humaine et santé Mention : Nutrition, santé, aliments Nature de la formation : Diplôme : Formation initiale #12;2 Nutrition humaine et santé UFR Sciences et Technologies PR�SENTATION Objectifs Mention Nutrition, Santé, Aliments L'objectif de cette mention est de former des étudiants ayant des

Sart, Remi

205

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition  

E-print Network

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table Improving Nutrition in Ethiopia Through Plant Breeding and Soil Management Health Sciences Project Update ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5

Saskatchewan, University of

206

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition  

E-print Network

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Vitamin D Intake Needed. Stephensen3,5 3 Nutrition Department and 4 Entomology Department and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616; 5 USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 95616; 6 AusSun Research

Hammock, Bruce D.

207

Nutrition and physical activity in CKD patients.  

PubMed

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are at risk for protein-energy wasting, abnormal body composition and impaired physical capacity. These complications lead to increased risk of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality.In CKD patient as well as in healthy people, there is a close association between nutrition and physical activity. Namely, inadequate nutrient (energy) intake impairs physical performance thus favoring a sedentary lifestyle: this further contributes to loss of muscle strength and mass, which limit the quality of life and rehabilitation of CKD patients. In CKD as well as in end-stage-renal-disease patients, regular physical activity coupled with adequate energy and protein intake counteracts protein-energy wasting and related comorbidity and mortality. In summary, exercise training can positively influence nutritional status and the perception of well-being of CKD patients and may facilitate the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions. PMID:25117648

Cupisti, Adamasco; D'Alessandro, Claudia; Fumagalli, Giordano; Vigo, Valentina; Meola, Mario; Cianchi, Caterina; Egidi, Maria F

2014-01-01

208

Effect of the addition of four potential probiotic strains on the survival of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) following immersion challenge with Vibrio parahaemolyticus.  

PubMed

Four bacterial strains isolated from the gastrointestinal tract of adult shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Vibrio alginolyticus UTM 102, Bacillus subtilis UTM 126, Roseobacter gallaeciensis SLV03, and Pseudomonas aestumarina SLV22, were evaluated for potential use as probiotics for shrimp. In vitro studies demonstrated antagonism against the shrimp-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus PS-017. Feeding shrimp with diets containing the potential probiotics showed the best feed conversion ratio in comparison with the control groups. After feeding with the potential probiotics for 28 days, challenge by immersion indicated effectiveness at reducing disease caused by V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp. PMID:17544437

Balcázar, José Luis; Rojas-Luna, Tyrone; Cunningham, David P

2007-10-01

209

Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

210

Novel methodologies in marine fish larval nutrition.  

PubMed

Major gaps in knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements still remain. Small larval size, and difficulties in acceptance of inert microdiets, makes progress slow and cumbersome. This lack of knowledge in fish larval nutritional requirements is one of the causes of high mortalities and quality problems commonly observed in marine larviculture. In recent years, several novel methodologies have contributed to significant progress in fish larval nutrition. Others are emerging and are likely to bring further insight into larval nutritional physiology and requirements. This paper reviews a range of new tools and some examples of their present use, as well as potential future applications in the study of fish larvae nutrition. Tube-feeding and incorporation into Artemia of (14)C-amino acids and lipids allowed studying Artemia intake, digestion and absorption and utilisation of these nutrients. Diet selection by fish larvae has been studied with diets containing different natural stable isotope signatures or diets where different rare metal oxides were added. Mechanistic modelling has been used as a tool to integrate existing knowledge and reveal gaps, and also to better understand results obtained in tracer studies. Population genomics may assist in assessing genotype effects on nutritional requirements, by using progeny testing in fish reared in the same tanks, and also in identifying QTLs for larval stages. Functional genomics and proteomics enable the study of gene and protein expression under various dietary conditions, and thereby identify the metabolic pathways which are affected by a given nutrient. Promising results were obtained using the metabolic programming concept in early life to facilitate utilisation of certain nutrients at later stages. All together, these methodologies have made decisive contributions, and are expected to do even more in the near future, to build a knowledge basis for development of optimised diets and feeding regimes for different species of larval fish. PMID:20035382

Conceição, Luis E C; Aragão, Cláudia; Richard, Nadège; Engrola, Sofia; Gavaia, Paulo; Mira, Sara; Dias, Jorge

2010-03-01

211

Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.  

PubMed

Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282

Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

2013-09-01

212

Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

213

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

214

Clinical Nutrition SHRP Department of  

E-print Network

Doctorate of Clinical Nutrition SHRP Department of Nutritional Sciences about it's all Choi: Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition Office 973-972-8525 · 973-972-9048 How to Apply Applications, Doctorate of Clinical Nutrition Riva Touger-Decker, PhD, RD, CDN, FADA Chair and Professor Laura D. Byham

Cheng, Mei-Fang

215

Master of Science Clinical Nutrition  

E-print Network

SHRP Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition Department of Nutritional Sciences about it's all Choi.rutgers.edu/dept/nutr/programs/m_clinutr Email: ms-cn@shrp.rutgers.edu Call: Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition Office 973-972-8525 · 973? Laura D. Byham-Gray, PhD, RD Associate Professor Director, Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition Jane

Cheng, Mei-Fang

216

Change in Nutrient Intakes, Number of Servings, and Contributions of Total Fat from Food Groups in 4- to 10YearOld Children Enrolled in a Nutrition Education Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine change in nutrient intakes, number of servings, and contributions of total fat from food groups in children who lowered their dietary fat intake.Design A research and demonstration study designed to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. There were four study groups: two intervention and two control groups. All children had hypercholesterolemia except for those in one control

JEANNIE McKENZIE; LORIBETH DIXON; HELEN SMICIKLAS-WRIGHT; DIANE MITCHELL; BARBARA SHANNON; ANDREW TERSHAKOVEC

1996-01-01

217

Nutrition Implications of Heart Failure and Heart Transplantation in Children With Dilated CardiomyopathyA Case Series  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes nutrition implications of pediatric dilated cardiomyopathy leading to heart transplantation with a focus on nutritional management of patients during the waiting time for a donor organ and the inpatient postoperative period. Optimization of nutritional status is essential during these periods as weight loss and malnutrition contribute to muscle atrophy, decreased functional capacity, reduced immune function, and prolonged

Judy Bailer; Beth D. Kaufman

2010-01-01

218

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

219

Nutrition for Everyone  

MedlinePLUS

... October 29, 2012 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Home A-Z Index Policies Using this Site Link to Us Social ...

220

Papaya nutritional analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Papayas are sweet, flavorful tropical fruit, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids. Multiple interactions among preharvest environmental conditions, genetics, and physiology determine papaya nutritional composition at harvest. Selecting a cultivar with the genetic potential for high nutrient content and...

221

Lead - nutritional considerations  

MedlinePLUS

... some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, ...

222

Nutrition Update, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

1978-01-01

223

Nutrition for Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Men For Women For Seniors Nutrition for Older Men Published February 01, 2014 Print Email The Difference ... mind sharp and extend quality of life. Older men need: Calcium and Vitamin D Older adults need ...

224

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Soy and Cancer: Wish You Were Young Again Star Speaker Stephen Barnes, PhD Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Alabama Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama Meeting Date Monday, October 04, 2010

225

Nutrition of aging dogs.  

PubMed

Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

2014-07-01

226

Nutrition and Genomics Workshop  

Cancer.gov

This workshop was a joint NCI, USDA, and American Society for Nutritional Sciences effort to raise awareness of the linkages between nutrients and genes as determinants of growth, development, and disease risk. The ultimate goal was to promote the use of new and innovative gene technologies in the science of nutrition. This workshop capitalized on the expertise of various disciplines to showcase opportunities for examining nutrients as modifiers of genes and gene products.

227

Nutrition in Multifetal Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

All multifetal pregnancies can be considered high risk due to frequent obstetrical complications associated with this type\\u000a of pregnancies. Nutritional assessment with current dietary recommendations and specialized antenatal care are important for\\u000a a good outcome. Maternal weight and weight gain are also important factors, but nutritional supplements, assessment of calorie\\u000a intake, and adjustments as needed are crucial as well. Confounding

Elliot H. Philipson

228

Nutrition and Pharmacologic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and a progressive, debilitating condition. People with CKD\\u000a are at high risk of malnutrition, and the first priority of nutrition therapy must focus on the prevention and\\/or treatment\\u000a of protein energy malnutrition. Additional nutrition therapy goals include slowing the progression of CKD and its uremic complications\\u000a and preventing renal osteodystrophy,

Kathy Schiro Harvey

229

Nutrition and sepsis.  

PubMed

The effect of nutritional support in critically ill patients with sepsis has received much attention in recent years. However, many of the studies have produced conflicting results. As for all critically ill patients, nutritional support, preferably via the enteral route, should be commenced once initial resuscitation and adequate perfusion pressure is achieved. Where enteral feeding is impossible or not tolerated, parenteral nutrition (either as total or complimentary therapy) may safely be administered. Most positive studies relating to nutritional support and sepsis have been in the setting of sepsis prevention. Thus, the administration of standard nutrition formulas to critically ill patients within 24 h of injury or intensive care unit admission may decrease the incidence of pneumonia. Both arginine-supplemented enteral diets, given in the perioperative period, and glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition have been shown to decrease infections in surgical patients. Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions as well as probiotics given in the perioperative period may also reduce infections in patients undergoing major abdominal operations, such as liver transplantation. There is little support at the present time for the positive effect of specific pharmaconutrients, in particular fish oil, probiotics, or antioxidants, in the setting of established sepsis. More studies are clearly required on larger numbers of more homogeneous groups of patients. PMID:23075593

Cohen, Jonathan; Chin, w Dat N

2013-01-01

230

[Nutrition in intensive care].  

PubMed

Nutrition is a supportive therapy in critically ill patients. The caloric need of a patient is not static and may change during the clinical course. Early enteral nutrition helps preventing an energy deficit of the patient leading to an increased rate of secondary infections and prolonged length of stay. By using protocols early enteral nutrition may be improved with benefit for the critically ill. Patients should not receive hypercaloric nutrition. Supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used to minimize the gap between energy needs and enteral supplied calories. Nutrition should be supplied according to metabolic and enteral tolerance. A strict glucose control is not recommended to all patients any more. Hyperglycemia may be part of the adaptive response to stress, infection, and trauma. It is important to avoid hypoglycaemia and increased variability in glucose concentrations. To this end, structured local protocols with instructions for sampling density, glucose and insulin administration, avoidance and treatment of hypoglycaemia should be installed. There are contradictory data on the use of probiotics in critically ill patients. Among patients with severe acute pancreatitis, more patients died after having received probiotics. The use of probiotics should be evaluated in controlled trials. Adherence to guidelines may be improved, and their appliance should be followed by constant training and evaluation processes. PMID:21611924

Mayer, K; Weigand, M A; Seeger, W

2011-06-01

231

Effect of dietary potassium on growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulation and immunity of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in low salinity seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physiological acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+ per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

Liu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Tan, Beiping; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

2013-11-01

232

Effects of different dietary lipid level on the growth, survival and immune-relating genes expression in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Five feeding trials based on the isonitrogenous and isoenergetic experimental diets containing 34% protein, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12% or 14% lipid respectively in the circulating water culture system for both 30 and 60 days were conducted to investigate the effect of the dietary lipid level on the growth and immunity in white shirmp, Litopenaeus vannamei adults. The body weight and specific growth rate of white shrimp in different treatments indicated that shrimps fed the diet of 12% lipid level for 30d and 10% lipid level for 60d had the best developmental status. The ability of respiratory burst in hemocytes was improved as the increase of dietary lipid level. The transcripts of LGBP and pPO were sensitive to the dietary lipid in hemocyte and hepatopancreas respectively. The activities of CAT, GPx and AKP were increased to a certain extend according to dietary lipid level. Qualification of MDA showed the lowest level in the sample subjected to 12% lipid level diet, indicating an optimal utilization of the dietary lipid and an efficient clearance of MDA in vivo. These results suggested that dietary lipid level of 10-12% significantly tunes the growth and enhance the immune abilities mainly via ROS pathway of L. vannamei. PMID:23403158

Zhang, Sheng-peng; Li, Jin-feng; Wu, Xiao-chun; Zhong, Wei-jing; Xian, Jian-an; Liao, Shao-an; Miao, Yu-tao; Wang, An-li

2013-05-01

233

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications  

PubMed Central

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei. PMID:24086466

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-01-01

234

Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.  

PubMed

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

2011-01-01

235

Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains  

PubMed Central

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

2011-01-01

236

[Microorganisms effect with probiotic potential in water quality and growth of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in intensive culture].  

PubMed

The use of probiotics has gained acceptance in aquaculture, particularly in maintaining water quality and enhancing growth in organisms. This study analyzed the effect of the commercial (EM, Japan) natural product composed by (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) added to the water, in order to determine its effect in water quality, sediment and growth of L. vannamei under intensive culture. The evaluation included three treatments with a weekly addition of EM: i) tanks without probiotics (C), ii) tanks with a dose of 4 L/ha (EM1) and iii) tanks with a dose of 10 L/ha (EM2). The treatment C was carried out three times, while treatments EM1 and EM2 were carried out four times. A total of 4 350 shrimps were measured for total length and weight, to calculate total and porcentual weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate (TCE), and food conversion factor (FCA); besides, the survival rate was estimated. The use of probiotics allowed a shorter harvest time in treatments EM1 (90 d) and EM2 (105 d) with relation to the treatment C (120d). Treatments EM1 and EM2 were within the recommended intervals for culture, with respect to treatment C. The use of probiotic bacteria significantly regulated pH (EM1, 8.03 +/- 0.33; EM2, 7.77 +/- 0.22; C, 9.08 +/- 0.35) and reduced nitrate concentration (EM1, 0.64 +/- 0.25 mg/L; EM2, 0.39 +/- 0.26 mg/L; C, 0.71 mg/L). Water pH mostly explained the variance with respect to the treatments. Treatment EM2 presented the greatest removal of organic matter (1.77 +/- 0.45%), whereas the contents of extractable phosphorus increased significantly in treatment EM1 with 21.6 +/- 7.99 mg/kg and in treatment EM2 with 21.6 +/- 8.45 mg/kg with control relation (14.3 +/- 5.47). The shrimp growth was influenced by dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the sediment, establishing that salinity was the most important variable in the weight with a negative association. Treatment EM1 recorded an improved TCE (2.69 +/- 0.35%/d) and FCA (1.46 +/- 0.20) with relation to the control treatment (TCE, 1.88 +/- 0.25%/d; FCA, 2.13 +/- 0.48). Survival was significantly greater in treatments containing probiotics with 61 +/- 8.76% and 60 +/- 10.5% for EM1 and EM2, respectively. This study indicated the positive effect obtained with the use of this commercial probiotic, to improve culture conditions and growth parameters in an intensive culture of L. vannamei. PMID:24027919

Melgar Valdes, Carolina Esther; Barba Macías, Everardo; Alvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Tovilla Hernández, Cristian; Sánchez, Alberto J

2013-09-01

237

Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ?150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (?) monounsaturated fatty acids, ? n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less ? n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

2014-01-01

238

Evaluation of the susceptibility of the cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to vibriosis when orally exposed to the insecticide methyl parathion.  

PubMed

The causes of disease in cultured shrimp are difficult to ascertain but there is evidence that disease is correlated with environmental factors. Crustaceans are particularly sensitive to insecticides due to their close phylogenetic relationship with insects. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there was an increased susceptibility of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, when exposed to methyl parathion. The outline of the study was the following: An LC50 96 h was determined to methyl parathion orally offered to juvenile shrimp. Further experiments were carried out in order to determine a concentration that affected the shrimp (verified by measuring the acethylcholinesterase activity) while producing minimal mortalities. This sublethal concentration was used in a susceptibility experiment where methyl parathion was offered to shrimp which were later injected with V. parahaemolyticus in a dose expected to kill less than 15%. Probit analysis estimated a 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of 1.56 microg g(-1). Mortality and AChE activity showed a concentration-response relationship in the exposure treatments. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) determined was 0.029 microg g(-1). These results suggested that a concentration of 0.1 microg g(-1) was appropriate for the bacteria-pesticide interaction test as it was able to elicit 11.1% mortality after 10 days of exposure, while producing an AChE inhibition of 57.12%. Cumulative mortalities were significantly increased (P<0.01) in the treatment that combined exposure to methyl parathion and V. parahaemolyticus (35.19%) in comparison with methyl parathion or V. parahaemolyticus alone (9.26% and 7.41%, respectively). PMID:15910911

Roque, A; Abad, S; Betancourt-Lozano, M; de la Parra, L M Garcia; Baird, D; Guerra-Flores, A L; Gomez-Gil, B

2005-06-01

239

Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): compositions and deterioration as affected by iced storage.  

PubMed

Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) stored in ice for up to 6 days were extracted and characterised. The extraction yields of lipids from hepatopancreas (10.65-12.64%) were higher than those from cephalothorax (2.59-2.88%). However, no changes in the extraction yield were observed during the storage (p>0.05). The carotenoid contents of lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas slightly increased within the first 2 and 4 days of iced storage (p<0.05), respectively, but decreased thereafter (p<0.05). With increasing storage time, a progressive formation of hydroperoxide was found as evidenced by the increase in the absorbance band at 3600-3200 cm(-1) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and increased peroxide values (PVs) (p<0.05). The increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), p-anisidine value (AnV) and free fatty acid (FFA) content of lipids were noticeable when iced storage time increased (p<0.05). Those changes indicated that lipid oxidation and hydrolysis occurred in both samples. Phospholipids (PL) were the major components in lipids from cephalothorax (82.51% of total lipids). Nevertheless, lipids from hepatopancreas contained triglyceride (TG) and PL as the dominant components (45.35% and 38.03% of total lipids, respectively). A decrease in the TG content with a concomitant increase in free fatty acid was observed at the end of storage (day 6) (p<0.05). Decreases in unsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) were noticeable at day 6 of storage (p<0.05). Thus, the extended storage time resulted in the enhanced deterioration of extracted lipids. PMID:23442657

Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat; H-kittikun, Aran

2012-10-15

240

Nutritional assessment and malnutrition in multiple sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition is often identified in patients in chronic diseases and dysphagia is the major contributing factor. The evaluation\\u000a of the nutritional status included assessment of the swallowing abilities, food intake and lifestyle. Weight is the first\\u000a parameter for suspecting a malnutrition, it is considered significant when weight loss major that 10% of normal weight occurs\\u000a over a period of six

Sara Pasquinelli; Claudio Solaro

2008-01-01

241

Immuno-nutrition: designer diets in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weight loss, associated with advanced stage of neoplastic disease, is negatively correlated with survival in cancer patients.\\u000a Alterations in substrate metabolism contribute to the impaired nutritional status. Energy expenditure, assessed by indirect\\u000a calorimetry, seems to be very variable. Hypermetabolism may occur frequently, but the increase in energy expenditure rarely\\u000a exceeds 10–15%. Another hallmark of cancer is depression of both cellular

R. Imoberdorf

1997-01-01

242

Nutrition and pubertal development  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

2014-01-01

243

Nutrition and pubertal development.  

PubMed

Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

2014-11-01

244

Doorway to Nutrition: A Nutrition Education Program for the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…

Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche

245

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

246

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

247

[Nutrition and oncogeriatry].  

PubMed

In oncogeriatric patients, severe malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, nosocomial infections, radiotherapy or chemotherapy toxicities, and decreased of quality of life. Therefore, systematic screening and care of malnutrition is mandatory, in accordance with the French guidelines in 2007. Now, dietary counselling should be purposed systematically in malnourish patients and when radiotherapy or radiochemotherapy are considered. Oral supplementation by specific diet (immune-enhancing diets) should be used with cautions, and actually, reserved only in digestive neoplasms and surgery. In cases of severely malnourished patients or if dietary counselling suffers a setback, enteral nutrition should be recommended. In radiotherapy or chemotherapy, used parenteral nutrition is associated with an increase in infectious complications. Artificial nutrition should not be used when Karnofski index is lesser than 50% (or performance status greater than 2) and prognosis lesser at three months. PMID:19692281

Senesse, P

2009-10-01

248

Nutrition and the eye.  

PubMed

The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology. PMID:10662253

Congdon, N G; West, K P

1999-12-01

249

Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions. PMID:25415364

2014-01-01

250

Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... with cancer. Healthy eating habits are important during cancer treatment. Nutrition therapy is used to help cancer patients ... all the nutrients from the food. Cancer and cancer treatments may affect nutrition. For many patients, the effects ...

251

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Face-to-Face Learning EatRight Careers Member Benefits Nutrition Trends The Academy has conducted a nationwide survey ... free foods, probiotics and other foods and nutrients? Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 The 2011 survey presents ...

252

Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines. PMID:20661345

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha

2010-01-01

253

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

254

Gestational diabetes and nutritional recommendations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of medical nutrition therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are to meet the maternal and fetal nutritional\\u000a needs, as well as to achieve and maintain optimal glycemic control. Nutrition requirements during pregnancy are similar for\\u000a women with and without GDM. The American Diabetes Association and the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommend\\u000a nutrition therapy for GDM that

Erica P. Gunderson

2004-01-01

255

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

256

The Federal Government and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

Powers, Margaret A.

1980-01-01

257

Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

1 Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics Student Handbook Students accepted into Queens College must also apply for acceptance into the Nutrition and Dietetics Program. Please go to our webpage/Pages/Dietetics.aspx #12;2 Queens College Didactic Program in Dietetics DEPARTMENT and PROGRAM MISSIONS Family, Nutrition

Engel, Robert

258

Nutrition Practices of Older Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify nutrition practices of older athletes that may affect competitive performance and reflect nutrition misinformation. Statewide Senior Games participants (n=100) were surveyed on dietary practices, supplement use and sources of nutrition information. The survey instrument was previewed by an exercise physiologist and gerontology RD for content validity and pretested in a seniors exercise

A. K. Black; R. A. Glass

1998-01-01

259

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

260

Do consumers value nutritional labels?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European Union is contemplating making the provision of nutritional labels in food products mandatory. Using data collected from food shoppers, we assessed consumers' valuation of nutritional labels by analysing their willingness to pay a premium for a box of cookies with a nutritional label. On average, the mean willingness to pay (WTP) for a box of cookies with a

Maria L. Loureiro; Azucena Gracia; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2006-01-01

261

Vibrio communis sp. nov., isolated from the marine animals Mussismilia hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Eight Vibrio isolates originating from the marine corals Mussismilia hispida and Phyllogorgia dilatata and the zoanthids Palythoa caribaeorum and Palythoa variabilis in Brazil and the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Ecuador were studied by means of a polyphasic approach. The novel isolates formed a tight monophyletic group in the genus Vibrio and were closely related to species of the Vibrio harveyi group, to which they showed more than 99?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. Analysis based on concatenated sequences of the following seven genes, 16S rRNA, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB (5633 bp in length), showed clear separation between the isolates and species of the V. harveyi group. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, performed previously, revealed that a representative isolate of this group, LMG 20370, was clearly separate from known Vibrio species (it belonged to the so-called AFLP cluster A31). DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) experiments with representative isolates and type strains of the V. harveyi species group revealed high DDH between the novel isolates (more than 74?%) and less than 70?% DDH towards type strains of related Vibrio species, proving the novel species status of the isolates. Phenotypically, the novel species belongs to the arginine dihydrolase (A)-negative, lysine decarboxylase (L)-positive and ornithine decarboxylase (O)-positive (A-/L+/O+) cluster reported previously. Most species of the V. harveyi group (i.e. Vibrio rotiferianus, V. harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus) also belong to this A-/L+/O+ cluster. However, several phenotypic features can be used for the identification of the novel species. In contrast to its closest phylogenetic neighbours, the novel species exhibits esterase (C4) and N-acetyl-?-glucosaminidase activities, but it does not produce acetoin, does not use citrate, ?-ketoglutaric acid or propionic acid and does not ferment melibiose. The novel species can also be differentiated on the basis of the presence of the fatty acids C(17?:?0,) C(17?:?1)?8c, iso-C(17?:?0) and iso-C(13?:?0) and the absence of the fatty acid C(18?:?0). The name Vibrio communis sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. Strain R-40496(T) (=LMG 25430(T) =CAIM 1816(T)) is the type strain. PMID:20305064

Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Alves, Nelson; Silva, Bruno Sergio; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

2011-02-01

262

Effects of temperature, salinity, body length, and starvation on the critical swimming speed of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The critical swimming speed (U(crit), cms?¹) of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to various temperatures (17, 20, 25, and 29 °C), salinities (20, 25, 30, 35, and 40), and starvation days (1, 4, and 8d), was determined in a flume tank. Body length (5.5, 6.6, 7.3, 9.4, and 10.0 cm) was also studied in relation to the U(crit). Temperature, salinity, body length and starvation significantly affected the U(crit) of whiteleg shrimp. The U(crit) increased as temperature increased from 17 to 29 °C. The relationship between temperature (t, °C) and U(crit) can be described by the linear model as U(crit)=1.5916t+0.8892, R²=0.9992 (P<0.01). The U(crit) increased and then decreased as salinity increased from 20 to 40. The optimum salinity and the corresponding maximum U(crit) are 36.17 and 42.87 cms?¹, respectively. The relationship between salinity (s) and U(crit) can be described by the quadratic model as U(crit)=-0.0171s²+1.2371s+20.497, R²=0.7667 (P=0.234). The U(crit) increased as body length increased from 5.5 to 10.0 cm, whereas relative critical swimming speed (U(crit)', BLs?¹) decreased. The relationship between body length (l, cm) and U(crit) or U(crit)' can be described by the quadratic model as U(crit)=-0.6233l²+12.302l-20.264, R²=0.9942 (P<0.01) or U(crit)'=-0.0514l²+0.5351l+3.8132, R²=0.9862 (P<0.05). The U(crit) decreased as starvation days increased from 1 to 8d. The relationship between starvation day (d, d) and U(crit) can be described by the quadratic model as U(crit)=-0.1262d²-0.0395d +40.979, R²=1. Low temperatures and salinity and starvation can reduce the swimming speed of whiteleg shrimp. Results can be of value in evaluating the locomotive ability, understanding ecological processes, and improving the capture and stock enhancement of whiteleg shrimp. PMID:20732441

Yu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Xiumei; Duan, Yan; Zhang, Peidong; Miao, Zhenqing

2010-12-01

263

Nutrition during pregnancy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...

264

ALIMENTATION NUTRITION AND FEEDING  

E-print Network

not significantly improve the growth rate of the animals. On the other hand, naked barley improved the feed the utilization of the feed. On the other hand, naked barley is well accepted by the animal and its energy valueALIMENTATION NUTRITION AND FEEDING A. - Utilisation des céréales Utilization of cereals VALEUR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

265

Complete Intravenous Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of experimental and clinical investigations has shown that an adequate, complete intravenous (i.v.) nutrition can be provided by using an amino acid mixture, glucose or fructose, fat emulsions, electrolytes and vitamins. A brief summary of the various investigations of the necessary quantities of energy and nutrients has been given. Based on these studies, recommendations have been made

A. Wretlind

1972-01-01

266

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

267

Nutrition on match day  

Microsoft Academic Search

What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

2006-01-01

268

Nutrition and breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and breast cancer is reviewed. After several decades of study, many aspects of the role of diet in breast cancer etiology are still unclear. Results from large prospective studies do not support the concept developed from animal and ecologic evidence that dietary fat intake in mid-life is associated with breast cancer risk. Thus,

David J. Hunter; Walter C. Willett

1996-01-01

269

NUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 71 million or nearly 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years old and 19.5 million will live to see their 80th birthdays. This graying of the population has wide-ranging implications for almost every aspect of health care, including nutrition. Many factors inf...

270

Nutrition Action Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

271

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

272

Nutritive Value of Foods.  

E-print Network

.......... '.' . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Tables I Equivalents by volume and weight ....................................................... . 2 Nutritive values of the edible part of foods: Dairy products ......................................................................... 4 Eggs... shown in table 2 are the amounts present in the edible part of the item, that is, in only that portion customarily eaten- corn without cob, meat without bone, potatoes without skin, European-type grapes without seeds. If additional parts are eaten...

Anoymous,

1982-01-01

273

Nutrition in Children's Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

Smith, Nathan J.

274

Nutrition during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... work? With MyPlate, you can get a personalized nutrition and physical activity plan by using the “SuperTracker” program. This program is ... such as cups and ounces. • How can I plan healthy meals during ... Why are vitamins and minerals important in my diet? • How can I get the extra amounts of ...

275

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game health and optimal performance. Many athletes attempt to lose weight or body fat with the hope and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during

276

Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.  

PubMed

Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

2014-09-01

277

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

278

OHSU Food & Nutrition Services  

E-print Network

Community Partners OHSU Food & Nutrition Services ~ Healthy Team Healthy You ~ Partners The People of Mesas and Desserts Cactus Paddle Salad Braised Lamb with Chile New Mexico and Wild Oregano featuring America's First Nations foods prominently as our collective tradition has come to bare. HTHU

Chapman, Michael S.

279

Nutritional Patterns of Centenarians.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared dietary patterns of 165 older adults. Compared to younger cohorts, centenarians (n=24) consumed breakfast more regularly, avoided weight loss diets and large fluctuation in body weight, consumed slightly more vegetables, and relied on doctors and family for nutrition information. Centenarians were less likely to consume low-fat diets and…

Johnson, Mary Ann; And Others

1992-01-01

280

Nutrition and Athletic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a

2009-01-01

281

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

282

Nutrition for distance events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to

Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2007-01-01

283

Nutrition, growth, and cancer  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.

Tryfiates, G.P. (Dept. of Biochemistry, West Virginia Univ., Medical Center, Morgantown, WV (US))

1988-01-01

284

Nutrition Labels and Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) imposed significant changes in the information about calories and nutrients that manufacturers of packaged foods must provide to consumers. This paper tests whether the release of this information impacted body weight and obesity among American adults. We estimate the effect of the new label using a difference-in-differences method. We compare the change before

Jayachandran N. Variyam; John Cawley

2006-01-01

285

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

286

Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional persian medicine.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. PMID:25331095

Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

2015-01-01

287

Nutrition and sustainability: an emerging food policy discourse.  

PubMed

It is well known that food has a considerable environmental impact. Less attention has been given to mapping and analysing the emergence of policy responses. This paper contributes to that process. It summarises emerging policy development on nutrition and sustainability, and explores difficulties in their integration. The paper describes some policy thinking at national, European and international levels of governance. It points to the existence of particular policy hotspots such as meat and dairy, sustainable diets and waste. Understanding the environmental impact of food systems challenges nutrition science to draw upon traditions of thinking which have recently been fragmented. These perspectives (life sciences, social and environmental) are all required if policy engagement and clarification is to occur. Sustainability issues offer opportunities for nutrition science and scientists to play a more central role in the policy analysis of future food systems. The task of revising current nutrition policy advice to become sustainable diet advice needs to begin at national and international levels. PMID:23217475

Lang, Tim; Barling, David

2013-02-01

288

Workshop Report: concepts and methods in the economics of nutrition--gateways to better economic evaluation of nutrition interventions.  

PubMed

Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition. PMID:22947201

Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Nuijten, M J C; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Poley, M J; Segal, L; Bresson, J L; van Ganse, E; Jones, P; Moreno, L; Salminen, S; Dubois, D

2012-11-14

289

Nutrition in Africa.  

PubMed

Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697

Murray-lee, M

1989-07-01

290

Effect of feed levels and stocking density on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris stocked in pond cages  

E-print Network

. 8 + 7. 6 71. 1 + 9. 2 3. 5 70. 0 + 9. 3 68. 4 + 10. 0 66. 5 + 5. 8 6. 7 75. 4 + 11. 2 74. 0 + 10. 1 66. 8 + 8. 1 Final mean weight (g)h Density Feed level 0. 0B 8AB 5AB 7A 20A 6. 27 f 2. 76 5. 99 + 1. 88 5. 90 + 2. 38 6. 55 + 2. 32 40B... (unfed), 1. 8, 3. 5 and 6. 7'-o wet body weight 27 Experiment 2 treatment means for growth coefficient and biomass change of P. vannamei stocked at 20, 40 and. 60 per m2. Actual feed levels were 0, 1. 8, 3. 5 and 6. 7 0 wet body weight 28 Experiment...

Luszczynski, Jack Roman

2012-06-07

291

Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata  

E-print Network

Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata Anna Cockroach species show different degrees of maternal contribution to the developing offspring. In this study of nutritive ``Milk'' in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. This gene family is asso- ciated

Bhattacharya, Debashish

292

Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

Mukudi, E.

2003-01-01

293

THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) IN PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract: This book chapter describes the major agencies within USDA that contribute to the practice of public health nutrition; identifies the primary USDA programs that provide food assistance and nutrition education; discusses the agencies whose roles are to provide research data to support hum...

294

Nutrition support in surgical oncology.  

PubMed

This review article, the second in a series of articles to examine the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Guidelines for the Use of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition in Adult and Pediatric Patients, evaluates the evidence related to the use of nutrition support in surgical oncology patients. Cancer patients develop complex nutrition issues. Nutrition support may be indicated in malnourished cancer patients undergoing surgery, depending on individual patient characteristics. As with the first article in this series, this article provides background concerning nutrition issues in cancer patients, as well as discusses the role of nutrition support in the care of surgical cancer patients. The goal of this review is to enrich the discussion contained in the clinical guidelines as they relate to recommendations made for surgical patients, cite the primary literature more completely, and suggest updates to the guideline statements in light of subsequently published studies. PMID:19605805

Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A

2009-01-01

295

Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps. PMID:25447412

Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

2014-11-15

296

Identification of a c-Jun homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei as a downstream substrate of JNK in response to WSSV infection.  

PubMed

c-Jun, a major substrate of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), participates in regulating gene transcription in response to various stimuli, including cytokines, stress signals, bacterial and viral infection. Results from our previous studies suggested that Litopenaeus vannamei JNK (LvJNK) could be utilized by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to facilitate viral replication and gene expression. In this article, a c-Jun homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as Lvc-Jun) was cloned and its role in WSSV infection was studied. Sequence analysis displayed that Lvc-Jun was a novel homolog of c-Jun family, which contained characteristic Jun and basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domains, and two conserved serine phosphorylation sites (Ser49/59). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that Lvc-Jun mRNAs were expressed in all examined tissues. Further investigation determined that Lvc-Jun was located in the nucleus through self-interaction and its phosphorylation levels could be reduced by JNK inhibitor, suggesting that Lvc-Jun could be regulated by LvJNK through phosphorylation and function as a transcription regulator in a homodimer. During the process of WSSV infection, the transcription levels of Lvc-Jun were up-regulated associating with the raising expression and phosphorylation levels of its protein. Moreover, TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a potent inducer of c-Jun, could remarkably promote viral immediate-early gene wsv069 transcription in crayfish hemocytes. Conclusively, our results provided experimental evidences that Lvc-Jun was engaged in WSSV infection and further implied that JNK-c-Jun signaling pathway might be important for WSSV replication and viral gene expression. PMID:25530093

Yao, Defu; Ruan, Lingwei; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

2015-04-01

297

Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from digestive tract of wild shrimp on growth and survival of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.  

PubMed

Two hundred and two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from digestive tracts of cultivated and wild adult shrimp, including Litopenaeus vannamei, Metapenaeus brevicornis and Penaeus merguiensis were selected based on their antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. LAB strain of MRO3.12 exhibiting highest reduction of V. harveyi was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum MRO3.12 based on the nucleotide sequence of its 16S rDNA, which showed 99% (780/786 bp) homology to L. plantarum strain L5 (GenBank accession number DQ 239698.1). Co-cultivation of V. harveyi and L. plantarum MRO3.12 showed complete reduction of V. harveyi at 24 h under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas L. plantarum increased from 5.29 to 9.47 log CFU ml(-1). After 6-week feeding trial with L. plantarum supplemented diet, white shrimp (L. vannamei) exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in relative growth rate (% RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival compared to the control group fed with non-supplemented diet. LAB-fed group showed 98.89% survival, whereas only 68.89% survival was observed in the control group. LAB from the digestive tract of probiotic-fed shrimp showed higher level of 5.0 ± 0.14 log CFU/g than the non-supplemented ones (3.34 ± 0.21 log CFU/g). However, total bacterial and non-fermenting vibrios counts decreased in shrimps fed on L. plantarum. Ten days after infection with V. harveyi (5.3-5.5 log CFU ml(-1)), significant survival (p < 0.05) of 77% was observed in LAB supplemented shrimp, while only 67% survival was observed in the control. PMID:22126856

Kongnum, Khanitta; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

2012-01-01

298

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Brewer's Yeast and GroBiotic®-A on Growth, Immune Responses, and Low-Salinity Tolerance of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Recirculating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two separate trials were conducted in clean recirculating systems at salinities of 32.9 (optimal) and 2 ppt (low-salinity challenge) to evaluate brewer's yeast and GroBiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotic, as dietary supplements for growth and health management of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth-promoting influences of brewer's yeast or GroBiotic®-A previously observed with fish were not demonstrated in these trials

Peng Li; Xiaoxue Wang; Shivananda Murthy; Delbert M. Gatlin III; Frank L. Castille; Addison L. Lawrence

2009-01-01

299

Perioperative nutritional support.  

PubMed

The relationship between preoperative malnutrition and morbi-mortality has been documented for years. Despite the existence of tools that allow its detection, and therefore treat this entity, their introduction into clinical practice is not wide-spread. Both perioperative insulin resistance and hyperglycemia are associated with increased perioperative morbidity and length of hospital stay. The intake of carbohydrate-rich drinks 2-4h prior to surgery reduces insulin resistance. In the immediate postoperative period, the enteral route is safe and well tolerated and its early use reduces hospital stay and postoperative complications compared with parenteral nutritional support. Inmunonutrition has been proven effective to decrease postoperative complications and hospital stay. In view of these data we opted for the adoption of these measures replacing bowel rest and the indiscriminate use of postoperative parenteral nutrition. PMID:24703727

Morán López, Jesús Manuel; Piedra León, María; García Unzueta, María Teresa; Ortiz Espejo, María; Hernández González, Miriam; Morán López, Ruth; Amado Señaris, José Antonio

2014-01-01

300

Foundations of Nutrition Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

Mckay, Diane

2013-01-01

301

Nutrition Support in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older cancer patients have unique qualities related to aging that place them at nutritional risk during cancer treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Routine assessment of nutritional risk is indicated in older cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Comprehensive geriatric assessment of older cancer patients can assist with determination of which older patients can tolerate\\u000a cancer treatment with acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dietary

Elizabeth Kvale; Christine Seel Ritchie; Lodovico Balducci

302

Lactation and infant nutrition.  

PubMed

Lactation is of great importance to infant nutritional needs. It is difficult to generalize about infant growth expectations since there are variations among communities and since there may be some modification of infant feeding practices. The choice of an appropriate standard is even more difficult to estimate since they are interdependent on energy intakes. However, the balance between energy and protein content in breastmilk appears to be fairly constant through lactation and among communities. It is likely that for normally growing children exclusive breastfeeding is not likely to result in a serious mineral or nutrient deficiency. Discussion is included about measurement of breastmilk output and the various means to do so in order to calculate energy and nutrient requirements. Currently, controversy surrounds the timing of milk supplements for those infants being breastfed. A general guideline seems to be that weaning should be avoided before age 4 months in industrialized countries. The various problems which are reiterated are: growth targets, nutritional requirements, optimization of lactation, and the weanling dilemma. A rational public health target should be normal growth and the maintenance of a normal nutritional status. Nutritional requirements must be sensibly set because if the target is too high it will be dismissed as impractical; if it is too low, it will fail to meet the needs of a substantial portion of the population. It seems wise to concentrate on achieving an optimal start to lactation in the early weeks when it appears likely that the breastfeeding potential is being determined. Since normal growth in infancy is an appropriate health goal, breastfeeding should perhaps be utilized to the maximum and be backed by systematic supplementation at a time when growth would likely falter. More attention must be directed toward prevalent weaning strategies. PMID:7020870

Rowland, M G; Paul, A A; Whitehead, R G

1981-01-01

303

[Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition].  

PubMed

At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness. PMID:19593484

García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G

2009-01-01

304

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

305

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

306

Nutrition for adventure racing.  

PubMed

Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

Ranchordas, Mayur K

2012-11-01

307

Nutrition and dietary carcinogens.  

PubMed

Three major factors for human carcinogenesis are (i) cigarette smoking, (ii) infection and inflammation and (iii) nutrition and dietary factors. Nutrition and dietary factors include two categories, namely genotoxic agents and constituents including tumor promotion-associated phenomena. This article first describes the genotoxic agents as microcomponents. These are mutagens/carcinogens in cooked food, fungal products, plant and mushroom substance, and nitrite-related materials, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidative agents. Emphasis has been given to heterocyclic amines (HCAs) to which humans are continuously exposed in an ordinary lifestyle. HCAs in food are mainly produced from creatin(in)e, sugar and from amino acids in meat (upon heating). They are imidazoquinoline and imidazoquinoxaline derivatives and phenylimidazopyridine. HCAs are pluripotent in producing cancers in various organs including breast, colon and prostate. Discussion is also given to plant flavonoids which are mutagenic but not carcinogenic. As a macrocomponent, overintake of total calories, fat and sodium chloride is discussed from the viewpoint of the increase of genetic alterations in tissues and of tumor promotion-associated issues. Studies of nutrition and dietary condition will eventually lead us to cancer prevention, namely delay of onset of cancer to the late phase of human life, which is called 'natural-end cancer' (Tenju-gann). PMID:10688859

Sugimura, T

2000-03-01

308

Financial and nutrition outcomes for patients placed on enteral nutrition versus oral intake  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition support between January 1...

Barry, Kristina Marie

2002-01-01

309

CELEBRATING TWO WOMEN WHO CONTRIBUTED TO VITAMIN AND MINERAL RESEARCH: MARY SWARTZ ROSE AND HELEN T. PARSONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Celebration of the 75th anniversary of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences encourages historic reflection. It is especially fitting to honor the substantial contributions of women to nutrition research, including vitamin and mineral nutrition. Two early examples are: Mary Swartz Rose (1874-...

310

615Interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program Interfaculty Graduate  

E-print Network

615Interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program Interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program (GNP) The interfaculty Graduate Nutrition Program (GNP), leading to the MS degree in Nutrition (thesis or non of nutrition. The involvement of several faculties in this program provides students with a wide range

Shihadeh, Alan

311

Oral status and nutrition in the institutionalized elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To evaluate, in an elderly population, whether poor oral status might be a contributing factor to the development of undernutrition and might be associated with less eating pleasure, more subjective eating difficulty and increased mashed food consumption.Methods: An oral examination and an evaluation of masticatory capacity were performed on 120 institutionalized elderly subjects. The nutritional assessment included serum albumin

M Lamy; Ph Mojon; G Kalykakis; R Legrand; E Butz-Jorgensen

1999-01-01

312

DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

313

The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aging is associated with declined immunity, particularly T cell-mediated activity, which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease and cancer in the elderly. Studies have shown that nutritional intervention may be a promising approach to reversing impaired immune func...

314

The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. PMID:22016708

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Obeid, Omar

2011-01-01

315

Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies  

PubMed Central

The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure. PMID:21052526

Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O.; Drevon, Christian A.; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C.; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T.

2010-01-01

316

[Clinical nutrition in gastrointestinal diseases].  

PubMed

The association between nutrition and intestinal function is based on facts. The main function of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal diseases commonly result in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. Chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function. Parenteral and enteral nutritions are effective therapeutic modalities in several diseases. In cases of gastrointestinal malfunctions, nutrition has a direct therapeutic role. The benefit of nutrition therapy is similar to medical treatment in patients with pancreatitis, Crohn disease, hepatic failure, and in those with gastrointestinal fistulas. Nutrition has both supportive and therapeutic roles in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic gastrointestinal diseases can be reduced. Orv. Hetil., 2014, 155(51), 2034-2040. PMID:25497153

Hamvas, József

2014-12-01

317

Agriculture and nutrition in India: mapping evidence to pathways.  

PubMed

In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and assesses both the quality and coverage of the existing literature. We present a conceptual framework delineating six key pathways between agriculture and nutrition. Three pathways pertain to the nutritional impacts of farm production, farm incomes, and food prices. The other three pertain to agriculture-gender linkages. After an extensive search, we found 78 research papers that provided evidence to populate these pathways. The literature suggests that Indian agriculture has a range of important influences on nutrition. Agriculture seems to influence diets even when controlling for income, and relative food prices could partly explain observed dietary changes in recent decades. The evidence on agriculture-gender linkages to nutrition is relatively weak. Sizeable knowledge gaps remain. The root causes of these gaps include an interdisciplinary disconnect between nutrition and economics/agriculture, a related problem of inadequate survey data, and limited policy-driven experimentation. Closing these gaps is essential to strengthening the agriculture sector's contribution to reducing undernutrition. PMID:25098622

Kadiyala, Suneetha; Harris, Jody; Headey, Derek; Yosef, Sivan; Gillespie, Stuart

2014-12-01

318

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental “nutritive tissue” in carnivorous plants of\\u000a Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the “nutritive\\u000a tissue” and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key

Bartosz J. P?achno; Piotr ?wi?tek

2008-01-01

319

Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

Chen, Angela

1985-01-01

320

Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing

2007-01-01

321

Nutrition and health - transforming research traditions.  

PubMed

In this contribution, we show that current scientific methodologies used in nutrition science and by regulatory agencies, such as the randomized control trial, limit our understanding of nutrition and health as they are to crude to capture the subtle pleiotropic nature of most nutrients. Thereby, regulatory agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority curb the development of scientific knowledge and industrial innovations within the nutritional field. In order to develop insights into the health impact of certain food and food-components, we need to realize that health is adaptation set within a homeostatic range. Increased performance of health, i.e., the maximum stimulation of health, typically seems 30-60% greater than the control group, with a width of no more than about a factor of ten, clarifying the difficulty of documenting responses of food-endogenous components within the homeostatic range of healthy people. A strategy to record subtle responses of food components is the summation of procentual effects of relevant health outcomes. We illustrate this approach with the action of flavanols on vascular health, specifically endothelial function. PMID:24915340

Hanekamp, Jaap C; Bast, Aalt; Calabrese, Edward J

2015-07-01

322

Nutrition-based health in animal production.  

PubMed

Events such as BSE, foot and mouth disease and avian influenza illustrate the importance of animal health on a global basis. The only practical solution to deal with such problems has usually been mass culling of millions of animals at great effort and expense. Serious consideration needs to be given to nutrition as a practical solution for health maintenance and disease avoidance of animals raised for food. Health or disease derives from a triad of interacting factors; diet-disease agent, diet-host and disease agent-host. Various nutrients and other bioactive feed ingredients, nutricines, directly influence health by inhibiting growth of pathogens or by modulating pathogen virulence. It is possible to transform plant-based feed ingredients to produce vaccines against important diseases and these could be fed directly to animals. Nutrients and nutricines contribute to three major factors important in the diet-host interaction; maintenance of gastrointestinal integrity, support of the immune system and the modulation of oxidative stress. Nutrition-based health is the next challenge in modern animal production and will be important to maintain economic viability and also to satisfy consumer demands in terms of food quality, safety and price. This must be accomplished largely through nutritional strategies making optimum use of both nutrients and nutricines. PMID:19079877

Adams, Clifford A

2006-06-01

323

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

324

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

325

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION PRACTICUM March 14-18, 2005 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of Health

326

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

327

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

328

7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of...NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are...

2010-01-01

329

45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.  

...with disabilities. Also, the nutrition program must serve a variety...and Consumer Services Child Nutrition Programs as the primary source... (6) Medically-based diets or other dietary requirements...d) Family assistance with nutrition. Parent education...

2014-10-01

330

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2011-01-01

331

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2013-01-01

332

45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328...OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives,...

2012-10-01

333

45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328...OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives,...

2014-10-01

334

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2014-01-01

335

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2012-01-01

336

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2012-01-01

337

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2011-01-01

338

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2013-01-01

339

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2014-01-01

340

45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328...OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives,...

2013-10-01

341

45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328...OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives,...

2011-10-01

342

Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that

Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2005-01-01

343

Childhood nutrition and poverty.  

PubMed

One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the health of children. PMID:10946800

Nelson, M

2000-05-01

344

Nutrition 3: Got Broccoli?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

345

Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women  

MedlinePLUS

... and Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you ...

346

Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

347

The New Nutrition: Student's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…

Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

348

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

349

The challenges for molecular nutrition research 2: quantification of the nutritional phenotype  

PubMed Central

In quantifying the beneficial effect of dietary interventions in healthy subjects, nutrition research meets a number of new challenges. Inter individual variation in biomarker values often is larger than the effect related to the intervention. Healthy subjects have a remarkable capacity to maintain homeostasis, both through direct metabolic regulation, metabolic compensation of altered diets, and effective defence and repair mechanisms in oxidative and inflammatory stress. Processes involved in these regulatory activities essentially different from processes involved in early onset of diet related diseases. So, new concepts and approaches are needed to better quantify the subtle effects possibly achieved by dietary interventions in healthy subjects. Apart from quantification of the genotype and food intake (these are discussed in separate reviews in this series), four major areas of innovation are discussed: the biomarker profile concept, perturbation of homeostasis combined with omics analysis, imaging, modelling and fluxes. All of these areas contribute to a better understanding and quantification of the nutritional phenotype. PMID:18850187

Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Elliott, Ruan; Drevon, Christian A.; McArdle, Harry; Gibney, Mike; Müller, Michael

2008-01-01

350

Nutrition and multiple gestation.  

PubMed

Multiple pregnancy represents a state of magnified nutritional requirements, resulting in a greater nutrient drain on maternal resources and an accelerated depletion of nutritional reserves. The accelerated starvation which occurs in pregnancy is exaggerated with a multiple gestation, particularly during the second half of pregnancy, with more rapid depletion of glycogen stores and resultant metabolism of fat between meals and during an overnight fast. A reduced glucose stream from mother to fetus results in slower fetal growth, smaller birth size, as well as a higher risk of preterm labor and preterm birth. For this reason, diet therapy with a diabetic regimen of 20% of calories from protein, 40% of calories from carbohydrate, and 40% of calories from fat may be particularly useful. Iron-deficiency anemia has also been linked to preterm delivery and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mobilization of maternal iron stores, in addition to an adequate amount and pattern of gestational weight gain (including BMI-specific weight gain goals by 20 and 28 weeks gestation), has been associated with significantly better fetal growth and longer gestations in twin pregnancies. Supplementation with calcium, magnesium, and zinc, as well as multivitamins and essential fatty acids may also reduce pregnancy complications and improve postnatal health for infants born from a multiple gestation. Diet therapy for women pregnant with multiples is an important component of effective prenatal care. PMID:16360494

Luke, Barbara

2005-10-01

351

Nutrition inequities in Canada.  

PubMed

In Canada, increased morbidity and shorter life expectancy have been found among those with lower incomes and lower levels of education, but there has been little examination of socioeconomic variation in food and nutrient intake. Using data from the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey, we examined the relationship between household income and education level and adults' and children's intakes of energy, fibre, micronutrients, and number of servings consumed of food groups from Canada's Food Guide. To explore the public health significance of observed associations, we estimated the prevalence of inadequacy for selected nutrients for adults, stratifying by household income, education level, and sex. We found that a higher household income adequacy and (or) higher levels of education were associated with increased consumption of milk and alternatives, and vegetables and fruit, and significantly higher vitamin, mineral, and fibre intakes among both adults and children. The prevalence of inadequate nutrient intakes among adults was higher among adults with the lowest level of income adequacy or educational attainment, compared with others. Our results suggest that the nutritional quality of Canadians' food intakes is, in part, a function of their social position. The impact of policy and program interventions needs to be examined across socioeconomic strata to ensure that actions reduce rather than exacerbate nutrition inequities. PMID:20383227

Tarasuk, Valerie; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Ward, Heather

2010-04-01

352

Valorisation nutritive d'un grignon d'olive trait la soude. Utilisation digestive des constituants des parois cellulaires  

E-print Network

Valorisation nutritive d'un grignon d'olive traité à la soude. Utilisation digestive des'utilisation digestive et la contribution des constituants des parois cellulaires à la valeur nutritive d'un grignon d'olive décrit l'effet du traitement à la soude sur la valeur nutritive du grignon d'olive et nous avons aussi

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

Isolation of a putative probiotic strain S12 and its effect on growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease-resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The common pathogens in aquaculture are very different from those in terrestrial animals. The objective of this study was to isolate probiotic strain (s) from the digestive tract of healthy white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which was effective against aquatic animal pathogens. The putative probiotic strain S12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed with five different diets: control (basal diet with no probiotics or antibiotics), antibiotic control (basal diet supplemented with 0.3% florfenicol), basal diet supplemented with 5 × 10(9) cfu kg(-1) , 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) and 5 × 10(11) cfu kg(-1) probiotic S12 (PS1-3). Each diet was randomly fed to quadruplication groups of 40 shrimps (0.4 ± 0.01 g) reared in tanks. After an 8-week feeding, the survival rate of shrimps fed with PS1 and PS3 were the highest among all treatments (P < 0.05). The moisture content of shrimps fed with florfenicol was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The supplement of probiotic S12 decreased the body crude lipid significantly (P < 0.05). The activities of phagocytic rate, lysozyme (LZ), superoxide dismutase phenoloxidase (SOD) and antibacterial activity were significantly higher than those in the control (P < 0.05), and the activities of SOD and the antibacterial activity in PS2 and PS3 were significantly higher than those in antibiotic control (P < 0.05). When infected with Vibrio harveyi at 4-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PS2 and PS3 groups than that in the control. After being infected with V. harveyi at 8-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower in the probiotic and antibiotic groups than that in the control (P < 0.05). This study suggested that probiotics could be used as an effective immunopotentiator, the optimal dose of the probiotic strain S12 is 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) diet. PMID:25218684

Liu, Hongyu; Li, Zheng; Tan, Beiping; Lao, Ye; Duan, Zhiyong; Sun, Wuwei; Dong, Xiaohui

2014-12-01

354

Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

2000-01-01

355

Rethinking the Restriction on Nutrition During Hemodialysis Treatment.  

PubMed

The annual mortality rate for patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) treatment in the United States is 20%, a rate higher than most other countries in the world. Poor nutrition status in MHD patients contributes to this adverse outcome as well as poor quality of life. Providing oral nutrition to MHD patients, especially during hemodialysis (HD) treatment has many potential benefits including improvements in nutrition status and attenuating HD-related muscle wasting. However, this practice is generally restricted in the United States presumably because of concerns that include worsening hemodynamic instability, reductions in treatment efficiency, and increased gastrointestinal symptoms. Despite widespread restrictions, few studies have adequately examined the effect of eating during HD on these outcomes, leaving many questions unanswered. This review outlines the current evidence regarding the effects of feeding during HD and provides potential future directions to outline the best practices in this controversial area. PMID:25443693

Kistler, Brandon M; Fitschen, Peter J; Ikizler, T Alp; Wilund, Kenneth R

2014-10-18

356

Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

Dufour, P. A.

1984-01-01

357

The role of agriculture in the nutrition of children.  

PubMed

Data from across the developing world show consistently that a fundamental cause of poor nutrition is low agricultural productivity and consequent low incomes, especially amongst poor rural households. Conventionally, technical solutions have been sought to contribute to greater household food security, and thus better childhood nutrition. A more holistic approach is required. This paper draws from field examples, mainly in southern and east Africa, to illustrate the implementation and effectiveness of what is termed a 'green evolution' approach which emphasizes the efficient use of available resources of land, labour and inputs, thus allowing food to be sold profitably at low prices. With low food prices, the poor can use their limited funds to invest in better housing, education and health care. This is achieved through building thoughtful, farmer demand-led initiatives, backed by high quality science to deliver widespread improvements in nutrition for the poor. PMID:25309997

Blackie, Malcolm

2014-11-01

358

Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8). Testosterone. Documented that blood concentrations of testosterone were unchanged during flight, but a transient decline occurred after landing (9). Calcium. Nutrition SMO data contributed to the ISS Program by helping understand how and why the Urine Processor Assembly clogged with calcium sulfate precipitate (10). Sample Processing. Ground-based analytical testing results have also been published (11).

Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

2014-01-01

359

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

360

Nutritional factors and thalassaemia major.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal growth is a common feature of thalassaemia major in children. In an attempt to determine whether it has a nutritional cause, 12 children aged 1 to 3 years with thalassaemia major were studied under metabolic ward conditions. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry and biochemistry before and after an intensive nutrition regimen. Five children had wasting or stunting on admission. As a result of the nutrition intervention, mean weight for height improved significantly. The mean height increase of 0.4 cm after one month was not significant. Plasma zinc, depressed in half the children on admission, improved, as did alpha tocopherol, while copper decreased. Plasma insulin-like growth factor-I also increased commensurate with improved growth. Fat absorption was normal in all children. Undernutrition is an important cause of associated growth disturbances in children with thalassaemia major. Malnutrition was primarily caused by inadequate nutrient intake, as indicated by the capacity to gain weight appropriately when provided with nutrition support, and by the absence of intestinal malabsorption. While long term studies are required to determine if nutritional support will prevent stunting, these results underscore its central role in preventing nutritional deficiencies and in promoting normal growth in thalassaemic children. PMID:8787427

Fuchs, G J; Tienboon, P; Linpisarn, S; Nimsakul, S; Leelapat, P; Tovanabutra, S; Tubtong, V; DeWier, M; Suskind, R M

1996-01-01

361

[Enteral nutrition in cancer patients].  

PubMed

The significance of nutritional management in patients with malignant tumors is under-recognized due to the lack of clear evidence of a direct link with survival rate. However, for cancer patients, with markedly reduced food intake continuing for?7 days or intake of under 60% of estimated energy expenditure for?10 days, as referred to in the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, rapid implementation of nutritional support constitutes a clinically appropriate intervention. With regard to route of administration, as with other conditions, enteral nutritional management is recommended if the gastrointestinal tract is available. The utility of enteral immunonutrition formulae containing eicosapentaenoic acid and other forms of nutritional management has also recently been reported and further studies are anticipated. However, the principles of nutritional management for cancer patients comprise not simply weight increase or improvement in nutritional markers but the maintenance of patient QOL in ways that include alleviation of symptoms and antitumor therapy side-effects, and decreased risk of infection. Administration routes such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy should therefore also be discussed from this perspective. PMID:25335700

Suzuki, Yutaka

2014-10-01

362

Strength and weakness of a nutrition communication strategy to health opinion formers: examples from a case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The nutritional image of diary products is challenged by the fact that milk fat contributes to a high intake of saturated fatty acids. On the other hand milk is promoted as an important source of calcium and other important micronutrients. In order to balance the debate on the nutritional value of milk Danish Dairy Board in 1991 initiated a

U Hølund

1999-01-01

363

Metabolomic differentiation of nutritional stress in an aquatic invertebrate.  

PubMed

Abstract Poor diet quality frequently constrains the growth and reproduction of primary consumers, altering their population dynamics, interactions in food webs, and contributions to ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. The identification and measurement of an animal's nutritional state are thus central to studying the connections between diet and animal ecology. Here we show how the nutritional state of a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna, can be determined by analyzing its endogenous metabolites using hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. With a multivariate analysis, we observed the differentiation of the metabolite composition of animals grown under control conditions (good food and no environmental stress), raised on different diets (low quantity, nitrogen limited, and phosphorus limited), and exposed to two common environmental stressors (bacterial infection and salt stress). We identified 18 metabolites that were significantly different between control animals and at least one limiting food type or environmental stressor. The unique metabolite responses of animals caused by inadequate nutrition and environmental stress are reflective of dramatic and distinctive effects that each stressor has on animal metabolism. Our results suggest that dietary-specific induced changes in metabolite composition of animal consumers hold considerable promise as indicators of nutritional stress and will be invaluable to future studies of animal nutrition. PMID:25590592

Wagner, Nicole D; Lankadurai, Brian P; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, Andre J; Frost, Paul C

2015-01-01

364

Effective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

of the action of biologically active components of food and their role in maintaining human health. NutritionEffective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Contact: Dr. Cathy English Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (http

Rhode Island, University of

365

Go Abroad in Nutrition and Exercise and  

E-print Network

Go Abroad in Nutrition and Exercise and Sport Science (EXSS) Nutrition and EXSS have many students. Employers in fields related to Nutrition and EXSS, including sports medicine, future leadership, allied experience that will work for almost every Nutrition and EXSS student. INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCES CAN HELPYOU

Escher, Christine

366

College of Health Sciences CNU Clinical Nutrition  

E-print Network

College of Health Sciences CNU Clinical Nutrition KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 #CNU 400 NUTRITION FOR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY 503 NUTRITION FOR THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS: MEDICAL NUTRITION THERAPY. (1) An interdisciplinary approach

MacAdam, Keith

367

Nutrition students enhance school health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the Nutrition Education Students and Teachers (NEST) project was to develop a model of collaboration between University of Delaware dietetics students and elementary teachers to promote nutrition education in the classroom. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Junior and senior level students in a nutrition education course developed nutrition lessons with input from the school teachers on using age-

Nancy Cotugna; Connie E. Vickery

2005-01-01

368

Portrayals of Nutritional Practices and Exercise Behavior  

E-print Network

), Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section, to improve nutrition and physical activity behaviors related to address the complex issues in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer prevention. The CenterMay 2003 Portrayals of Nutritional Practices and Exercise Behavior In Popular American Films, 1991

Nguyen, Danh

369

Do nutrition labels improve dietary outcomes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The disclosure of nutritional characteristics of most packaged foods became mandatory in the United States with the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) in 1994. Under the NLEA regulations, a 'Nutrition Facts' panel displays information on nutrients such as calories, total and saturated fats, cholesterol, and sodium in a standardized format. By providing nutrition information in a

Jayachandran N. Variyam

2008-01-01

370

French consumers' use of nutrition labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To survey consumers living in Paris, France, to determine the extent to which they use nutrition labels, and to determine the percentage of French consumers who use nutrition labels, how often they use nutrition labels, and how they would like to see current nutrition labels improved. The researchers also wanted to determine the reasons why consumers do not

Ashley Mannell; Patricia Brevard; Jr Rodolfo Nayga; Pierre Combris; Robert Lee; Janet Gloeckner

2006-01-01

371

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue.  

PubMed

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental "nutritive tissue" in carnivorous plants of Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the "nutritive tissue" and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key role in the nutrition of the female gametophyte. To date, however, the structure of this tissue has received only scant attention. To fill this knowledge gap, we have characterized its anatomy and histochemistry in more detail and addressed the speculations of a number of earlier researchers. Nutritive tissue during the period of flower opening in three Utricularia species, each belonging to different sections and subgenera (Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria and Utricularia), was examined by light and, in particular, electron microscopy. In all of the investigated species, nutritive tissue cells differ from placental parenchyma cells in having no huge vacuole, no large amyloplasts with starch grains, and no protein inclusions in the nucleus. The funicular nutritive tissue in U. dichotoma consists of active cells with a secretory character, while U. sandersonii has a small placental nutritive tissue consisting of colenchymatous cells accumulating lipids. The most complex nutritive tissue occurs in aquatic U. intermedia, which occupies a derived position in the genus phylogeny. In this latter species, the cells of this tissue resemble meristematic cells in having a relatively large nucleus, thin cell walls, and reduced vacuoles, but the well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in some cells is similar to that in secretory cells. The cytoplasm is rich in microtubules, some of which are in close contact with the ER cisternae. We found very thick cell walls between nutritive tissue cells and parenchyma cells, but plasmodesmata between these types of cells are rare. Similarities in both the position and structure of nutritive tissue in Polypompholyx and section Pleiochasia support their classification together in one subgenus, based on results from a molecular study. The position and structure of the nutritive tissue in Utricularia spp. are related to the position of various species in the genus phylogeny. PMID:18802663

P?achno, Bartosz J; Swiatek, Piotr

2008-12-01

372

Nutritional Supplements in Canine Dermatoses  

PubMed Central

Nutritionally-related dermatoses of dogs have received considerable attention in the veterinary community in the past few years and most of this attention has centered on the role of vitamin E, vitamin A, zinc, and the essential fatty acids. Nutritional supplements for dogs abound in the marketplace yet few actually meet the requirements of a pet with a skin problem. Many more are not formulated strictly for dermatological cases but rather as general supplements to augment the nutritional needs of pets. The potential actions of these different nutrients are discussed and comparisons made of the different commercial supplements. PMID:17422880

Ackerman, Lowell

1987-01-01

373

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2014­2015 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

374

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2013­2014 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

375

Meeting Healthy People 2000 Nutrition Title: Objectives Through A Nutrition Education Seminar For Elementary School Teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthy People 2000 and the Strategic Plan for Nutrition Education: Promoting Healthy Habits for our Children both place high priority on nutrition education to be provided through a comprehensive school health curriculum grades K-8. To provide accurate nutrition education in the classroom, teachers must have a means of acquiring nutrition knowledge. The purpose of this study, funded by Missouri Nutrition

G. A. Syler; Marcia Nahikian-Nelms

1995-01-01

376

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B.S., and; Addiction

Raina, Ramesh

377

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Studies and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B

Raina, Ramesh

378

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition and Nutrition offers academic programs in: Child and Family Health in the Global Community, M.S.; Food Studies, B.S.; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B.S.; Addiction Studies

Raina, Ramesh

379

Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection.

Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

2014-01-01

380

A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (P?;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (P?;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

2004-10-01

381

Crystallographic studies evidencing the high energy tolerance to disrupting the interface disulfide bond of thioredoxin 1 from white leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin (Trx) is a small 12-kDa redox protein that catalyzes the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins from different biological systems. A recent study of the crystal structure of white leg shrimp thioredoxin 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) revealed a dimeric form of the protein mediated by a covalent link through a disulfide bond between Cys73 from each monomer. In the present study, X-ray-induced damage in the catalytic and the interface disulfide bond of LvTrx was studied at atomic resolution at different transmission energies of 8% and 27%, 12.8 keV at 100 K in the beamline I-24 at Diamond Light Source. We found that at an absorbed dose of 32 MGy, the X-ray induces the cleavage of the disulfide bond of each catalytic site; however, the interface disulfide bond was cleaved at an X-ray adsorbed dose of 85 MGy; despite being the most solvent-exposed disulfide bond in LvTrx (~50 Å2). This result clearly established that the interface disulfide bond is very stable and, therefore, less susceptible to being reduced by X-rays. In fact, these studies open the possibility of the existence in solution of a dimeric LvTrx. PMID:25517346

Campos-Acevedo, Adam A; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

2014-01-01

382

N-acyl homoserine lactone-degrading microbial enrichment cultures isolated from Penaeus vannamei shrimp gut and their probiotic properties in Brachionus plicatilis cultures.  

PubMed

Three bacterial enrichment cultures (ECs) were isolated from the digestive tract of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, by growing the shrimp microbial communities in a mixture of N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) molecules. The ECs, characterized by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and subsequent rRNA sequencing, degraded AHL molecules in the degradation assays. Apparently, the resting cells of the ECs also degraded one of the three types of quorum-sensing signal molecules produced by Vibrio harveyi in vitro [i.e. harveyi autoinducer 1 (HAI-1)]. The most efficient AHL-degrading ECs, EC5, was tested in Brachionus experiments. EC5 degraded the V. harveyi HAI-1 autoinducer in vivo, neutralizing the negative effect of V. harveyi autoinducer 2 (AI-2) mutant, in which only the HAI-1- and CAI-1-mediated components of the quorum-sensing system are functional on the growth of Brachionus. This suggests that EC5 interferes with HAI-1-regulated metabolism in V. harveyi. These AHL-degrading ECs need to be tested in other aquatic systems for their probiotic properties, preferably in combination with specific AI-2-degrading bacteria. PMID:17784866

Tinh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Asanka Gunasekara, R A Y S; Boon, Nico; Dierckens, Kristof; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Bossier, Peter

2007-10-01

383

Sequence-optimized and targeted double-stranded RNA as a therapeutic antiviral treatment against infectious myonecrosis virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a significant and emerging pathogen that has a tremendous impact on the culture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. IMNV first emerged in Brazil in 2002 and subsequently spread to Indonesia, causing large economic losses in both countries. No existing therapeutic treatments or effective interventions currently exist for IMNV. RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective technique for preventing viral disease in shrimp. Here, we describe the efficacy of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) applied as an antiviral therapeutic following virus challenge. The antiviral molecule is an optimized dsRNA construct that targets an IMNV sequence at the 5' end of the genome and that showed outstanding antiviral protection previously when administered prior to infection. At least 50% survival is observed with a low dose of dsRNA administered 48 h post-infection with a lethal dose of IMNV; this degree of protection was not observed when dsRNA was administered 72 h post-infection. Additionally, administration of the dsRNA antiviral resulted in a significant reduction of the viral load in the muscle of shrimp that died from disease or survived until termination of the present study, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. These data indicate that this optimized RNAi antiviral molecule holds promise for use as an antiviral therapeutic against IMNV. PMID:23836770

Loy, J Dustin; Loy, Duan S; Mogler, Mark A; Janke, Bruce; Kamrud, Kurt; Harris, D L Hank; Bartholomay, Lyric C

2013-07-01

384

Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. PMID:23522578

Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

2013-04-01

385

Nutrition and Nutritional Supplements to Promote Brain Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a New scientific evidence strongly suggests that a variety of nutritional strategies can promote brain health and slow the course\\u000a of Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Improving nutrition is, thus, a critical component of any comprehensive\\u000a strategy to slow the course of ADRD. This chapter presents recommendations designed to meet this objective. Specific goals\\u000a are to consume a balanced diet

Abhilash K. Desai; Joy Rush; Lakshmi Naveen; Papan Thaipisuttikul

386

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. PMID:24439821

Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine

2014-02-01

387

Nutrition and health in honey bees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate nutrition supports the development of healthy honey bee colonies. We give an overview of the nutritional demands\\u000a of honey bee workers at three levels: (1) colony nutrition with the possibility of supplementation of carbohydrates and proteins;\\u000a (2) adult nutrition and (3) larval nutrition. Larvae are especially dependant on protein and brood production is strongly\\u000a affected by shortages of this

Robert Brodschneider; Karl Crailsheim

2010-01-01

388

Nutrition: What Your Body Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-12-23

389

Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration  

Cancer.gov

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

390

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Is It to You? What Do You Hear? Archive View presentations and media releases from the Academy's ... opinion survey, Nutrition and You: Trends 2008. View Archive » QUICK LINKS Join Academy Shop KidsEatright FNCE Food & ...

391

Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

Reber, Robert J.

1991-01-01

392

Curriculum Guidelines foe Dental Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The American Association of Dental Schools' curriculum guidelines for dental nutrition include an overview of the curriculum, primary educational objectives, suggested prerequisites, a core content outline, and suggestions for sequencing and faculty qualifications. (MSE)

Journal of Dental Education, 1989

1989-01-01

393

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities NIH Research Training & Research Career Development http://grants.nih.gov/training/index.htm Research and training opportunities at NIH, range from summer programs for high school students through employment

394

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

395

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

396

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

397

Nutritional Analysis of Thomazeau, Haiti  

E-print Network

- such as earthquakes, floods, famines, and warfare ? is at risk. Yet, once first responders have come and gone, the misconception that order and health has been restored may exist, even though long-term assessment has not taken place. Similarly, nutrition... supplement programs, whether short-term or long-term, have lacked the proper process and outcome evaluations needed to understand their effectiveness. Using physical growth and nutrition data gathered by a mobile medical team since the 2010 earthquake...

Vanderpool, John Mark

2013-02-04

398

78 FR 20411 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program AGENCY: Food...for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs will...Act to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal...

2013-04-05

399

Emerging technologies and perspectives for nutrition research in European Union 7th Framework Programme.  

PubMed

Nutrition trends in Europe are driven by taste, health and convenience. The possibilities of research using new technologies and tools such as nutrigenomics, imaging techniques, nanotechnology, bioinformatics, cognitive sciences, innovative processes are very promising to support these nutrition trends and in particular their health aspects. This is supported by European Union research. The opportunities offered in the 7th Framework Programme (FP7), among other innovations, will contribute to the general aim of improving nutrition policy as well as improving products from the food industry in accordance with the Lisbon strategy to create employment and improve the quality of life of the European citizens. PMID:19937440

de Froidmont-Görtz, Isabelle B M

2009-12-01

400

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

401

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

2011-04-22

402

Nutritional aspects of selenium  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

Choe, M.

1987-01-01

403

From the imperial to the empty calorie: how nutrition relations underpin food regime transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article works in a recursive manner by using the tools of a food regime approach to reinterpret the nutrition transition\\u000a that has been underway internationally for 100 years, and then describing the contributions of nutrition science to the 1st\\u000a and 2nd Food Regimes and the passages between Food Regimes. The resulting history—from the ‘imperial calorie’ through the\\u000a ‘protective’ vitamin to

Jane Dixon

2009-01-01

404

Cancer: disease and nutrition are key determinants of patients’ quality of life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goals of workThe aims of this study were (1) to evaluate quality of life (QoL), nutritional status and dietary intake taking into account the stage of disease and therapeutic interventions, (2) to determine potential interrelationships, and (3) to quantify the relative contributions of the cancer, nutrition and treatments on QoL.Patients and methodsIn this prospective cross-sectional study conducted in 271 head

Paula Ravasco; Isabel Monteiro-Grillo; PedroMarques Vidal; Maria E. Camilo

2004-01-01

405

Nutritional analysis of a fiesta on Guam  

PubMed Central

Fiestas in Guam are celebrated year round, but documentation of the preparation and nutritional components of foods served at a traditional fiesta on Guam is limited. Food preparation was observed during a fiesta celebrated in the village of Sinajana, Guam. A food scale was used to weigh the ingredients of food dishes. Nutritional analysis software was used to determine the nutrient content of each food dish served. Of the thirty-four dishes that were prepared and served, 32 dishes were analyzed. These dishes comprised 609,210 kcal, 38,761 g protein, 42,883 g carbohydrates, 30,260 g total fat, 10,019 g saturated fat, and 1890 g dietary fiber. More than 95% of the food prepared was potentially consumed. Of the food potentially consumed, 24% of the energy was from protein, 29% of the energy was from carbohydrates, 45% of the energy was from total fat, and 15% of the energy was from saturated fat. Of the top 10 foods contributing the most energy, 8 were totche (fish and meat) dishes. The nutrient availability for fiesta-goers was estimated. The assessment of fiesta nutrient intake is recommended for future research. PMID:19756167

Paulino, Yvette C.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Aguon, Charissa M.

2009-01-01

406

Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.  

PubMed

Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. PMID:24898226

Leitzmann, Claus

2014-06-01

407

Nutritional Rickets in Turkey  

PubMed Central

Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. Recent evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency during infancy may predispose a patient to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, cancer, multiple sclerosis, etc. The factors responsible for the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in developing countries and its resurgence in developed countries include the following: limited sunshine exposure as individuals spend more time indoors watching television and working on computers or intentional sunshine avoidance for skin cancer prevention. Traditional clothing (covered dress) further limits the exposure to sunshine and thus decreases the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D. In Turkey, maternal vitamin D deficiency and breast feeding without supplementation are the most prominent reasons. The diagnosis of NR is established with a thorough history and physical examination and confirmed by laboratory evaluation. In conclusion, recent literature has drawn attention to the supplemental doses of vitamin D required to achieve a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of at least 20 ng/ml (50 nmol/l), the serum concentration that is needed to optimize absorption of dietary calcium, suppress excess secretion of parathyroid hormone, and reduce fracture risk as well as prevent long-term negative effects.

Ozkan, Behzat

2010-01-01

408

Nutrition and age-related eye diseases: The Alienor (Antioxydants, lipides essentiels, nutrition et maladies oculaires) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Worldwide, degenerative eye diseases (age-related maculopathy (ARM), cataract, glaucoma) are the main causes of visual impairment\\u000a and blindness, which contribute to disability in the elderly. Mainly three types of nutritional factors are investigated for\\u000a their potential protection against eye ageing: antioxidants; lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids which accumulate specifically\\u000a in the eye); omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Few epidemiological studies have

Cécile Delcourt; J.-F. Korobelnik; P. Barberger-Gateau; M.-N. Delyfer; M.-B. Rougier; M. Le Goff; F. Malet; J. Colin; J.-F. Dartigues

2010-01-01

409

New concepts in pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

The ultimate goal of feeding puppies and kittens is to ensure a healthy adult. The specific objectives, however, are to optimize growth, minimize risk factors for disease, and achieve optimal health and longevity. Minimum nutrient requirements are easiest to determine in growing animals using growth rates as the nutritional marker. These levels ensure a minimum level of good health in most animals. Nevertheless, the optimal nutrient levels for growth may not represent the optimal levels for other physiologic functions (e.g., immune function, disease prevention, behavior). Nutritional requirements for growing animals are being redefined using physiologic parameters other than growth rate. The most common causes of malnutrition in the neonate seem to be protein-energy deficiency or overnutrition in the perinatal period. Single micronutrient abnormalities are relatively uncommon. Nevertheless, the nutritional status during neonatal development is known to affect genetic expression and to have a lifelong impact. It is thus important to tailor the nutritional plan to the individual at each life stage and to remember that pediatric nutrition should start before conception. PMID:11265497

Kirk, C A

2001-03-01

410

In vivo titration of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei by intramuscular and oral routes.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a devastating pathogen in shrimp aquaculture. Standardized challenge procedures using a known amount of infectious virus would assist in evaluating strategies to reduce its impact. In this study, the shrimp infectious dose 50% endpoint (SID50 ml(-1)) of a Thai isolate of WSSV was determined by intramuscular inoculation (i.m.) in 60 and 135 d old specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) and 1-step polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Also, the lethal dose 50% endpoint (LD50 ml(-1)) was determined from the proportion of dead shrimp. The median virus infection titers in 60 and 135 d old juveniles were 10(6.8) and 10(6.5) SID50 ml(-1), respectively. These titers were not significantly different (p > or = 0.05). The titration of the WSSV stock by oral intubation in 80 d old juveniles resulted in approximately 10-fold reduction in virus titer compared to i.m. inoculation. This lower titer is probably the result of physical and chemical barriers in the digestive tract of shrimp that hinder WSSV infectivity. The titers determined by infection were identical to the titers determined by mortality in all experiments using both i.m. and oral routes at 120 h post inoculation (hpi), indicating that every infected shrimp died. The determination of WSSV titers for dilutions administered by i.m. and oral routes constitutes the first step towards the standardization of challenge procedures to evaluate strategies to reduce WSSV infection. PMID:16231643

Escobedo-Bonilla, C M; Wille, M; Sanz, V Alday; Sorgeloos, P; Pensaert, M B; Nauwynck, H J

2005-09-01

411

Effective RNA-silencing strategy of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 gene and its effects on the growth in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Myostatin (MSTN), also known as GDF8, is a member of the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily and plays an important role in muscle growth, development, and differentiation. Recently, Lv-MSTN/GDF11, the primitive isoform of MSTN and GDF11, was identified from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The major production site for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 is in the heart, not the tail muscle, which differs from MSTNs in mammals. Among the three injected RNAs, long dsRNA was the most effective for Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown and transcripts of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 decreased in both the heart (88.85%) and skeletal muscles (43.36%) 72h after injection of 10pmol of long dsRNA. We also found that higher doses of dsRNA did not lead to greater decreases in Lv-MSTN/GDF11 transcripts for amounts between 1pmol and 100pmol. Injection of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 dsRNA did not affect the upregulation of the skeletal actin gene (Lv-ACTINSK) in the tail muscle, but the expression of cytoplasmic and cardiac actins were upregulated in both the heart and tail muscle. Over the course of 8weeks of dsRNA injection, considerably higher mortality (~71%) was seen in the dsRNA-injected group compared to the control group (40%). Surviving shrimp in the dsRNA injected group had a lower growth rate due to the adverse effects of Lv-MSTN/GDF11 knockdown. Lv-MSTN/GDF11 appears to be involved in muscular or neuronal development, but not in doubling muscle fibers, as is the case with mammalian MSTN. PMID:25246367

Lee, Ji-Hyun; Momani, Jalal; Kim, Young Mog; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Baek, Hae-Ja; Kim, Hyun-Woo

2015-01-01

412

Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12?kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100?K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00?Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88?Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5?(4), b = 57.5?(4), c = 118.1?(8)?Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (VM) of 2.31?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a hydrogen bond between the side chain of Asp60 of each monomer and several hydrophobic interactions, with a noncrystallographic twofold axis. PMID:23695560

Campos-Acevedo, Adam A; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

2013-05-01

413

Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the growth performance, digestive enzymes, immune gene expression and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of two probiotic Bacillus subtilis strains on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune gene expression and disease resistance of juvenile white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A mixture of two probiotic strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU g(-1) feed to shrimp for eight weeks. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain and digestive enzyme activity were significantly greater in shrimp fed BM5 and BM8 diets. Significant differences for specific growth rate (SGR) and survival were recorded in shrimp fed BM8 diet as compared with the control; however, no significant differences were recorded for food conversion ratio (FCR) among all the experimental groups. Eight weeks after the start of the feeding period, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 63.3%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 20.0% with BM8 and 33.3% with BM5. Subsequently, real-time PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was significantly up-regulated (P < 0.05) in the shrimp fed BM5 and BM8 diets compared to the control group. These findings demonstrate that administration of B. subtilis strains, L10 and G1, can improve growth performance and disease resistance through an enhanced immune response in shrimp. PMID:22659618

Zokaeifar, Hadi; Balcázar, José Luis; Saad, Che Roos; Kamarudin, Mohd Salleh; Sijam, Kamaruzaman; Arshad, Aziz; Nejat, Naghmeh

2012-10-01

414

What can I do with this major? CLINICAL NUTRITION  

E-print Network

STRATEGIES What can I do with this major? EMPLOYERS NUTRITION CLINICAL NUTRITION Practice Includes are required for specialties such as pediatrics, renal, or oncology. COMMUNITY AND PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION) EMPLOYERSAREAS STRATEGIES FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Clinical Dietetics Nutrition Education and Teaching Administration

New Hampshire, University of

415

9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2012-01-01

416

9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2011-01-01

417

9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2013-01-01

418

9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2011-01-01

419

9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2012-01-01

420

9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2014-01-01

421

9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2014-01-01

422

9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

2013-01-01

423

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

424

Food-Pharma Convergence in Medical Nutrition– Best of Both Worlds?  

PubMed Central

At present, industries within the health and life science sector are moving towards one another resulting in new industries such as the medical nutrition industry. Medical nutrition products are specific nutritional compositions for intervention in disease progression and symptom alleviation. Industry convergence, described as the blurring of boundaries between industries, plays a crucial role in the shaping of new markets and industries. Assuming that the medical nutrition industry has emerged from the convergence between the food and pharma industries, it is crucial to research how and which distinct industry domains have contributed to establish this relatively new industry. The first two stages of industry convergence (knowledge diffusion and consolidation) are measured by means of patent analysis. First, the extent of knowledge diffusion within the medical nutrition industry is graphed in a patent citation interrelations network. Subsequently the consolidation based on technological convergence is determined by means of patent co-classification. Furthermore, the medical nutrition core domain and technology interrelations are measured by means of a cross impact analysis. This study proves that the medical nutrition industry is a result of food and pharma convergence. It is therefore crucial for medical nutrition companies to effectively monitor technological developments within as well as across industry boundaries. This study further reveals that although the medical nutrition industry’s core technology domain is food, technological development is mainly driven by pharmaceutical/pharmacological technologies Additionally, the results indicate that the industry has surpassed the knowledge diffusion stage of convergence, and is currently in the consolidation phase of industry convergence. Nevertheless, while the medical nutrition can be classified as an industry in an advanced phase of convergence, one cannot predict that the pharma and food industry segments will completely converge or whether the medical industry will become an individual successful industry. PMID:24358214

Weenen, Tamar C.; Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S.; Commandeur, Harry; Claassen, Eric

2013-01-01

425

Food-pharma convergence in medical nutrition- best of both worlds?  

PubMed

At present, industries within the health and life science sector are moving towards one another resulting in new industries such as the medical nutrition industry. Medical nutrition products are specific nutritional compositions for intervention in disease progression and symptom alleviation. Industry convergence, described as the blurring of boundaries between industries, plays a crucial role in the shaping of new markets and industries. Assuming that the medical nutrition industry has emerged from the convergence between the food and pharma industries, it is crucial to research how and which distinct industry domains have contributed to establish this relatively new industry. The first two stages of industry convergence (knowledge diffusion and consolidation) are measured by means of patent analysis. First, the extent of knowledge diffusion within the medical nutrition industry is graphed in a patent citation interrelations network. Subsequently the consolidation based on technological convergence is determined by means of patent co-classification. Furthermore, the medical nutrition core domain and technology interrelations are measured by means of a cross impact analysis. This study proves that the medical nutrition industry is a result of food and pharma convergence. It is therefore crucial for medical nutrition companies to effectively monitor technological developments within as well as across industry boundaries. This study further reveals that although the medical nutrition industry's core technology domain is food, technological development is mainly driven by pharmaceutical/pharmacological technologies Additionally, the results indicate that the industry has surpassed the knowledge diffusion stage of convergence, and is currently in the consolidation phase of industry convergence. Nevertheless, while the medical nutrition can be classified as an industry in an advanced phase of convergence, one cannot predict that the pharma and food industry segments will completely converge or whether the medical industry will become an individual successful industry. PMID:24358214

Weenen, Tamar C; Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S; Commandeur, Harry; Claassen, Eric

2013-01-01

426

Estimates of Elderly at Nutritional Risk from the DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist: The 1994 Northeast Florida Nutrition Screening Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined associations among the nutritional risks, the risk levels, and the ages of independently living elderly. The Checklist of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) was administered to a purposive sample of 1004 Northeast Florida elderly to estimate an age-profile at risk for malnutrition. Checklist nutritional scores (cumulative of ten risks) were grouped into risk levels of low (scores

Lynn Marie Brokiewicz

1995-01-01

427

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...

2012-10-01

428

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2013-10-01

429

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...

2014-10-01

430

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...

2013-10-01

431

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...

2011-10-01

432

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15...

2010-10-01

433

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2012-10-01

434

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2014-10-01

435

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2011-10-01

436

Factors Affecting Deer Diets and Nutrition  

E-print Network

Knowledge of deer diets and nutrition can benefit ranchers who are interested in deer management and who want to coordinate vegetation management practices with changes in nutritional value of the habitat. Three important considerations...

Richardson, Calvin

2000-04-25

437

Nutrition and Feeding of Show Poultry  

E-print Network

The championship potential of a chicken or turkey is determined by genetics, but proper nutrition can help an animal achieve that genetic potential. This publication outlines four principles critical to developing a nutrition program for show...

Cartwright, A. Lee

2003-11-03

438

October 23, 2006: Stars In Nutrition & Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional and Molecular Biomarkers in Diet and Cancer Epidemiology Star Speaker Sheila Bingham, PhD Director, Medical Research Council Centre for Nutrition in Cancer Prevention and Survival Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care University of Cambridge Head,

439

Nutritional Preparation of Athletes: What Makes Sense?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)

McCutcheon, Malcolm L.

1984-01-01

440

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer - October 06, 2014  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition and Growth Drive Breast Cancer Risk: Untapped Opportunities for Prevention Speaker Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH Niess-Gain Professor of Surgery, Professor of Medicine Associate Director Prevention

441

Results of nutritional screening in institutionalized elderly in Hungary.  

PubMed

Dietetics contributes to life-long, sustainable health and optimal life quality of people. The knowledge of the nutritional state can be informative and normative in order to optimize personal care. The aims of this study were to summarize the relevant legislative considerations of nourishing the elderly in different long-term residential social institutions and to screen the nutritional state of those living there. No investigation of this type has ever been carried out in Hungary or in central eastern Europe before. We used the malnutrition universal screening tool (MUST) screening program for the evaluation of nutritional status. Our survey was done in 20 Hungarian nursing homes in 2006. The sample (n=1381) was representative of regional distribution and number of residents. In our study population 38.2% of the patients were endangered in point of malnutrition. The results of our survey call attention to the elevated number of elderly people at risk of malnutrition in nursing homes. As malnutrition has serious consequences regarding also quality of life, nutritional screening of nursing home residents is not only a basic economical interest, but is also in full harmony with the idea "not only to feed, but to nourish" and it is a basic moral duty. PMID:18786738

Lelovics, Zsuzsanna; Bozó, Réka Kegyes; Lampek, Kinga; Figler, Mária

2009-01-01

442

The role of mycorrhizal associations in plant potassium nutrition  

PubMed Central

Potassium (K+) is one of the most abundant elements of soil composition but it's very low availability limits plant growth and productivity of ecosystems. Because this cation participates in many biological processes, its constitutive uptake from soil solution is crucial for the plant cell machinery. Thus, the understanding of strategies responsible of K+ nutrition is a major issue in plant science. Mycorrhizal associations occurring between roots and hyphae of underground fungi improve hydro-mineral nutrition of the majority of terrestrial plants. The contribution of this mutualistic symbiosis to the enhancement of plant K+ nutrition is not well understood and poorly studied so far. This mini-review examines the current knowledge about the impact of both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses on the transfer of K+ from the soil to the plants. A model summarizing plant and fungal transport systems identified and hypothetically involved in K+ transport is proposed. In addition, some data related to benefits for plants provided by the improvement of K+ nutrition thanks to mycorrhizal symbioses are presented. PMID:25101097

Garcia, Kevin; Zimmermann, Sabine D.

2014-01-01

443

Minor in Nutrition and Health Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University  

E-print Network

may be used. Global Perspectives on Human Health NS 3060 Nutrition and Global Health NS 4450 Toward Health and Nutrition NS 1220 Nutrition and the Life Cycle NS 2750 Human Biology and Evolution (also ANTHR Nutrition (Restricted ­ priority given to Dietetics students) NS 3410 Human Anatomy and Physiology (Lecture

Lipson, Michal

444

NUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

. Complete the following: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition 3.0 NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism 3.0 AfterNUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the minor programs during the 2013­2014 curricular year. NUTRITION MINOR

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

445

NUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

. Complete the following: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition 3.0 NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism 3.0 AfterNUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the minor programs during the 2014­2015 curricular year. NUTRITION MINOR

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

446

Public Health Nutrition (PUB HLTH 413) Winter 2008 PUB HLTH 413 Public Health Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health Nutrition (PUB HLTH 413) ­ Winter 2008 PUB HLTH 413 Public Health Nutrition Winter-moran@northwestern.edu I. Course Description This course introduces students to nutrition from the perspective) identify and utilize sources of information on the nutritional status of U.S. populations 2) describe

Contractor, Anis

447

Priorities in Dealing with Nutrition Problems in Indonesia. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 1 (1974).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…

Soekirman

448

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Kay Stearns Bruening, Chair, 315-443-2386 426 Ostrom Ave. The Department of Public Health, Food.S.; Hospitality Management, B.S.*; Nutrition, B.S. ; Nutrition Science, B.S., M.A., M.S.; Public Health, B

Mather, Patrick T.

449

Aging in Community Nutrition, Diet Therapy, and Nutrition and Aging Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…

O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela

2005-01-01

450

Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.  

PubMed

Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

2014-07-01

451

Nutrition and gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.  

PubMed

Gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are relatively rare neoplasms that characteristically synthesize and secrete an excess of a variety of regulatory peptides, hormones, and neuroamines, which regulate gut and pancreatic function. This excess can lead to distinct clinical syndromes. Therapeutic strategies include surgery, radiofrequency ablation, chemotherapy, chemoembolization, and biotherapy using somatostatin analogs. The clinical syndromes and the various management strategies can lead to altered gut and pancreatic function with nutritional consequences. Diet and nutritional management is critical for GEP NET patients and is the focus of this article. PMID:21095548

Go, Vay Liang W; Srihari, Priya; Kamerman Burns, Leigh Anne

2010-12-01

452

Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

453

Nutrition Science and the Winter Olympics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science is a powerful asset for athletes who want to use nutrition to their advantage. Whether an Olympic medal is won by tenths of a second in a ski race, decimal points in a figure skating competition, or goals in an ice hockey game, an athlete's nutritional status makes a critical difference in reaching peak performance.This course explores the science of sports nutrition and shows how to apply nutrition principles to benefit an athlete's training and performance.

454

Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

455

Space Nutrition: Effects on Bone and Potential Nutrition Countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and , if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first eight International Space Station (ISS) missions. Bone loss during space flight remains one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. An increase in bone resorption of ISS crew members after flight was indicated by several markers. Vitamin D status also remains a challenge for long-duration space travelers, who lack ultraviolet light exposure in the shielded craft. Many nutrients affect bone, including calcium, protein, fatty acids, sodium, and others. Data supporting their potential as countermeasures for space flight, as published in many papers, will be reviewed in this presentation. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Please note, this abstract is not required for the meeting. A presentation on the topics described above will be given. This abstract is for travel documentation only.

Smith, Scott M.

2008-01-01

456

Professor of Animal Science Ruminant Nutrition  

E-print Network

Professor of Animal Science Ruminant Nutrition B.S., Animal Science, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 1993 M.S., Ruminant Nutrition, University of the Orange Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 1995 Ph.D., Ruminant Nutrition, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, 1999

Johnson, Eric E.

457

Nutrition support to patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional depletion has been demonstrated to be a major determinant of the development of post-operative complications. Gastrointestinal surgery patients are at risk of nutritional depletion from inadequate nutritional intake, surgical stress and the subsequent increase in metabolic rate. Fears of postoperative ileus and the integrity of the newly constructed anastomosis have led to treatment typically entailing starvation with administration of

Nicola Ward

2003-01-01

458

Practical issues in nutrition for athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many athletes do not achieve sound nutritional practices to optimize their sports performance. Factors include poor nutrition knowledge, dietary extremism, poor practical skills in choosing or preparing meals, and reduced access to food due to a busy lifestyle and frequent travel. Education in nutrition for the athlete needs to be practical, so as to address eating strategies and key food

Louise Burke

1995-01-01

459

November 17, 2014 DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN NUTRITION  

E-print Network

November 17, 2014 DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN NUTRITION Part-Time Academic Instructor Position The Department of Human Nutrition at St. Francis Xavier University invites applications for a Part-Time Academic. Doris Gillis, Chair Department of Human Nutrition St. Francis Xavier University PO Box 5000, Antigonish

460

Exploring Myths about Nutrition and Pregnancy Outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

he science underlying women's reproductive health in the area of nutrition and pregnancy outcome relationships has grown substantially over recent decades. Far more nutrition recommendations and interventions for preconceptional and pregnant women are now based on evidence generated by scientific studies, and far fewer on clinical assumption than in the past. Yet, much of the evidence-based knowledge about nutrition and

Judith E. Brown; Maureen A. Murtaugh

461

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition  

E-print Network

Nutrient Management Module No. 2 Plant Nutrition and Soil Fertility by Clain Jones, Soil Chemist" as well as offer the potential for credits for CCAs in Nutrient Management (within the "Plant Nutrition, the reader should: 1. Know the 17 elements essential for plant nutrition 2. Know the macronutrients

Lawrence, Rick L.

462

Foods & Nutrition Program Dietetics Montana State University  

E-print Network

Foods & Nutrition Program ­ Dietetics Montana State University Exit Survey ­ Spring 2009 Knowledge deficiency/toxicity 1 2 3 4 5 Effect of age/lifecycle on nutrient needs 1 2 3 4 5 Nutritional assessment 1 2 3 4 5 Medical terminology 1 2 3 4 5 Medical nutrition therapy 1 2 3 4 5 Calculate specific diets

Dyer, Bill

463

School of Food Science and Nutrition  

E-print Network

School of Food Science and Nutrition FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES Food Science IS IT Activities will be held in the School of Food Science and Nutrition on the University of Leeds campus Science and Nutrition University of Leeds Leeds LS2 9JT Tel: 0113 3432958 www.food.leeds.ac.uk Sponsored

Haase, Markus

464

Plant nutrition: from common sense to  

E-print Network

Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer-2008DVD-EN Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Plant nutrition: from common sense to scientific views 00094-2008DVD

Berzins, M.

465

DIU Europen de nutrition clinique et mtabolisme  

E-print Network

DIU Européen de nutrition clinique et métabolisme 2012/2013 OBJECTIFS · connaître les bases physiologiques et physiopathologiques de la nutrition · connaître les aspects galéniques et pharmaceutiques de la nutrition artificielle · connaître les outils, les techniques et les principes de la prescription de la

Brest, Université de

466

Rx for a Healthy School Nutrition Program  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School nutrition directors face challenges on many fronts, from changing nutrition standards to addressing community interest in sustainability and local food sourcing. Programs are constantly changing to meet these new demands. How does a school business administrator know which changes will affect his/her school nutrition program positively? The…

Boettger, Julie

2009-01-01

467

Community Food Security and Nutrition Educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition educators research, teach, and conduct outreach within the field of community food security (CFS), yet no clear consensus exists concerning what the field encompasses. Nutrition education needs to be integrated into the CFS movement for the fundamental reason that optimal health, well-being, and sustainability are at the core of both nutrition education and CFS. Establishing commonalities at the intersection

Michael W. Hamm; Anne C. Bellows

2003-01-01

468

Nutrition Training for Medical and Surgical Residents  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well-documented that malnutrition during hospitalization frequently adds unnecessary costs to patient care and even lengthens hospitalization. In order to prevent these avoidable expenses, physicians need to recognize nutrition problems in the patient and to administer appropriate treatments. To that end, the Nutrition Committee at this 907-bed tertiary care teaching hospital directed the incorporation of clinical nutrition training into

C. M. Nassar; C. Richardson

1995-01-01

469

State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

470

Nutrition Programs for Children. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite recognition of the importance of good nutrition for children's cognitive development, many children in America are poorly nourished. This digest reviews programs designed to address this problem and suggests ways to improve child nutrition and school meal programs. Federal programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

471

Nutrition and dietetics program receives historic accreditation  

E-print Network

Nutrition and dietetics program receives historic accreditation Rafika Al Ghrawi Staff Writer The Nutrition and Dietetics Coordinated Program (NDCP) has been officially accredited by the Accreditation Council for Education in Nutrition and Dietetics (ACEND), making it the first of its kind

Shihadeh, Alan

472

Visual Search of Food Nutrition Labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using an eye-tracking methodology, we evaluated food nutrition labels' ability to support rapid and accurate visual search for nutrition information. Participants (5 practiced label readers and 5 nonreaders) viewed 180 trials of nutrition labels on a computer, finding answers to questions (e.g., serving size). Label manipulations included several alternative line arrangements, location of the question target item, and label size.

Joseph H. Goldberg; Claudia K. Probart; Robert E. Zak

1999-01-01

473

How do consumers use nutrition label information?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have shown high levels of self-reported nutrition label use, yet when tested consumers have difficulty in using label information effectively. Using verbal protocol analysis, this study explored nutrition label use directly, identifying the tasks consumers actually undertake, and how these are used to inform choice. The implications of the findings for labelling policy and nutrition education are discussed.

C. S. Higginson; T. R. Kirk; M. J. Rayner; S. Draper

2002-01-01

474

Nutrition advocacy and national development: the PROFILES programme and its application.  

PubMed Central

Investment in nutritional programmes can contribute to economic growth and is cost-effective in improving child survival and development. In order to communicate this to decision-makers, the PROFILES nutrition advocacy and policy development programme was applied in certain developing countries. Effective advocacy is necessary to generate financial and political support for scaling up from small pilot projects and maintaining successful national programmes. The programme uses scientific knowledge to estimate development indicators such as mortality, morbidity, fertility, school performance and labour productivity from the size and nutritional condition of populations. Changes in nutritional condition are estimated from the costs, coverage and effectiveness of proposed programmes. In Bangladesh this approach helped to gain approval and funding for a major nutrition programme. PROFILES helped to promote the nutrition component of an early childhood development programme in the Philippines, and to make nutrition a top priority in Ghana's new national child survival strategy. The application of PROFILES in these and other countries has been supported by the United States Agency for International Development, the United Nations Children's Fund, the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, the Micronutrient Initiative and other bodies. PMID:10361758

Burkhalter, B. R.; Abel, E.; Aguayo, V.; Diene, S. M.; Parlato, M. B.; Ross, J. S.

1999-01-01

475

Health Perceptions, Self and Body Image, Physical Activity and Nutrition among Undergraduate Students in Israel  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study examines health perceptions, self and body image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students. Methods A structured, self-reported questionnaire was administered to more than 1500 students at a large academic institute in Israel. The study population was heterogenic in both gender and fields of academic study. Results High correlations between health perceptions, appropriate nutrition, and positive self and body image were found. The relationships between these variables differed between the subpopulation in the sample and the different genders. Engagement in physical exercise contributed to positive body image and positive health perceptions more than engagement in healthy nutrition. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, positive self and body image and higher engagement in physical exercise in comparison to all other students in the sample. Conclusions This study suggests, as have many before, that successful health promotion policy should reflect a collectivist rather than an individualist ethos by providing health prerequisites through a public policy of health-promotion, where the academic settings support a healthy lifestyle policy, by increasing availability of a healthy, nutritious and varied menu in the cafeterias, and offering students various activities that enhance healthy eating and exercise. Implications and contribution This study examined health perceptions, self-image, physical exercise and nutrition among undergraduate students and found high correlations between these topics. Nutrition students reported higher frequencies of positive health perceptions, and positive self and body image and engaged more in physical exercise when compared with all other students in the sample. PMID:23516503

Korn, Liat; Gonen, Ester; Shaked, Yael; Golan, Moria

2013-01-01

476

Advances in Perioperative Nutrition: Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of perioperative nutritional support in the manage- ment of cancer patients remains controversial. The benefit of supplemen- tal calories is not the only current issue: in fact, the route of delivery, composition of basic nutrients (carbohydrate, protein, fat), and the role of supplemental additives (arginine, glutamine, omega-3 fatty acids, nucle- otides) in improving immune status and ultimate outcome

2000-01-01

477

Tilapia: environmental and nutritional requirements  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tilapia are an important species to global aquaculture production. Their adaptability to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions and their ability to grow and reproduce make them a prime species for aquaculture. Nonetheless, to achieve maximum performance in culture, tilapia requir...

478

Student Nutrition, Learning and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This discussion addresses several nutrition issues considered important to schools, students, and educators in the United States. Contents consist of a review of malnutrition and learning research and discussions of food additives and allergies, diet and hyperkinesia, the effects of caffeine and sugar on children's behavior, and the National…

Royster, Martha

479

Nutritional Support of Medical Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book is intended to assemble for the medical practitioner in the developed countries those features of nutritional science which are clearly useful and clinically applicable in day-to-day medical practice. The book contains 32 chapters structured into three parts. After a brief description from the viewpoint of human biology, the first main…

Schneider, Howard A., Ed.; And Others

480

Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web page, from the US Department of Agriculture's Agriculture Research Service, features information about research being conducted at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Center. Twenty-one research projects are currently highlighted, each has a page that includes a description of the research project and links to annual reports, researcher information, and publications associated with the study.