Sample records for vannamei nutritional contribution

  1. Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei 

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

    2012-07-16

    The goal of this study was to characterize the nutritional contribution of microalgae to white-legged shrimp and optimize fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) inclusion levels in their diets in the presence of microalgae. ...

  2. The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

    2004-01-01

    High-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds contain a high density of flocculated particles, rich in bacteria and phytoplankton, compared with flow-through systems. The flocculated particles provide a potential food source for shrimp. Short-term tank experiments were conducted to determine the retention of nitrogen (N) from natural biota, dominated by flocculated particles, in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp farm

  3. Nutrition of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in tanks or in ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gérard Cuzon; Addison Lawrence; Gabriela Gaxiola; Carlos Rosas; J Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) is the most important shrimp species cultivated in the Americas. More than 90% of the shrimp cultivated in 1998 on the American continent (132000 tons) was L. vannamei. L. vannamei is the species cultivated especially in Ecuador and Mexico. Its growth potential is quite good and it is a hardy species in spite

  4. Nutritional Value of Various Ray Fish Liver Oils to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Perez-Velazquez; Mayra L. González-Félix; Gerardo Navarro-García; Erasmo Valenzuela-Escalante

    2008-01-01

    A 32-day comparative feeding trial was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of four different ray fish liver oils to\\u000a the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four feeds were prepared with liver oil extracted from Dasyatis brevis, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Aetobatus narinari, and R. bonasus. A control feed was prepared with Menhaden fish oil. Ray fish liver oils were mainly composed

  5. Physiological, nutritional, and immunological role of dietary ? 1-3 glucan and ascorbic acid 2-monophosphate in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelda López; Gerard Cuzon; Gabriela Gaxiola; Gabriel Taboada; Manuel Valenzuela; Cristina Pascual; Ariadna Sánchez; Carlos Rosas

    2003-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine the effect of dietary ? 1-3 glucan (BG) and a megadose of vitamin C on the nutrition (growth and survival, blood glucose, lactate, acylglycerides, cholesterol, hemocyanin [Hc], digestive gland glycogen [DGG]) and the immunological system (blood cells, prophenoloxidase [ProPO]) in Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Each treatment was replicated five times. Nutritional condition and immunological

  6. Nutritional value of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) meals as ingredients in diets for Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Rivas-Vega; E. Goytortúa-Bores; J. M. Ezquerra-Brauer; M. G. Salazar-García; L. E. Cruz-Suárez; H. Nolasco; R. Civera-Cerecedo

    2006-01-01

    The nutritional value of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) meals, as ingredients in diets for Litopenaeus vannamei, was evaluated. Five experimental meals were prepared in the laboratory: whole raw cowpea (WRC), dehulled (DC), cooked (CC), germinated (GC) and extruded (EXC). The crude protein content of WRC (26.1%) increased after germination (29.5%). Carbohydrates ranged from 69.4% to 85.9%. The trypsin inhibitor

  7. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  8. Nutritional value of feed peas (Pisum sativum) in practical diet formulations for Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. DAVIS; C. R. ARNOLD; I. McCALLUM

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Dry peas of mixed,Canadian,prairie varieties which,were commercially,obtained,and processed,to provide a variety of meals were evaluated,in practical shrimp,feeds. Whole,and de-hulled peas,were,pin milled to produce,raw,flours. A portion,of these meals,were,processed,to produce,whole extruded and de-hulled extruded meals. Additionally, a portion,of the whole,pea,meal,was,processed,by infrared cooking,to produce,a micronized,meal. The five meals were evaluated,in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei,under controlled laboratory,conditions. The first experiment,was designed to

  9. Ecophsiology of Growth in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    E-print Network

    Walker, Scott J.

    2010-07-14

    Ecophysiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated as functions of 1) salinity and animal size, 2) temperature and the animal's nutritive state, and 3) dissolved-oxygen concentration and animal size. Growth rate, routine metabolic...

  10. Effect of feed levels and stocking density on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris stocked in pond cages

    E-print Network

    Luszczynski, Jack Roman

    1987-01-01

    , 40 and 60 per m2. Actual feed levels were 0 (unfed), 1. 7, 3. 3 and 6. 7': wet body weight. . . . 32 10. Estimated contribution from natural productivity to the nutritional requirements of P. vannamei stocked at 10, 20 and 40 per m (Experiment 1... with formulated feed, problems such as oxygen depletion, mortality unrelated to feeding rate, interference by predators and competitors, species differences and age differences detract from the credibility of pond nutrition work (Parker and Holcomb 1973...

  11. Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2003-09-01

    Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable. PMID:12936962

  12. Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

  13. Mutualistic ants contribute to tank-bromeliad nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Céline; Carrias, Jean-François; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dézerald, Olivier; Brouard, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Epiphytism imposes physiological constraints resulting from the lack of access to the nutrient sources available to ground-rooted plants. A conspicuous adaptation in response to that lack is the phytotelm (plant-held waters) of tank-bromeliad species that are often nutrient-rich. Associations with terrestrial invertebrates also result in higher plant nutrient acquisition. Assuming that tank-bromeliads rely on reservoir-assisted nutrition, it was hypothesized that the dual association with mutualistic ants and the phytotelm food web provides greater nutritional benefits to the plant compared with those bromeliads involved in only one of these two associations. Methods Quantitative (water volume, amount of fine particulate organic matter, predator/prey ratio, algal density) and qualitative variables (ant-association and photosynthetic pathways) were compared for eight tank- and one tankless-bromeliad morphospecies from French Guiana. An analysis was also made of which of these variables affect nitrogen acquisition (leaf N and ?15N). Key Results All variables were significantly different between tank-bromeliad species. Leaf N concentrations and leaf ?15N were both positively correlated with the presence of mutualistic ants. The amount of fine particulate organic matter and predator/prey ratio had a positive and negative effect on leaf ?15N, respectively. Water volume was positively correlated with leaf N concentration whereas algal density was negatively correlated. Finally, the photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. CAM) was positively correlated with leaf N concentration with a slightly higher N concentration for C3-Tillandsioideae compared with CAM-Bromelioideae. Conclusions The study suggests that some of the differences in N nutrition between bromeliad species can be explained by the presence of mutualistic ants. From a nutritional standpoint, it is more advantageous for a bromeliad to use myrmecotrophy via its roots than to use carnivory via its tank. The results highlight a gap in our knowledge of the reciprocal interactions between bromeliads and the various trophic levels (from bacteria to large metazoan predators) that intervene in reservoir-assisted nutrition. PMID:23864002

  14. Rendered meat and bone meals as ingredients of diets for shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. P Forster; W Dominy; L Obaldo; A. G. J Tacon

    2003-01-01

    The nutritional quality of three sources of rendered meat and bone meals (MBM) was evaluated as feed ingredients in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Two trials were conducted in this work: an in vivo apparent digestibility trial and a growth trial. The apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and amino acids of diets containing fixed percentages of each

  15. Physiological and immune responses of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) infected with necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luz Angélica Ávila-Villa; Diana Fimbres-Olivarria; Guillermina García-Sánchez; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Jorge Hernández-López; Marcel Martínez-Porchas

    An eighteen day trial was performed to evaluate the effect of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) disease on the physiological, nutritional and immunological status of adult white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Shrimp were divided into infected and non-infected groups; infected shrimp were fed with hepatopancreas homegenates positive to NHP bacterium, while non-infected shrimp were fed with healthy hepatopancreas. No significant differences were observed

  16. [Contributions by food demand studies to the development of public policies in nutrition].

    PubMed

    Sarti, Flávia Mori; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2011-04-01

    Food choice in diet composition is a determinant of individual health status. Currently, there are gradually fewer conditions involving food scarcity and more involving excess food. Changes in income and relative prices generate measurable effects on the population's food intake patterns. Economic models have significant explanatory power for food demand, and the interactions between consumption, income, and prices are usually expressed as elasticity. However, the construction of some studies shows important shortcomings, especially for public policy application. This conceptual article discusses the potential contribution of food demand studies, suggesting improvements in the structural design of such studies with the inclusion of current nutritional concepts for redirecting the nutritional transition from under-nutrition to healthy eating, avoiding the present trend towards epidemic obesity. PMID:21603747

  17. Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants: a simulation model.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jay S.; Harvey, Philip W. J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide information on the potential contribution to vitamin A nutrition in infants of strategies for improving maternal vitamin A status and increasing the consumption of breast milk. METHODS: The contribution of breastfeeding to the vitamin A nutrition of children in eight age groups between 0 and 24 months was simulated under four sets of conditions involving two levels of breast milk consumption with or without maternal vitamin A supplementation. FINDINGS: During the first 6 months, optimal breastfeeding on its own (compared with withholding colostrum and then partially breastfeeding after the first week) was as effective as postpartum maternal supplementation alone, retinol intakes being increased by 59 micrograms per day and 68 micrograms per day, respectively. Combined in synergy, these strategies increase retinol intake by 144 micrograms per day, or 36% of the recommended intake. After 6 months, partial breastfeeding continued to provide a significant proportion of the recommended intakes: 42% from 6-12 months and 61% during the second year. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with a high dose of vitamin A at the time of delivery and the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices are highly effective strategies for improving vitamin A nutrition in infants and should be strengthened as key components of comprehensive child survival programmes. PMID:12751415

  18. Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Huish

    2009-11-02

    Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

  19. Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ?7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ?7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted. PMID:23017314

  20. Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response rights reserved. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei; Shrimp; Hemocyte; Vibrio; Lysozyme; Gene expression

  1. Soil and Plant Nutritional Constraints Contributing to Citrus Decline in Marathwada Region, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Srivastava; Shyam Singh

    2005-01-01

    Citrus decline, a common problem in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) growing areas of Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India, was investigated from the standpoint of soil fertility and plant nutritional constraints during 1999–2002. To diagnose the nutritional constraints, optimum soil-available nutrients, and leaf nutrient concentration in relation to fruit yield were determined through multivariate quadratic regression analysis. Soil factors (viz.,

  2. The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Becker

    1983-01-01

    One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

  3. A Comparison of the Nutritional Contribution of Thirty-nine Aromatic Plants used as Condiments and/or Herbal Infusions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-06-01

    Aromatic plants have been used worldwide in human diet to improve the flavor and taste of meals or as herbal infusions. Beyond the culinary purposes, these plants are also used for their medicinal purposes, as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and anti-carcinogenic, among others. In the present study, 39 species of condiments and/or herbal infusions were assessed in order to provide scientific information concerning their nutritional value and energetic contribution; furthermore, the fatty acids composition was also evaluated. Carbohydrates were the most abundant compounds in the condiments that also revealed a varied range of sugars with fructose, glucose, sucrose and trehalose detected in all the condiments. In respect to fatty acids, PUFA were prevalent with the great contribution of linoleic and ?-linolenic acids among the different 32 detected fatty acids. The herbal infusions revealed low quantities of sugars with most of the plants revealing fructose, glucose and sucrose. In a general way, the energetic value of the condiments and herbal infusions was very low and these plants revealed good nutritional properties that make them suitable for a balanced and diversified low caloric diet. The results obtained in the present systematization study will allow the readers to perform easy and quick comparisons among these different aromatic plants regarding nutritional purposes. PMID:25740179

  4. Structural and functional differences of Litopenaeus vannamei crustins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Francisco Vargas-Albores; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Florinda Jiménez-Vega; Angélica Ávila-Villa

    2004-01-01

    Penaeid crustins were described in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus as proteins belonging to an antibacterial peptide family with similar sequences but different sizes. Six crustin-coding clones were isolated from a cDNA library from L. vannamei hemocytes, sequenced and compared. Two different isoforms (named I and P) were found, based on two nucleotide differences that produce one change in amino

  5. Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – Contributions to nutritional and safety assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Flachowsky; K. Aulrich; H. Böhme; I. Halle

    2007-01-01

    Since 1997, 18 studies with feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) in the nutrition of dairy cows, growing bulls, growing and finishing pigs, laying hens, chicken for finishing as well as growing and laying quails were conducted at the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig (Germany).The majority of the experiments (16) were undertaken with GMP of the so-called first

  6. Consumption patterns and nutritional contribution of Crotalaria Brevidens (Mitoo) in Tarime District, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Febronia C. Uiso; Timothy Johns

    1996-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional benefit of consumption of Crotalaria brevidens (mitoo), a leafy vegetable indigenous to the Lake Victoria basin of East Africa. Food frequency questionnaires and 24?hour recalls with 74 women in Tarime District, Tanzania, documented the consumption of 24 cultivated and wild species of leafy vegetables and 38 species of fruits during June?July, 1990. Leaves of cultivated or

  7. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  8. Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-08-01

    Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples. PMID:24629978

  9. Animal Nutrition and Lipids in Animal Products and Their Contribution to Human Intake and Health

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) through alteration of the cow’s diet are examined. Also, few people achieve minimum recommended intakes (~450–500 mg/d) of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Enrichment of EPA+DHA in poultry meat via bird nutrition is described and how this would impact on habitual intake is discussed. PMID:22253968

  10. Effect of Fertilization on Growth, Survival, Food Conversion Ratio, and Production of Pacific White Shrimp Penaeus vannamei in Earthen Ponds in Sonora, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. R. Martinez-Cordova; N. Pasten-Miranda; R. Barraza-Guardado

    1998-01-01

    A 19-week study was conducted in Bahia Kino, Sonora, Mexico, to evaluate the effects of fertilization on growth, survival, food conversion ratio, and production of Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei in earthen ponds. The contribution of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos to shrimp food supply was assessed by examining changes in the abundance of these organisms in the ponds, as well

  11. Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience and psychological research

    PubMed Central

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A central issue when designing multi-dimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting impact (sensitive periods). In this paper we review nutritional, neuroscience and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period where biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

  12. Placental contribution to nutritional programming of health and diseases: epigenetics and sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Tarrade, Anne; Panchenko, Polina; Junien, Claudine; Gabory, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The recent and rapid worldwide increase in non-communicable diseases challenges the assumption that genetic factors are the primary contributors to such diseases. A new concept of the 'developmental origins of health and disease' (DOHaD) is at stake and therefore requires a paradigm shift. Maternal obesity and malnutrition predispose offspring to develop metabolic syndrome, a vicious cycle leading to transmission to subsequent generation(s), with differences in response and susceptibility according to the sex of the individual. The placenta is a programming agent of adult health and disease. Adaptations of placental phenotype in response to maternal diet and metabolic status alter fetal nutrient supply. This implies important epigenetic changes that are, however, still poorly documented in DOHaD studies, particularly concerning overnutrition. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging knowledge on the relationships between the effect of maternal nutrition or metabolic status on placental function and the risk of diseases later in life, with a specific focus on epigenetic mechanisms and sexual dimorphism. Explaining the sex-specific causal variables and how males versus females respond and adapt to environmental perturbations should help physicians and patients to anticipate disease susceptibility. PMID:25568451

  13. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  14. Quantifying the contribution of foods with unfavourable nutrient profiles to nutritionally adequate diets.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2011-04-01

    That 'all foods can fit' into a healthy diet is a long-standing principle of dietetic practice. The present study quantified the relative contributions of foods to encourage and foods to limit, using new techniques of individual diet optimisation and nutrient profiling. Individual foods from every food group were assigned to four nutrient profile classes based on the French SAIN,LIM system. Foods with the most favourable nutrient profiles were in class 1, and foods with the least favourable nutrient profiles were in class 4. An optimised diet that met the recommendations for thirty-two nutrients and that respected the existing eating habits was designed for each adult in the nationally representative 'Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires 1' dietary survey (n 1171). The relative proportions of the four nutrient profiling classes were assessed before and after the optimisation process. The contribution of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, milk and fish was significantly increased, whereas the contribution of refined grains, meats, mixed dishes, sugars and fats was decreased. The optimised diets derived more energy (30 v. 21 % in the observed diets) from class 1 foods and less energy (41 v. 56 %) from class 4 foods. They also derived a higher amount of class 1 foods (61 v. 51 %) and a lower amount of class 4 foods (22 v. 32 %). Thus, nutrient adequacy was compatible with the consumption of foods with an unfavourable nutrient profile (one-fifth the basket weight), provided that the diet also contained almost two-thirds of foods with the most favourable profile. Translating these results into concrete and quantified advice may have very tangible public health implications. PMID:21144095

  15. Impact of ammonia exposure on coagulation in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Cheng, Winton; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-08-01

    Ammonia (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), the end product of protein catabolism, is produced by decomposing organic matter. In aquaculture, shrimp are commonly exposed to high concentrations of ammonia that induces immunological and histological changes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects on hemolymph coagulation time, transglutaminase (TG) activity as well as TG and clottable protein (CP) genes expressions in Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to ambient ammonia-nitrogen (N) at 0, 1, 5, and 10mg/L for 0, 2, and 7 days. The actual concentrations in control and tests solution were 0.001, 1.15, 5.11, and 11.68mg/L for ammonia-N, and 7×10(-5), 0.080, 0.357, and 0.815mg/L for NH3-N (unionized ammonia). Delayed coagulation time following exposure to 5 and 10mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 7 days, and increased transglutaminase (TG) activity following exposure to 5 and 1mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were observed. Downregulated TG expression and upregulated clottable protein (CP) expression in the hemocytes of L. vannamei exposed to 10 and 5mg/L of ambient ammonia-N for 2 and 7 days, respectively, were shown. These results indicated that ambient ammonia-N (>5mg/L) and NH3-N (>0.357mg/L) interrupted coagulation and down-regulated TG gene expression in L. vannamei, which caused ecotoxicity on immune deficiencies and may contribute the increased susceptibility to infection by pathogens. PMID:25916769

  16. Toward a National Nutrition Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Jean

    1972-01-01

    Reviews changes in United States nutrition since the 1969 White House Conference on Food, Nutrition, and Health and identifies necessary components of public, private and expert contributions towards a policy for ensuring adequate nutrition for all Americans. (AL)

  17. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

  18. Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

  19. Mating behaviour in the penaeid shrimp Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yano; R. A. Kanna; R. N. Oyama; J. A. Wyban

    1988-01-01

    Mating behaviour of Penaeus vannamei was observed during January, 1986. Mating behaviour was divided into four phases: (1) approach, (2) crawling, (3) chasing, and (4) mating. Male mating and spermatophore transfer to the mature female take place at intermolt stage C4. The glutinous spermatophore emitted from the male can be transferred onto the female open thelycum during the ventralto-ventral position

  20. Hemolymph osmolality and cation concentrations in Litopenaeus vannamei during exposure to artificial sea salt or a mixed-ion solution

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    Hemolymph osmolality and cation concentrations in Litopenaeus vannamei during exposure Litopenaeus vannamei in low-salinity and brackish-well waters has led to questions about the ability Litopenaeus vannamei iono- and osmo- regulate over a wide range of salinities. Iono- and osmoregulation

  1. Contributions to the botany and nutritional value of some wild amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae) of Nuevo leon, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro Wesche-Ebeling; Ratikanta Maiti; Graciela García-Díaz; Diana I. González; Fernando Sosa-Alvarado

    1995-01-01

    Seeds and plants of Amaranthus have been a source of food for many cultures in the world. Some species can be found as weeds\\u000a or growing wild under severe climatic and soil conditions, but their potential as food sources has not been studied. The objective\\u000a of this work was to study the nutritional quality of four wild species ofAmaranthus,A. retroflexus

  2. Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)

    E-print Network

    Hertzler, Philip L.

    Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, and Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda) cleavage is complete. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp share a similar early in the Dendrobranchiata, embryos of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei were stained with Sytox Green

  3. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHAN VANDENBERGHE; LINDA VERDONCK; ROCIO ROBLES-AROZARENA; GABRIEL RIVERA; ANNICK BOLLAND; MARCOS BALLADARES; BRUNO GOMEZ-GIL; JORGE CALDERON; PATRICK SORGELOOS; JEAN SWINGS

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatch- eries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juve- niles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

    2013-01-01

    Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

  5. Suitability studies of inland well waters for Litopenaeus vannamei culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imad P. Saoud; D. Allen Davis; David B. Rouse

    2003-01-01

    The inland farming of penaeid shrimp in low-salinity waters is now de facto in many regions of the world, yet there is little information pertaining to the suitability of waters with various ionic compositions for shrimp culture. In the present study, short-term (48 h) survival of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL), and long-term (4 weeks) growth and survival

  6. Characterisation of a serine proteinase from Penaeus vannamei haemocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florinda Jiménez-Vega; Francisco Vargas-Albores; Kenneth Söderhäll

    2005-01-01

    Serine proteinases are involved, besides digestive role, in immune response processes. In addition to the typical serine proteinase domain, proteinases from arthropod haemocytes contain so-called clip domains which are believed to exert regulatory functions. Clones coding for clip domain-containing serine proteinases were isolated from both Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon haemocyte cDNA libraries. These proteins have most of the structural

  7. Beneficial effects of Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii WF on larval cultivation of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wen, C Q; Xue, M; Liang, H F; Wu, Y; Li, X

    2015-01-01

    To develop high quality probiotics for shrimp larviculture, the effects of a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium WF identified as Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii on survival and development of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae were evaluated in vivo. The larvae exhibited a better survival rate after administration of strain WF compared to the probiotic Rhodopseudomonas palustris. To investigate the effect of dose and dosing frequency, strain WF was added to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to zoea 3, at three different doses and dosing frequencies. Larval treatment with strain WF twice at 10(6) cfu/ml exhibited significantly higher survival compared to the other doses and dosing frequencies as well as the control. The effect on water quality was assessed by applying strain WF to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to postlarvae 1, under conditions of zero water exchange and one-third water exchange. The larvae exhibited higher survival and faster growth when treated under conditions of zero water exchange. No significant difference was detected in the levels of three water quality parameters and in vibrio counts between these two conditions. Therefore, E. shaposhnikovii WF acts both as a bioremediation agent and nutrient source and can benefit shrimp larvae if given at an appropriate dose and dosing frequency. Strain WF, a moderate halophile, shows great promise as a water additive in improving water quality and providing nutrition for shrimp larviculture. PMID:25869277

  8. Isolation and characterization of two actins of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Piera S. Sun; Marcus Soderlund; Nel C. Venzon Jr; Dailin Ye; Yuanan Lu

    2007-01-01

    Two actin genes named actinT1 and actinT2 were isolated and sequenced from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by screening from a shrimp eyestalk cDNA library. L. vannamei\\u000a actinT1 cDNA has a 1,128-bp open reading frame encoding for 376 amino acids while L. vannamei\\u000a actinT2 cDNA has a 1,131-bp open reading frame coding for 377 amino acids. Alignment of the

  9. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a cell adhesion molecule, peroxinectin from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hung Liu; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Expression of peroxinectin cDNA was obtained from haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers based on the peroxinectin sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. The peroxinectin of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The cloning of peroxinectin cDNA fragment was subjected to RT–PCR using degenerated primers. Both 3?- and 5?-regions were isolated by rapid

  10. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  11. The metallothionein gene from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and expression in response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martinez-Quintana, José A; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2014-10-01

    Aquatic animals encounter variation in oxygen tension that leads to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can harm the organisms. Under these circumstances some organisms have evolved to tolerate hypoxia. In mammals, metallothioneins (MTs) protect against hypoxia-generated ROS. Here we report the MT gene from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvMT). LvMT is differentially expressed in hemocytes, intestine, gills, pleopods, heart, hepatopancreas and muscle, with the highest levels in hepatopancreas and heart. LvMT mRNA increases during hypoxia in hepatopancreas and gills after 3 h at 1.5 mg L(-1) dissolved oxygen (DO). This gene structure resembles the homologs from invertebrates and vertebrates possessing three exons, two introns and response elements for metal response transcription factor 1 (MTF-1), hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and p53 in the promoter region. During hypoxia, HIF-1/MTF-1 might participate inducing MT to contribute towards the tolerance to ROS toxicity. MT importance in aquatic organisms may include also ROS-detoxifying processes. PMID:25299575

  12. Pyrokinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. Isolation and identification in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Torfs, P; Nieto, J; Cerstiaens, A; Boon, D; Baggerman, G; Poulos, C; Waelkens, E; Derua, R; Calderón, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

    2001-01-01

    Identification of substances able to elicit physiological or behavioural processes that are related to reproduction would greatly contribute to the domestication of commercially important crustaceans that do not reproduce easily in captivity. Crustaceans are thought to release urine signals used for chemical communication involved in courtship behaviour. In contrast to insects, very little is known about the endocrinological processes underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, an extract of 3500 central nervous systems of female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was screened for myotropic activity in order to purify pyrokinin-like peptides that belong to the pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide family. Members of this family regulate reproductive processes in insects, including pheromone biosynthesis. Purification of these pyrokinins was achieved by a combination of reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography. Subsequent characterization by mass spectrometry, Edman degradation and peptide synthesis resulted in the elucidation of two novel peptides. Pev-PK 1 has the primary sequence DFAFSPRL-NH(2) and a second peptide (Pev-PK 2) is characterized as the nonapeptide ADFAFNPRL-NH(2). Pev-PK 1 contains the typical FXPRL-NH(2) (X = G, S, T or V) C-terminal sequence that characterizes members of the versatile pyrokinin/PBAN family. Pev-PK 2 displays an Asn residue at the variable X position of the core pyrokinin sequence. These crustacean pyrokinins are the first to be found in a noninsect. The synthetic peptides display myotropic activity on the Leucophaea maderae as well as on the Astacus leptodactylus hindgut. PMID:11121115

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (?·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = ?{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its physiological changes, further contributing to the improvement of capture and rearing technique.

  14. Effects of cadmium and zinc on oxygen consumption, ammonium excretion, and osmoregulation of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jui Pin Wu; Hon-Cheng Chen

    2004-01-01

    White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a globally important cultured prawn species, is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. The main purpose of the present study was to detect the acute toxicity of Cd and Zn to L. vannamei, and to investigate their effects on gill functions,

  15. Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptome Using the Next-Generation DNA Sequencing Technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yonggui; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Lü, Ling; Zhang, Haiqing; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    Background Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the major species of farmed shrimps in the world, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. The now available transcriptome data of L. vannamei are insufficient for research requirements, and have not been adequately assembled and annotated. Methodology/Principal Findings This is the first study that used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Solexa/Illumina GA II method, to analyze the transcriptome from whole bodies of L. vannamei larvae. More than 2.4 Gb of raw data were generated, and 109,169 unigenes with a mean length of 396 bp were assembled using the SOAP denovo software. 73,505 unigenes (>200 bp) with good quality sequences were selected and subjected to annotation analysis, among which 37.80% can be matched in NCBI Nr database, 37.3% matched in Swissprot, and 44.1% matched in TrEMBL. Using BLAST and BLAST2Go softwares, 11,153 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) categories, 8171 unigenes were assigned into 51 Gene ontology (GO) functional groups, and 18,154 unigenes were divided into 220 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. To primarily verify part of the results of assembly and annotations, 12 assembled unigenes that are homologous to many embryo development-related genes were chosen and subjected to RT-PCR for electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing analyses, and to real-time PCR for expression profile analyses during embryo development. Conclusions/Significance The L. vannamei transcriptome analyzed using the next-generation sequencing technique enriches the information of L. vannamei genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the genome background of crustaceans, and promote the studies on L. vannamei. PMID:23071809

  16. Acute toxicity of ammonia on Litopenaeus vannamei Boone juveniles at different salinity levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Chin Lin; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2001-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (total length 22±2.4 mm) were exposed to different concentrations of ammonia-N (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), using the static renewal method at different salinity levels of 15‰, 25‰ and 35‰ at pH 8.05 and 23°C. The 24, 48, 72, 96 h LC50 values of ammonia-N on L. vannamei juveniles were 59.72, 40.58, 32.15, 24.39 mg l?1

  17. Acute toxicity of nitrite on Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) juveniles at different salinity levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Chin Lin; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2003-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (total length 56±9.6 mm) were exposed to different concentrations of nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen), using a static renewal method at salinity levels of 15‰, 25‰ and 35‰ (g\\/kg) pH 8.02 and 18 °C. The 24-, 48-, 72-, 96- and 144-h LC50 value of nitrite-N on L. vannamei juveniles were 187.9, 142.2, 92.5, 76.5, 61.1 mg\\/l at 15‰;

  18. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  19. Hemocytic immune responses triggered by CpG ODNs in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui; Qiu, Limei; Yue, Feng; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Rui; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2013-01-01

    CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG ODNs), also called bacterial DNA or synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides, can induce apparent immunity protection against various pathogens, and they are widely used as functional immunostimulant or vaccine adjuvant in mammals. In the present study, CpG-rich plasmid pUC57-CpG was constructed and employed to stimulate the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and the total hemocyte count, percentage of apoptotic hemocytes, regeneration of circulating hemocytes, the ability of phagocytosis and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured to reveal the possible protection mechanism of CpG ODNs. After the injection of pUC57-CpG, the total hemocyte count significantly decreased (p < 0.01) to 2.56 × 10(7) cell/mL at the first day post stimulation, while the apoptosis increased (p < 0.01), which was 1.72-fold of that in control group. At the same time, the regeneration of circulating hemocytes fluctuated in a similar trend, and a significant increase was observed at the first day post stimulation. The phagocytotic activity including the percentage of phagocytosis and phagocytotic index, experienced an upward tend during the whole experimental period and the ROS level increased by 22% (p < 0.05) compared to that in the control group at first day post stimulation. These results together suggested that pUC57-CpG could promote the apoptosis and regeneration of circulating hemocytes, and enhance the phagocytosis and ROS production, which might contribute to the boosted immunity against the infection of pathogens. PMID:23063537

  20. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  1. Mission Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    swinward

    2010-04-12

    Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

  2. Nutrition Expert

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

  3. Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

    1986-10-01

    Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

  4. Measurement of reactive oxygen intermediate production in haemocytes of the penaeid shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Muñoz; Ricardo Cedeño; Jenny Rodr??guez; Wil P. W van der Knaap; Eric Mialhe; Evelyne Bachère

    2000-01-01

    A spectrophotometric nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assay was used to demonstrate the production of superoxide anions (O2?) by haemocytes of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. It was found that haemocytes, without receiving an experimental stimulant, showed a rather high background activity. Therefore, optimal parameters (number of haemocytes, type of incubation medium, type and concentration of stimulants) were first established, in

  5. Superoxide dismutase as modulator of immune function in American white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I Campa-Córdova; N. Y Hernández-Saavedra; F Ascencio

    2002-01-01

    The immunomodulatory action of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and its possible use as an indicator of immune responses in American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Juvenile shrimp were immersed in aerated ?-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide solutions for 6 h. SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle was quantified to evaluate whether ?-glucan and sulfated polysaccharide induce immunostimulatory activity. Haemocytes and muscle

  6. Prevention of IHHNV vertical transmission in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emmerik Motte; Edwin Yugcha; Juan Luzardo; Fernando Castro; Gael Leclercq; Juan Rodr??guez; Paul Miranda; Oswaldo Borja; Javier Serrano; Manuel Terreros; Karina Montalvo; Alexandra Narváez; Narda Tenorio; Virna Cedeño; Eric Mialhe; Viviane Boulo

    2003-01-01

    The infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is very pathogenic for Litopenaeus stylirostris whereas infection in Litopenaeus vannamei is known to induce development and growth abnormalities and cause economic losses that range between 10% and 50% (Lightner and Redman, 1998). In the present work, on the basis of nested-PCR analysis, IHHNV prevalences were determined to be between 47% and

  7. Mortality of freshwater-acclimated Litopenaeus vannamei associated with acclimation rate, habituation period, and ionic challenge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William J McGraw; John Scarpa

    2004-01-01

    The effect of acclimation time, habituation period, and final freshwater ion composition on the survival of freshwater-acclimated Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae was investigated. During each of three experiments, shrimp were acclimated from 30 ppt to freshwater (<1 ppt TDS) utilizing various acclimation times (32, 40, 48, 72 h) with a constant or variable rate of salinity reduction. Shrimp

  8. Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Rosas; Gerard Cuzon; Gabriela Gaxiola; Yannick Le Priol; Cristina Pascual; Jordi Rossignyol; Fabian Contreras; Adolfo Sanchez; Alain Van Wormhoudt

    2001-01-01

    The present study was designed to understand how carbohydrate (CBH) and protein metabolism are related in the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. With this information, we obtained a comprehensive schedule of the protein–carbohydrate metabolism including enzymatic, energetic, and functional aspects. We used salinity to determine its role as a modulator of the protein–carbohydrate metabolism in shrimp. Two experiments were designed. The

  9. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone)1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. J. Cheng; R. W. Hardy

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cho- lesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopen- aeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soy- beanmeal;casein;fishmeal+soybeanmeal;fishmeal+ casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal

  10. Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin J. Burge; Daniel J. Madigan; Louis E. Burnett; Karen G. Burnett

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the gene expression of lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response to a pathogen challenge. We quantified lysozyme transcripts with a real-time PCR method and used these data, along with total hemocyte counts, to infer patterns of hemocyte trafficking during the immune

  11. Genetic parameter estimates for reproductive traits and egg composition in Pacific white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiola G Arcos; Ilie S Racotta; Ana M Ibarra

    2004-01-01

    We estimated the heritabilities and genetic correlations for reproductive traits and egg composition in female shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei. The traits under analysis were days to first spawn after ablation (DTFS), egg diameter (ED) and number (EN), and egg triacylglycerides (TG), vitellin (VIT), total protein (PROT) and total lipids (LIP) for first spawned eggs. Estimates were based on 1–11 females

  12. Epidemiological Parameters of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infections in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Andres Soto; Jeffrey M Lotz

    2001-01-01

    An experimental protocol based on a mathematical epidemiology model was developed to study the transmission, virulence, and recovery rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Two modes of transmission were compared for WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei. We compared transmission by ingestion of infected cadavers to transmission by cohabitation with infected animals. In addition, we compared the ingestion transmission of WSSV

  13. Sperm quality in relation to age and weight of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. P. Ceballos-Vázquez; C. Rosas; I. S. Racotta

    2003-01-01

    Optimal sperm quality is an important feature for management of shrimp broodstock. The understanding of the sperm quality in relation to age and weight of shrimp is useful to select male broodstock. To evaluate the effect of age and weight on sperm quality, Litopenaeus vannamei males from the same cohort at ages of 6, 8, 10, and 12 months were

  14. Immune assessment of farm-reared Penaeus vannamei shrimp naturally infected by IMNV in NE Brazil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrezza M. Costa; Celso C. Buglione; Fabiana L. Bezerra; Pedro C. C. Martins; Margherita A. Barracco

    2009-01-01

    Farm-reared shrimp production was growing intensely in Brazil until 2002, when an outbreak of a new disease, caused by the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), disrupted the production in the northeast region. The aim of this study was to evaluate some hemato–immunological parameters in Penaeus vannamei shrimp during the progress of the disease caused by IMNV. Affected shrimp were separated into

  15. Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

  16. Effect of marine red yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on growth and antioxidant competence of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shi-Ping Yang; Zao-He Wu; Ji-Chang Jian; Xing-Zhong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The effects of orally administered marine red yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum on growth performance and antioxidant competence of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated in a six-week feeding trial. The shrimps were fed with three diets, including the control diet, the diet containing 1% dry yeast and the diet containing 108yeastsg?1 diet. R. paludigenum supplementation caused significant increase in WG, SGR and survival

  17. Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast CultureR, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier

  18. Effect of Bacillus subtilis on the growth and survival rate of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hadi Zokaei Far; Roos B. Saad; Hassan Mohd Daud; Sharr Azni Harmin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of Bacillus subtilis, isolated from digestive tract of Macrobrachium rosenbergii was investigated on growth and survival rate of Litopenaeus vannamei during 60 days of culture. Sixteen aquaria with four replicates were used for treatments and controls. Treatment groups were consisted of ?) shrimp fed diet with B. subtilis (T1), and ii) shrimp fed diet mixed with B. subtilis

  19. Maturation performance of Penaeus vannamei co-fed Artemia biomass preparations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Naessens; P. Lavens; L. Gomez; C. L. Browdy; K. McGovern-Hopkins; A. W. Spencer; D. Kawahigashi; P. Sorgeloos

    1997-01-01

    Few shrimp hatcheries successfully propagate captive broodstock on a commercial scale. Diets for acceptable maturation performance of Penaeus vannamei have typically relied on the inclusion of marine polychaetes (bloodworm) from Panama or Maine, USA, which are expensive and are of unpredictable supply. Studies were therefore undertaken at experimental and commercial scale to replace or supplement the polychaetes by frozen ongrown

  20. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture 

    E-print Network

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Ryan, Doan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Jason A., Sawyer; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2014-07-28

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA...

  1. Digital gene expression analysis in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to low salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Hu, Dongxu

    2015-02-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has been greatly impacted by low salinity stress. To gain knowledge on the immune response in L. vannamei under such stress, we investigated digital gene expression (DEG) in L. vannamei hemocytes using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 38,155 high quality unigenes with average length 770 bp were generated; 145 and 79 genes were identified up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune signaling pathways, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, apoptosis, cellular protein synthesis, lipid transport and energy metabolism were the differentially regulated processes occurring during low salinity stress. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding environmental stress and a valuable gene information for a better understanding of immune mechanisms of L. vannamei under low salinity stress. PMID:25463292

  2. Dietary administration of sodium alginate enhances the immune ability of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Ching-Ming Kuo; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    Haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (12.3±1.2g) which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0gkg?1 after five months. L. vannamei fed a diet containing 2.0gkg?1 sodium

  3. Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.

    PubMed

    Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

    2010-01-01

    Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. PMID:21034991

  4. Original Contribution WELFARE AND HEALTH OF DAIRY CATTLE - EFFECT OF THE LEVEL OF NUTRITION AND BODY CONDITION AT THE END OF PREGNANCY AND EARLY LACTATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurii Mitev; Tchonka Miteva; Todor Stoyanchev; Rumen Binev

    2005-01-01

    Forty cows of the Black-and-White breed at 2 nd to 5 th lactation were divided into 4 groups (10 in each group) and were fed according to 4 different regimes during the dry period and the first 84 days of lactation. Nutrition levels for both periods were: moderate-moderate (MM); moderate-abundant (MH); abundant-moderate (HM) and abundant-abundant (HH). The abundant feeding during

  5. Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after ‘Vaccination’

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

  6. Arginine kinase from Litopenaeus vannamei: cloning, expression and catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cui-Luan; Ji, Pei-Feng; Kong, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Arginine kinase (AK) is a phosphotransferase that plays a critical role in energy metabolism in invertebrates. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of AK was cloned from shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei by using RT-PCR and RACE PCR. It was 1446 bp encoding 356 amino acids, and belongs to the conserved phosphagen kinase family. The quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR analysis revealed a broad expression of AK with the highest expression in the muscle and the lowest in the skin. The expression of AK after challenge with LPS was tested in hemocytes and muscle, which indicated that the two peak values were 6.2 times (at 3 h) and 10.14 times (at 24 h) in the hemocytes compared with the control values, respectively (P < 0.05), while the highest expression of AK was 41 times (at 24 h) in the muscle compared with the control (P < 0.05). In addition, AK was expressed in Escherichia coli by prokaryotic expression plasmid pGEX-4T-2. The recombinant protein was expressed as glutathione s-transferase (GST) arginine kinase (GST-AK) fusion protein, which was purified by affinity chromatography using Glutathione Sepharose 4B. After cleavage from GST by using a site-specific protease, the recombinant protein was identified by ESI-MS and showed AK activity. After treatment with 10 mM ATP, the enzyme activity significantly increased. However, the enzyme activity was inhibited by 10 mM alpha-ketoglutarate, 50 mM glucose and 200 mM ATP. This research suggested that AK might play an important role in the coupling of energy production and utilization and the immune response in shrimps. PMID:19239924

  7. Nutritional Challenges

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nancy P. Moreno

    2009-01-01

    In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

  8. Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae), cultivated at different salinities.

    PubMed

    Gucic, Milena; Cortés-Jacinto, Edilmar; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael

    2013-09-01

    Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD) and lipids (ALD) were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP) and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP) diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50 psu) in 60 L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CP diet which had 74.0% at 50 psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35 psu, respectively). For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4%) at 5 psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50 psu (97.3 and 94.7%). This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. PMID:24027918

  9. A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on ¹H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Qing-hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48 h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

  10. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  11. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thasanee Nonwachai; Watchariya Purivirojkul; Chalor Limsuwan; Niti Chuchird; Mario Velasco; Arun K. Dhar

    2010-01-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used

  12. Nutrition Cafe

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  14. Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

    2014-02-01

    Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

  15. The cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Molecular cloning and expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gracia A. Gómez-Anduro; Carolina-V. Barillas-Mury; Alma B. Peregrino-Uriarte; Lalita Gupta; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Jorge Hernández-López; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

    2006-01-01

    Manganese containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) is normally a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme in eukaryotic organisms; however, a cytoplasmic manganese SOD (cMnSOD) was found in crustaceans that use hemocyanin as oxygen carrier. The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a cMnSOD from Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. The coding sequence predicts a 287 residues protein with a unique 61 amino acids

  16. Antioxidative activity of Mungoong, an extract paste, from the cephalothorax of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wanwisa Binsan; Soottawat Benjakul; Wonnop Visessanguan; Sittiruk Roytrakul; Munehiko Tanaka; Hideki Kishimura

    2008-01-01

    The antioxidative activity of Mungoong, an extract paste, from the cephalothorax of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Extraction media were shown to affect the antioxidative activity and properties of resulting extracts from Mungoong. Distilled water exhibited the highest efficacy in extracting the antioxidants from Mungoong, as evidenced by the highest ABTS (2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) radical scavenging

  17. Effect of temperature on sperm quality of captive Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Perez-Velazquez; William A Bray; Addison L Lawrence; Delbert M Gatlin; Mayra L Gonzalez-Felix

    2001-01-01

    Effect of temperature on reproductive quality of captive male Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock was investigated by measuring sperm count and percentage of abnormal sperm per compound spermatophore. Variability in these responses among and within experimental units also was evaluated. Male shrimp with an initial average weight of 48.0 g were maintained in 3.7-m diameter circular tanks with recirculating seawater, and exposed

  18. Population Genetic Structure of Pacific White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) from Mexico to Panama: Microsatellite DNA Variation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Valles-Jimenez; P. Cruz; R. Perez-Enriquez

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of wild white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from 4 geographic locations from Mexico to Panama were investigated using 5 microsatellite DNA loci. The genetic diversity between populations was indicated by the mean number of alleles per locus and mean observed heterozygosity, which ranged from 7.4 to 8.6 and from 0.241 to 0.388, respectively. Significant departures from

  19. Effect of water temperature on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater at 27 °C or 28 °C were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus at 1×104 colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp?1 or 1×105 cfu shrimp?1, and then cultivated onward at water temperatures varying from 20 to 34 °C. Over 24–144 h, mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held at 34 °C or 32 °C was significantly

  20. Genomic structure and transcriptional regulation of the penaeidin gene family from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nuala A. O'Leary; Paul S. Gross

    2006-01-01

    Penaeidins are a family of shrimp antimicrobial peptides that have a unique molecular structure consisting of a highly conserved leader peptide followed by an N-terminal proline-rich domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. Three distinct classes of penaeidins, named PEN2, PEN3, and PEN4, are expressed in the hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Multiple isoforms, generated by substitutions and

  1. Haemolymph parameters of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) infected with Taura syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yen-Ling Song; Chun-I Yu; Tzu-Wen Lien; Chih-Cheng Huang; Min-Nan Lin

    2003-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were injected with Taura syndrome virus (TSV) to assess shrimp immune responses and survival. TSV-infected shrimp suffered high mortality, but mock-infected and untreated shrimp experienced no mortality. Moribund shrimp were a pale, reddish colour and were lethargic and soft-shelled. Their haemolymph was clear red and coagulated poorly. In TSV-infected shrimp, the total haemocyte count (THC),

  2. A single WAP domain-containing protein from Litopenaeus vannamei hemocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florinda Jiménez-Vega; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Kenneth Söderhäll; Francisco Vargas-Albores

    2004-01-01

    A cDNA clone coding for a single WAP domain (SWD) protein was isolated from a hemocyte cDNA library of Litopenaeus vannamei. The full-length cDNA sequence is 0.4kb long and encodes a 93-amino acid protein. Using this sequence as a probe a similar clone coding for a 92-amino acids protein was found in a cDNA library from Penaeus monodon hemocytes. The

  3. Immune responses and gene expression in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, induced by Lactobacillus plantarum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chiu-Hsia Chiu; Yuan-Kuang Guu; Chun-Hung Liu; Tzu-Ming Pan; Winton Cheng

    2007-01-01

    The total haemocyte counts, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus, as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), serine protein (SP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcription of L. vannamei, and its susceptibility to V. alginolyticus when the shrimp were fed diets containing Lactobacillus plantarum at 0

  4. Replacement of fish meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Allen Davis; C. R. Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal (CEPM) and flashed dried poultry by-product meal (FD-PBM) was evaluated as replacements for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. Each meal was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial wt.±S.D., 0.37±0.015 g)

  5. Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Yi Lai; Winton Cheng; Ching-Ming Kuo

    2005-01-01

    cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO

  6. Microbial immunostimulants reduce mortality in whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio sinaloensis strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ma. del Carmen Flores-Miranda; Antonio Luna-González; Héctor A. González-Ocampo; Jesús A. Fierro-Coronado; Blanca O. Partida-Arangure

    2011-01-01

    The effect of microbial immunostimulants on the survival and immune response of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio sinaloensis strains was evaluated. Dead microorganisms were added to feed with the attractant Dry Oil® and consisted of four lactic acid bacteria (Lta2, Lta6, Lta8, and Lta10) and one yeast (Lt6). V. sinaloensis strains or saline solution were inoculated to shrimp by

  7. Immune and physiological responses in Pacific white shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shu-Ling Hsieh; Yuan-Hwa Ruan; Yi-Chen Li; Pei-Shan Hsieh; Chin-Hwa Hu; Ching-Ming Kuo

    2008-01-01

    The susceptibility, physiological and immune responses of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, under challenge with Vibrio alginolyticus were investigated for a 72-h period. The survival of shrimp challenged with V. alginolyticus was 86.7, 75.6, 57.8, 54.4, 48.9 and 44.4% after 12, 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h, respectively. No significant differences in immune parameters were observed among the control

  8. Primary structure of CHH\\/MIH\\/GIH-like peptides in sinus gland extracts from Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yajun J Wang; Timothy K Hayes; G. Mark Holman; Antonio R Chavez; Larry L Keeley

    2000-01-01

    Peptides belonging to the CHH\\/MIH\\/GIH-family of crustacean hormones were isolated from acetic acid extracts of sinus glands isolated from eyestalks of the shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. The peptides were isolated by chromatography and molecular weights determined by MALDI mass spectrometry. Peptides in the range of 7–9 kDa and containing three disulfide bridges were selected for amino acid sequence analysis. Three peptides

  9. Replacement of Marine Animal Protein with Peanut Meal in Diets for Juvenile White Shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chhorn Lim

    1997-01-01

    Six isonitrogenous, isocaloric diets containing 0,11.7, 23.4, 35.1, 46.8, and 58.5% peanut meal as substitutes, on an equal nitrogen basis, for 0,20,40,60,80, and 100% of animal protein mix (53% menhaden fish meal, 34% shrimp waste meal, and 13% squid meal) were fed to juvenile white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, to satiation four times daily for 8 weeks. Shrimp fed the two

  10. Purification and characterization of ? 2-macroglobulin from the white shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Teresa Gollas-Galván; Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Claudia Vargas-Requena; Francisco Vargas-Albores

    2003-01-01

    ?2-Macroglobulin (?2M) is a broad-spectrum protease-binding protein abundant in plasma from vertebrates and several invertebrate phyla. This protein was purified from cell-free hemolymph of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, using Blue-Sepharose and Phenyl-Sepharose chromatography. The shrimp ?2M is a 380 kDa protein, a homodimer of two apparently identical subunits of ?180 kDa linked by disulphide bridges. The amino acid sequence

  11. Identification and functional characterization of Dicer2 and five single VWC domain proteins of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Ting; Zhao, Li; Li, Chao-Zheng; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-06-01

    Dicer (Dcr) is the key protein of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. To investigate the role of the RNAi pathway in shrimp anti-viral immunity, Litopenaeus vannamei Dcr2 (designated as LvDcr2) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvDcr2 was 5513bp long, with an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 1502 amino acids. In addition, five proteins homologous to the single von Willebrand factor type C (VWC) domain protein (SVC) were also identified in L. vannamei and named LvSVC1-5. These LvSVCs were between 102 and 190 amino acids in length and all contained a motif similar to Drosophila melanogaster SVC proteins (DmSVCs). By co-immunoprecipitation assays and pull-down assays, we demonstrated that LvDcr2, L. vannamei Argonaute 2 (LvAgo2), and L. vannamei transactivating response RNA-binding protein isoform 1 (LvTRBP1) interacted with each other. A luciferase reporter assay indicated that the promoters of LvSVC1, LvSVC4, LvSVC5, and DmSVC Vago (DmVago) were activated by LvDcr2 as well as by Drosophila Dcr2 (DmDcr2). Real-time RT-PCR showed that LvDcr2 and LvSVCs were up-regulated in immune responses against Poly(C-G) or WSSV challenge. These results suggested that LvDcr2 formed complexes with LvAgo2 and LvTRBP1 to act as the cores of shrimp small interfering RNA (siRNA)-induced silencing complex (siRISC)/siRISC-loading complex (siRLC), role in shrimp siRNA pathway. Furthermore, these results also suggested that LvDcr2 may engage in non-specific activation of anti-viral immunity. PMID:21256150

  12. Identification of genes involved in taura syndrome virus resistance in litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Boube, I; Lotz, J M; Pozhitkov, A E; Li, S; Griffitt, R J

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The goal of the present research was to identify the genes that are differentially expressed between two lineages of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei displaying different susceptibilities to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and to understand the molecular pathways involved in resistance to the disease. An oligonucleotide microarray was constructed and used to identify several genes that were differentially expressed in the two L. vannamei lineages following infection with TSV. Individual L. vannamei from either resistant or susceptible lineages were exposed via injection to TSV. Individuals were removed at 6 and 24 h postinfection, and gene expression was assessed with the in-house microarray. The microarray data resulted in the selection of a set of 397 genes that were altered by TSV exposure between the different lineages. Significantly differentially expressed genes were subjected to hierarchical clustering and revealed a lineage-dependent clustering at 24 h postinoculation, but not at 6 h postinoculation. Discriminant analysis resulted in the identification of a set of 11 genes that were able to correctly classify Pacific white shrimp as resistant or susceptible based on gene expression data. Received June 21, 2013; accepted October 24, 2013. PMID:25229483

  13. Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

  14. The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7 ?g/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7 ?g/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security. PMID:25600714

  15. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  16. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  17. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  18. Assessing and improving the quality of food composition databases for nutrition and health applications in Europe: the contribution of EuroFIR.

    PubMed

    Finglas, Paul M; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

    2014-09-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25469406

  19. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  20. Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  1. Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels.

    PubMed

    Rosas, C; Cuzon, G; Gaxiola, G; Le Priol, Y; Pascual, C; Rossignyol, J; Contreras, F; Sanchez, A; Van Wormhoudt, A

    2001-04-30

    The present study was designed to understand how carbohydrate (CBH) and protein metabolism are related in the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. With this information, we obtained a comprehensive schedule of the protein-carbohydrate metabolism including enzymatic, energetic, and functional aspects. We used salinity to determine its role as a modulator of the protein-carbohydrate metabolism in shrimp. Two experiments were designed. The first experiment evaluated the effect of CBH-salinity combinations in growth and survival, and hemolymph glucose, protein, and ammonia levels, digestive gland glycogen, osmotic pressure, and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) of L. vannamei juveniles acclimated during 18 days at a salinity of 15 per thousand and 40 per thousand. The second experiment was done to evaluate the effect of dietary CBH level on pre- and postprandial oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, and the oxygen-nitrogen ratio (O/N) of juvenile L. vannamei in shrimps acclimated at 40 per thousand salinity. We also evaluated the ability of shrimp to carbohydrate adaptation. We made phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PECPK) and hexokinase activity measurements after a change in dietary carbohydrate levels at different times during 10 days. The growth rate depended on the combination salinity-dietary CBH-protein level. The maximum growth rate was obtained in shrimps maintained at 15 per thousand salinity and with a diet containing low CBH and high protein. The protein in hemolymph is related to the dietary protein levels; high dietary protein levels produced a high protein concentration in hemolymph. This suggests hemolymph is able to store proteins after a salinity acclimation. Depending on the salinity, the hemolymph proteins could be used as a source of osmotic effectors or as metabolic energy. The O/N values obtained show that shrimp used proteins as a source of energy, mainly when shrimps were fed with low CBH. The role played by postprandial nitrogen excretion (PPNE) in apparent heat increase (AHI) (PPNE/AHI ratio) is lower in shrimps fed diets containing high CBH in comparison with shrimps fed diets containing low CBH levels. These results confirm that the metabolism of L. vannamei juveniles is controlled by dietary protein levels, affecting the processes involved in the mechanical and biochemical transformations of ingested food. A growth depression effect was observed in shrimps fed with low-CBH protein diets and maintained in 40 per thousand salinity. In these shrimps, the hemolymph ammonia concentration (HAC) was significantly higher than that observed in shrimps fed with low CBH and maintained in 15 per thousand salinity. That high HAC level coincided with lower growth rate, which suggests that this level might be toxic for juveniles of L. vannamei. Results obtained for GDH activity showed this enzyme regulated both HAC and hemolymph protein levels, with high values in shrimps fed with low CBH levels and maintained in 40 per thousand salinity, and lower in shrimps fed with high CBH and maintained in 15 per thousand salinity. These differences mean that shrimp with a high-gill GDH activity might waste more energy in oxidation of the excess proteins and amino acids, reducing the energy for growth. It was evident that L. vannamei can convert protein to glycogen by a gluconeogenic pathway, which permitted shrimp to maintain a minimum circulating glucose of 0.34 mg/ml in hemolymph. A high PECPK activity was observed in shrimps fed a diet containing low CBH level indicating that the gluconeogenic pathway is activated, as in vertebrates by low dietary CBH levels. After a change in diet, we observed a change in PEPCK; however, it was lower and seems to depend on the way of adaptation, because it occurred after 6 days when adapting to a high-CBH diet and with little change for the low-CBH diet. PMID:11325374

  2. Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

    2013-01-01

    Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

  3. Identification and Function of Myeloid Differentiation Factor 88 (MyD88) in Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yan, Hui; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wang, Pei-Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential signaling protein in Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. In this study, two MyD88 protein variants (LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvMyD88 cDNA is 1,848 bp in length and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,428 bp, whereas the LvMyD88-1 cDNA is 1,719 bp in length and has an ORF of 1,299 bp. Both variants encode proteins with death and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains and share 91% sequence identity. In healthy L. vannamei, the LvMyD88 genes were highly expressed in hemocytes but at a low level in the hepatopancreas. The LvMyD88s expression was induced in hemocytes after challenge with lipopolysaccharide, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphyloccocus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus, but not by poly I?C. Overexpression of LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to activation of antimicrobial peptide genes and wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371. These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates. PMID:23071706

  4. Artemia franciscana as a vector for infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) to Litopenaeus vannamei juvenile.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Lavander, Henrique David; de Santana Luna, Manuella Maria; de Melo Eloi da Silva, Ana Odete; Gálvez, Alfredo Olivera; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

    2015-03-01

    In 2004, the infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) was recognized as the main cause of Litopenaeusvannamei shrimp culture's drop in Brazil. In health animal control programs, in order to reduce virus prevalence in production units it is necessary to screen live feed used. Among live diets used in aquaculture, the brine shrimp Artemia sp. is essential in crustacean larviculture and maturation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the susceptibility of Artemiafranciscana to IMNV through an immersion challenge and virus-phytoplankton adhesion route and to elucidate its role as a vector for IMNV transmission to L.vannamei. A. franciscana adults were infected with IMNV through both routes, as demonstrated by PCR-positive reactions. However, infected A. franciscana showed no signs of infection. More than 40% of L. vannamei juveniles fed with IMNV-infected A. franciscana by virus-phytoplankton adhesion route were positive by real-time PCR, whereas only a 10% infection rate was found among shrimp fed with IMNV-infected brine shrimp using the immersion challenge. Significant differences were found in mean viral load between immersion and virus-phytoplankton adhesion shrimp treatments (p ? 0.05). Moreover, the mean viral loads were 1.34 × 10(2) and 1.48 × 10(4) copies/?g(-1) of total RNA for virus-phytoplankton adhesion and IMNV-infected tissue treatments, respectively, and the difference was not significant (p ? 0.05). The results indicated that A. franciscana act as a vector for IMNV transmission under the experimental conditions examined. Although no mass mortalities were detected in L. vannamei fed with IMNV-infected brine shrimp, these infected shrimp should not be disregarded as a source of IMNV in grow-out units. PMID:25676109

  5. Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

  6. Pellino protein from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei positively regulates NF-?B activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaozheng; Chai, Jiaoting; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Wang, Sheng; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2014-06-01

    Pellino, named after its property that binds Pelle (the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of IRAK1), is a highly conserved E3 class ubiquitin ligase in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Pellino interacts with phosphorylated IRAK1, causing polyubiquitination of IRAK1, and plays a critical upstream role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. In this study, we firstly cloned and identified a crustacean Pellino from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPellino). LvPellino contains a putative N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and a C-terminal ring finger (RING) domain with a potential E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity, and shows a high similarity with D. melanogaster Pellino. LvPellino could interact with L. vannamei Pelle (LvPelle) and over-expression of LvPellino could increase the activity of LvDorsal (a L. vannamei homolog of NF-?B) on promoters containing NF-?B binding motifs and enhance the expression of arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The LvPellino protein was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus and LvPellino mRNA was detected in all the tissues examined and could be up-regulated after lipopolysaccharides, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvPellino to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Knockdown of LvPellino in vivo could significantly decrease the expression of AMPs and increase the mortality of shrimps caused by V. parahaemolyticus challenge. However, suppression of the LvPellino expression could not change the mortality caused by WSSV infection, and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that over-expression of LvPellino could enhance the promoters of WSSV genes wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371, indicating a complex role of LvPellino in WSSV pathogenesis and shrimp antiviral mechanisms. PMID:24463313

  7. Intraspecific variation in the marine shrimps Penaeus (Litopenaeus) stylirostris and Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei 

    E-print Network

    Horton, Scott Edward

    1981-01-01

    and outlined (broken line) and lettere or . vannamei. 110 W 100 W 90W BOW 30 o e 5 Mexico e o d~ cr Buatemata~ El Salvador Nicara a ~ E ~ a Both Syecies Rica tv c Panama Colombia a 10 u Ecuador S 0 Peru IIB W 100 W 90W SBW Diagram of 1...) misidentified as ~B*1*t -N* d 'g*td. Bt' p*' typ t ' 1 was collected in Panama and is no longer extant. A neo- type has not been designated. Despite the absence of a type, Stimpson's original description definitely clearly defines the species...

  8. Cytotoxic activity of a dichloromethane extract and fractions obtained from Eudistoma vannamei (Tunicata: Ascidiacea).

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Paula C; Wilke, Diego V; Takeara, Renata; Lotufo, Tito M C; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Lopes, Norberto P; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2008-11-01

    This study consists of the bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract from Eudistoma vannamei and the pharmacological characterization of the active fractions. The dried hydromethanolic extract dissolved in aqueous methanol was partitioned with dichloromethane and chromatographed on a silica gel flash column. The anti-proliferative effect was monitored by the MTT assay. Four of the latest fractions, numbered 14 to 17, which held many chemical similarities amongst each other, were found to be the most active. The selected fractions were tested for viability, proliferation and death induction on cultures of HL-60 promyeloblastic leukemia cells. The results suggested that the observed cytotoxicity is related to apoptosis induction. PMID:17400012

  9. An energetic and conceptual model of the physiological role of dietary carbohydrates and salinity on Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Rosas; Gerard Cuzon; Gabriela Gaxiola; Cristina Pascual; Gabriel Taboada; Leticia Arena; Alain van Wormhoudt

    2002-01-01

    We are reporting results directed to explain the relation between carbohydrates (CHO), protein metabolism, and the energetic balance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The interaction of dietary CHO and salinity was measured to try to understand the relation between osmotic control and metabolism, both from a biochemical and energetic point of view. Two experiments were done. In the first experiment, shrimp

  10. Feasible predictive criteria for reproductive performance of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: egg quality and female physiological condition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabiola G Arcos; Ana M Ibarra; Elena Palacios; Celia Vazquez-Boucard; Ilie S Racotta

    2003-01-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of consecutive spawnings on egg quality in a homogeneous domesticated population of Litopenaeus vannamei under optimal maturation conditions. A multidisciplinary approach was used to evaluate egg quality and female condition, using production, morphometric, biochemical, and histological criteria. For this purpose, 106 individually tagged females were stocked with males in maturation tanks, and productivity variables

  11. Per os challenge of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles with six geographic isolates of white spot syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiong Wang; Brenda L White; Rita M Redman; Donald V Lightner

    1999-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important pathogens of penaeid shrimp. It is widely distributed in most Asian countries where penaeid shrimp are cultured, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico and SE USA. The virulence of six geographic isolates of WSSV was compared using Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles. The six geographic

  12. Digestive enzyme activity and food ingesta in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) as a function of body weight

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julian Gamboa-delgado; Cesar Molina-poveda; Chantal Cahu

    2003-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate variations of digestive enzyme activities in Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) reared in commercial ponds under semi-intensive conditions. Shrimp were collected at each body weight increase of 2 g. As the shrimp grew (2-12 g), significant increases in the activities of lipase and chymotrypsin were observed. The total protease activity decreased from 6 g onwards. Trypsin

  13. Growth, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed different oils in the presence and absence of phospholipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mayra L. González-Félix; Addison L. Lawrence; Delbert M. Gatlin; Martin Perez-Velazquez

    2002-01-01

    A 2×6 factorial study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary phospholipids (PL) and different neutral lipids, as well as their potential interaction, on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of hepatopancreas and muscle tissue of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The lipid sources were coconut, soybean, linseed, peanut, and menhaden oils. Five diets contained 5% of each test oil and

  14. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, osmolality and electrolyte levels of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in relation to size and molt stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Da-Fun Yan; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2002-01-01

    The whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) was examined for hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, osmotic and ion concentrations in relation to sex, size and molt stage. No significant difference in hemolymph variables was observed between male and female shrimp with body weight in the range of 4.69–32.57 g. With regard to the molt cycle, hemolymph protein and oxyhemocyanin levels were highest

  15. Digestibility of starch in Penaeus vannamei: in vivo and in vitro study on eight samples of various origin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Cousin; Gérard Cuzon; Jean Guillaume

    1996-01-01

    Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of carbohydrate, protein and lipid were investigated in Penaeus vannamei (18–25 g) with diets containing eight starches of various origin. Test ingredients, included at a level of 35% of diet, were native (NC) or gelatinized (GC) corn starch, waxy corn starch, either native (XC) or gelatinized (GX), high amylose corn starch (AC), potato starch, either native

  16. Dietary ?-Glucan and Nucleotide Effects on Growth, Survival and Immune Responses of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Shivananda Murthy; P. Li; A. L. Lawrence; D. M. Gatlin III

    2009-01-01

    Effects of dietary supplementation of ?-glucans and nucleotides on growth, survival and immune responses of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a low salinity (5 ppt) were evaluated during a 30 d feeding trial. Final mean weight of shrimp fed nucleotides at 0.5%?was highest and significantly different from those fed the basal diet or diets supplemented with ?-glucans. Survival

  17. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda; Wiboon Lapjatupon; Suthasinee Chaisilapasung; Dhanapong Sangsue; Chutima Tantikitti

    2008-01-01

    Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg -1 ) were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was

  18. Screening for potential probiotic bacteria to reduce prevalence of WSSV and IHHNV in whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) under experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla Y. Leyva-Madrigal; Antonio Luna-González; César M. Escobedo-Bonilla; Jesús A. Fierro-Coronado; Ignacio E. Maldonado-Mendoza

    This study evaluated the effect of Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus hemolyticus as probiotics in whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei naturally infected with WSSV and IHHNV. All bacteria were isolated from the gut of wild brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis). Presumptive lactic acid bacteria were characterized for hemolytic and enzymatic activity, hydrophobicity, growth, and molecular identification. Two mixtures of four isolates were tested

  19. White spot syndrome virus infection in cultured Penaeus vannamei (Boone) in Ecuador with emphasis on histopathology and ultrastructure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Rodriguez; B Bayot; Y Amano; F Panchana; I de Blas; V Alday; J Calderon

    2003-01-01

    Mortalities of cultured shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have occurred in Ecuador since May 1999. Three epidemiological surveys in Ecuadorian farms were carried out and showed an apparent associ- ation between lower temperature and increased mortality rates in commercial ponds. Infected ani- mals showed a reddish discolouration and lethargy and occasionally, white spots in

  20. “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei,” an Intracellular Pathogenic Enteric Bacterium in the Hepatopancreas of the Marine Shrimp Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Pantoja, Carlos R.; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lightner, Donald V.

    2013-01-01

    The bacteria that cause necrotizing hepatopancreatitis in Penaeus vannamei adversely affect penaeid shrimp cultured in the western hemisphere. 16S rRNA and gyrase B gene analyses determined the taxonomic position of these bacteria. The name “Candidatus Hepatobacter penaei” is proposed for these pathogenic bacteria, which are members of the Rickettsiales order. PMID:23241970

  1. IHHN Virus as an Etiological Factor in Runt-Deformity Syndrome (RDS) of Juvenile Penaeus vannamei Cultured in Hawaii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hector Kalagayan; David Godin; Roberta Kanna; Gerry Hagino; James Sweeney; James Wyban; James Brock

    1991-01-01

    Runtdeformity syndrome (RDS) is an economically significant, frequent disease problem of cultured Penaeus vannamei. RDS is characterized by variable, often greatly reduced, growth rate of up to 30% of a cultured population and many shrimp with cuticle deformities of the rostrum, anterior appendages or other parts. The cause of RDS is undetermined. Nursery trials comparing histologically IHHN-positive and histologically IHHN-negative

  2. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  3. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-02-01

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

  4. Glutathione S-transferase in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Characterization and regulation under pH stress.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Wei-Na; Wang, An-Li; He, Wen-Yin; Zhou, Qi-Ting; Liu, Yuan; Xu, Jie

    2009-08-01

    We first expressed a Mu-class GST from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Escherichia coli, and then characterized the purified recombinant enzyme with respect to the effects of pH, temperature on its catalytic (1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene-glutathione conjugation) activity. We also analyzed its expression profile in L. vannamei tissues, and assessed changes in Mu-GST expression, GST activity profiles and mortality rates following exposure of white shrimp to low and high pH (5.6 and 9.3, respectively). Realtime-PCR analysis showed that Mu-GST transcripts were expressed in all examined L. vannamei tissues, but were most abundant in the hepatopancreas. At low pH Mu-GST transcript levels in the hepatopancreas were highest after 12 h, and then declined to their original levels after 24 h. After 12 h they were also upregulated in haemocytes, but downregulated in the gills, and unchanged in the stomach following exposure to pH stress. Western blot analyses confirmed that the Mu-GST protein was strongly expressed in the hepatopancreas after 12 h at low pH and remain unchanged in the stomach after exposure to pH stress. pH-Related changes in GST activities in the shrimp hepatopancreas were similar to those displayed by the Mu-GST mRNA and protein profiles. In addition, the mortality of L. vannamei was higher at high pH than at low pH. These results suggest that L. vannamei Mu-GST expression is stimulated by acidic pH and that it may play important roles in detoxification of xenobiotics and antioxidant defenses. PMID:19426830

  5. Untold nutrition.

    PubMed

    Campbell, T Colin

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition is generally investigated, and findings interpreted, in reference to the activities of individual nutrients. Nutrient composition of foods, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrient recommendations are mostly founded on this assumption, a practice commonly known as reductionism. While such information on specifics is important and occasionally useful in practice, it ignores the coordinated, integrated and virtually symphonic nutrient activity (wholism) that occurs in vivo. With reductionism providing the framework, public confusion abounds and huge monetary and social costs are incurred. Two examples are briefly presented to illustrate, the long time misunderstandings (1) about saturated and total fat as causes of cancer and heart disease and (2) the emergence of the nutrient supplement industry. A new definition of the science of nutrition is urgently needed. PMID:25036857

  6. Nutrition Explorations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

  7. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol J. Boushey

    Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

  8. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  9. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  10. Responses of prophenoloxidase system and related defence parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei to low salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Xie, Peng; Hu, Fawen

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of low salinity (26 and 21) on the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system and related defence parameters in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that low salinity induced a significant increase of dopamine (DA) concentration in haemolymph at 6 h of the experiment; on the other hand, total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and PO activity decreased over time to the lowest level at 24 h and remained low thereafter. Serine Protease (SP) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI) activity in the two lower salinity treatments decreased to the lowest level at 12 and 24 h, respectively, and both recovered to the control level at 72 h. In contrast, ?2- macroglobulin (?2M) activity in the two lower salinity treatments peaked at 24 h and then decreased to the control level at 72 h. Therefore, it may be concluded that stress-induced DA plays an important temporary role in neurotransmission and causes immune response in L. vannamei in adapting to salinity changes.

  11. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

  12. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  13. Identification and functional analysis of a Hemolin like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongliang; Li, Haoyang; Wei, Erman; Su, Ziqi; Zheng, Jieyao; Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yonggui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-03-01

    Hemolin is a specific immune protein belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and firstly identified in insects. Growing evidences suggest that Hemolin can be activated by bacterial and viral infections and may play an important role in antimicrobial immunity. In this paper, we firstly identified a Hemolin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHemolin). Sequence analysis showed that LvHemolin shares high similarity with insect Hemolins and is mainly composed of seven immunoglobulin (Ig) domains which form a 'horseshoe' tertiary structure. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that LvHemolin mainly expressed in stomach, gill, epithelium and pyloric cecum of L. vannamei. After challenge with pathogens or stimulants, expression of LvHemolin was significantly up-regulated in both gill and stomach. Agglutination analysis demonstrated that recombinant LvHemolin protein purified from Escherichia coli could accelerate the agglutination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis in the presence of Ca(2+). To verify the immune function of LvHemolin in vivo, shrimps were injected with gene-specific dsRNA, followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or V. parahaemolyticus. The results revealed that silence of LvHemolin could increase the cumulative mortalities of shrimps challenged by pathogens and increase the WSSV copies in shrimp tissues. These suggested that Hemolin could play an important role in shrimp innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25527138

  14. Molecular characterization and function of a p38 MAPK gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Chao-Zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-06-01

    p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are broadly expressed from yeasts to mammals, and are involved in the regulation of cells responsible to various extracellular stimuli. In this study, a p38 MAPK gene (designated as Lvp38) from Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned and characterized. It contained the conserved structures of a Thr-Gly-Tyr (TGY) motif and a substrate-binding site, Ala-Thr-Arg-Trp (ATRW). The tissue distribution patterns showed that Lvp38 was widely expressed in all examined tissues, with the highest expression in hemocytes, nerves, and intestines. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that Lvp38 was upregulated in gills and hemocytes after infection with the Gram-negative Vibrio alginolyticus and the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Reporter gene assays indicated that Lvp38 activated the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp. Knockdown of Lvp38 by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in a higher mortality of L. vannamei under V. alginolyticus and S. aureus infection, as well as a reduction in the expression of three shrimp AMP genes, namely, PEN4, crustin, and ALF2. Taken together, our data indicated that Lvp38 played a role in defending against bacterial infections. PMID:23500954

  15. Nucleic-acid based antivirals: augmenting RNA interference to 'vaccinate'Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Bartholomay, Lyric C; Loy, Duan S; Dustin Loy, J; Harris, D L

    2012-06-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae: Litopenaeus) has emerged as the dominant farmed shrimp species globally in tropical countries. Rearing animals at high density in semi-intensive or intensive culture systems, and translocating animals across the globe, have created optimum conditions for devastating epizootics. Of the various pathogens that impact shrimp culture, viruses are arguably the most important infectious disease agents that exact devastating economic losses to the industry. Augmenting the RNA interference (RNAi) capacity of shrimp is a promising, emerging solution to prevent disease caused by a variety of highly pathogenic shrimp viruses. Indeed RNAi functions as a primary mechanism of antiviral RNA in arthropods, as was revealed initially in studies of mosquito-virus interactions. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used as RNAi triggers in vivo in L. vannamei to reduce the pathology associated with virus infection. We explored the efficacy of those triggers as a function of the target gene in the virus genome and show that efficacy is virus-specific and cannot be predicted based on the target gene function or transcript level in an infected cell. Further, we show that carefully designed RNAi triggers provide an immune stimulus that results in specific, long-term protection and therefore suggest that these dsRNA antivirals can function as vaccines in controlling disease. PMID:22429833

  16. Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

    2011-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

  17. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  18. Nutrition and cancer: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Doll

    1979-01-01

    The ways in which food and drink can contribute to, or prevent, the development of cancer are reviewed. Strict proof that an element of nutrition is carcinogenic or anticarcinogenic is unobtainable as yet. The problem is to decide when the evidence is strong enough to justify action to modify the diet. The methods by which such evidence can be obtained

  19. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  20. Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

  1. Selectively enhanced expression of prophenoloxidase activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1) at a bacteria clearance site in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prophenoloxidase-activating (PO activating) system plays an important role in the crustacean innate immunity, particularly in wound healing and pathogen defense. A key member of this system is prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE), which is the direct activator of prophenoloxidase (proPO). Despite their importance in crustacean PO activating system, the studies on them remain limited. Results Here we report on a PPAE of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (lvPPAE1), which showed 94% similarity to PPAE1 of Penaeus monodon. We found that lvPPAE1 in fluid hemocytes was down regulated after challenge by Vibrio harveyi but was enhanced when shrimps were exposed to a bacteria-rich environment for long-term. In vivo gene silence of lvPPAE1 by RNAi can significantly reduce the phenoloxidase activity (PO) and increase the susceptibility of shrimps to V. harveyi. Although lvPPAE1 was down-regulated in fluid hemocytes by Vibrio challenge, its expression increased significantly in gill after bacteria injection, which is the primary bacteria-clearance tissue. Conclusion Suppressed expression in fluid hemocytes and enhanced expression in gill indicates selectively enhanced expression at the bacterial clearance site. This is a novel feature for PPAE expression. The results will contribute to our understanding of the PO activating system in crustaceans. PMID:22208405

  2. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Lin, Heizhao; Qin, Jian G.; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans. PMID:26147449

  3. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  4. Hsp70 expression in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to IHHNV and WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Moser, Juliana R; Fraga, Ana P M; Marques, Maria R F

    2014-12-01

    The effects of environmental changes, on non-target organisms may impact and bring consequences at the molecular level in marine organisms. There is a lack of data supporting the hypothesis according to which environmental stress modulates the immune system, leading to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents in shrimps. The present study was focused on changes occurring in cellular defense proteins in Litopenaeus vannamei infected by virus infection hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome (WSSV). Western blot analysis was used to evaluate expression of protein Hsp70, in gill tissue. Up-regulation levels were supported by immune detection analysis, suggesting that IHHNV and WSSV-shrimp infection promotes changes in the expression of these proteins. PMID:25674619

  5. Cytotoxic activity of fungal strains isolated from the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei.

    PubMed

    Montenegro, Tasso G C; Rodrigues, Felipe A R; Jimenez, Paula C; Angelim, Alysson L; Melo, Vânia M M; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; de Oliveira, Maria da Conceição F; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2012-10-01

    The cytotoxic activity at 50 ?g/ml of extracts obtained from eleven fungal strains associated to Eudistoma vannamei, an endemic ascidian from Northeast Brazil, against two cell lines, i.e., the HCT-8 (colon cancer) and the MDA-MB-435 (melanoma) cell lines, was investigated. The most promising extract (EV10) was obtained from a fungus identified as Aspergillus sp. by molecular analysis and was selected for bioassay-guided isolation of its active principals. Large-scale fermentation of EV10 in potato-dextrose broth followed by chromatographic purification of the active extract from the liquid medium allowed the isolation of the isocoumarins mellein, cis-4-hydroxymellein, and trans-4-hydroxymellein, besides penicillic acid. All isolated compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity against the tumor cell lines MDA-MB-435 and HCT-8 and revealed penicillic acid as the only cytotoxic compound (cell growth inhibitions >95%). PMID:23081920

  6. An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp. PMID:22792387

  7. Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. I?B is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-?B. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned I?B homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-?B family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-?B binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV. PMID:23185415

  8. A comparative study of intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture on four bottom substrates without water change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuepeng; Bao, Weiyang; Ma, Shen

    2014-08-01

    The effect of four bottom substrates, oyster shell powder (OP), sugarcane bagasse (SB), a mixture of OP and SB (OS) and fresh soil (FS), on the water quality and bacterial and zooplankton density of intensive shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) culture tanks without water change and the growth performance of cultured shrimp were compared in this study. At the end of a 110 days culturing trial, the total ammonium-N (TAN) of the water on SB and the nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) on OS was significantly lower than that on the other substrates ( P<0.05), which coincided with the high density of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the water on SB and OS, respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) increased slowly on OP, SB and OS but remained low on FS. The density of total bacteria on OP, SB and OS was one order of magnitude higher than that on FS, and the density of zooplankton on SB and OS was significantly higher than that on FS or OP ( P<0.05). The improved water quality and increased density of bacteria and zooplankton on SB and OS may have had a synergistic effect on shrimp culture, improving its growth performance (high survival rate and yield and low feed conversion rate). SB and OS were more effective for improving the growth performance of intensively cultured L. vannamei without water change than OP and FS. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence regarding the effect of different bottom substrates on intensive shrimp culture.

  9. cDNA cloning and expression analysis of myostatin/GDF11 in shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhaoying; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Xianzong; He, Shulin; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Xiaolin

    2013-05-01

    Myostatin (MSTN) and growth differentiation factor-11 (GDF11) are closely related proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) superfamily. In vertebrates, MSTN is known to negatively regulate skeletal muscle growth, and GDF11 is found to inhibit neurogenesis. In invertebrates, only one ortholog of vertebrate MSTN and GDF11 (MSTN/GDF11) existed. Little attention has been paid on its role to date. In this study, the cDNA that encodes a 422-amino-acid MSTN/GDF11 protein (LvMSTN/GDF11) was characterized from a crustacean species, the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Sequence analysis revealed that the overall protein sequence and specific functional sites of LvMSTN/GDF11 were highly conserved with those in other crustacean species. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique demonstrated its tissue-specific, larval developmental stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression pattern, respectively. After in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone (20E), LvMSTN/GDF11 transcripts were declined in the abdominal (A) and pleopod (P1) muscles, increased in the pereiopod (P2) muscle, and not affected in the thoracic (T) muscle. The observed expression profiles suggest multiple functions of LvMSTN/GDF11 in L. vannamei and its role differs during the larval development and natural molt cycle. The different responses of LvMSTN/GDF11 to acute increases of 20E in the A, P1, P2 and T muscles may indicate that LvMSTN/GDF11 is transcriptionally regulated via ecdysteroids to coincide with its specific roles in the former three muscles, while its role may be independent of 20E regulation in the T muscle. PMID:23402749

  10. Transcriptomic responses of juvenile Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, to hypoxia and hypercapnic hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rathburn, Charles K; Sharp, Natasha J; Ryan, James C; Neely, Marion G; Cook, Matthew; Chapman, Robert W; Burnett, Louis E; Burnett, Karen G

    2013-09-01

    Estuarine crustaceans are often exposed to low dissolved O2 (hypoxia) accompanied by elevated CO2 (hypercapnia), which lowers water pH. Acclimatory responses to hypoxia have been widely characterized; responses to hypercapnia in combination with hypoxia (hypercapnic hypoxia) are less well known. Here we used oligonucleotide microarrays to characterize changes in global gene expression in the hepatopancreas of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, exposed to hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia for 4 or 24 h, compared with time-matched animals held in air-saturated water (normoxia). Unigenes whose expressions were significantly impacted by treatment and/or time were used to build artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify genes with the greatest sensitivity in pairwise discriminations between treatments at each time point and between times for each treatment. ANN gene sets that discriminated hypoxia or hypercapnic hypoxia from normoxia shared functions of translation, mitochondrial energetics, and cellular defense. GO terms protein modification/phosphorylation/cellular protein metabolism and RNA processing/apoptosis/cell cycling occurred at highest frequency in discriminating hypercapnic hypoxia from hypoxia at 4 and 24 h, respectively. For 75.4% of the annotated ANN genes, exposure to hypercapnic hypoxia for 24 h reduced or reversed the transcriptional response to hypoxia alone. These results suggest that high CO2/low pH may interfere with transcriptionally based acclimation to hypoxia or elicit physiological or biochemical responses that relieve internal hypoxia. Whether these data reflect resilience or sensitivity of L. vannamei in the face of expanding hypoxic zones and rising levels of atmospheric CO2 may be important to understanding the survival of this and other estuarine species. PMID:23821614

  11. Two types of ATPases from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in response to environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Wei-Na; Liu, Yuan; Cai, Dan-Xia; Li, Jie-Zhen; Wang, An-Li

    2012-06-01

    V-H ATPase and NaK ATPase are important classes of ATP-driven proton pumps that are present in the intracellular and plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells and play diverse roles in both normal and abnormal cellular processes. Among the subunits of the V-H ATPase complex, subunit a is a transmembrane glycoprotein that plays crucial roles in metabolism, growth, survival and cellular immunity. NaK ATPase subunit beta is thought to participate in the proper folding and movement of the NaK ATPase enzyme and may also aid cation transport. In this study, we analyzed the functions of V-H ATPase subunit a and NaK ATPase subunit beta from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNAs of the genes corresponding to V-H ATPase subunit a and NaK ATPase subunit beta were obtained, which were 2654 and 2055 bp long, with open reading frames encoding 830 and 313 amino acids, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that mRNA transcripts were strongly (but differentially) expressed in the gills and hepatopancreas, and at lower levels in other shrimp tissues. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of V-H ATPase subunit a and NaK ATPase beta of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that both of the two genes are sensitive and involved in all different stress responses and are more sensitive to salinity than other stresses. And they may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp. PMID:22311011

  12. LabNotes - Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

    2006-10-15

    An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

  13. A genetic linkage map of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ): sex-linked microsatellite markers and high recombination rates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liusuo Zhang; Changjian Yang; Yang Zhang; Li Li; Xiaoming Zhang; Qingli Zhang; Jianhai Xiang

    2007-01-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the leading species farmed in the Western Hemisphere and an economically important aquaculture species in China. In this\\u000a project, a genetic linkage map was constructed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite markers.\\u000a One hundred and eight select AFLP primer combinations and 30 polymorphic microsatellite markers produced 2071 markers that\\u000a were polymorphic in

  14. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

  15. Genetic (co)variation in harvest body weight and survival in Penaeus ( Litopenaeus) vannamei under standard commercial conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gitterle; Morten Rye; Ragnar Salte; James Cock; Harry Johansen; Carlos Lozano; Jorge Arturo Suárez; Bjarne Gjerde

    2005-01-01

    In 1997, CENIACUA (Centro de Investigaciones para la Acuicultura en Colombia) in collaboration with AKVAFORSK (Institute of Aquaculture Research, Norway) initiated a family-based selection scheme in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei to improve growth rate and survival in ponds and tanks. This paper reports results from a series of tests in which a total of 430 full-sib families (representing 204 paternal half-sib

  16. The immune stimulatory effect of sodium alginate on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Su-Tuen Yeh; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2004-01-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (9.4–11.3 g) were injected individually with sodium alginate at 10, 20 or 50 ?g g?1. No significant differences in THC, DHC and

  17. The immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to Vibrio alginolyticus at different salinity levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Long-Uong Wang; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei held in 25‰ seawater were injected with TSB-grown Vibrio alginolyticus (1×104cfushrimp?1), and then transferred to 5, 15, 25 (control) and 35‰. Over 24–96h, the mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5‰ and 15‰ was significantly higher than that of shrimp held in 25‰ and 35‰, and the mortality of V. alginolyticus-injected shrimp held in 5‰

  18. Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary administration of a yeast culture food supplement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph E. Burgents; Karen G. Burnett; Louis E. Burnett

    2004-01-01

    A yeast culture feed supplement (Diamond V XP Yeast Culture®, Diamond V Mills, Cedar Rapids, Iowa [IA]) was assessed for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed a standard shrimp pellet diet supplemented with 0% (control with 1% grain carrier), 0.5% (with 0.5% carrier), or 1.0% XP daily for 4 weeks. To

  19. Molecular characterization and expression analysis of elongation factors 1A and 2 from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei WangYuan; Yuan Liu; Wei-Na Wang; Wei-Jun Mai; Yu Xin; Jun Zhou; Wen-Yin He; An-Li Wang; Ru-Yong Sun

    2011-01-01

    Elongation factors (EF) are abundant cell proteins that play important roles in the metabolism of all multicellular organisms.\\u000a Here we describe a functional analysis of elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A) and elongation factor 2 (EF2), from the Pacific\\u000a white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNAs of genes corresponding to EF1A and EF2 were obtained that were 1547 and 2729 bp long, with open

  20. Enhancement of immunity and disease resistance in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by the probiotic, Bacillus subtilis E20

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deng-Yu Tseng; Pei-Lin Ho; Sung-Yan Huang; Sheng-Chi Cheng; Ya-Li Shiu; Chiu-Shia Chiu; Chun-Hung Liu

    2009-01-01

    Effects of Bacillus subtilis E20 isolated from fermented soybean on immune parameters and the disease resistance of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 98 days of B. subtilis E20 feeding were evaluated in this study. Shrimp fed B. subtilis E20-containing diets at concentrations of 106 (E206), 107 (E207), and 108 (E208)cfukg?1, respectively, had significantly increased survival rates of 13.3%, 16.7%,

  1. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and osmolality in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute low temperature stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Qiu; Wei-Na Wang; Li-juan Wang; Yu-Feng Liu; An-Li Wang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the genotoxic, physiological and immunological effects of short-term acute low temperature stress on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we rapidly transferred shrimp from tanks at 23±2°C to aquaria at the same temperature (controls) or 12±2°C for 12h. Changes in the shrimp hemocyte respiratory burst activity and DNA damage were examined during and after exposure to the temperature

  2. Effect of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count and prophenoloxidase system of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luqing Pan; Fawen Hu; Debin Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Effects of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, serine proteinase activity, proteinase inhibitor\\u000a activity and ?2-macroglobulin-like activity in L. vannamei were studied. Results showed that dopamine injection resulted in a significant effect on the parameters measured (P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (0.85% NaCl). In the experimental groups, the\\u000a hemocyte count

  3. Effect of ammonia on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hung Liu; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2004-01-01

    Growth of Vibrio alginolyticus was not affected by TSB medium containing ammonia-N concentration in the range of 0–20 mg l?1. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (7–12 g in the intermolt stage) were challenged with V. alginolyticus, which had been incubated for 24 h in the TSB medium containing different concentrations of ammonia-N (0, 1, 5. 10 and 20 mg l?1). There

  4. Cold shock-induced norepinephrine triggers apoptosis of haemocytes via caspase-3 in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chin-Chyuan Chang; Maw-Sheng Yeh; Winton Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), haemolymph norepinephrine (NE) level, caspase-3 mRNA expression and activity levels, and apoptotic haemocyte rate were measured when shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (20–25 g) were transferred from 28 to 22 °C after 0, 2, and 7 days, and the caspase-3 mRNA expression and activity levels and the apoptotic cell rate of haemocytes, in vitro, were determined after incubation with

  5. Effect of dietary protein on muscle collagen, collagenase and shear force of farmed white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JosafatMarina Ezquerra Brauer; JesúsAarón Salazar Leyva; Lorena Bringas Alvarado; Ofelia Rouzaud Sández

    2003-01-01

    The effect of three protein sources (sardine-based diet, squid-based diet and commercial diet) in feed on white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) growth, muscle collagen, collagenase activity and shear force was determined. Shrimp fed on diets with squid and sardine protein exhibited greater growth ( p<0.05) than those fed with commercial feed. Shrimp muscle collagen obtained from each treatment group showed

  6. A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Xiao-Peng Xu; Shao-Ping Weng; Xia-Yu Rao; Zong-Xian Dai; Yong-Wen Luo; Gan Yang; Zong-Sheng Li; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Siu-Ming Chan; Xiao-Qiang Yu; Jian-Guo He

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand

  7. Prevalence of Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis in Female Broodstock of White Shrimp Penaeus vannamei with Unilateral Eyestalk Ablation and Hormone Injection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Morales Covarrubias; A. G. Osuna-Duarte; A. Garcia-Gasca; D. V. Lightner; J. C. Mota-Urbina

    2006-01-01

    The present study analyzed the relationship between unilateral eyestalk ablation and steroid hormone injection in female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei, the prevalence of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) caused by the intracellular rickettsia-like bacterium NHP-B. Two simultaneous bioassays determined the onset and development of NHP in broodstock. Wet-mount analysis, conventional histopathology, and in situ hybridization with an NHP-B-specific DNA probe were used

  8. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biao Guo; Fang Wang; Shuanglin Dong; Chunqiang Hou

    2010-01-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change\\u000a from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature\\u000a treatment). After

  9. Bariatric surgery: nutritional considerations for patients.

    PubMed

    Rickers, Lisa; McSherry, Ciara

    Nutritional deficiencies are common in patients who are obese and therefore individuals considering bariatric surgery may require dietary supplementation with multivitamins and minerals before surgery. Nutritional deficiencies following bariatric surgery are often proportional to the degree of malabsorption created by the surgical procedure or the extent of weight loss. Eating habits often contribute to nutritional deficiencies, so appropriate dietary and lifestyle counselling are essential following bariatric procedures to ensure appropriate macronutrient and micronutrient status. Nutritional supplementation following bariatric surgery commonly includes calcium with vitamin D, iron and vitamin B12 in addition to a daily multivitamin and mineral tablet. Although general guidelines exist, individual monitoring and tailoring are frequently required. This article provides an update of guidelines regarding the most common nutritional concerns and myths surrounding bariatric surgery. PMID:22930960

  10. Identification and Function of Leucine-Rich Repeat Flightless-I-Interacting Protein 2 (LRRFIP2) in Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuang; Yan, Hui; Li, Chao-Zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Feng-hua; Chen, Yong-gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression. PMID:23468989

  11. Carbohydrate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Allen, M S

    1991-07-01

    An understanding of carbohydrate nutrition is essential to optimize production of dairy cattle. Two rations, both of which appear to be balanced, may have dramatically different results when fed to high-producing dairy cattle. Carbohydrates directly affect microbial protein production and therefore protein nutrition of dairy cattle. Energy intake can be maximized by considering the amount and type of carbohydrate in the ration: 1. The fiber level of the ration should be evaluated. NDF levels should be between 25 and 30% for high-producing cows in early lactation. Within this range, less fiber is required with adequate forage particle length and high frequency of grain feeding, and when buffers are fed and slowly fermented NSC sources are included in the ratio. For mid- and late-lactation cows, fiber levels are higher, ranging between 30 and 36% NDF depending upon the energy required to support milk production and restoration of body condition. 2. Provide adequate effective fiber. There should be some forage particles 1.5 in long in the ration. Limit most high-fiber byproducts to 25% of fiber requirements. 3. Feed highly digestible fiber sources. Differences in fiber digestibility of 30% will result in over 4 Mcal of NEL per day with 15 lb NDF intake. In addition, highly digestible fiber has less gut fill effect, possibly increasing dry matter intake. 4. Consider site of starch digestion. Slowly degraded starch sources such as sorghum may require steam flaking to increase ruminal fermentation. Other situations may require the addition of a slowly degraded starch source. 5. Increase frequency of concentrate feeding. Feed grain at least four times per day or include in a total mixed ration. 6. Include buffers. Under some situations (corn silage, early lactation) buffers allow more grain to be fed. 7. Add fat. Fat supplementation to milking cows has become a common practice in high-producing herds. Fat has about three times the energy of cracked corn and is often used to replace a portion of the grain to increase the energy density of the ration. It is important to realize that fat can cost up to two to three times more per megacalorie of energy than grain. Before fat is added to the ration, less expensive ways to increase energy density (listed previously) should be thoroughly explored. PMID:1654174

  12. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

  13. [Understanding Nutritional Support in Digestive Diseases].

    PubMed

    Chang, Dong Kyung; Song, Geun Am

    2015-06-25

    The prevalence of hospital malnutrition is still high in patients with digestive diseases, especially for those suffering from cancer and bowel diseases which cause malabsorption. It is well known that malnutrition is associated with delayed wound healing, impaired immunity, infection, increased complication, and poor convalenscence. Recently, nutrition screening and assessment by nutrition support team has become essential for nutrition management, and gastroenterologists comprise a dominant member of the nutrition support team. In critically ill patients and older people with chronic disease, nutritional support with enteral feeding and early feeding contributes to recovery and rehabilitation of patients. Securing enteral feeding routes, such as feeding tube insertion and placement of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, is an essential part of nutrition care that should be accomplished by gastroenterologists without much difficulty. It will also be necessary to recommend nutrition care as one of the clinical routines in gastrointestinal clinical practices. Therefore, education on nutrition care is strongly required as a part of gastroenterologist's training. PMID:26087686

  14. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  15. Novel methodologies in marine fish larval nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis E. C. Conceição; Cláudia Aragão; Nadège Richard; Sofia Engrola; Paulo Gavaia; Sara Mira; Jorge Dias

    2010-01-01

    Major gaps in knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements still remain. Small larval size, and difficulties in acceptance\\u000a of inert microdiets, makes progress slow and cumbersome. This lack of knowledge in fish larval nutritional requirements is\\u000a one of the causes of high mortalities and quality problems commonly observed in marine larviculture. In recent years, several\\u000a novel methodologies have contributed to

  16. Optimal Nutrition For HIV\\/AIDS Wellness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zimmerman

    1997-01-01

    LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will understand basic concepts of optimal nutrition for HIV\\/AIDS Wellness by identifying key foods and nutrients, along with lifestyle changes, that contribute to a strengthened immune system.HIV\\/AIDS Wellness is an interdisciplinary, integrated approach to long term survival, development and improved quality of life for people living with this disease. Optimal nutrition for HIV\\/AIDS Wellness includes foods and

  17. Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Those Blind From Birth Additional Content Medical News Toxic Amblyopia (Nutritional Amblyopia) by James Garrity, MD NOTE: ... Optic Neuropathies) Papilledema Optic Neuritis Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Toxic Amblyopia Toxic amblyopia (nutritional amblyopia) is damage to ...

  18. Food for nutrition: mainstreaming nutrition in WFP.

    PubMed

    2006-03-01

    Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years. PMID:16572719

  19. Nutrition During Weight Gain

    E-print Network

    , Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

  20. Nutrition Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

    This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

  1. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  2. Nutrition and oral cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Marshall; Peter Boyle

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and oral cancer is reviewed. Ecologic and case-control studies provide most of the evidence regarding the nutritional epidemiology of oral cancer. The ecologic evidence is that the considerable geographic variation in the incidence of oral cancer is consistent with variation in nutrition. Because incipient oral cancer is likely to affect the diets of

  3. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  4. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  5. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  6. Nutritional systems biology of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuqi; Barrere-Cain, Rio Elizabeth; Yang, Xia

    2015-09-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has become an increasingly challenging health burden due to its high morbidity, mortality, and heightened prevalence worldwide. Although dietary and nutritional imbalances have long been recognized as key risk factors for T2D, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. The advent of nutritional systems biology, a field that aims to elucidate the interactions between dietary nutrients and endogenous molecular entities in disease-related tissues, offers unique opportunities to unravel the complex mechanisms underlying the health-modifying capacities of nutritional molecules. The recent revolutionary advances in omics technologies have particularly empowered this incipient field. In this review, we discuss the applications of multi-omics approaches toward a systems-level understanding of how dietary patterns and particular nutrients modulate the risk of T2D. We focus on nutritional studies utilizing transcriptomics, epigenomomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and microbiomics, and integration of diverse omics technologies. We also summarize the potential molecular mechanisms through which nutritional imbalances contribute to T2D pathogenesis based on these studies. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges of nutritional systems biology and how the field can be optimized to further our understanding of T2D and guide disease management via nutritional interventions. PMID:26202330

  7. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  8. Distinct regulation patterns of the two prophenoloxidase activating enzymes corresponding to bacteria challenge and their compensatory over expression feature in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhenguo; Kim, Su-Kyoung; Yu, Jiaping; Jang, In-Kwon

    2014-08-01

    Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme 2 (PPAE2), which belongs to the second PPAE family of prawns, was isolated from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The currently identified lvPPAE2 and lvPPAE1 from our former report were taken as model candidates to analyze the relationship of the two shrimp PPAE families as well as the regulation mechanism of shrimp PPAEs. The tissue expression of lvPPAE2 was more ubiquitous than lvPPAE1. The mRNA abundance of lvPPAE2 was about 10 percent of lvPPAE1 in co-existed tissues. When challenged with Vibrio harveyi. LvPPAE2 showed a distinct transcriptional regulation pattern compared to lvPPAE1. Silence of lvPPAE2 significantly increased shrimp's susceptibility to V. harveyi, suggesting the lvPPAE2 plays essential role in shrimp host defense. A novel PPAE specific compensatory over expression feature was found in the two lvPPAEs. Single gene specific silence of lvPPAE1 and lvPPAE2 resulted in a significant difference in reduction of hemolymph PO activity. Double silence of the two lvPPAEs failed to cause a further reduction on PO activity or shrimp mortality to bacteria, despite that double silence sufficiently suppressed both of the two lvPPAEs. Our findings suggest both lvPPAEs contribute to shrimp melanization cascade and host defense against bacteria. Distinct regulation pattern corresponding to the same pathogen invasion suggests the two lvPPAEs are actually under different regulation ways. A novel PPAE specific compensatory over expression mechanism found in our study offered us a clue in understanding the robustness of shrimp innate immunity and network of crustacean proPO activating system. PMID:24821424

  9. Flightless-I (FliI) is a potential negative regulator of the Toll pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-gui; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2015-02-01

    Flightless-I (FliI) is a protein negatively modulates the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway through interacting with Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). To investigate the function of FliI in innate immune responses in invertebrates, Litopenaeus vannamei FliI (LvFliI) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvFliI is 4, 304 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 1292 amino acids, including 12 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains at the N-terminus and 6 gelsolin homology (GEL) domains at the C-terminus. The LvFliI protein was located in the cytoplasm and LvFliI mRNA was constitutively expressed in healthy L. vannamei, with the highest expression level in the muscle. LvFliI could be up-regulated in hemocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvFliI to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Upon LPS stimulation, overexpression of LvFliI in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to downregulation of Drosophila and shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Knockdown of LvFliI by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in an increase of the expression of three shrimp AMP genes (PEN2, crustin, and Lyz1). However, the mortality rates of LvFliI-knockdown shrimp in response to V. parahaemolyticus, S. aureus or WSSV infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, all the results suggested that LvFliI may play a negative role in TLR signaling response in L. vannamei. PMID:25449702

  10. An activating transcription factor of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in WSSV genes Wsv059 and Wsv166 regulation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Bi, Hai-Tao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Chan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2014-12-01

    Members of activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family are induced by various stress signals and function as effector molecules. Consequently, cellular changes occur in response to discrete sets of instructions. In this work, we found an ATF transcription factor in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvATF?. The full-length cDNA of LvATF? was 1388 bp long with an open reading frame of 939 bp that encoded a putative 313 amino acid protein. The protein contained a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) domain that was a common feature among ATF/CREB transcription factors. LvATF? was highly expressed in intestines, gills, and heart. LvATF? expression was dramatically upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Pull-down assay revealed that LvATF? had strong affinity to promoters of WSSV genes, namely, wsv059 and wsv166. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that LvATF? could upregulate the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Knocked down LvATF? resulted in decreased expression of wsv059 and wsv166 in WSSV-challenged L. vannamei. Knocked down expression of wsv059 and wsv166 by RNA interference inhibited the replication and reduce the mortality of L. vannamei during WSSV challenge inoculation. The copy numbers of WSSV in wsv059 and wsv166 knocked down group were significant lower than in the control. These results suggested that LvATF? may be involved in WSSV replication by regulating the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. PMID:25172110

  11. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

  12. Mercury content and their risk assessment in farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from NW Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Alvarez, C G; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Osuna-López, J I; Voltolina, D; Frías-Espericueta, M G

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the total mercury content in hepatopancreas and edible muscle of the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei cultured along the NW coast of Mexico, and to evaluate the potential human health risk due to their consumption. Samples were obtained between May and June 2010 in 26 shrimp farms from the three most important shrimp-producing states of NW Mexico, and total Hg was analyzed after reduction with SnCl2 in a mercury analyzer. The ranges of Hg concentrations of the hepatopancreas were 0.101±0.03-0.184±0.13 ?g g(-1) in Sonora, 0.077±0.055-0.813±0.363 ?g g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.139±0.037-0.791±0.33 ?g g(-1) in Nayarit. In the muscle, values were from 0.078±0.02 to 0.539±0.09 ?g g(-1) in Sonora, 0.154±0.03-0.861±0.423 ?g g(-1) in Sinaloa and 0.121±0.041-1.48±0.44 ?g g(-1) in Nayarit. Considering the concentrations of Hg in the muscle and the national consumption rate, shrimp farmed in NW Mexico does not represent a risk for human health (HQ<1). PMID:25303662

  13. Effects of hypoxia on dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fawen; Pan, Luqing; Jing, Futao

    2009-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The results showed that hypoxia had significant effects on the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the haemolymph, haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity of haemocytes and bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity in the haemolymph ( P<0.05). The concentration of the dopamine in haemolymph reached its maximum in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups at 12 h and 6 h, and then returned to normal after 24 h and 12 h, respectively. All immune parameters decreased with the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Total haemocyte count (THC), the hyaline cells and semi-granular cells in the 3.0 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 12 h, while granular cells did so after 24 h. The THC and different haemocyte count (DHC) in the 1.5 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 24 h. Phenoloxidase activity and bacteriolytic activity in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups reached their stable levels after 24 h and 12 h respectively, while phagocytic activity and antibacterial activity became stable after 24 and 12, and 36 and 24 h, respectively. It was also indicated that the changes of dopamine concentrations in haemolymph, haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were obviously related to the exposure time under hypoxic conditions.

  14. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, André Felipe das Mercês; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2011-01-01

    Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14–0.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain. PMID:24031779

  15. Laminin receptor protein is implicated in hemocyte homeostasis for the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Sangsuriya, Pakkakul; Lertwimol, Tareerat; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Senapin, Saengchan

    2015-07-01

    Here we show that knockdown of laminin receptor (Lamr) with PvLamr dsRNA in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Pv) caused a dramatic reduction specifically in hyaline hemocytes prior to death. Since apoptosis was not detected in hemocytes or hematopoietic cells, other possible causes of hemocyte loss were investigated. Reports that suppression of crustacean hematopoietic factor (CHF)-like protein or hemocyte homeostasis-associated protein (HHAP) also reduced shrimp hemocyte counts led us to carry out yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) and co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays to test for interactions between Lamr and Pv homologues to these proteins (PvCHF-like and PvHHAP). The assays revealed that Lamr bound to both these homologues, but that the homologues did not bind to each other. Subsequent RT-PCR assays confirmed that PvLamr dsRNA injection significantly reduced expression levels for both PvCHF-like and PvHHAP genes. Further work is needed to determine how interaction among these three proteins can regulate shrimp hemocyte homeostasis. PMID:25720979

  16. Proteomic analysis of differentially expressed proteins in Penaeus vannamei hemocytes upon Taura syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Chongsatja, Phattara-Orn; Bourchookarn, Apichai; Lo, Chu Fang; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2007-10-01

    To understand molecular responses of crustacean hemocytes to virus infection, we applied 2-DE proteomics approach to investigate altered proteins in hemocytes of Penaeus vannamei during Taura syndrome virus (TSV) infection. At 24 h postinfection, quantitative intensity analysis and nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS revealed 11 forms of 8 proteins that were significantly up-regulated, whereas 9 forms of 5 proteins were significantly down-regulated in the infected shrimps. These altered proteins play important roles in host defense (hemocyanin, catalase, carboxylesterase, transglutaminase, and glutathione transferase), signal transduction (14-3-3 zeta), carbohydrate metabolism (acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase), cellular structure and integrity (beta-tubulin, beta-actin, tropomyosin, and myosin), and ER-stress response (protein disulfide isomerase). Semiquantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of 14-3-3 at both mRNA and protein levels. Interestingly, several altered protein spots were identified as fragments of hemocyanin. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the hemocyanin spots at acidic and basic regions represented the C- and N-terminal hemocyanin fragments, respectively. As three-quarters of C-terminal fragments were up-regulated, whereas two-thirds of N-terminal hemocyanin fragments were down-regulated, we therefore hypothesize that C- and N-terminal hemocyanin fragments may have differential roles in hemocytes. Further investigation of these data may lead to better understanding of the molecular responses of crustacean hemocytes to TSV infection. PMID:17722205

  17. A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  18. Analysis on the expression and function of syndecan in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Syndecan is considered to be a multifunctional protein which functions as a cell surface receptor involved in cell adhesion, migration, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed that syndecan in shrimp might interact with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In the present study, we experimentally studied the function of syndecan in shrimp immunity. The syndecan from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvSDC) was cloned and analyzed. The full-length cDNA of LvSDC was 1005?bp, consisting of 59?bp 5'-UTR, 253?bp 3'-UTR, and 693?bp open reading frame encoding 230 amino acids. LvSDC consisted of an extracellular domain (ED), a transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic domain (CD). TM and CD shared high similarities with those of syndecan proteins from other species. LvSDC was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest level in Oka. After WSSV challenge, the transcription level of LvSDC in Oka was apparently up-regulated. Recombinant LvSDC protein and its rabbit polyclonal antibody were prepared for detecting the location of LvSDC in hemocytes using immunocytochemistry approach. Data showed that LvSDC mainly located at the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of hemocytes. After silencing of LvSDC with siRNA, the WSSV copy numbers and mortality of shrimp after WSSV infection were both significantly decreased. These data provide useful information for understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp to WSSV infection. PMID:25847874

  19. Nutrition, diet and oral health.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, A J

    2001-12-01

    Teeth are valued, not least for their contribution to appearance and social acceptability. The cost of treating oral disease, though, is high--about 2.2 billion pounds in the UK in 1999-2000. Nutrition and diet are major determinants of oral health or disease and the purpose of this lecture was to review their impact on the more important oral diseases: defects in the structure and appearance of teeth, dental caries, dental erosion, periodontal disease, noma, and oral cancer. There is growing realisation of the detrimental impact of dental impairment on food choice, nutrient intake and nutritional status. A common feature of many of these diseases is that the causes are well known. However, they are not yet preventable because their aetiology (and prevention) is intimately involved with lifestyle. Nevertheless, there are some hopeful signs of progress being made in several areas. PMID:11768570

  20. Identification of ecdysteroid signaling late-response genes from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhaoying; He, Shulin; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Xianzong; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. This study was carried out to seek the late target genes of ecdysteroid signaling from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, eight isoforms of ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), two isoforms of retinoic acid X receptor (RXR), and one homolog of E75 were characterized from L. vannamei. The overall protein sequences and specific functional sites of EcR, RXR and E75 among crustacean species were found highly conserved. Tissue-specific, development stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression patterns of LvEcR, LvRXR, and LvE75 were detected by qPCR. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of any one of the three genes LvEcR, LvRXR and LvE75 caused specific expression changes of the other two, and resulted in corresponding expression changes of two molting related genes Cathepsin-L (LvCHSL) and Hemocyanin (LvHCyn) in the hepatopancreas, two chitin metabolism related genes chitin synthase (LvChS) and chitinase isoenzyme (LvChi2) in the epidermis, and two muscle growth related genes LvActin and myosin heavy chain (LvMHC) in the muscle. In correspondence, after in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone, specific expression changes of LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle were also observed, respectively. Results in our study indicate multiple functions of ecdysteroids signaling in L. vannamei and the function may be time- and space-specific; ecdysteroids may act through different pathways via its functional receptor heterodimer EcR-RXR and the early responsive gene E75 to perform specific regulation roles on the target genes in different shrimp tissues; LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle are potential targets for ecdysteroid control. This is the first report on nuclear receptors in the economically important shrimp L. vannamei. PMID:24556071

  1. Effects of Na\\/K ratio in seawater on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changbo Zhu; Shuanglin Dong; Fang Wang; Guoqiang Huang

    2004-01-01

    The effects of seawater Na\\/K ratio on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 were investigated. Salinity (S=30 ppt) and the total concentration of sodium and potassium in the experimental water were kept constant. Seven treatments were set: R1, R2, R3c, R4, R5, R6 and R7, the Na\\/K ratios were 25.6, 34.1, 47.3, 85.2, 119.3, 153.3 and

  2. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain. PMID:24679010

  3. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  4. Development of EST-SSR Markers by Data Mining in Three Species of Shrimp: Litopenaeus vannamei , Litopenaeus stylirostris , and Trachypenaeus birdy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franklin Pérez; Juan Ortiz; Mariuxi Zhinaula; Cesar Gonzabay; Jorge Calderón; Filip A. M. J. Volckaert

    2005-01-01

    We report on the data mining of publicly available Litopenaeus vannamei expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to generate simple sequence repeat (SSRs) markers and on their transferability between related Penaeid shrimp species. Repeat motifs were found in 3.8% of the evaluated ESTs at a frequency of one repeat every 7.8 kb of sequence data. A total of 206 primer pairs were

  5. Effects of Potassium, Magnesium and Age on Growth and Survival of Litopenaeus vannamei Post-Larvae Reared in Inland Low Salinity Well Waters in West Alabama

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Allen Davis; Claude E. Boyd; David B. Rouse; I. Patrick Saoud

    2007-01-01

    The production of Litopenaeus vannamei in inland low-salinity well water is a growing industry in several regions of the world. The state of Alabama in the southeastern USA is one such region with a large saline aquifer that could be utilized for shrimp culture. However, some farmers are experiencing problems rearing marine shrimp while others are having considerable success. Previous

  6. Effect of variations in daily feeding frequency and ration size on growth of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone), in zero-water exchange culture tanks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mario Velasco; Addison L Lawrence; Frank L Castille

    1999-01-01

    It is generally believed that increasing feeding frequency has immediate benefits, including reduced nutrient leaching and increased shrimp growth. In this study, static-water ecoassays were conducted to determine the effect of feeding frequency and percentage of daily ration on growth of Litopenaeus vannamei and accumulation of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus in the culture water. Shrimp were fed a semi-purified diet

  7. Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Shao-Ping Weng; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Ke Xing; Siu-Ming Chan; Jian-Guo He

    2007-01-01

    In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point)

  8. Genetic parameters and accuracy of selection for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei using different statistical models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gitterle; Jørgen Ødegård; Bjarne Gjerde; Morten Rye; Ragnar Salte

    2006-01-01

    Genetic parameters for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei were estimated by using five different statistical models to analyze challenge test data. Data were recorded on the offspring of 338 full-sib families experimentally infected with WSSV, corresponding to four consecutive generations. Both the linear model (LBM) and the threshold model (TBM) defined disease

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic on survival, growth, immune responses, and gut microbiota of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by wei...

  10. Immune response of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after a concurrent infection with white spot syndrome virus and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Ying-Nan Chen; Shu-Ling Hsieh; Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated immunological changes in viral-infected white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. White shrimp were infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or co-infected with WSSV and infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) as detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The complete (100%) mortality rate of shrimp was caused by viral infection due to immune parameters being

  11. Evaluation of Difloxacin for Shrimp Aquaculture: In Vitro Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations, Medicated Feed Palatability, and Toxicity to the Shrimp Penaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric D. Park; Donald V. Lightner; Rodney R. Williams; Leone L. Mohney; John M. Stamm

    1995-01-01

    Standard in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for difloxacin and compared with the MICs of several other antimicrobials, against a standardized battery of 13 gram-negative bacterial isolates associated with shrimp disease. The palatability and safety (toxicity) of difloxacin to the shrimp Penaeus vannamei were also evaluated during 15 d of medicated feeding at 1× (100 mg\\/kg of feed),

  12. Evaluation of two types of bioflocs derived from biological treatment of fish effluent as feed ingredients for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D. Kuhn; Addison L. Lawrence; Gregory D. Boardman; Susmita Patnaik; Lori Marsh; George J. Flick Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Under laboratory-scale conditions, two types of bioflocs were used as a feed ingredient for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This feeding trial was conducted indoors in recirculating aquaculture systems with seawater renewal. Bioflocs were produced in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) using carbon supplementation (sucrose) and in a membrane biological reactor (MBR) without carbon supplementation. Both types of bioflocs were produced

  13. Ferritin administration effectively enhances immunity, physiological responses, and survival of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yuan-Hwa; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Lo, Chu-Fang; Lee, Min-Hsien; Lian, Juang-Lin; Hsieh, Shu-Ling

    2010-04-01

    We examined the physiological (hemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O(2)(-)) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin. Results showed that the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei obviously increased (p < 0.05) 12 h after being injected with any dose of ferritin. However, the THC, PO activity, and respiratory bursts of L. vannamei that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significant higher than those of the other groups at 36-60, 60-72, and 36-60 h, respectively. SOD activities of L. vannamei 12 h after receiving 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than those receiving saline. L. vannamei injected with ferritin at any dose maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to WSSV challenge after 12-36, 24-48, and 36-60 h, respectively. The survival of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin was significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline and of control shrimp after 72 h. The ferritin messenger RNA transcripts of shrimp that had received 0.5 and 1 ng g(-1) ferritin were significantly higher than that of shrimp that received saline after 36 h. It was, therefore, concluded that the immune ability and resistance against WSSV infection increased in L. vannamei that had received > 0.5 ng g(-1) ferritin. Ferritin does play important roles in the innate immunity of the white shrimp. We observed higher SOD activities of L. vannamei that had received 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng ferritin after 12 h than those that had received only saline (control), and the high SOD expression remained at the same levels even after 72 h of treatment. PMID:20045064

  14. Nutrition in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Irtun, Øivind; Olesen, Søren Schou; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Holst, Mette

    2013-01-01

    The pancreas is a major player in nutrient digestion. In chronic pancreatitis both exocrine and endocrine insufficiency may develop leading to malnutrition over time. Maldigestion is often a late complication of chronic pancreatic and depends on the severity of the underlying disease. The severity of malnutrition is correlated with two major factors: (1) malabsorption and depletion of nutrients (e.g., alcoholism and pain) causes impaired nutritional status; and (2) increased metabolic activity due to the severity of the disease. Nutritional deficiencies negatively affect outcome if they are not treated. Nutritional assessment and the clinical severity of the disease are important for planning any nutritional intervention. Good nutritional practice includes screening to identify patients at risk, followed by a thoroughly nutritional assessment and nutrition plan for risk patients. Treatment should be multidisciplinary and the mainstay of treatment is abstinence from alcohol, pain treatment, dietary modifications and pancreatic enzyme supplementation. To achieve energy-end protein requirements, oral supplementation might be beneficial. Enteral nutrition may be used when patients do not have sufficient calorie intake as in pylero-duodenal-stenosis, inflammation or prior to surgery and can be necessary if weight loss continues. Parenteral nutrition is very seldom used in patients with chronic pancreatitis and should only be used in case of GI-tract obstruction or as a supplement to enteral nutrition. PMID:24259957

  15. cDNA cloning, identification, tissue localisation, and transcription profile of a transglutaminase from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection by Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Hung; Hung, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Winton

    2009-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134); tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAL78166); and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AF336805). The 2638-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2172 bp, a 55-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 411-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (757 aa) was 84.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.2. The L. vannamei TG (abbreviated LvTG) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, a putative integrin-binding motif (RGD), and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two subgroups, STGS1 and STGS2, and LvTG is more closely related to STGS1 than to STGS2. LvTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, with LvTG mainly being synthesised in haemocytes. However, the pattern of LvTG mRNA expression was not directly correlated with TG activity. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant decrease of TG activity at 3 h and a significant increase of LvTG mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease from 12 to 24 h, which indicated that cloned LvTG was involved in the immune response of shrimp. The results also imply that more than one type of TG may be involved in the defense response in L. vannamei. PMID:19782141

  16. The role of nucleotides in human nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane D. Carver; W. Allan Walker

    1995-01-01

    Dietary NT are reported to have significant effects upon lymphoid, intestinal and hepatic tissues, and lipid metabolism (Table 3). The mechanism remains unknown, and the nutritional role of NT remains controversial. However, maintenance of the endogenous NT supply via de novo synthesis and salvage is metabolically costly. Preformed NT supplied by the diet may contribute to tissue NT pools and

  17. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional

  18. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  19. A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Rao, Xia-Yu; Dai, Zong-Xian; Luo, Yong-Wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-Sheng; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Chan, Siu-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that LvCTL1 mRNA was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Recombinant LvCTL1 (rLvCTL1) had hemagglutinating activity and ligand binding specificity for mannose and glucose. rLvCTL1 also had a strong affinity for WSSV and interacted with several envelope proteins of WSSV. Furthermore, we showed that the binding of rLvCTL1 to WSSV could protect shrimps from viral infection and prolong the survival of shrimps against WSSV infection. Our results suggest that LvCTL1 is a mannose-binding C-type lectin that binds to envelope proteins of WSSV to exert its antiviral activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a shrimp C-type lectin that has direct anti-WSSV activity. PMID:18945787

  20. Glutathione peroxidase from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon pH and Cd exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Wu, Juan; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Dan-Xia; Liu, Yuan; Wang, An-Li

    2012-08-01

    Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is a key enzyme of cellular detoxification systems that defend cells against reactive oxygen species. Knowledge of the complement of GPx in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we expressed GPx from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in Escherichia coli, and then characterized the purified recombinant enzyme with respect to the effects of pH, temperature on its catalytic activity. Quantitative real-time PCR and western blot analysis were carried out to investigate the expression patterns of GPx in shrimp hepatopancreas exposed to Cd stress. A statistically significant increase in expression of GPx mRNA and protein was observed in the Cd stress at 24 h. By contrast, western blot showed a significant up-regulation in GPx protein expression at 12 h exposed pH stress (5.6 and 9.3, respectively). These results suggest that L. vannamei GPx expression was modulated by Cd and pH stress and may play an important role in detoxification of xenobiotics and antioxidant defense. We conclude that GPx could be used as biomarkers of Cd and pH stress in aquatic environment for the studied species. PMID:22684731

  1. Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

    2010-09-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

  2. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and osmolality in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to acute low temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun; Wang, Wei-Na; Wang, Li-Juan; Liu, Yu-Feng; Wang, An-Li

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the genotoxic, physiological and immunological effects of short-term acute low temperature stress on the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, we rapidly transferred shrimp from tanks at 23±2 °C to aquaria at the same temperature (controls) or 12±2 °C for 12 h. Changes in the shrimp hemocyte respiratory burst activity and DNA damage were examined during and after exposure to the temperature stress using flow cytometry and the comet assay, respectively. We also monitored changes in the total hemocyte count, malondialdehyde levels, total protein concentration and osmolality in shrimp plasma. The results show that hemocyte respiratory burst activity, malondialdehydes levels and hemocyte DNA damage in the plasma all increased significantly after exposure to 12±2 °C for 3 h. In contrast, total hemocyte count, total protein concentration and osmolality in the plasma decreased compared to the controls. We conclude that acute low temperature can induce oxidative stress, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and changes in osmolality in L. vannamei. PMID:21377542

  3. Evaluating the potential of marine Bacteriovorax sp. DA5 as a biocontrol agent against vibriosis in Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    PubMed

    Wen, Chongqing; Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; Zhou, Shining

    2014-09-17

    The potential application of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. However, no marine BALOs have been reported for Vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. In the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine Bacteriovorax strain DA5 against Vibrio alginolyticus zouA was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30-35°C and 20-30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity of infection. Then, we showed that experimentally infected Litopenaeus vannamei larvae exhibited significantly higher survival with incremental DA5 levels. Finally, variation in the bacterial counts and the bacterial community in larval rearing water was investigated after prophylactic application of DA5. The elimination effect of DA5 on vibrios was visible at early time points, whereas only a few non-dominant bacteria, rather than the predominant populations, were affected through analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rDNA V3 region. Accordingly, the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of DA5 on vibriosis associated with L. vannamei could markedly enhance larval survivability, and these results will facilitate the application of marine Bacteriovorax to control vibriosis in shrimp larviculture. PMID:25139659

  4. A Janus Kinase in the JAK/STAT signaling pathway from Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in antiviral immune response.

    PubMed

    Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2015-06-01

    The JAK/STAT signaling pathways are conserved in evolution and mediate diversity immune responses to virus infection. In the present study, a Janus kinase (designated as LvJAK) gene was cloned and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. LvJAK contained the characteristic JAK homology domain (JH domain) from JH1 to JH7 and showed 19% identity (34% similarity) and 21% identity (35% similarity) to Drosophila Hopscotch protein and Human JAK2 protein, respectively. The mRNA of LvJAK was highly expressed in hepatopancreas of L. vannamei and its expression level was prominently upregulated after the stimulation of Poly (I:C) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. There were 10 putative STAT binding motifs in the promoter region of LvJAK, and it could be regulated by LvJAK self or (and) LvSTAT, suggesting that LvJAK is the JAK/STAT pathway target gene and could function as a positive regulator to form a positive feedback loop. In addition, the silencing of LvJAK caused higher mortality rate and virus load, suggesting that LvJAK could play an important role in defense against WSSV. This is the first report about the complete set of JAK/STAT proteins in shrimp and the results provide the evidence of the positive feedback loop mediated by JAK protein present in the JAK/STAT pathway in invertebrates. PMID:25839969

  5. Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Barthelat, Francois

    of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

  6. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  7. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

  8. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  9. Nutrition and bladder cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo La Vecchia; Eva Negri

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and bladder cancer is reviewed. A role of diet and nutrition in bladder carcinogenisis is plausible since most substances or metabolites, including carcinogens, are excreted through the urinary tract. Ecologic studies on populations have found positive correlations between fats and oils and bladder cancer, but these are reflected only partly in the international

  10. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  11. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  12. Nutritional ergogenics in athletics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Melvin H. Williams

    1995-01-01

    Nutritional ergogenic aids may be theorized to improve performance in athletics in a variety of ways, primarily by enhancing energy efficiency, energy control or energy production. Athletes have utilized almost every nutrient possible, ranging from amino acids to zinc, as well as numerous purported nutritional substances, such as ginseng, in attempts to enhance physical performance. This review focuses primarily on

  13. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  14. Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

    2013-11-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in coagulation of haemolymp and immune response of white shrimp, L. vannamei. PMID:24036331

  15. [Nutritional ecology: chances of public health services to shape procedures].

    PubMed

    Schwenk, M; Hauber-Schwenk, G

    2003-03-01

    Nutrition ecology is the science that studies the impacts of human nutrition on the environment, on human health and on social systems. Environmental impacts are usually the result of intensive food production, food transport and food packaging; they include soil contamination and erosion, energy consumption, air contamination and waste disposal. Health impacts of contemporary western eating behavior concern nutrition-related diseases (diabetes, hypertension, gout, overweight etc) and their psychological and social consequences; nutrition ecology aims at a balanced diet and suitable eating behavior to reduce the risks of chronic disease. The social impacts of nutrition concern the effects of feed trade on poor working conditions and poverty, especially in developing countries. The strategies of nutrition ecology agree in many points with those of the agenda 21 and of Consumer Protection. As nutrition-related diseases are increasing further, the public health services in Germany discover nutrition as an important topic in health promotion and prevention. They will contribute remarkably to a sustainable development if they include the strategies of nutrition ecology in their projects. PMID:12649791

  16. Estimación de la tasa de mortalidad natural de Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900) y Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) en la zona costera del Golfo de Tehuantepec, México Estimation of the natural mortality rate of Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900) and Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), in the coastal zone of the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastián Ramos-Cruz; Blanca Sánchez-Mera; Fleury Carrasco-Ayuso; Pedro Cervantes-Hernández

    We estimated the monthly natural mortality rate (M) in the marine phase of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) and Farfantepenaeus californiensis (Holmes, 1900) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The analyzed data were the commercial capture, the capture for unit effort (CPUE) and the fishing effort in trips for the brown shrimp (December 1989 to December 1998), and the white shrimp

  17. Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

  18. HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods

    E-print Network

    HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

  19. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  20. [The national food and nutrition policy and its dialogue with the national food and nutrition security policy].

    PubMed

    Alves, Kelly Poliany de Souza; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2014-11-01

    Food is one of the determinants and conditions of health and an inherent right of all people. The consequences of food and nutrition insecurity in the population, such as obesity, malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies, impact the health sector and have historically meant that it has assumed the responsibility for food and nutrition programs and policies in Brazil. However, ensuring food and nutrition security requires a combination of public policies, among which the National Food and Nutrition Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) plays a fundamental role. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on intersectoriality and health promotion based on presenting the National Food and Nutrition Policy and discussing its role as interface between the SUS and the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and System. This perspective strongly suggests the combination of efforts to promote health and food and nutrition security in order to optimize initiatives developed in different sectors and accompanied by different policy councils that are not interrelated, enabling enhanced government and civil society action on the determinants of health and nutrition. PMID:25351300

  1. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  2. Nutrition for Patients with Hepatic Failure NUTRITION ISSUES IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, SERIES #6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph Krenitsky

    Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with hepatic failure; it is also an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in these patients. Factors that contribute to malnutrition in patients with hepatic failure include altered metabolic rate, fat mal- absorption, early satiety and impaired gastric emptying, as well as frequent hospital- izations and overzealous diet therapy. Providing increased nutrition improves nitro-

  3. Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

  4. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  5. Nutrition for Children with Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

  6. Diabetes, Nutrition, and Exercise.

    PubMed

    Abdelhafiz, Ahmed H; Sinclair, Alan J

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with body composition changes that lead to glucose intolerance and increased risk of diabetes. The incidence of diabetes increases with aging, and the prevalence has increased because of the increased life expectancy of the population. Lifestyle modifications through nutrition and exercise in combination with medications are the main components of diabetes management. The potential benefits of nutrition and exercise intervention in older people with diabetes are enormous. Nutrition and exercise training are feasible even in frail older people living in care homes and should take into consideration individual circumstances, cultural factors, and ethnic preferences. PMID:26195102

  7. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of arginine kinase from the white Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Isac-Martinez, Felipe; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Crystals of an unligated monomeric arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) were successfully obtained using the microbatch method. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.25?Å resolution are reported. Data were collected at 100?K on NSLS beamline X6A. The crystals belonged to space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.5, b = 70.2, c = 81.7?Å. One monomer per asymmetric unit was found, with a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.05?Å3?Da?1 and 40% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvAK as the search model. Refinement was performed with PHENIX, with final R work and R free values of 0.15 and 0.19, respectively. Biological analysis of the structure is currently in progress. PMID:22750864

  8. Effects of water temperature and dietary carbohydrate levels on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingqiang; Ma, Shen; Dong, Shuanglin

    2006-09-01

    A 3×3 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of water temperature (22 °C, 27°C and 32°C) and dietary carbohydrate ( CBH) levels (15.47%, 29.15% and 41.00%) on growth, food consumption, feed efficiency, apparent digestibility coefficient and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that, at each dietary CBH level, specific growth rate, food consumption and apparent digestibility coefficient generally increased, while feed efficiency decreased with increasing water temperatures. Specific growth rate and food consumption were the highest in the shrimps fed with diet of 29.15% CBH, closely followed by those with 15.47% CBH, and those with 41.00% CBH had the lowest value.

  9. Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

    2014-09-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards. PMID:25029962

  10. Nutrition assessment in the National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Borrud, Lori G; McDowell, Margaret A; Wang, Chia-Yih; Radimer, Kathy; Johnson, Clifford L

    2007-05-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the components of nutrition assessment in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. The study design was a cross-sectional survey with a nationally representative sample of the US population. The survey participants were interviewed and completed a physical examination. From 1999 to 2002, a total of 25,316 people were included in the eligible sample, 21,004 people (83%) were interviewed, and 19,759 people (78% of the eligible sample) were examined. Dietary assessment consisted of a 24-hour dietary recall interview and questions on supplement use, food security, food-program participation, and other behaviors. Nutrition assessment included anthropometric measurements and body-composition assessment. A number of nutrition biochemistries were measured in blood and urine specimens. In addition, an assessment of cardiovascular fitness and questions on physical activity were included. Data are used to estimate population reference distributions and to monitor trends over time. Data have been used to evaluate the adequacy of nutrient intake using the Dietary Reference Intakes, to assist in development of nutrition policies related to obesity, and to evaluate policies such as folic acid fortification. The NHANES contributes to the knowledge and understanding of nutrition and health status in the US population through public-use microdata files for use by researchers in academia, in the private sector, and in government agencies. Continuous data collection will allow the NHANES to provide more timely information for policy development and evaluation. PMID:17467380

  11. Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

    2013-06-01

    The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

  12. Daxx from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is involved in activation of NF-?B pathway.

    PubMed

    Yan, Muting; Tang, Junliang; Liang, Qianhui; Zhu, Guohua; Li, Haoyang; Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-01

    Death domain-associated factor 6 (Daxx) is a Fas-binding protein that mediates the activation of Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway and Fas-induced apoptosis. In this study, a crustacean Daxx (LvDaxx) was firstly cloned and identified from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDaxx cDNA was 2644 bp in length with an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 2217 bp. Sequence analysis indicated that LvDaxx contained a single Daxx domain and two nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and shared a similarity with Drosophila melanogaster Daxx. LvDaxx was a nuclear-localized protein that was expressed highest in hemocytes and could be up-regulated in pathogen- and stimulant-challenge shrimps. LvDaxx could activate the artificial promoter containing an NF-?B binding site and the promoters of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) ie1 gene and arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), suggesting LvDaxx could be involved in the activation of the NF-?B pathway. Knock-down of LvDaxx in vivo resulted in down-regulation of shrimp AMPs and reduction of WSSV copies in tissues. Furthermore, suppression of LvDaxx significantly decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimps, but increased the mortality of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus-infected shrimps. Thus, these suggested that LvDaxx could play a role in the innate immunity against Vibrio parahaemolyticus in L. vannamei, while in the antiviral response, LvDaxx may be hijacked by WSSV and play a complex role in WSSV pathogenesis. PMID:25917972

  13. The c-Fos and c-Jun from Litopenaeus vannamei play opposite roles in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaozheng; Li, Haoyang; Wang, Sheng; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Qian, Zhe; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo

    2015-09-01

    Growing evidence indicates that activator protein-1 (AP-1) plays a major role in stimulating the transcription of immune effector molecules in cellular response to an incredible array of stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, cellular stresses and bacterial and viral infection. Here, we reported the isolation and characterization of a cDNA from Litopenaeus vannamei encoding the full-length c-Fos protein (named as Lvc-Fos). The predicted amino acid sequences of Lvc-Fos contained a basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which was characteristic of members of the AP-1 family. Immunoprecipitation and native-PAGE assays determined that Lvc-Fos could interact with the Lvc-Jun, a homolog of c-Jun family in L. vannamei, in a heterodimer manner. Further investigation demonstrated that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun were expressed in all tested tissues and located in the nucleus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed both Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun in gills were up-regulated during Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. In addition, reporter gene assays indicated Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could activate the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of Drosophila and shrimp, as well as WSSV immediate early (IE) genes wsv069 and wsv249, in a different manner. Knockdown of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in higher mortalities of L. vannamei after infection with V. parahaemolyticus, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun might play protective roles in bacterial infection. However, silencing of Lvc-Fos or Lvc-Jun in shrimp caused lower mortalities and virus loads under WSSV infection, suggesting that Lvc-Fos and Lvc-Jun could be engaged for WSSV replication and pathogenesis. In conclusion, our results provided experimental evidence and novel insight into the roles of L. vannamei AP-1 in bacterial and viral infection. PMID:25912357

  14. Immune gene discovery by expressed sequence tag analysis of hemocytes and hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and the Atlantic White Shrimp, L. setiferus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Gross; T. C. Bartlett; C. L. Browdy; R. W. Chapman; G. W. Warr

    2001-01-01

    A pilot program was undertaken in immune gene discovery in two sister species of litopenaeid shrimp, the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and the Atlantic white shrimp, L. setiferus. RNA from the hemocytes and hepatopancreas of single individuals from each species was recovered, 4 cDNA libraries (one from each tissue\\/species) were made by a PCR-based method and a total of

  15. Complete sequence of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda) vitellogenin cDNA and its expression in endocrinologically induced sub-adult females

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaul Raviv; Shmuel Parnes; Carmen Segall; Claytus Davis; Amir Sagi

    2006-01-01

    The gene that encodes vitellogenin (Vg), the precursor of the major yolk protein, vitellin, is expressed during vitellogenesis in decapod crustaceans. In this study, we sequenced the full-length cDNA from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Vg gene (LvVg). This is the first open thelycum penaeid shrimp Vg cDNA to be sequenced. The transcript encodes a 2587 amino acid polypeptide

  16. Induction of ovarian maturation and spawning by combined treatment of serotonin and a dopamine antagonist, spiperone in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge Alfaro; Gerardo Zúñiga; J Komen

    2004-01-01

    The study was designed to develop a reliable technique for inducing ovarian maturation and spawning in Litopenaeus stylirostris and Litopenaeus vannamei, as an alternative to the traditional and destructive eyestalk ablation. Two combinations of molecules were evaluated: (a) serotonin (5-HT) at 50 ?g g?1 body weight (b.w.)+juvenile hormone (JH III) at 227 ng g?1 b.w., and (b) 5-HT at 25

  17. Identification and cloning of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and its expression following Vibrio alginolyticus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hung Liu; Mei-Chen Tseng; Winton Cheng

    2007-01-01

    cDNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the GPx sequence of Homo sapiens (NM002083), Mus musculus (NM008160), Arabidopsis thaliana (U94495), Bos taurus (NM174770), and Capsicum chinense (AJ973135). The 727-bp cDNA contained an open

  18. Anti-lipopolysaccharide factor in Litopenaeus vannamei ( LvALF): A broad spectrum antimicrobial peptide essential for shrimp immunity against bacterial and fungal infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrique de la Vega; Nuala A. O’Leary; Jessica E. Shockey; Javier Robalino; Caroline Payne; Craig L. Browdy; Gregory W. Warr; Paul S. Gross

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are an essential component of the innate immune system of most organisms. Expressed sequence tag analysis from various shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) tissues revealed transcripts corresponding to two distinct sequences (LvALF1 and LvALF2) with strong sequence similarity to anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), an antimicrobial peptide originally isolated from the horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus. Full-length clones contained a 528bp transcript with

  19. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (penaeidins and crustin), serine proteinase and prophenoloxidase in haemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takuji Okumura

    2007-01-01

    For shrimp immune defences, prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system and antimicrobial peptides in circulating haemocytes play important roles. In the present study, the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on gene expression of penaeidins, crustin, serine proteinase and proPO in haemocytes were determined using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. After injection of LPS, mRNA

  20. Molecular cloning of a C-type lectin (LvLT) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Early gene down-regulation after WSSV infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracy Hoi Tung Ma; Shirley Hiu Kwan Tiu; Jian-Guo He; Siu-Ming Chan

    2007-01-01

    C-type lectin is one of the pattern-recognition proteins of the non-self innate immune system in the invertebrates. In this study, a lectin-like cDNA (LvLT) of Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned and characterized. LvLT cDNA consists of 1035 nt encoding for a protein with 345 amino acid residues. The deduced LvLT consists of two putative carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) as found in most

  1. Generation of superoxide anion and SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle of American white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) as a response to ?-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Campa-Córdova; N. Y. Hernández-Saavedra; R. De Philippis; F. Ascencio

    2002-01-01

    Juvenile American white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were immersed in aerated ?-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide solutions for 1, 3 and 6h. Superoxide anion and SOD activity in haemocytes and muscle were investigated to evaluate whether ?-glucan and sulphated polysaccharide induce any immunostimulatory activity. Haemocytes and muscle showed different levels of superoxide anion generation and SOD activity (2·0 and 1·4 times that

  2. Effects of sand sediment and vertical surfaces (AquaMats TM) on production, water quality, and microbial ecology in an intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Delma Bratvold; Craig L. Browdy

    2001-01-01

    Growth and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was examined along with water quality, and general indicators of microbial activity in replicate intensive tank cultures with no sediment, sand sediment, and sand sediment together with additional vertical surfaces (sand\\/mat). All treatments received similar feed and fertilizer input. Initial linear shrimp growth rates was relatively high (1.65 g\\/week) in all

  3. Molecular cloning and characterisation of a pattern recognition molecule, lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winton Cheng; Chun-Hung Liu; Chiung-Hui Tsai; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2005-01-01

    A lipopolysaccharide- and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) cDNA was cloned from the haemocyte and hepatopancreas of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and RT-PCR. Both 3?- and 5?-regions were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA end RACE method. Analysis of nucleotide sequence revealed that the cDNA clone has an open reading frame of 1101bp encoding a protein of 367

  4. The immune response of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its susceptibility to Vibrio infection in relation with the moult cycle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Hung Liu; Su-Tuen Yeh; Sha-Yen Cheng; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2004-01-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (8.0–14.4 g) was examined for haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst (release of superoxide anion), phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in relation with moult cycle (postmoult, A, B; intermoult, C; premoult, D0\\/D1D2\\/D3). Granular cells were the highest at C and D0\\/D1stage, and the lowest at A stage. Hyaline cells and

  5. Substitution of fish meal by co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tzachi M. Samocha; D. Allen Davis; I. Patrick Saoud; Kevin DeBault

    2004-01-01

    The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal with egg supplement was evaluated as a substitute for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. The co-extruded product was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight±standard deviation, 1.13±0.06 g) over a

  6. Activating Transcription Factor 4 and X Box Binding Protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptional Regulated White Spot Syndrome Virus Genes Wsv023 and Wsv083

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Yun; Pang, Li-Ran; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Yi-Hong; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi) compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE). Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1), has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1) – (XBP1)] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE). These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection. PMID:23638122

  7. Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and calcium \\/ phosphorus ratio on the growth and tissue mineralization of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in low-salinity water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kai-min Cheng; Chao-qun Hu; Yan-ni Liu; Shi-xuan Zheng; Xue-juan Qi

    2006-01-01

    An 8-week feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the response of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei to dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and their interaction between Ca and P in low-salinity water of 2‰. Fifteen isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets, containing five graded levels of total P (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2%) for each of three levels of Ca (0%, 1% and

  8. Molecular cloning of a ?-glucan pattern-recognition lipoprotein from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei: correlations between the deduced amino acid sequence and the native protein structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mar??a Gabriela Romo-Figueroa; Claudia Vargas-Requena; Rogerio R Sotelo-Mundo; Francisco Vargas-Albores; Inocencio Higuera-Ciapara; Kenneth Söderhäll; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

    2004-01-01

    The hemolymph pattern-recognition ?-glucan binding protein from the white shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei is also a high density lipoprotein (?GBP-HDL) involved in innate immunity. The ?GBP-HDL full length cDNA sequence determined was 6.3 kb long, and contains a long 3?UTR region with a polyadenylation signal and a poly-A+ tail. The open reading frame is 1454 amino acids long and the

  9. Crustins, Homologues of an 11.5-kDa Antibacterial Peptide, from Two Species of Penaeid Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas C. Bartlett; Brandon J. Cuthbertson; Eleanor F. Shepard; Robert W. Chapman; Paul S. Gross; Gregory W. Warr

    2002-01-01

      The response of crustaceans to pathogens is believed to depend solely on innate, nonadaptive immune mechanisms, including\\u000a phagocytosis, encapsulation, clotting, and a variety of soluble antimicrobial activities. Arthropod antimicrobial peptides,\\u000a while characterized primarily from insects, also have been isolated from crustaceans. Expressed sequence tag analysis of hemocyte\\u000a complementary DNA libraries from 2 species of shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei and Litopenaeus setiferus,

  10. Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

    2013-07-01

    Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

  11. Ferritin administration effectively enhances immunity, physiological responses, and survival of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with white spot syndrome virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Hwa Ruan; Ching-Ming Kuo; Chu-Fang Lo; Min-Hsien Lee; Juang-Lin Lian; Shu-Ling Hsieh

    2010-01-01

    We examined the physiological (hemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipid) and innate non-specific immune responses (total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion, O2?) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity) to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with 0.1, 0.5, and 1 ng g?1 ferritin. Results showed that the THC, PO

  12. Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pei-Hui Wang; Ding-Hui Wan; Zhi-Hua Gu; Xie-Xiong Deng; Shao-Ping Weng; Xiao-Qiang Yu; Jian-Guo He

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor\\/Toll-like receptor (IL-1\\/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF)

  13. The immunostimulatory effects of hot-water extract of Gelidium amansii via immersion, injection and dietary administrations on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Win Fu; Wen-Ying Hou; Su-Tuen Yeh; Chiu-Hsia Li; Jiann-Chu Chen

    2007-01-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were immersed in seawater (34‰) containing hot-water extract of red alga Gelidium amansii at 200, 400 and 600mgl?1, injected with hot-water extract at 4 and 6?gg?1 shrimp, and fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0gkg?1. These parameters increased significantly

  14. Effect of AquaVac TM Vibromax TM on size and health of post larva stage of Pacific White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Black Tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wongtavatchai; M. V. López-Dóriga; M. J. Francis

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of AquaVac™ Vibromax™, an inactivated Vibrio bacterin product, to promote health and resistance to vibriosis in penaeid shrimp post larva (PL). Black Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) and Pacific White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were fed ad libitum with VibromaxTM- enriched Artemia for 10 consecutive days, PL5–PL14. Artemia nauplii were enriched by incubating 150g

  15. Protein requirement for maintenance and maximum weight gain for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nasir Kureshy; D. Allen Davis

    2002-01-01

    The dietary crude protein requirement of penaeid shrimp is an important nutritional consideration because protein is often the major limiting nutrient for growth. In most cases, research has focused on total dietary protein levels rather than a daily requirement for protein. This research utilized three practical diets containing 16%, 32%, and 48% protein and various daily rations to estimate daily

  16. Enteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A Papadopoulou; A MacDonald; M D Williams; P J Darbyshire; I W Booth

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional insult after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is complex and its nutritional management challenging. Enteral nutrition is cheaper and easier to provide than parenteral nutrition, but its tolerance and effectiveness in reversing nutritional depletion after BMT is poorly defined. Nutritional status, wellbeing, and nutritional biochemistry were prospectively assessed in 21 children (mean age 7.5 years; 14 boys) who received nasogastric

  17. Nutrition information sources.

    PubMed

    Farrell, L

    1972-10-01

    Medical personnel and medical librarians may tend to think of nutrition in medical terms and to forget its interdisciplinary aspects. For this reason, it is desirable for medical librarians to become familiar with a variety of sources of information on the composition of foods, nutrient values, food additives, and food protection. Many of these are government publications from such agencies as the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the National Research Council, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Less familiar sources include nutrition materials from state agricultural experiment stations and extension services and important data published in a wide range of scientific or agricultural journals, which may be located through Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews, Food Science and Technology Abstracts, and the Bibliography of Agriculture. Sources of current information on nutrition research in progress include the Department of Agriculture's Current Research Information System (CRIS) and selective listings from the Smith-sonian Information Exchange. PMID:4563540

  18. Nutritive Value of Foods.

    E-print Network

    Anoymous,

    1982-01-01

    ] . . . , ..~ . . ~ .. - CONTENTS Page Explanation of the tables .................................................................... 1 Further information ......................................................................... 3 Index...) ............................................. 32 5 Food sources of additional nutrients ................................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 34 1 (Blank Pale to Origiaal BuUetlot .. , -.t . , . '~ .; * ? '."r NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FOODS Extension Foods...

  19. Nutrition and Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, Abram

    1975-01-01

    Nutrition as a treatment component for schizophrenia is a novel concept. A brief introduction outlines the need for physicians to become nutritionally minded, since the processing of food has deteriorated its quality. The elements of good nutrition are described. There are several etiologies for the schizophrenia syndrome. It is suggested that these include Vitamin B-3 and B-6 dependency, mineral deficiency, particularly zinc, and cerebral reactions (termed allergy). The treatment based upon these ideas includes good nutrition (junk-free diet), megadoses of some vitamins, minerals, attention to certain foods which produce psychosis in a few; all in a judicious combination with standard psychiatric therapy. Such a program will improve the recovery rate over standard therapy alone. PMID:20469184

  20. FAO: Food and Nutrition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.

  1. Nutrition 9-12

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-24

    SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

  2. US Nutrition Assistance Programs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hunger and food insecurity in seniors while promoting socialization, health, well-being and delayed adverse health conditions. ... and Nutrition Information Center. Access curricula, lesson plans, research, participant materials, and professional development tools specifically for ...

  3. Lead - nutritional considerations

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, ...

  4. Nutrition in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

    2004-11-01

    It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

  5. National nutrition supplementation programmes.

    PubMed

    Kapil, U; Chaturvedi, S; Nayar, D

    1992-12-01

    Currently major nutrition supplementation programs in India are: 1) Integrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS); 2) Mid-day meal Programs (MDM); 3) Special Nutrition Programs (SNP); 4) Wheat Based Nutrition Programs (WNP); 5) Applied Nutrition Programs (ANP); 6) Balwadi Nutrition Programs (BNP); 7) National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Program (NNAPP); 8) National Program for Prevention of Blindness due to Vitamin A Deficiency; and 9) National Goiter Control Program (NGCP). The history of the respective programs, their beneficiaries, objectives, activities, organization, and evaluation are detailed. The ICDS beneficiaries are children below 6 years, pregnant and lactating mothers, and women aged 15-44 years, who are provided the following: supplementary nutrition; immunization; health check-ups; referral services; treatment of minor illnesses; pre-school education to children aged 3-6 years. The MDM program's intended beneficiaries are children attending the primary school. Children belonging to backward classes, scheduled caste, and scheduled tribe families are given priority. The SNP is to provide supplementary nutrition and health care services including supply of vitamin A solution and iron and folic acid tablets to pre-school children, and pregnant and lactating mothers of poor groups in urban slums and tribal areas. The ANP strives to make people conscious of their nutritional needs and to provide supplementary nutrition to children aged between 3-6 years and to pregnant and lactating mothers. The beneficiaries of the WNP scheme are children of pre-school age and nursing and expectant mothers in areas with high infant mortality such as urban slums and backward rural areas. The program of BNP aims to supply about one-third of the calorie and half of the protein requirements of pre-school children between the age of 3-5 years to improve the nutritional status. The NNAPP scheme beneficiaries are children in the 1-5 age group and pregnant and nursing mothers, female acceptors of terminal methods of family planning and IUDs. The NGCP aims to supply iodized salt to the entire country by 1992. PMID:1291517

  6. Genomics: food and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Roberts, M A; Mutch, D M; German, J B

    2001-10-01

    Nutrition is traditionally a multidisciplinary field applying principles of molecular biochemistry and statistical epidemiology to integrative metabolism and population health. Genomics, with its global perspective, is now reinventing the future of human metabolic health. Creative experimental designs are addressing metabolic questions in nutrition ranging from energy regulation to aging, and from mechanisms of absorption to the interspecies molecular crosstalk of bacteria and human cells within the intestine. PMID:11604331

  7. Nutrition of aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Farcas, Amy

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a normal process characterized by a variety of physiologic changes. Geriatric dogs are also more likely to be afflicted with certain disease conditions. Both normal and abnormal physiologic changes associated with aging in the dog may be amenable to nutritional intervention. Specific alterations in nutrients or in dietary characteristics can be beneficial; however, these are best done in the context of an individualized nutritional assessment and monitoring paradigm. PMID:24951344

  8. Ward nutrition coordinators to improve patient nutrition in hospital.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Jackie

    It is important that patients receive adequate nutrition while in hospital. Reports and research over the past 10 years have highlighted the problems in the NHS of managing the nutritional needs of patients (King's Fund, 1992; McWhirter and Pennington, 1994; Edington et al, 2000). This article describes a successful pilot study addressing nutrition at the ward level. It resulted from a multidisciplinary team forming to share their specific nutritional concerns; through creative thinking they devised a new role of nutrition coordinator. In the study a healthcare assistant was used from the existing ward establishment and given one-week intensive multidisciplinary induction before commencing the role in the wards. The main focus of the role was to facilitate, rather than undertake, the nutritional care of patients throughout their stay. Following a 6-month trial, the role demonstrated a significant impact on nutritional screening, nutritional service, patients' perceptions of their nutritional care, and staff satisfaction. PMID:14581841

  9. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  10. Evaluation of Iranian college athletes' sport nutrition knowledge.

    PubMed

    Jessri, Mahsa; Jessri, Maryam; RashidKhani, Bahram; Zinn, Caryn

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the nutrition knowledge and the factors determining this knowledge in Iranian college basketball and football athletes. By highlighting gaps in nutrition knowledge of these athletes, sport nutrition professionals may begin to address these gaps by educating athletes with a view toward minimizing injury and enhancing sport performance. Sixty-six basketball and 141 football players (response rate 78.4%) from 4 medical and 8 nonmedical universities in Tehran agreed to participate in this cross-sectional study. A 2-part questionnaire was used; the first part comprised questions identifying demographic information, and the second part comprised a previously well-validated questionnaire on sport nutrition knowledge. The overall knowledge score was 33.2% (+/- 12.3%). Men scored 28.2% (+/- 12.7%), and women, 38.7% (+/- 14.2%). In both genders, the highest score was obtained for the nutrients subcategory, and the supplements subcategory was the most poorly answered. When compared with their peers, a significantly higher score was obtained by women (p < .001), athletes at medical universities (p < .001), and those obtaining nutrition information from reputable sources (p = .03). The coach was cited by 89.4% of athletes as their main source of nutrition information. This study showed that the sport nutrition knowledge of these athletes is inadequate. Considering that this substandard level of knowledge may contribute to poor dietary behaviors, these athletes would benefit from nutrition-related training and education. PMID:20601743

  11. Food and nutrition knowledge in Chilean high school graduates.

    PubMed

    Ivanovi?, D; Alvarez, M L; Trufello, I; Aguayo, M; Yáñez, E; Zacarías, I

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of knowledge on food and nutrition in students graduating from high school in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago. The sample included 272 students of both sexes and type of school (public and private) and from high, medium and low socioeconomic level (SEL), measured through the Graffar Modified Scale. The degree of knowledge on food and nutrition was measured through a test of 48 items based on curriculum program objectives. The test covered three areas: Area 1, Food and Requirements; Area 2, Food, Personal and Environmental Hygiene, and Area 3, Nutritional Physiology. Students showed a good achievement of the food and nutrition objectives that are considered essential for obtaining and adequate nutrition and health status. Students from high SEL registered a significantly higher degree of knowledge on food and nutrition than students from other strata (p less than 0.001). However, sex and type of school had no effect on the degree of food and nutrition knowledge. This study is a contribution to the better understanding of factors affecting the food and nutrition knowledge, and provides good foundations for further studies. PMID:3632225

  12. Nutritional Deterioration in Cancer: The Role of Disease and Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Ravasco; I. Monteiro-Grillo; P. M. Vidal; M. E. Camilo

    2003-01-01

    Aims: Under-nutrition is a major source of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. This prospective, cross-sectional study aimed to evaluate the relative contributions of cancer staging, duration and diet on patients’ nutritional deterioration.Materials and methods: We included 205 consecutive patients (133 men and 72 women) with head and neck, gastro-oesophageal, colon and rectum cancer, age 53±12 (33–86) years, referred for

  13. Nutritive value of prickly pear seeds, Opuntia ficus-indica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. N. Sawaya; J. K. Khalil; M. M. Al-Mohammad

    1983-01-01

    Results are reported on the nutritional quality of prickly pear seeds,Opuntia ficus-indica. The seeds contained 16.6% protein, 17.2% fat, 49.6% fiber and 3.0% ash. The meal showed a high amount of iron (9.45 mg %). The contents of Mg, P, K, Zn and Cu were nutritionally significant contributing approximately 10–20% of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) of these elements per

  14. Goals for Preventive Nutrition in Developing Countries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osman M. Galal; Gail G. Harrison

    \\u000a Low- and middle-income countries increasingly face extremely complex problems in the arena of public health nutrition. Persistent\\u000a endemic malnutrition affecting primarily children and women of reproductive age contributes hugely to global burdens of disease\\u000a and disability. Recent estimates are that one-third of child deaths worldwide and 11% of the global disease burden are due\\u000a to largely preventable maternal and child

  15. Strategies for nutritional improvement.

    PubMed

    Gill, K S

    1991-01-01

    India has achieved self-sufficiency in the production of food grains, yet the production of milk, legumes, vegetables, oils and fats, eggs, and meat is far short of the needs of the population. The Indian diet predominantly comprises cereals, and the diets of expectant and nursing mothers as well as children are grossly deficient in protective foods. Serious nutritional inadequacies have resulted in low birth weight, retarded growth, and nutritional deficiencies (protein energy malnutrition in preschool children, vitamin A deficiency, iron deficiency in women of reproductive age, and iodine deficiency disorders among neonates and schoolchildren). General malnutrition is prevalent in 25% of the rural and 20% of the urban population. Deficiency symptoms of vitamin B complex and vitamin C are also not uncommon. 37% of the population of India lives below the poverty limit, the literacy rate is only 52.1% (39.4% for women), safe drinking water is scarce, nutritional ignorance is rampant, there is a lack of personal hygiene, and poor sanitation all account for malnutrition. A number of government and nongovernmental organizations' programs have attempted to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living of the people. Some of them include the integrated child development services, special nutritional program, national vitamin A deficiency prophylaxis program, national anemia prophylaxis program, national goiter control program, midday meal program, special class feeding programs, universal immunization program, nutritional and health education through the mass media as well as the observance of world food day and world health day. The national health policy gives high priority to the promotion of family planning, the provision of primary health care, and the acceleration of welfare programs for women and children. As a result of policies and programs of health and nutrition, the infant, child, and maternal mortality rates have declined and life expectancy at birth has risen. PMID:12346051

  16. Clinical trials in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Hsu-Hage, B H; Lukito, W

    1999-09-01

    Trials of nutritional intervention in a wide range of health and disease states, preventive and therapeutic, are required. Not only has the emergence of chronic non-communicable disease (CNCD) with acknowledged nutritional pathogenesis created this imperative need, but so also have other conditions which, previously, had not been regarded as nutritionally based. Among the latter are health problems associated with ageing: the menopause, a decline in immune function, and a decline in cognitive function. At the same time, there is a new set of materno-foetal and infant nutrition issues for investigation which relate to new food exposures and the long-term effects of nutritionally mediated gene expression. The emergence of the new food science of phytochemicals with human biological importance also sets the scene for their evaluation in traditional diets and novel foods. Such trials are more complex than comparable pharmacotherapeutic studies because of the complexity of food chemistry, as well as the food behavioural changes which may accompany a nutritional intervention, and the general problem of there not being a 'gold standard' for food intake methodology. Choice of study population is also a key issue in relation to the extrapolation of findings from a particular trial, with population representativeness being an advantage. In order to obtain useful information on manageable sample sizes, either intermediate end-points (short of morbidity and mortality) need to be studied or high-risk groups (such as the aged) need to be recruited. There are some unique ethical issues which must inform clinical nutrition trials. These include certain preventive imperatives like the right to be fed, the risks in disruption of food cultures and the need for food security and sustainability. Rapid changes in the food supply do, however, make such trials more important, while the value of food-health knowledge that cannot be obtained by trial must still be appreciated. PMID:24394168

  17. Nutrition of the elderly.

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

    1991-01-01

    The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

  18. Understanding the nutrition transition.

    PubMed

    Popkin, B M

    1996-09-01

    This article presents an overview of nutrition transition and experiences in China and Russia with monitoring of economic and health changes. Fogel (1994) showed that improvements in nutrition were associated with significant shifts in economic productivity. Over the past 300 years, the pace of dietary change has increased to some extent worldwide. Dietary changes are evident in changes in average stature and body composition and parallel major changes in health status. The nutrition transition follows the pattern of collecting food, famine, receding famine, degenerative disease, and behavioral change. The author's first proposition is that nutritional trends and dietary change are associated with population growth, age structure, and spatial distribution. Urban population has a distinctly different diet from rural population. Urban diets include superior grains, more milled and polished grains, higher fat content, more animal products, more sugar, and more prepared and processed food. Urban and rural diets are farther apart in low-income countries. The author's second proposition is that diet and activity are affected by income, patterns of work, and socioeconomic changes. Women's role changes affect household food preparation. Income allows for the purchase of goods or services that affect diet. Income increases are related to greater expenditures on food. The third proposition is that diet changes are associated with changes in knowledge and access to mass media. The last proposition is that interaction between epidemiological, socioeconomic, and demographic changes determines the nature and pace of nutrition transition. PMID:12178476

  19. Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Heller, Barbara

    Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety and Health (IFSH), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists, and food industry

  20. Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

    "Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

  1. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  2. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  3. [Nutritional support for patients].

    PubMed

    Corbee, Ronald Jan; van Kerkhoven, Wim

    2012-06-01

    A good intake of fluids and essential nutrients in the first fourteen days is of vital importance to recuperating animals. Moreover, it is important to encourage cats and dogs to eat after illness or surgery, in order to promote optimal functioning of the gut and the immune system. Enteral nutrition is to be preferred to nasogastric feeding or parenteral nutrition. In the first stage of recovery, during the first 24 to 48 hours, it is important to feed the gut' with nutrients, and thereafter, in the second stage of recovery (after day 3), the calorie intake can be increased. Timely nutritional support with nutraceuticals, such as arginine, glutamine, taurine, long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, and prebiotic fibres, can considerably shorten the recovery period of cats and dogs after illness or surgery PMID:22734193

  4. Nutrition in conflict situations.

    PubMed

    Egal, Florence

    2006-08-01

    High prevalence of malnutrition is often linked to conflict situations. Conflicts affect local livelihoods, impair productive activities and limit access to safe foods and basic services. Strategies to protect and promote nutrition of affected households and communities must be based on an understanding of this impact. While nutrition rehabilitation and food aid are clearly essential to preserve lives in the short run, they cannot provide lasting solutions. Impaired nutritional status ultimately reflects livelihood degradation but anthropometric indicators cannot be used to target timely interventions. They should be combined with simple indicators of food consumption which react more quickly to both crisis and relief/rehabilitation interventions. Local institutions should be encouraged to share information and build causality models of malnutrition for the main vulnerable livelihood groups as a basis for an integrated response. A communication component will systematically be needed to allow people to make informed decisions in a context with which they are often not familiar. PMID:16923242

  5. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive System > Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition Print A A A Text Size What's in ... or the flu. With the right balance of nutrition, extra fat and calories , and prescribed supplements, though, ...

  6. Clinical avian nutrition.

    PubMed

    Orosz, Susan E

    2014-09-01

    Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. PMID:25155663

  7. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

  8. Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ?150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (?) monounsaturated fatty acids, ? n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less ? n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

  9. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  10. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  11. Alabama's Child Nutrition Certification Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery. Div. of Administration and Finance.

    This handbook presents the plan for the Alabama computerized certification program for school food service employees. The first section contains the following information and materials pertaining to the child nutrition certification program: rationale; position titles (Child Nutrition Program Director or Supervisor, Child Nutrition Program…

  12. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and this could be exacerbated by the possibility of horizontal transmission revealed by laboratory challenge tests. Thus, it is recommended that the PCR and in situ hybridization methods developed herein be used to identify the natural reservoir species so they can be eliminated from the shrimp rearing system. PMID:23856195

  13. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  14. Nutritional aspects to prevent heart diseases in traditional persian medicine.

    PubMed

    Kordafshari, Gholamreza; Kenari, Hoorieh Mohammadi; Esfahani, Mohammad Mehdi; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Nazem, Esmaeil; Moghimi, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are major health complications currently in various societies. Management of heart diseases as a prevention step or as treatment with low-cost procedures like lifestyle modifications including nutrition are important current trends. Although the term nutrition dates back to 2 past centuries, Persian physicians contributed to this term at least from 1000 years ago. Rhazes (865-925 AD) was one of the pioneers in this field. He preferred using foods in treating illnesses. "Foods and drinks" were 1 subject from 6 principles (Setteh Zarorieh) that Persian physicians believed can affect human health. In this review, we described some medieval Persian views on the role of nutrition in heart diseases and compare their prescriptions with current findings. Interestingly, current investigations mostly support Persian medicine principles. Historically, this work shows that the concept of nutrition in heart diseases has had a successful background at least from 1000 years ago in Persia. PMID:25331095

  15. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  16. Immunity and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

  17. Liposomes in nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. C Keller

    2001-01-01

    The dietary supplement industry is growing in dynamic ways. There are broad ranges of ingredients that have established health benefits, and use of nutritional supplements is at an all time high. Most attention in the literature has been on treatment benefits and ingredient claims. Select researchers are now focusing on routes of administration, efficiency of absorption, absorption criteria, improving bioavailability

  18. Nutrition, sleep and recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shona L. Halson

    2008-01-01

    Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a

  19. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  20. NUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 71 million or nearly 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years old and 19.5 million will live to see their 80th birthdays. This graying of the population has wide-ranging implications for almost every aspect of health care, including nutrition. Many factors inf...

  1. Nutrition during pregnancy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal nutritional support of a mother and her developing fetus begins before conception. This poses a challenge for pediatricians caring for pregnant adolescents. Approximately 1 million teenagers become pregnant in the United States each year. Of these pregnancies, 51% end in live births, 35%...

  2. Nutrition in pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. E. Hytten

    1979-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence shows that women living in affluent circumstances have bigger babies with a lower mortality than underpriviliged women. How much of that effect is due to nutrition alone is not known but supplementary feeding in pregnancy of chronically ill nourished women does appear to increase mean birth weight, and famine conditions in a basically well nourished community reduce the

  3. Nutrition on match day

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

    2006-01-01

    What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

  4. Nutrition: What are Nutrients?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-05-24

    Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

  5. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

  6. Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

  7. Nutrition and pregnancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Prentice

    2004-01-01

    Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

  8. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  9. Nutrition: What is Food?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2010-05-24

    Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

  10. Nutrition and prostate cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence N. Kolonel

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and prostate cancer is reviewed. Little is known about the etiology of prostate cancer, despite its prominence as the leading cancer among men in the United States. Rational mechanisms for dietary influences on prostate carcinogenesis, including effects on production or metabolism of androgenic hormones, have been proposed, but because few suitable animal models

  11. Nutrition and stomach cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suminori Kono; Tomio Hirohata

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and stomach cancer is reviewed. Stomach cancer shows a distinct international variation and dramatic worldwide decline. These descriptive features suggest that dietary factors are important in determining the risk of stomach cancer. The authors assessed relevant data regarding specific dietary hypotheses in the etiology of stomach cancer. A negative association with fresh vegetables

  12. Nutrition, growth, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tryfiates, G.P. (Dept. of Biochemistry, West Virginia Univ., Medical Center, Morgantown, WV (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.

  13. Nutrition and esophageal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Cheng; N. E. Day

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and esophageal cancer is reviewed. Results from ecologic, case-control, cohort, and intervention studies are included. Most of the findings pertain more to squamous cell carcinoma than adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. The protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is supported by a large body of evidence, especially from case-control studies. The effects of

  14. Nutrition and pancreatic cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey R. Howe; J. David Burch

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and pancreatic cancer is reviewed. A number of epidemiologic studies of diet and cancer of the pancreas have been reported including descriptive, case-control, and cohort studies. Overall, fairly consistent patterns of positive associations with the intake of meat, carbohydrates, and dietary cholesterol have been observed. Consistent inverse relationships with fruit and vegetable intakes

  15. Nutrition and lung cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Regina G. Ziegler; Susan Taylor Mayne; Christine A. Swanson

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and lung cancer is reviewed. Observational studies of diet and lung cancer, both prospective and retrospective, continue to suggest strongly that increased vegetable and fruit intake is associated with reduced risk in men and women; in various countries; in smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers; and for all histologic types of lung cancer. Prospective studies

  16. Nutrition and endometrial cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Holly A. Hill; Harland Austin

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and endometrial cancer (EC) is reviewed. Obesity is an important determinant of EC, probably because of its effect on the hormonal milieu of both pre-and postmenopausal women. However, epidemiologic studies of body fat distribution and EC are inconsistent, as are the data pertaining to the relation between body fat distribution and sex hormones.

  17. Nutrition and colorectal cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Potter

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and colorectal cancer is reviewed. Colon cancer varies approximately 20-fold internationally. Although there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition to colon cancer, much of this variation appears to be related to differences in dietary habits. At present, the data suggest that vegetables are associated with lower risk, and that fiber alone does not

  18. Nutrition and breast cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Hunter; Walter C. Willett

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and breast cancer is reviewed. After several decades of study, many aspects of the role of diet in breast cancer etiology are still unclear. Results from large prospective studies do not support the concept developed from animal and ecologic evidence that dietary fat intake in mid-life is associated with breast cancer risk. Thus,

  19. Nutrition in cancer patients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebastiano Mercadante

    1996-01-01

    Many factors can modify nutritional status in cancer patients, including cachexia, nausea and vomiting, decreased caloric intake or oncologic treatments capable of determining malabsorption. Cachexia is a complex disease characterized not only by a poor intake of nutrients or starvation, but also by metabolic derangement. Nausea and vomiting may limit the nutrient intake and are most often the consequences of

  20. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Manjarrez, C; Birrer, R

    1983-11-01

    Athletes and physicians alike are often poorly informed about nutrition. Myths abound, some of them potentially harmful. Common errors include a disproportionately high intake of proteins (especially by weight lifters), vitamins and minerals in excess of the recommended dietary allowances, poorly designed weight gain or loss programs, and various food fads. PMID:6637741

  1. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  2. Banking on Child Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret; McBride, Andrea M.; Roberts-Gray, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    The child-care facility is rapidly growing into the role of gatekeeper on food intake for children. This article describes guidelines for children's nutritional needs, what children are actually eating, how to make menus more nutritious (including recipes), how to strengthen menus and keep food costs low, and the use of food banks. (EV)

  3. THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) IN PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: This book chapter describes the major agencies within USDA that contribute to the practice of public health nutrition; identifies the primary USDA programs that provide food assistance and nutrition education; discusses the agencies whose roles are to provide research data to support hum...

  4. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

  5. Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata

    E-print Network

    Bhattacharya, Debashish

    Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata Anna Cockroach species show different degrees of maternal contribution to the developing offspring. In this study of nutritive ``Milk'' in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. This gene family is asso- ciated

  6. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  7. Nutrition issues for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2008-09-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

  8. Models linking nutritional deficiencies to maternal and child mental health.

    PubMed

    Wachs, Theodore D

    2009-03-01

    The primary goal of this article was to illustrate how nutritional deficiencies can translate into adult or child mental health problems. Whereas brain development and function play an essential role in the etiology and maintenance of mental health problems, what is required are models that go beyond nutrition-brain relations and integrate the contributions of nutritionally related contextual and behavioral characteristics. Four such models are presented. The multiple risks model derives from evidence showing covariance between nutritional deficiencies and other life stressors. Given that poorly nourished adults may be less able to actively cope with stressors, nutritional deficiencies may accentuate the negative impact of stress exposure on mental health. The cross-generational model is based on evidence showing less adequate patterns of mother-child interactions when mothers are poorly nourished. Impairments in mother-child interactions increase the likelihood of child mental health problems and the risk of subsequent child nutritional deficiencies. The attachment model derives from evidence showing that poorly nourished infants may be less likely to elicit the types of maternal child-rearing patterns that translate into secure infant-mother attachments. Insecure attachments in infancy are associated with an increased risk of both short-term and long-term child mental health problems. The temperament model is based on evidence documenting that certain patterns of infant temperament are related to an increased risk of later behavioral problems. Infant nutritional deficiencies can influence the development of temperament, and certain temperament patterns can contribute to an increased risk of infant nutritional deficiencies. PMID:19176736

  9. The nutrition consult for recurrent stone formers.

    PubMed

    Penniston, Kristina L

    2015-07-01

    Diet is implicated in stone formation and growth. Whether alone or in concert with pharmacologics, dietary changes may be useful in reducing recurrence but only when they correct dietary stone-forming risks. Patients benefit from recommendations individualized to their food preferences as well as to lifestyle, age, food knowledge and access, preparation skills, and cultural and ethnic identities. Urologists can provide general dietary recommendations but often lack the time to provide the full complement of individualized nutrition care offered by a registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN). Urologists can partner with and refer patients to a RDN for any component of the nutrition care process: assessment of diet, diagnosis of dietary factors that contribute to stone risk factors, intervention formulation and implementation, and monitoring the effectiveness of the intervention and modifying it as needed to maintain suitably low dietary risk for stone recurrence. PMID:26025494

  10. RNAi knock-down of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene and immune deficiency gene reveals their difference in regulating antimicrobial peptides transcription.

    PubMed

    Hou, Fujun; He, Shulin; Liu, Yongjie; Zhu, Xiaowen; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin

    2014-06-01

    NF-?B dependent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are of critical importance in protecting insects or mammals from microorganisms infection. However, we still do not make clear signaling pathways in regulating AMPs expression in shrimps. In this study, RNAi approach was used to study differences between Toll signaling pathway and immune deficiency signaling pathway in regulating the transcription of NF-?B dependent AMPs post bacteria challenge. Results showed that the transcription level of anti-lipopolysaccharide factor was highly suppressed in Litopenaeus vannamei immune deficiency (LvIMD) silenced shrimps by gene specific dsRNA compared to Litopenaeus vannamei Toll (LvToll) silenced shrimps with or without Vibrio anguillarum and Micrococcus lysodeikticus challenge. Conversely the transcription level of penaeidin3a was significantly suppressed in LvToll silenced shrimps compared to LvIMD silenced shrimps. However, no obvious difference was found in regulating the transcription of CrustinP. Meanwhile, we found that silencing LvToll both down regulated the transcription of Dorsal and Relish while silencing LvIMD only down regulated the transcription of Relish. At last, shrimp survival experiment showed that post V. anguillarum challenge high mortality was found both in LvToll and LvIMD silenced groups while post M. lysodeikticus challenge we saw high mortality only in LvToll silenced group. Hence, we conclude that shrimp L. vannamei Toll pathway and IMD pathway might be different in regulating the transcription of NF-?B dependent AMPs and responding to bacteria challenge but not independent of each other. PMID:24434197

  11. Administration of the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis enhanced the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Tayag, Carina Miranda; Lin, Yong-Chin; Li, Chang-Che; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2010-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been injected with the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), or immersed in aerated seawater containing extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1.5 x 10(6) or 1.4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. Survival rates of shrimp that received the extract of S. platensis at 6-20 microg g(-1), and those of shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 400 and 600 mg L(-1) were significantly higher than those of control shrimp after 24-96 and 48-96 h, respectively. In a separate experiment, the hyaline cell (HC) count, granular cell (GC, including semi-granular cell) count, total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and lysozyme activity were measured when shrimp were injected with the extract at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), and immersed in seawater containing the extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1). These parameters directly increased with the concentration, and significantly increased when shrimp were immersed in the seawater containing the extract at 0.5-4 h. L. vannamei that received all doses of the extract via injection or via immersion all had increased phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus at 12-72 h and 3-4 h, respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that received the hot-water extract of S. platensis had enhanced innate immunity and increased resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:20139007

  12. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P < 0.05) higher survival, higher activities of TAS, GSH-Px and CAT, as well as higher transcript levels of GPx and CAT gene in shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. PMID:25600509

  13. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding Ars2 and Pasha homologues, two components of the RNA interference pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Hong; Zhao, Li; Jia, Xiao-Ting; Li, Xiao-Yun; Li, Chao Zheng; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

    2012-02-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) is an evolutionarily conserved protective mechanism in eukaryotes against parasitic foreign nucleic acids. Previous studies demonstrated that the RNAi mechanism is important for shrimp antiviral immunity. Here, we report the identification and functional analysis of two key components of the shrimp RNAi activity: Litopenaeus vannamei arsenite resistance gene 2 (LvArs2) and partner of drosha (LvPasha). The full-length cDNA of LvArs2 was 3470 bp, including a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 167 bp, a 3' UTR of 639 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 2664 bp that encoded 887 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 102.5 kDa. The full-length cDNA of LvPasha was 2654 bp, including a 5' UTR of 99 bp, a 3' UTR of 560 bp, and an ORF of 1995 bp that encoded 664 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass of 74.2 kDa. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that LvArs2 interacted with L. vannamei Dicer2 (LvDcr2) and LvPasha in Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells, suggesting that LvArs2 may be involved in regulation of the miRNA/siRNA pathways in L.vannamei. Subcellular localization assays demonstrated both LvArs2 and LvPasha proteins mainly presented in the nucleus. After Poly(C-G) stimulation, the expression of LvArs2 was suppressed and expression of LvPasha was enhanced in shrimp gills. These results suggest that LvArs2 and LvPasha may participate in the defense against RNA viruses in crustacea. PMID:22155278

  14. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 ?g mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  15. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  16. Molecular modeling and expression of the Litopenaeus vannamei proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) after white spot syndrome virus shrimp infection

    PubMed Central

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Islas-Osuna, Maria A.; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Brieba, Luis G.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is the eukaryotic sliding clamp that tethers DNA polymerase to DNA during replication. The full-length cDNA of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei PCNA (LvPCNA) was cloned and encoded a protein of 260 amino acids that is highly similar to other Crustacean PCNAs. The theoretical shrimp PCNA structure has all the domains that are necessary for its interaction with template DNA and DNA polymerase. RT-PCR analysis showed that LvPCNA is expressed mainly in muscle and hemocytes and much less in hepatopancreas and gills. LvPCNA mRNA levels are not statistically different in muscle from healthy and challenged shrimp with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In contrast, the mRNA levels of the viral DNA polymerase show a biphasic pattern with expression at 6 h post-infection and later at 24 and 48 h. These results suggest that in shrimp muscle LvPCNA levels are steadily kept to allow viral replication and that WSSV DNA polymerase (WSSV-DNApol) is more responsive towards later stages of infection. More knowledge of the DNA replication machinery would result in a better understanding of the mechanism and components of viral replication, since the WSSV genome does not have all the components required for assembly of a fully functional replisome. PMID:24371549

  17. Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

  18. The role of lipoic acid in the protection against of metallic pollutant effects in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Lobato, Roberta Oliveira; Nunes, Silvana Manske; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2013-08-01

    The effects of cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As), dosed alone or in combination have been poorly investigated in crustaceans. Besides, it is not known if dietary supplementation of exogenous antioxidants, like lipoic acid (LA), might prevent or even reverse toxic effects of Cd and As. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the role of lipoic acid in modulating biochemical responses after Cd and As exposures in Litopenaeus vannamei. Muscle from shrimp exposed to Cd alone or Cd+As showed a decrease in glutathione (GSH) levels, while the pre-treatment with LA reversed this situation. In this tissue, the pre-treatment with LA also induced an increase in glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in all groups. In hepatopancreas it was observed a marked accumulation of Cd and As, a decrease in the reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration in response to Cd exposure alone (-LA); concomitant in the same group it was observed an increment of metallothionein-like content. As exposure induced an increase in GSH levels but LA reversed this increase. Also, LA showed to increase the GST activity in all groups treated. Besides, in this organ LA showed to augment total antioxidant competence. Obtained results indicate that LA can be used as a chemo-protectant against oxidative insults in shrimp. PMID:23507566

  19. The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Xi, Qian-Yun; Yang, Lin; Li, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2011-02-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg?¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp. PMID:21129487

  20. [Toxic effect of DDT and endosulfan in white shrimp postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from Chiapas, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castro-Castro, Vicente; Siu-Rodas, Yadira; González-Huerta, Luz V; Sokolov, Mikhail Y

    2005-01-01

    We analized acute toxicity in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) postlarvae exposed to two chlorinated pesticides, DDT and endosulfan, under laboratory conditions during 168 hours, with controlled temperature (29 +/- 1 degrees C), salinity (3 +/- 1%o) and pH (8 +/- 1). Median lethal concentrations (LC50), "incipient" LC50, median lethal time (LT50) the "maximum acceptable concentration of the toxic compound" (MACT) and "the safety level" (SL) were determined. The concentration of the compounds at which organism growth was reduced by 5 and 50% (EC5 and EC50), as well as changes in oxygen consumption patterns were determined in the surviving postlarvae. They were very sensitive to both compounds and DDT was thrice as toxic as endosulfan. Growth rate decreased 50% and 80% with endosulfan and DDT, respectively, at the experimental pestice concentration. The low resistance of postlarvae to DDT and endosulfan suggests that additional inflow of these pesticides into the aquatic system could affect the rate of shrimp production in the area. PMID:17354427

  1. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  2. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  3. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  4. The effects of body weight, temperature, salinity, pH, light intensity and feeding condition on lethal DO levels of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peidong Zhang; Xiumei Zhang; Jian Li; Guoqiang Huang

    2006-01-01

    Tolerance of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different temperatures (14.5, 21.5, 24.8, 27.8, 30.8, and 35.0 °C), salinities (9, 15, 26, 35, and 40‰), pH (3.3, 6.5, 7.7, 8.1, and 9.2), and light intensities (strong 2100 lx and weak 60 lx) at various body weights (3.0, 3.7, 4.3, 5.7, 7.8, 9.0, 9.5, 10.7, 11.9, and 13.3 g) and feeding conditions (fed

  5. Evaluation of some hemato-immunological parameters in female shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei submitted to unilateral eyestalk ablation in association with a diet supplemented with superdoses of ascorbic acid as a form of immunostimulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniela S. Maggioni; Edemar R. Andreatta; Elizabeth M. Hermes; Margherita A. Barracco

    2004-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the modulation of some hemato-immunological parameters in female shrimp L. vannamei submitted to unilateral eyestalk ablation and whose diet was supplemented with superdoses of vitamin C, as a form of immunostimulation. The analyzed parameters were: total hemocyte counts (THC), protein concentration (PC), agglutinating and phenoloxidase (PO) activities in the serum, and

  6. Effect of the Dietary Ratio of Digestible Energy to Crude Protein on Growth and Feed Conversion in Juvenile Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Similar Levels of Daily Protein Consumption

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesus A. Venero; D. Allen Davis; David B. Rouse

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of the dietary ratio of digestible energy (DE) : Crude protein (CP) on growth performance and nutrient utilization in juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed various diets with a constant daily protein input. Juveniles (weight = 0.94 ± 0.04 g [mean ± SE]; n = 30) were stocked in an indoor recirculating-water system (173-L polyethylene

  7. Cloning and expression of hyperglycemic (CHH) and molt-inhibiting (MIH) hormones mRNAs from the eyestalk of shrimps of Litopenaeus vannamei grown in different temperature and salinity conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asunción Lago-Lestón; Elizabeth Ponce; Ma. Enriqueta Muñoz

    2007-01-01

    This study describes the effect of temperature and salinity on the expression of chh and mih genes obtained from Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Results suggest that temperature had a higher effect on gene expression than salinity. Two different mih transcripts were obtained from the eyestalks of shrimps exposed to 20 °C. Direct sequence evidence suggests that these two isoforms come from a

  8. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  9. Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and health: Evidence from low-income individuals in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigate the factors that contribute to participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and the effects of such participation on self-assessed health (SAH). An endogenous switching ordered probability model is developed with alternative error distributional assumptions, ...

  10. An unexpected life in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Nesheim, Malden C

    2012-08-21

    In this biographical article, I describe the evolution of my career in nutrition from an early period as an animal nutritionist interested in amino acid metabolism and genetic variation in nutrient requirements to an involvement in human nutrition and international public health. The career changes were in some respects a mirror of the evolution of nutritional science in my lifetime. I spent my entire career at Cornell University in what I think of as three distinct phases. As a researcher and teacher in the Poultry Science Department, I was able to do research in animal nutrition and witness the rapid industrialization of the production of poultry meat and eggs, helped by the findings of the era of nutrient discovery in nutritional science. Later I had the opportunity to lead the reorganization of human nutrition at Cornell during a period when research in nutritional science turned away from identifying new nutrients and became increasingly concerned with the roles of diet and chronic disease. During this period my research focus evolved as I became interested in aspects of international nutrition problems, particularly the influence of parasitic infections on child health and nutrition. I also became involved nationally in nutrition issues through participation in organizations such as the National Nutrition Consortium, the Food and Nutrition Board, and National Institutes of Health study sections at a time of great ferment in nutrition about the relationship of dietary patterns to health. Finally, I became provost of Cornell University and involved in the administration of a major research university. I describe my career in the context of my origins and early education springing from life on a sustainable family farm in rural Illinois. PMID:22404121

  11. [Nutrition--obesity].

    PubMed

    Giusti, V; Clarisse, M; Di Vetta, V

    2005-01-01

    The gastric pacemaker is a new obesity treatment, which pleases by its simplicity and obvious lack of complications on the nutritional level. Its long-term efficacy is however to be confirmed and the criterions of the patients' selection to be defined. The rimonabant is a selective antagonist of the cannabinoid CBI receptor, able to reduce the quantity of the total food intake, and especially the greasy one. The first results on the short term look promising. The multiplication of food pyramids is the consequence of the scientific knowledge development in the nutritional field. On this basis, new pyramids are adapted, depending on the therapeutic objectives (weight loss, cardiovascular risk) and allowing either quantity or quality food. The taking charge of patients in group and according to the therapeutic education criterions makes easy a relation between the medical team and patients and allows these latters a better awareness of their disease and its long term treatment. PMID:15773199

  12. Nutrition, Epigenetics, and Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases. PMID:24527414

  13. Nutrition.gov

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Nutrition.gov is a government-based website that is funded by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Using scientific research, this site helps consumers understand what they should know when purchasing and/or eating food. "In the News" and "Spotlight" sections located on the main page are updated regularly to give users the most recent information about eating healthy, nutritional foods. The site is designed for searching by subject or audience, and provides in-depth data about food as well as simple tips for eating healthy. The site also provides information on Food Safety regulations as well as the MyPyramid Food Guidance System. The MyPyramid link also provides a section "For Professionals," designed to provide information specifically for use in developing education materials.

  14. USDA: Food & Nutrition Service

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.

  15. [Nutrition and physical exercise].

    PubMed

    Palacios Gil-Antuñano, N

    2000-01-01

    The principles of a good diet and proper nutrition are the same for people practising sports and for non-athletes. The main difference lies in the amount of energy that sportsmen and women need to carry out a more intense physical activity and to keep an appropriate weight to allow greater performance. The relationship between nutrition and physical exercise has often been shrouded in confusion and conjecture, so certain products or supplements turn into real myths through attempts to achieve better athletic results, despite the fact the information available on the true effect of a particular substance or food on athletic performance is, quite limited and disputed. This paper attempts to clarify the scientific information available on this subject. PMID:11220000

  16. Neuromuscular contributions to age-related weakness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related physiological change of neuromuscular function is not a linear process and is likely influenced by various biological and behavioral factors (e.g., genetics, nutrition, physical activity level, comorbidities, etc.). These factors contribute to heterogeneity among older adults, which chal...

  17. Financial and nutrition outcomes for patients placed on enteral nutrition versus oral intake

    E-print Network

    Barry, Kristina Marie

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition support between January 1...

  18. Nutrition and reproduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Robinson

    1996-01-01

    Through their influence on embryonic and early fetal development dietary nutrients affect the size, vigour and viability of the newborn and, in the case of sheep, adult ovulation rates. Nutritional regimens that impair post-natal growth reduce ovarian follicular development and delay puberty but have little, if any, effect on either N-methyl-D-aspartate stimulated GnRH release or the pituitary content of gonadotrophins.

  19. Nutrition, sirtuins and aging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Uwe Wenzel

    2006-01-01

    Beyond our inherited genetic make-up environmental factors are central for health and disease and finally determine our life\\u000a span. Amongst the environmental factors nutrition plays a prominent role in affecting a variety of degenerative processes\\u000a that are linked to aging. The exponential increase of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in industrialized nations as\\u000a a consequence of a long-lasting caloric supernutrition is an

  20. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joan M. Eckerson

    \\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

  1. Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    MacLeod, Erin L.; Ney, Denise M.

    2010-01-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional management for those with PKU is to maintain plasma phe concentrations that support optimal growth, development, and mental functioning while providing a nutritionally complete diet. This paper reviews developing a lifelong dietary prescription for those with PKU, outcomes of nutritional management, compliance with the low-phe diet across the life cycle, and new options for nutritional management. An individualized dietary prescription is needed to meet nutrient requirements, and the adequacy of phe intake is monitored with assessment of blood phe levels. Elevated phe concentrations may occur due to illness, excessive or inadequate phe intake, or inadequate intake of AA formula. Although normal growth and development occurs with adherence to the low-phe diet, it is important to monitor vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acid status, especially in those who do not consume sufficient AA formula. Given the growing population of adults with PKU, further research is needed to understand the risks for developing osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease. There are promising new options to liberalize the diet and improve metabolic control such as tetrahydrobiopterin therapy or supplementation with large neutral AAs. Moreover, foods made with glycomacropeptide, an intact protein that contains minimal phe, improves the PKU diet by offering a palatable alternative to AA formula. In summary, continued efforts are needed to overcome the biggest challenge to living with PKU – lifelong adherence to the low-phe diet. PMID:22475869

  2. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  3. Trace elements in nutrition.

    PubMed

    Dreosti, I E

    1980-08-01

    Advances in trace element research over the last decade have done much to elucidate the function of these nutrients at the biochemical level. Five new trace elements have been identified and the general relevance of microelements in human nutrition has undergone reassessment. Deficiencies of iodine, iron and fluorine remain important problems and necessitate supplementation. Suboptimal nutrition in chromium, copper, selenium, zinc and possibly vanadium has been suggested, and these elements are generally acknowledged to be of concern in human nutrition. Genetic factors and other "conditioning" agents have been implicated in the aetiology of a number of trace element deficiencies in apparently well nourished communities. Tissues under anabolic stress have been recognized to be especially sensitive to trace element deficits, and the particular vulnerability of the fetus has been demonstrated on a number of occasions. In practical dietary terms, the loss of microelements during the refining and processing of food has been widely illustrated. Also, the generally lower levels of trace elements in plant material and the lower availability of minerals from these food sources has been well established. Of the newer trace element deficiencies, zinc impoverishment appears to be especially important, as a state of physiological zinc deficiency rapidly follows dietary insufficiency, and the consequences on all growing tissues are particularly serious. In general, recent developments suggest that marginal deficiencies of microelements are more widespread in human nutrition than was previously appreciated. Greater attention to trace element status seems to be indicated in circumstances in which physical condition and vigour are unaccountably poor and especially in situations accompanied by active anabolism. PMID:7421677

  4. [Nutrition and cardiovascular mortality].

    PubMed

    Fehér, János; Lengyel, Gabriella

    2006-08-13

    About 17 million persons die in cardiovascular disease yearly in the world. Most part of this disease can be prevented by the elimination of primary risk factors, thus by the abolishment of unhealthy nutrition, physical inactivity and by the absence of smoking. The cost-effective national program, as well as the life style with decreasing individual risk factors can give a trend to decrease the cardiovascular mortality. Individually the usual blood pressure and cholesterol control, the inhibition of obesity and the life style without smoking are able to decrease the organic changes, which produce the lethal consequences of this disease. The different kinds of diets can significantly influence the development of human diseases. The Western diet has atherogenic effect, increases the risk of myocardial infarction. The Mediterranean diet beneficially influences the life expectancy at birth. The Far-East Japanese diet could specially be important from the viewpoint of nutrition, because the longest life expectancy at birth and the smallest cardiovascular mortality can be found there. The quality nutrition factors (vitamins, vitamin like materials, polyphenols in wine and fruit juices, trace elements, omega-3 fatty acids) play an important role in the decreasing of oxidative stress and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:16981422

  5. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  6. The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with declined immunity, particularly T cell-mediated activity, which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease and cancer in the elderly. Studies have shown that nutritional intervention may be a promising approach to reversing impaired immune func...

  7. Developmental Perspectives on Nutrition and Obesity From Gestation to Adolescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Layla Esposito; Jennifer O. Fisher; Julie A. Mennella; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Terry T. Huang

    Obesity results from a complex combination of fac- tors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmen- tal perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development.

  8. DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

  9. Metabolic changes after polytrauma: an imperative for early nutritional support

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erik Hasenboehler; Allison Williams; Iris Leinhase; Steven J Morgan; Wade R Smith; Ernest E Moore; Philip F Stahel

    2006-01-01

    Major trauma induces marked metabolic changes which contribute to the systemic immune suppression in severely injured patients and increase the risk of infection and posttraumatic organ failure. The hypercatabolic state of polytrauma patients must be recognized early and treated by an appropriate nutritional management in order to avoid late complications. Clinical studies in recent years have supported the concept of

  10. Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Pingleton

    1996-01-01

    Enteral nutrition in patients with respiratory disease. S.K. Pingleton. ©ERS Journals Ltd 1996. ABSTRACT: Nutritional assessment and management is an important therapeutic modality in patients with respiratory disease. Malnutrition adversely affects res- piratory function. Nutritional therapy for the spontaneously breathing patient should include an appropriate diet plus the consideration of nutritional supplements. Complete nutritional support should be undertaken with enteral

  11. Agriculture and nutrition in India: mapping evidence to pathways.

    PubMed

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Harris, Jody; Headey, Derek; Yosef, Sivan; Gillespie, Stuart

    2014-12-01

    In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and assesses both the quality and coverage of the existing literature. We present a conceptual framework delineating six key pathways between agriculture and nutrition. Three pathways pertain to the nutritional impacts of farm production, farm incomes, and food prices. The other three pertain to agriculture-gender linkages. After an extensive search, we found 78 research papers that provided evidence to populate these pathways. The literature suggests that Indian agriculture has a range of important influences on nutrition. Agriculture seems to influence diets even when controlling for income, and relative food prices could partly explain observed dietary changes in recent decades. The evidence on agriculture-gender linkages to nutrition is relatively weak. Sizeable knowledge gaps remain. The root causes of these gaps include an interdisciplinary disconnect between nutrition and economics/agriculture, a related problem of inadequate survey data, and limited policy-driven experimentation. Closing these gaps is essential to strengthening the agriculture sector's contribution to reducing undernutrition. PMID:25098622

  12. Nutrition-based health in animal production.

    PubMed

    Adams, Clifford A

    2006-06-01

    Events such as BSE, foot and mouth disease and avian influenza illustrate the importance of animal health on a global basis. The only practical solution to deal with such problems has usually been mass culling of millions of animals at great effort and expense. Serious consideration needs to be given to nutrition as a practical solution for health maintenance and disease avoidance of animals raised for food. Health or disease derives from a triad of interacting factors; diet-disease agent, diet-host and disease agent-host. Various nutrients and other bioactive feed ingredients, nutricines, directly influence health by inhibiting growth of pathogens or by modulating pathogen virulence. It is possible to transform plant-based feed ingredients to produce vaccines against important diseases and these could be fed directly to animals. Nutrients and nutricines contribute to three major factors important in the diet-host interaction; maintenance of gastrointestinal integrity, support of the immune system and the modulation of oxidative stress. Nutrition-based health is the next challenge in modern animal production and will be important to maintain economic viability and also to satisfy consumer demands in terms of food quality, safety and price. This must be accomplished largely through nutritional strategies making optimum use of both nutrients and nutricines. PMID:19079877

  13. Nutrition and health - transforming research traditions.

    PubMed

    Hanekamp, Jaap C; Bast, Aalt; Calabrese, Edward J

    2015-07-01

    In this contribution, we show that current scientific methodologies used in nutrition science and by regulatory agencies, such as the randomized control trial, limit our understanding of nutrition and health as they are to crude to capture the subtle pleiotropic nature of most nutrients. Thereby, regulatory agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority curb the development of scientific knowledge and industrial innovations within the nutritional field. In order to develop insights into the health impact of certain food and food-components, we need to realize that health is adaptation set within a homeostatic range. Increased performance of health, i.e., the maximum stimulation of health, typically seems 30-60% greater than the control group, with a width of no more than about a factor of ten, clarifying the difficulty of documenting responses of food-endogenous components within the homeostatic range of healthy people. A strategy to record subtle responses of food components is the summation of procentual effects of relevant health outcomes. We illustrate this approach with the action of flavanols on vascular health, specifically endothelial function. PMID:24915340

  14. Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PMID:23405063

  15. Expression and activity of glutathione S-transferases and catalase in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei inoculated with a toxic Microcystis aeruginosa strain.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Soares, Daniela; Zanette, Juliano; Yunes, João S; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria M; Bainy, Afonso C D

    2012-04-01

    Microcystin (MC) produced during cyanobacteria blooms is notably toxic to human and wildlife. Conjugation with reduced glutathione (GSH) by glutathione S-transferase (GST) and the antioxidant enzymes defenses (e.g. catalase, CAT) are important biochemical defense mechanisms against MCs toxicity. We investigated the enzymatic activity of CAT and GST and the gene expression levels of CAT and eight GST isoforms in the hepatopancreas of the globally farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei 48-h after injection with a sub-lethal dose of 100 ?g kg?¹ of a toxic Microcystis aeruginosa extract. MCs caused up-regulation for GST?, ? and a MAPEG isoform, by 12-, 2.8- and 1.8-fold, respectively, and increases in the total GST enzyme activity and CAT enzyme activity. The study points to the importance of further characterization for the L. vannamei GST isoforms and GST/CAT post-translational regulation processes to better understand the key mechanisms involved in the shrimp's defense against MC exposure. PMID:21889198

  16. Lack of evidence for Litopenaeus vannamei Toll receptor (lToll) involvement in activation of sequence-independent antiviral immunity in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Labreuche, Yannick; O'Leary, Nuala A; de la Vega, Enrique; Veloso, Artur; Gross, Paul S; Chapman, Robert W; Browdy, Craig L; Warr, Gregory W

    2009-07-01

    Injection of non-specific dsRNA initiates a broad-spectrum innate antiviral immune response in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, however, the receptor involved in recognition of this by-product of viral infections remains unknown. In vertebrates, dsRNA sensing is mediated by a class of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and results in activation of the interferon system. Because a TLR (lToll) was recently characterized in L. vannamei, we investigated its potential role in dsRNA recognition. We showed that injection of non-specific RNA duplexes did not modify lToll gene expression. A reverse genetic approach was therefore implemented to study its role in vivo. Silencing of lToll did not impair the ability of non-specific dsRNA to trigger protection from white spot syndrome virus and did not increase the shrimp susceptibility to viral infection, when compared to controls. In contrast, gene-specific dsRNA injected to specifically silence lToll expression activated an antiviral response. These data strongly suggest that shrimp lToll plays no role in dsRNA-induced antiviral immunity. PMID:19428481

  17. Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Ongvarrasopone, Chalermporn; Saejia, Pipop; Chanasakulniyom, Mayuree; Panyim, Sakol

    2011-07-01

    Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed to investigate whether knockdown of Rab7 in L. vannamei by dsRNA-PmRab7 could inhibit replication of TSV. RNA interference (RNAi) technology using dsRNA targeting the LvRab7 gene was used to silence the mRNA expression of LvRab7. The silencing of the LvRab7 gene inhibited TSV replication dramatically when compared to groups receiving dsRNA-GFP or NaCl. This is the first demonstration that dsRNA targeting the endogenous shrimp gene LvRab7 strongly reduces TSV replication. It provides further evidence that LvRab7 is involved in the endosomal trafficking pathway of viruses infecting penaeid shrimp. PMID:21347841

  18. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to good health, including the importance of consuming fruits and vegetables. (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into...

  19. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education shall be designed to...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities:...

  20. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

  1. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

  2. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

  3. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in adults: the French nutrition and health survey (ENNS, 2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Castetbon, Katia; Vernay, Michel; Malon, Aurélie; Salanave, Benoit; Deschamps, Valérie; Roudier, Candice; Oleko, Amivi; Szego, Emmanuelle; Hercberg, Serge

    2009-09-01

    The French National Programme on Nutrition and Health (Programme national nutrition santé (PNNS)), the aim of which is to reduce nutrition-related chronic diseases, necessitates monitoring of nutritional characteristics. Our objective was to describe dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status in a national sample of adults, especially according to current French recommendations. The study is based on a cross-sectional population-based survey using a multistage sampling design (Etude nationale nutrition santé (ENNS)). Between February 2006 and March 2007, 3115 18-74-year-old adults were included (participation rate 59.7 %). Energy, macronutrient and food consumption were estimated through three randomly distributed 24 h recalls, and compared to PNNS recommendations; physical activity was described using International Physical Activity Questionnaire guidelines; anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical measurements were assessed according to national and international references. When compared to current recommendations, intake of carbohydrates (>50 % energy intake without alcohol: 26.4 %), SFA ( < 35 % total lipids: 18.5 %) and total fibre (>25 g/d: 13.7 %) was frequently unsatisfactory. While overall consumption of 'meat, seafood and eggs' was satisfactory, that of fruits and vegetables ( > or = 400 g/d: 43.8 %) and seafood (two or more servings per week: 29.9 %) was frequently too low. The physical activity level was satisfactory at 63.2 %. Overweight was observed in 49.3 % of adults, while 30.9 % were hypertensive and 44.1 % had dyslipidaemia. Vitamin and iron-poor status was found to affect less than 10 % of the population. Based on the ENNS survey, overall nutrition remains a problem in France. Comparison of these data with those of other countries could contribute to a better understanding of variations in nutrition-related diseases. PMID:19250574

  4. Nutritional Proteomics: Methods and Concepts for Research in Nutritional Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florian J. Schweigert

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional proteomics or nutriproteomics is the application of proteomics methodology to nutrition-related research but also represents the interaction of bioactive food ingredients with proteins, whereby the interaction with proteins occurs in two basically specific ways. Firstly, the effect of nutrients on protein expression, which can be monitored by protein mapping, and secondly, the interaction of nutrients with proteins by post-translational

  5. Nutrition economics – characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.

    2011-01-01

    There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner. PMID:20797310

  6. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  7. The role of F1 ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the virus-host cell interaction could inform us of the molecular pathways exploited by the virus. Studies on viral attachment proteins (VAPs) and candidate receptor proteins involved in WSSV infection, allow a better understanding of how these proteins interact in the viral life cycle. In this study, our aim was to find some host cellular membrane proteins that could bind with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Results Two proteins were evident by using a virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) with WSSV. A protein with molecular weight 53 kDa, named BP53, was analyzed in this study, which was homologous with the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit by mass spectrometry analysis. Rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR was performed to identify the full-length cDNA of the bp53 gene. The resulting full-length gene consisted of 1836 bp, encoding 525 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 55.98 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence contained three conserved domains of the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit. BP53 was therefore designated the F1-ATP synthase beta subunit of L. vannamei. The binding of WSSV to BP53 were also confirmed by competitive ELISA binding assay and co-immunoprecipitation on magnetic beads. To investigate the function of BP53 in WSSV infection, it was mixed with WSSV before the mixture was injected intramuscularly into shrimp. The resulting mortality curves showed that recombinant (r) BP53 could attenuate WSSV infection. Conclusions The results revealed that BP53 is involved in WSSV infection. Here is the first time showed the role of shrimp F1-ATP synthase beta subunit in WSSV infection. PMID:20591132

  8. The changing nutrition scenario.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, C

    2013-09-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  9. The changing nutrition scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  10. Nutrition 3: Got Broccoli?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2001-10-20

    This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.

  11. Nutritional epidemiology--there's life in the old dog yet!

    PubMed

    Potter, John D

    2015-02-01

    Consideration is given to the idea that the nutritional epidemiology of cancer is dead, as some in the media have claimed. The basis for the claim does not lie in science nor has anyone with relevant knowledge made such a statement-although that, too, has been claimed. Evidence is adduced for the importance of past achievements of nutritional epidemiology. Attention is similarly drawn to recent contributions. In particular, I note the state of play of cancer and plant foods, fat and breast cancer, meat and cancer, vegetarians, intervention studies, migrant studies, and westernization of diet and lifestyle. Some next steps and some currently important questions are outlined. PMID:25515549

  12. The public health sector and nutrition in cuba.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Raúl

    2009-10-01

    In Cuba, the responsibility for food and nutrition security is shouldered first and foremost by government. That is, government is obligated to develop and implement policies towards ensuring that the entire population has consistent access to safe and nutritious foods in sufficient quantities to satisfy daily nutritional requirements and food preferences, contributing to an active and healthy life. This is a tall order under any circumstances. But for Cuba, a small island nation with a GDP of US$46 billion (2008), measuring up is tougher still, especially in the historical and international contexts. PMID:21483291

  13. Yeast Cultures in Ruminant Nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. DENEV; Tz. PEEVA; P. RADULOVA; N. STANCHEVA; G. STAYKOVA; G. BEEV; P. TODOROVA; S. TCHOBANOVA

    2007-01-01

    Abstract DENEV,, S. A., Tz. PEEVA, P. RADULOVA, P. STANCHEVA, G. STAYKOVA, G. BEEV, P. TODOROVA and S. TCHOBANOVA, 2007. Yeast cultures in ruminant nutrition. Bulg. J. Agric. Sci.13: 357-374 Interest in the use of fungal direct-fed microbials in ruminant nutrition is considerable.The

  14. Nutritional issues in cancer management

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

  15. FIRMS’ RESPONSES TO NUTRITIONAL POLICIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabine Duvaleix-Treguer; Hakim Hammoudi; Lamia Rouached; Louis-Georges Soler

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of nutritional policies on the behavior of firms, particularly in terms of food quality and prices, and to assess the potential impacts of such policies from a public health point of view. We determine how new products that are nutritionally improved can emerge in a market where incumbent firms offer

  16. Nutrition, Weight Control, and Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katch, Frank I.; McArdle, William D.

    This book contains information on nutrition, weight control, and exercise. Some basic information from the biological sciences is included but a specialized background is not necessary to understand the text. The content is appropriate for nutrition, weight control, exercise, and physical fitness courses at the university level, for the various…

  17. CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

  18. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  19. Advertising. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit uses advertisements for products low in cholesterol as a link to a discussion of the nutrient, fat. It contains a page of teaching suggestions, a pre-test for the students, and factual nutrition

  20. Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

  1. Complications of total parenteral nutrition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P Knochel

    1985-01-01

    Continued technological improvements in the quality of nutritional formulations and techniques for parenteral administration have resulted in a major improvement in patient care. The ability to provide all necessary nutrients by intravenous infusion, so-called total parenteral nutrition (TPN), has sustained life and growth in patients who otherwise would have died. Most adult patients who derive benefit from this procedure are

  2. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS OF NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan A. McCrory; Nancy C. Wright; David D. Kilmer

    Both rapidly progressive Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and the slowly progressive neuromuscular diseases (SP-NMDs) are associ- ated with loss of skeletal muscle, gain of excess body fat, and changes in energy metabolism and physical activity over time. This article re- views several nutritional techniques and their adequacy in monitoring changes in the nutritional status of these individuals as the diseases

  3. Nutrition Education Curriculum. Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…

  4. Nutrition on match day.

    PubMed

    Williams, Clyde; Serratosa, Luis

    2006-07-01

    What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in the evening. The combination of a high-carbohydrate pre-match meal and a sports drink, ingested during the match, results in a greater exercise capacity than a high-carbohydrate meal alone. There is evidence to suggest that there are benefits to a pre-match meal that is composed of low-glycaemic index (GI) carbohydrate foods rather than high-GI foods. A low-GI pre-match meal results in feelings of satiety for longer and produces a more stable blood glucose concentration than after a high-GI meal. There are also some reports of improved endurance capacity after low-GI carbohydrate pre-exercise meals. The physical demands of soccer training and match-play draw heavily on players' carbohydrate stores and so the benefits of good nutritional practices for performance and health should be an essential part of the education of players, coaches, and in particular the parents of young players. PMID:16766498

  5. Infant nutrition and allergy.

    PubMed

    Mišak, Zrinjka

    2011-11-01

    Over the past several decades, the incidence of atopic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis and food allergies has increased dramatically. Although atopic diseases have a clear genetic basis, environmental factors, including early infant nutrition, may have an important influence on their development. Therefore, attempts have been made to reduce the risk of the development of allergy using dietary modifications, mainly focused on longer breast-feeding and delayed introduction or elimination of foods identified as potentially most allergenic. Recently, there is also an increasing interest in the active prevention of atopy using specific dietary components. Many studies have shown that breast-feeding may have the protective effect against future atopic dermatitis and early childhood wheezing. Concerning complementary feeding, there is evidence that the introduction of complementary foods before 4 months of age may increase the risk for atopic dermatitis. However, there is no current convincing evidence that delaying introduction of solids after 6 months of age has a significant protective effect on the development of atopic disease regardless of whether infants are fed cow's milk protein formula or human subject's milk, and this includes delaying the introduction of foods that are considered to be highly allergic, such as fish, eggs and foods containing peanut protein. In conclusion, as early nutrition may have profound implications for long-term health and atopy later in life, it presents an opportunity to prevent or delay the onset of atopic diseases. PMID:21880163

  6. [Nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease].

    PubMed

    Ferrières, J

    2003-09-01

    The nutritional epidemiology of coronary disease is complex because nutrition is composed of a large number of factors which are susceptible to interfere with each other and to affect the coronary risk after a long period of exposure. The methodology of nutritional studies relies on known and validated enquiry techniques, but they are difficult to perform in the general population. The lipid nutritional hypothesis of coronary disease was centred on cholesterol and the saturated fatty acids. This lipid theory has allowed great advances in the pathophysiological and therapeutic areas. The concepts of a French paradox and global diet have allowed research in nutritional epidemiology to be refocused on other nutrients (lipids and non-lipids) and on alimentary fashions and lifestyle in general. The success of proposed diets at the population level depends strictly on correctly validated scientific data, and on the cultural and social context of where the prevention messages warrant dissemination. PMID:14655545

  7. Economic assessment of nutritional recommendations.

    PubMed

    Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

    2015-01-01

    The effect of consumers' compliance with nutritional recommendations is uncertain because of potentially complex substitutions. To lift this uncertainty, we adapt a model of consumer behaviour under rationing to the case of linear nutritional constraints. Dietary adjustments are derived from information on consumer preferences, consumption levels, and nutritional contents of foods. A calibration exercise simulates, for different income groups, how the French diet would respond to various nutrition recommendations, and those behavioural adjustments are translated into health outcomes through the DIETRON epidemiological model. This allows for the ex-ante comparison of the efficiency, equity and health effects of ten nutritional recommendations. Although most recommendations impose significant taste costs on consumers, they are highly cost-effective, with the recommendations targeting salt, saturated fat, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) ranking highest in terms of efficiency. Most recommendations are also economically progressive, with the exception of that targeting F&V. PMID:25443618

  8. ["Care" and public nutrition].

    PubMed

    Martin-Prével, Yves

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the national or international level. As the mother is the primary caregiver, most of the obstacles to care are the constraints to the mothers, the most common characteristic of which being the low status of women in many societies. More studies are required to better understand the causal relationship between care and nutrition. Methods to measure the qualitative aspects of care and indicators that capture the complexity of care must be developed and cross-culturally tested. These will also be useful to design and monitor more effective interventions incorporating care. These programmes should first identify and support the good traditional care practices rather than simply ask for change; the activities proposed should not break the balance between the time women spend on care and the time they spend on work. Therefore one must be sure that enough resources are available. Finally, to achieve sustainable changes a participatory and comprehensive approach is definitely needed. PMID:11943643

  9. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  10. The Relationship between Nutrition Knowledge and School Cafeteria Purchases of Seventh Grade Students in a Rural Indiana School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucciarelli, Deanna; McNeany, Terry; Friesen, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: School cafeterias have the potential to positively contribute to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The purpose of this project was to assess adolescents' nutrition knowledge and dietary choices, and to measure the relationship between students' nutrition knowledge and the type of food items purchased…

  11. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8). Testosterone. Documented that blood concentrations of testosterone were unchanged during flight, but a transient decline occurred after landing (9). Calcium. Nutrition SMO data contributed to the ISS Program by helping understand how and why the Urine Processor Assembly clogged with calcium sulfate precipitate (10). Sample Processing. Ground-based analytical testing results have also been published (11).

  12. Characterization of the putative farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (LvFAMeT) cDNA from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Evidence for its role in molting.

    PubMed

    Hui, Jerome Ho Lam; Tobe, Stephen S; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2008-02-01

    Methyl farnesoate (MF) is the crustacean homolog of the insect juvenile hormone and is believed to regulate growth and reproduction in crustaceans. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) catalyzes the conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to MF. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two forms of FAMeTs (i.e. LvFAMeT-S and LvFAMeT-L) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. LvFAMeT transcript has a wide tissue distribution pattern in L. vannamei and is also expressed in nauplius, zoea, mysis, post-larval stages and adults. Unlike FAMeTs reported in other decapods, transcripts of two different sizes were detected in L. vannamei. We postulate that the wide distribution of LvFAMeT expression may be related to its role in growth and regulation of molting. To study the functions of LvFAMeT in molting, the RNA interference (RNAi) technique was used. Injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) for LvFAMeT knocked down the expression of LvFAMeT in shrimp for at least 3 days and the shrimp did not advance to the final stage of molt cycle. Furthermore, the expression of the molt-related genes encoding cathepsin-L and the hemocyanin gene was disturbed. Subsequently, 100% mortality of the shrimp was observed in the LvFAMeT dsRNA-injected shrimp. In contrast, control shrimp completed their molt and proceeded to the next molt cycle. We postulate that, as an important enzyme for the conversion of FA to MF, RNAi injection knocked down the expression of LvFAMeT which could potentially result in a decrease in the production of MF and subsequently, could affect the molting process. The newly identified LvFAMeT may be involved in the control of molting in shrimp. The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of the RNA interference technique to study other putative genes identified in crustaceans. PMID:18226425

  13. The immunostimulatory effects of hot-water extract of Gelidium amansii via immersion, injection and dietary administrations on white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu-Win; Hou, Wen-Ying; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chiu-Hsia; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2007-06-01

    The total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity, and respiratory burst were examined when white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were immersed in seawater (34 per thousand) containing hot-water extract of red alga Gelidium amansii at 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 4 and 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1). These parameters increased significantly when shrimp were immersed in seawater containing hot-water extract at 400 and 600 mg l(-1) after 1h, when shrimp were injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) shrimp after one day, and when shrimp were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) after 14 days. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly higher for the shrimp that were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) than those of shrimp that were fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) after 14 and 28 days. In a separate experiment, L. vannamei which had received hot-water extract via injection, or fed diets containing hot-water extract, were challenged after 3h or 28 days with V. alginolyticus at 2 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and 1 x 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1), respectively, and then placed in seawater. The survival of shrimp that were injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 1 day, and the survival of shrimp fed diets containing hot-water extract at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) increased significantly after 3 days as well as at the end of the experiment (6 days after the challenge), respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that were immersed in hot-water extract at 400 mg l(-1), injected with hot-water extract at 6 microg g(-1) shrimp, and fed hot-water extract of G. amansii at 2.0 g kg(-1) or less showed increased immune ability as well as resistance to V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:17194604

  14. [Nutritional health messages transmitted through television advertising. Trends and errors].

    PubMed

    Ortega, R M; Andrés, P; Jiménez, L M; Ortega, A

    1995-01-01

    The present study analyzes de publicity messages with a alimentary-nutritional content (n = 448), aired by 2 television channels (one public and one private), during 6 hours a day in the first week of October 1993, examining the most frequent tendencies and errors, and whether or not they are adhering to the nutritional standards intended to improve the health of the population. With this aim, a questionnaire was designed, which was submitted to a control prior to doing the study, and which permitted the same study during the years 1991, 1992, and 1993. The message which was most used to promote the sales of the products, was the taste, followed by quality, novelty, health, nutritional and natural. The messages indicating that the product reduces or minimizes fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, alcohol, ... are few or lower than those observed in other populations. In some cases the messages may be useful in re-enforcing the standards of the nutritional educators and health care professionals who try to improve the diet and the health of the public. However, in the majority of cases, the message of the advertisements may mislead or confuse the consumer with irrelevant or incomplete information. They also frequently contribute to the promotion of an extremely thin body image, which guides the food choice of a large percentage of the population. The results of the study may help in the planning of nutritional education of the population, and they emphasize the need for a greater supervision and control of the advertisements. PMID:8599617

  15. Metabolomic differentiation of nutritional stress in an aquatic invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Nicole D; Lankadurai, Brian P; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, Andre J; Frost, Paul C

    2015-01-01

    Poor diet quality frequently constrains the growth and reproduction of primary consumers, altering their population dynamics, interactions in food webs, and contributions to ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. The identification and measurement of an animal's nutritional state are thus central to studying the connections between diet and animal ecology. Here we show how the nutritional state of a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna, can be determined by analyzing its endogenous metabolites using hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. With a multivariate analysis, we observed the differentiation of the metabolite composition of animals grown under control conditions (good food and no environmental stress), raised on different diets (low quantity, nitrogen limited, and phosphorus limited), and exposed to two common environmental stressors (bacterial infection and salt stress). We identified 18 metabolites that were significantly different between control animals and at least one limiting food type or environmental stressor. The unique metabolite responses of animals caused by inadequate nutrition and environmental stress are reflective of dramatic and distinctive effects that each stressor has on animal metabolism. Our results suggest that dietary-specific induced changes in metabolite composition of animal consumers hold considerable promise as indicators of nutritional stress and will be invaluable to future studies of animal nutrition. PMID:25590592

  16. Nutritional and metabolic rickets.

    PubMed

    Teotia, M; Teotia, S P

    1997-01-01

    Nutritional rickets is caused by vitamin D deficiency due to lack of exposure to sunlight. Neonatal rickets occurs only in infants born to mothers with very severe osteomalacia. Calcium deficiency alone does not cause mineralisation defects. It only causes osteoporosis and secondary hyperparathyroidism with raised plasma, 1,25 (OH)2D and osteocalcin. Low 25-OHD, increased IPTH, increased alkaline phosphatase in plasma and decreased calcium and increased hydroxyproline in urine are diagnostic of rickets. Low or undetectable plasma levels of 25-OHD, in presence of high plasma 1,25(OH)2D and IPTH are often observed during treatment with vitamin D. Even the marginal intakes of fluoride (> 2.5 mg/day) cause rickets in calcium deficient children. Indian children often need high dose of vitamin D due to severely depleted D stores, high IPTH and severe bone disease (radiologic and histomorphometric) for treatment. PMID:10771831

  17. Nutrition is Important

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Allison

    2010-06-17

    State core objective: Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

  18. Nutrition and the athlete.

    PubMed

    Bullard, J A

    1978-12-01

    The importance of good nutrition cannot be over emphasized for both the athlete and the non-athlete. The difference is essentially in the number of calories. Both need a well balanced diet, normally taken as three meals a day. Modifications on the day of participation require planning as well as understanding. Many myths have developed from a false impression that some advantage will be gained over an opponent or that performance will be enhanced. Scientific evidence does not support these claims. The physician should be aware of the recommendations contained in the Canadian Food Guide for the basic diet. He should also be prepared to discuss variations in dietary habits which have entered the sports scene. PMID:20469286

  19. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  20. Nutrition Education and Gerontology Services Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.

    The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…

  1. Effective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    of the action of biologically active components of food and their role in maintaining human health. NutritionEffective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Contact: Dr. Cathy English Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (http

  2. NUTRITION MARKETING AND THE WORLDWIDE OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition used to market food products on a wide scale is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early 1990s very few products used nutrition marketing (health claims or nutrition information on labels beyond minimum requirements) to market their products. Over a 15-year period, the use of nutrition ma...

  3. Portrayals of Nutritional Practices and Exercise Behavior

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Danh

    ), Cancer Prevention and Nutrition Section, to improve nutrition and physical activity behaviors related to address the complex issues in nutrition, physical activity, and cancer prevention. The CenterMay 2003 Portrayals of Nutritional Practices and Exercise Behavior In Popular American Films, 1991

  4. CPH 560 INTERNATIONAL NUTRITION Spring 2011

    E-print Network

    Arizona, University of

    and resources available to combat malnutrition will be evaluated. The role of world food production, food - infection interactions. 3. Describe the nutrition transition and factors affecting it. 4. The role of women in nutrition and how nutrition affects women 5. Determine the effect of governmental policies on nutritional

  5. Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

    Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

  6. BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2013­2014 curricular year. Nutritional science

  7. BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science

    E-print Network

    Olsen Jr., Dan R.

    requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2014­2015 curricular year. Nutritional science

  8. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  9. Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

    2013-04-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. PMID:23522578

  10. Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics.

    PubMed

    Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine

    2014-02-01

    It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. PMID:24439821

  11. Nutrition and health in honey bees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Brodschneider; Karl Crailsheim

    2010-01-01

    Adequate nutrition supports the development of healthy honey bee colonies. We give an overview of the nutritional demands\\u000a of honey bee workers at three levels: (1) colony nutrition with the possibility of supplementation of carbohydrates and proteins;\\u000a (2) adult nutrition and (3) larval nutrition. Larvae are especially dependant on protein and brood production is strongly\\u000a affected by shortages of this

  12. Silviculture Forest Productivity and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    15 Silviculture Forest Productivity and Nutrition Fire and Fuel Load Management Tree crops for bio to place compartments in a soil water availability class even if they are situated in areas remote from

  13. Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

  14. Nutrition: What Your Body Needs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-07-21

    In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

  15. Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reber, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

  16. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  17. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to acute pH stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Na; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Peng; Tian, Ting-Ting; Zheng, Ying; Liu, Yuan; Mai, Wei-Jun; Wang, An-Li

    2009-11-01

    The ROS production, the percentage of dead and damaged haemocytes, the DNA Olive Tail Moment (OTM) value and the gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin (TRx), were studied in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, when exposed to acute pH stress. The increased ROS production in haemocytes and the increased OTM value in both the haemocytes and the hepatopancreas cells suggest that oxidative damage occurred in shrimp exposed to pH 5.6 and pH 9.3, with apoptosis, mainly being associated with excess Ca(2+)influx and changes in cell viability. Acid and alkaline pH-induced DNA damage was time dependent in the haemocytes and the hepatopancreas cells. The concentration of intracellular free calcium [Ca(2+)] (i) after different pH treatments increased significantly over time, reaching its highest concentration after 12 h, but decreasing gradually to normal levels after 24 h. The [Ca(2+)] (i) content in shrimp cells when exposed to pH 9.3 and pH 5.6 for 12 h had increased by 58%-81%, compared with exposure to pH 7.4 (control). In addition, the gene expression of cMnSOD, CAT, GPx and TRx in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was induced by acid and alkaline pH stress, although there were differences in the expression response with respect to the duration of induction and the different pH treatments (acid or alkaline). Our results show that acidic or alkaline-induced oxidative stress may cause DNA damage, and cooperatively activate expression of CAT, GPx and TRx mRNA. Calcium ions appear to be important in mediating shrimp responses to pH stress. PMID:19573624

  18. Litopenaeus vannamei tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) responds to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection and activates antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Deng, Xie-Xiong; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is a key signaling adaptor protein not only for the TNFR superfamily but also for the Interleukin-1 receptor/Toll-like receptor (IL-1/TLR) superfamily. To investigate TRAF6 function in invertebrate innate immune responses, Litopenaeus vannamei TRAF6 (LvTRAF6) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvTRAF6 is 2823bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 594 amino acids, including a RING-type Zinc finger, two TRAF-type Zinc fingers, a coiled-coil region, and a meprin and TRAF homology (MATH) domain. The overall amino acid sequence identity between LvTRAF6 and other known TRAF6s is 22.2-33.3%. Dual luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila S2 cells revealed that LvTRAF6 could activate the promoters of antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs), including Drosophila Attacin A and Drosomycin, and shrimp Penaeidins. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that LvTRAF6 was constitutively expressed in various tissues of L. vannamei. After Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvTRAF6 was down-regulated, though with different expression patterns in the intestine compared to other tissues. After WSSV challenge, LvTRAF6 was up-regulated 2.7- and 2.3-fold over the control at 3h in gills and hepatopancreas, respectively. These results indicated that LvTRAF6 may play a crucial role in antibacterial and antiviral responses via regulation of AMP gene expression. PMID:20816892

  19. Immune responses of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), to bacterially expressed dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Madan, N; Abdul Majeed, S; Kumar, T Raj; Thamizhvanan, S; Otta, S K; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp was synthesized in Escherichia coli in large scale and studied the immune response of shrimp to dsRNA-VP28. The haematological parameters such as clotting time and total haemocytes counts, and immunological parameters such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), superoxide anion (SOA) and malondialdehyde content, as well as the mRNA expression of ten immune-related genes were examined to estimate the effect of dsRNA-VP28 on the innate immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei. The activities of proPO, SOA and SOD significantly increased in haemocyte after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, whereas MDA content did not change significantly. Among the ten immune-related genes examined, only the mRNA expression of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, lipopolysaccharides (LPs), lectin and lysozyme in haemocytes, gill and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei, was significantly upregulated at 12 h after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, while no significant expression changes were observed in Toll receptor and tumour receptor genes. The increase of proPO and SOD activities, and SOA level and mRNA expression level of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, LPs, lectin and lysozyme after dsRNA-VP28 stimulation indicate that these immune-related genes were involved in dsRNA-VP28-induced innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:24917208

  20. The effect of a commercial bacterial supplement on the high-density culturing of Litopenaeus vannamei with a low-protein diet in an outdoor tank system and no water exchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dennis McIntosh; T. M Samocha; E. R Jones; A. L Lawrence; D. A McKee; S Horowitz; A Horowitz

    2000-01-01

    The effect of adding a commercial bacterial supplement to shrimp growout facilities was studied with respect to shrimp yield and water quality parameters. Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamei) were grown in 12 10.5-m2 outdoor tanks with no water exchange. Each tank was stocked with juvenile L. vannamei (average weight, 1.69 g) at a density of 40\\/m2. The shrimp were fed with a 21%

  1. Effect of high water temperature (33 °C) on the clinical and virological outcome of experimental infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Corteel; J. J. Dantas-Lima; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

    2006-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most lethal pathogen of cultured shrimp. Previous studies done with undefined WSSV titers showed that high water temperature (32–33 °C) reduced\\/delayed mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of high water temperature on the clinical and virological outcome of a WSSV infection under standardized conditions. Groups of specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei were

  2. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Brewer's Yeast and GroBiotic®-A on Growth, Immune Responses, and Low-Salinity Tolerance of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Recirculating Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Li; Xiaoxue Wang; Shivananda Murthy; Delbert M. Gatlin III; Frank L. Castille; Addison L. Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Two separate trials were conducted in clean recirculating systems at salinities of 32.9 (optimal) and 2 ppt (low-salinity challenge) to evaluate brewer's yeast and GroBiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotic, as dietary supplements for growth and health management of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth-promoting influences of brewer's yeast or GroBiotic®-A previously observed with fish were not demonstrated in these trials

  3. A smaller particle size improved the oral bioavailability of monkey head mushroom, Hericium erinaceum, powder resulting in enhancement of the immune response and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinn-Pyng Yeh; Li-Fan Hsia; Chiu-Shia Chiu; Shieh-Tsung Chiu; Chun-Hung Liu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different particle sizes (100–150, 74–100, and <74 ?m) of powder of the dried and ground stipe from the monkey head mushroom, Hericium erinaceum, on the immune response and disease resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, against the pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus, were examined. Mushroom powder with a particle size of 74 ?m. Mortality of shrimp after being injected with V. alginolyticus

  4. Nuclear and mitochondrial subunits from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei F 0 F 1 ATP-synthase complex: cDNA sequence, molecular modeling, and mRNA quantification of atp9 and atp6

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Oliviert Martinez-Cruz; Fernando Garcia-Carreño; Rodrigo Arreola; Rogerio Sotelo-Mundo; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

    2008-01-01

    We studied for the first time the ATP-synthase complex from shrimp as a model to understand the basis of crustacean bioenergetics\\u000a since they are exposed to endogenous processes as molting that demand high amount of energy. We analyzed the cDNA sequence\\u000a of two subunits of the Fo sector from mitochondrial ATP-synthase in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The nucleus encoded

  5. 64 FR 56669 - Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC): Food and Nutrition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1999-10-21

    ...Watkins, Under Secretary, Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services, has certified...Order 12372 The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children...children, Maternal and child health, Nutrition education, Public assistance...

  6. Nutrition and dietary supplements.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

    1999-08-01

    Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

  7. [Nutrition behavior of poor families].

    PubMed

    Uramowska-Zyto, Barbara; Koz?owska-Wojciechowska, Ma?gorzata

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was analysis of nutrition behaviour of families with low income living in village and town. The interviews concerning socio-economical conditions, actual nutrition behaviour and selected health indicator of respondents were carried in 13 rural and 14 Warsaw families. Respondents were for the most part women 34-44 years old with elementary education. Rural families were mainly numerous families, half of Warsaw families consists of mother lonely bringing children up. The main sources of living were allowances from social welfare and rents. One can observe in both kinds of families pro-healthy nutrition behavior: daily drinking milk by children, frequent consumption of poultry, using margarine and vegetables oil, and in rural families eating breakfast and several meals everyday. Negative aspects of nutrition were: small consumption of vegetables and fruits, fishes, and in town also dairy products and insufficient number of daily meals. Half of respondents both in village and town has proper BMI index. One can observe in rural families more tendency toward healthy nutrition behavior than in Warsaw families. Modeling healthy nutrition behavior in poor families (especially in town) can be realised by centers of social welfare. PMID:14531088

  8. Maternal nutrition and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao; Bazer, Fuller W; Cudd, Timothy A; Meininger, Cynthia J; Spencer, Thomas E

    2004-09-01

    Nutrition is the major intrauterine environmental factor that alters expression of the fetal genome and may have lifelong consequences. This phenomenon, termed "fetal programming," has led to the recent theory of "fetal origins of adult disease." Namely, alterations in fetal nutrition and endocrine status may result in developmental adaptations that permanently change the structure, physiology, and metabolism of the offspring, thereby predisposing individuals to metabolic, endocrine, and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. Animal studies show that both maternal undernutrition and overnutrition reduce placental-fetal blood flows and stunt fetal growth. Impaired placental syntheses of nitric oxide (a major vasodilator and angiogenesis factor) and polyamines (key regulators of DNA and protein synthesis) may provide a unified explanation for intrauterine growth retardation in response to the 2 extremes of nutritional problems with the same pregnancy outcome. There is growing evidence that maternal nutritional status can alter the epigenetic state (stable alterations of gene expression through DNA methylation and histone modifications) of the fetal genome. This may provide a molecular mechanism for the impact of maternal nutrition on both fetal programming and genomic imprinting. Promoting optimal nutrition will not only ensure optimal fetal development, but will also reduce the risk of chronic diseases in adults. PMID:15333699

  9. The challenges of nutrition policymaking.

    PubMed

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2015-01-01

    In my over three decades of work in the field of food and nutrition, I have participated in many efforts that seek new policy initiatives in the hopes that these programs can curb rates of obesity and chronic disease and help consumers make healthier dietary choices. Because of the profound effect that many of these policies have on consumers, the food environment, federal nutrition assistance programs and subsequent policy and regulatory recommendations, it is imperative that only the strongest, best available evidence is used to set policy. This review evaluates methods by which current nutrition policies use scientific research as well as provides recommendations for how best to ensure future nutrition policies are truly science-based and likely to have a meaningful impact on public health. Specifically, this review will: Describe the current food and nutrition policy environment in the US Examine how science is used in federal food and nutrition policymaking efforts, using the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) as an example Describe strong versus weak science as well as what types of studies are most appropriate for use in policymaking Discuss the potential effects and consequences of making policy recommendations in the absence of scientific consensus or agreement Make recommendations to support the present and ongoing development of science-based policy likely to positively impact public health. PMID:25889246

  10. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes. PMID:23899758

  11. From the imperial to the empty calorie: how nutrition relations underpin food regime transitions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jane Dixon

    2009-01-01

    This article works in a recursive manner by using the tools of a food regime approach to reinterpret the nutrition transition\\u000a that has been underway internationally for 100 years, and then describing the contributions of nutrition science to the 1st\\u000a and 2nd Food Regimes and the passages between Food Regimes. The resulting history—from the ‘imperial calorie’ through the\\u000a ‘protective’ vitamin to

  12. Sarcopenia and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Laviano, Alessandro; Gori, Chiara; Rianda, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Preserving or restoring adequate nutritional status is a key factor to delay the onset of chronic diseases and to accelerate recovery from acute illnesses. In particular, consistent and robust data show the loss of muscle mass, that is, sarcopenia, is clinically relevant since it is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals and patients. Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. International study groups have recently proposed separate definitions and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Unfortunately, the rate of agreement in assessing the prevalence of sarcopenia is just fair, which highlights the need for a common effort to harmonize definitions and diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia should be distinct from myopenia, which is the disease-associated loss of muscle mass, although in clinical practice it may be impossible to separate them (i.e., in old cancer patients). The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. Consequently, its treatment should target the different factors involved, including quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:24484940

  13. Nutrition and healthy eating

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

  14. Nutritional myodegeneration in a group of Chianina heifers.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, L J; Scholz, R W; Drake, T R

    1982-09-15

    A group of yearling Chianina heifers experienced abortion, stillbirth, and periparturient recumbency. Two heifers calved 3 to 4 weeks before their due date. Eight calves were stillborn or died within 48 hours after birth. Seven heifers died or were euthanatized. Necropsy and blood and tissue analyses revealed myodegeneration and a combined deficiency of vitamin E and selenium. Rapid growth in these heifers coupled with the stresses of late pregnancy and parturition may have contributed to this episode of nutritional myodegeneration. PMID:7141951

  15. Nutrition and nail disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael W. Cashman; Steven Brett Sloan

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the

  16. Nutrition education and leadership for improved clinical outcomes: training and supporting junior doctors to run ‘Nutrition Awareness Weeks’ in three NHS hospitals across England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One in four adults are estimated to be at medium to high risk of malnutrition when screened using the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ upon admission to hospital in the United Kingdom. The Need for Nutrition Education/Education Programme (NNEdPro) Group was developed to address this issue and the Nutrition Education and Leadership for Improved Clinical Outcomes (NELICO) is a project within this group. The objective of NELICO was to assess whether an intensive training intervention combining clinical and public health nutrition, organisational management and leadership strategies, could equip junior doctors to contribute to improvement in nutrition awareness among healthcare professionals in the National Health Service in England. Methods Three junior doctors were self-selected from the NNEdPro Group original training. Each junior doctor recruited three additional team members to attend an intensive training weekend incorporating nutrition, change management and leadership. This equipped them to run nutrition awareness weeks in their respective hospitals. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated at baseline as well as one and four months post-training as a quality assurance measure. The number and type of educational events held, pre-awareness week Online Hospital Survey results, attendance and qualitative feedback from training sessions, effectiveness of dissemination methods such as awareness stalls, Hospital Nutrition Attitude Survey results and overall feedback were also used to determine impact. Results When the weighted average score for knowledge, attitudes and practices at baseline was compared with four months post-intervention scores, there was a significant increase in the overall score (p?=?0.03). All three hospital teams conducted an effective nutrition awareness week, as determined by qualitative data collected from interviews and feedback from educational sessions. Conclusion The NELICO project and its resulting nutrition awareness weeks were considered innovative in terms of concept and content. It was considered useful, both for the junior doctors who showed improvement in their nutrition knowledge and reported enthusiasm and for the hospital setting, increasing awareness of clinical and public health nutrition among healthcare professionals. The NELICO project is one innovative method to promote nutrition awareness in tomorrow’s doctors and shows they have the enthusiasm and drive to be nutrition champions. PMID:24885676

  17. [Nutritional depletion in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Yao, Wan-zhen

    2004-10-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the major diseases worldwide. Nutritional depletion is a common problem in COPD patients and also an independant predictor of survival in these patients. Many data are helpful for determining nutritional depletion, including anthropometric measurement, laboratory markers, body composition analysis (fat-free mass and lean mass), and body weight. The mechanism of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD is still uncertain. It may be associated with energy/metabolism imbalance, tissue hypoxia, systemic inflammation, and leptin/orexin disorders. In patients with nutritional depletion, growth hormone and testosterone can be used for nutritional therapy in addition to nutrition supplementation. PMID:15562780

  18. Metabolic acidosis during parenteral nutrition: Pathophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dounousi, Evangelia; Zikou, Xanthi; Koulouras, Vasilis; Katopodis, Kostas

    2015-05-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with metabolic complications including metabolic acidosis (MA), one of the main disorders of acid-base balance. The main causes involved in the appearance of MA during TPN administration are the metabolism of cationic amino acids and amino acids containing sulfuric acid (exogenous addition), the titratable acidity of the infused parenteral solution, the addition of acidificant agents (hydrochloric acid, acetic acid), thiamine deficiency, disruption of carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and D-fructose administration. Moreover, hypophosphatemia that appears during TPN therapy contributes significantly to the maintenance of MA. This review describes in a comprehensive way the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the appearance of MA induced by intravenous administration of TPN products most commonly used in critically ill-patients. PMID:25983433

  19. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  20. Nutrition and health of Victorian Aborigines (Kooris).

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J M; Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-03-01

    Prior to European settlement of Australia, the health of Aboriginal people was probably better than that of the Europeans. In the past 200 years there has been a considerable improvement in the health of non-Aboriginal Australians, and a deterioration in the health of Aborigines. Some improvement in Aboriginal health has occurred in recent times. The Aboriginal people who live in Victoria are known as Kooris. An understanding of traditional Koori diets is important because people were generally healthy eating these diets. The traditional Koori diet was high in dietary fibre, unrefined carbohydrates, and protein, with adequate vitamins and minerals, and low in total fat and saturated fat, sucrose, salt, and without alcohol. Their lifestyle also dictated a high level of physical activity resulting in a reduced likelihood of overweight. The other notable aspect of the traditional diet was the variety of foods consumed. The present health problems of the Koori people stem primarily from their loss of ancestral lands, and social and cultural disruption. Kooris went from a hunter gatherer society to one almost entirely dependent upon mission handouts. There are many factors which may now contribute to the continued poor health and nutrition of Kooris. The relative importance of any of these factors is unknown. Morbidity and mortality data provide valuable information about the overall health of populations and their nutrition status. The Australian population is one of the healthiest in the world. There is however a remarkable difference between the health of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Australians. The leading cause of death for both male and female Aborigines is disease of the circulatory system, including ischaemic heart disease and stroke. Deaths due to circulatory system disease is 2.2 and 2.6 times higher than the age adjusted Australian rates for men and women respectively, and between 10 and 20 times higher for young and middle aged adult Aborigines. Rates of hospital admission are 2.5-3 times higher than the rest of the population, with the highest rates being for infants. Although mortality statistics do not show nutrition related disorders such as obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and hypertension to be significant contributors to mortality, these statistics are not representative of the problem. Across Australia the prevalence of obesity, NIDDM, and hypertension are higher for Aborigines than the general population. Available data on morbidity and mortality for Aborigines in Victoria are limited, but the indication is that the overall situation is similar to the rest of Australia. If the situation for Victoria is similar to the rest of Australia, then this would suggest that the contemporary Koori diet is too high in fat and perhaps alcohol, and too low in fibre and variety. Further evidence is required to veri 644 fy this suggestion. There are several areas where information on Koori nutrition is limited or lacking. These include food intake, nutritional status, and dietary practices, such as cooking methods, salt and sugar use and meal patterns. It is generally agreed that information on Koori nutrition should be made available so that the problems can be identified, and strategies put in place to address the problem areas. PMID:24352063