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Sample records for vannamei nutritional contribution

  1. Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei 

    E-print Network

    Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

    2012-07-16

    The goal of this study was to characterize the nutritional contribution of microalgae to white-legged shrimp and optimize fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) inclusion levels in their diets in the presence of microalgae. ...

  2. Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

  3. Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.

    2013-01-01

    Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria. PMID:21975669

  4. Ecophsiology of Growth in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    E-print Network

    Walker, Scott J.

    2010-07-14

    Ecophysiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei were evaluated as functions of 1) salinity and animal size, 2) temperature and the animal's nutritive state, and 3) dissolved-oxygen concentration and animal size. Growth ...

  5. Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2003-09-01

    Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable. PMID:12936962

  6. Do Pollinators Contribute to Nutritional Health?

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Alicia M.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ricketts, Taylor H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite suggestions that animal pollinators are crucial for human nutritional health, no studies have actually tested this claim. Here, we combined data on crop pollination requirements, food nutrient densities, and actual human diets to predict the effects of pollinator losses on the risk of nutrient deficiency. In four developing countries and across five nutrients, we found that 0 to 56% of populations would become newly at risk if pollinators were removed. Increases in risk were most pronounced for vitamin A in populations with moderate levels of total nutrient intake. Overall, the effects of pollinator decline varied widely among populations and nutrients. We conclude that the importance of pollinators to human nutrition depends critically on the composition of local diets, and cannot be reliably predicted from global commodity analyses. We identify conditions under which severe health effects of pollinator loss are most likely to occur. PMID:25575027

  7. Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The learning outcome was to understand the important contribution of lean beef to total nutrient intake in diets of American adults and to determine dietary intake differences between lean beef consumers and non-consumers. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2004, 24-hour di...

  8. Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

  9. Mutualistic ants contribute to tank-bromeliad nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Céline; Carrias, Jean-François; Corbara, Bruno; Pélozuelo, Laurent; Dézerald, Olivier; Brouard, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Céréghino, Régis

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Epiphytism imposes physiological constraints resulting from the lack of access to the nutrient sources available to ground-rooted plants. A conspicuous adaptation in response to that lack is the phytotelm (plant-held waters) of tank-bromeliad species that are often nutrient-rich. Associations with terrestrial invertebrates also result in higher plant nutrient acquisition. Assuming that tank-bromeliads rely on reservoir-assisted nutrition, it was hypothesized that the dual association with mutualistic ants and the phytotelm food web provides greater nutritional benefits to the plant compared with those bromeliads involved in only one of these two associations. Methods Quantitative (water volume, amount of fine particulate organic matter, predator/prey ratio, algal density) and qualitative variables (ant-association and photosynthetic pathways) were compared for eight tank- and one tankless-bromeliad morphospecies from French Guiana. An analysis was also made of which of these variables affect nitrogen acquisition (leaf N and ?15N). Key Results All variables were significantly different between tank-bromeliad species. Leaf N concentrations and leaf ?15N were both positively correlated with the presence of mutualistic ants. The amount of fine particulate organic matter and predator/prey ratio had a positive and negative effect on leaf ?15N, respectively. Water volume was positively correlated with leaf N concentration whereas algal density was negatively correlated. Finally, the photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. CAM) was positively correlated with leaf N concentration with a slightly higher N concentration for C3-Tillandsioideae compared with CAM-Bromelioideae. Conclusions The study suggests that some of the differences in N nutrition between bromeliad species can be explained by the presence of mutualistic ants. From a nutritional standpoint, it is more advantageous for a bromeliad to use myrmecotrophy via its roots than to use carnivory via its tank. The results highlight a gap in our knowledge of the reciprocal interactions between bromeliads and the various trophic levels (from bacteria to large metazoan predators) that intervene in reservoir-assisted nutrition. PMID:23864002

  10. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Diet & Nutrition - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign ... with MS Health and Wellness Diet & Nutrition Diet & Nutrition Eating healthy to take charge of your health. ...

  11. The Contribution Made by School Milk to the Nutrition of Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Judith; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…

  12. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... into your diet. These include brightly colored and dark fruits and vegetables. Balance the food you eat ... can also order your free copy of Nutrition Matters and visit our Ask about Nutrition forum. << Back ...

  13. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    Nutrition Health Education During the 2 years preceding the study: • The percentage of states that provided funding for staff development or offered staff development on nutrition and dietary behavior to those who teach health ...

  14. Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Disease Lookup > Lung Cancer > Living With Lung Cancer Nutrition Key Points There is no prescribed diet plan ... doctor! Download the PDF Get help meeting your nutrition goals and learn what to eat during lung ...

  15. Contribution of breastfeeding to vitamin A nutrition of infants: a simulation model.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Jay S.; Harvey, Philip W. J.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide information on the potential contribution to vitamin A nutrition in infants of strategies for improving maternal vitamin A status and increasing the consumption of breast milk. METHODS: The contribution of breastfeeding to the vitamin A nutrition of children in eight age groups between 0 and 24 months was simulated under four sets of conditions involving two levels of breast milk consumption with or without maternal vitamin A supplementation. FINDINGS: During the first 6 months, optimal breastfeeding on its own (compared with withholding colostrum and then partially breastfeeding after the first week) was as effective as postpartum maternal supplementation alone, retinol intakes being increased by 59 micrograms per day and 68 micrograms per day, respectively. Combined in synergy, these strategies increase retinol intake by 144 micrograms per day, or 36% of the recommended intake. After 6 months, partial breastfeeding continued to provide a significant proportion of the recommended intakes: 42% from 6-12 months and 61% during the second year. CONCLUSION: Maternal supplementation with a high dose of vitamin A at the time of delivery and the promotion of optimal breastfeeding practices are highly effective strategies for improving vitamin A nutrition in infants and should be strengthened as key components of comprehensive child survival programmes. PMID:12751415

  16. Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.

    1990-01-01

    This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

  17. Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Susan

    An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

  18. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  19. Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

    2014-06-01

    Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. PMID:24742878

  20. The Complex Contributions of Genetics and Nutrition to Immunity in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Unckless, Robert L.; Rottschaefer, Susan M.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Both malnutrition and undernutrition can lead to compromised immune defense in a diversity of animals, and “nutritional immunology” has been suggested as a means of understanding immunity and determining strategies for fighting infection. The genetic basis for the effects of diet on immunity, however, has been largely unknown. In the present study, we have conducted genome-wide association mapping in Drosophila melanogaster to identify the genetic basis for individual variation in resistance, and for variation in immunological sensitivity to diet (genotype-by-environment interaction, or GxE). D. melanogaster were reared for several generations on either high-glucose or low-glucose diets and then infected with Providencia rettgeri, a natural bacterial pathogen of D. melanogaster. Systemic pathogen load was measured at the peak of infection intensity, and several indicators of nutritional status were taken from uninfected flies reared on each diet. We find that dietary glucose level significantly alters the quality of immune defense, with elevated dietary glucose resulting in higher pathogen loads. The quality of immune defense is genetically variable within the sampled population, and we find genetic variation for immunological sensitivity to dietary glucose (genotype-by-diet interaction). Immune defense was genetically correlated with indicators of metabolic status in flies reared on the high-glucose diet, and we identified multiple genes that explain variation in immune defense, including several that have not been previously implicated in immune response but which are confirmed to alter pathogen load after RNAi knockdown. Our findings emphasize the importance of dietary composition to immune defense and reveal genes outside the conventional “immune system” that can be important in determining susceptibility to infection. Functional variation in these genes is segregating in a natural population, providing the substrate for evolutionary response to pathogen pressure in the context of nutritional environment. PMID:25764027

  1. Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience and psychological research

    PubMed Central

    Wachs, Theodore D.; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A central issue when designing multi-dimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting impact (sensitive periods). In this paper we review nutritional, neuroscience and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period where biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.

    PubMed Central

    James, W. P.; Nelson, M.; Ralph, A.; Leather, S.

    1997-01-01

    Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people. PMID:9183207

  3. Quantifying the contribution of foods with unfavourable nutrient profiles to nutritionally adequate diets.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Matthieu; Drewnowski, Adam; Vieux, Florent; Darmon, Nicole

    2011-04-01

    That 'all foods can fit' into a healthy diet is a long-standing principle of dietetic practice. The present study quantified the relative contributions of foods to encourage and foods to limit, using new techniques of individual diet optimisation and nutrient profiling. Individual foods from every food group were assigned to four nutrient profile classes based on the French SAIN,LIM system. Foods with the most favourable nutrient profiles were in class 1, and foods with the least favourable nutrient profiles were in class 4. An optimised diet that met the recommendations for thirty-two nutrients and that respected the existing eating habits was designed for each adult in the nationally representative 'Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires 1' dietary survey (n 1171). The relative proportions of the four nutrient profiling classes were assessed before and after the optimisation process. The contribution of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, milk and fish was significantly increased, whereas the contribution of refined grains, meats, mixed dishes, sugars and fats was decreased. The optimised diets derived more energy (30 v. 21 % in the observed diets) from class 1 foods and less energy (41 v. 56 %) from class 4 foods. They also derived a higher amount of class 1 foods (61 v. 51 %) and a lower amount of class 4 foods (22 v. 32 %). Thus, nutrient adequacy was compatible with the consumption of foods with an unfavourable nutrient profile (one-fifth the basket weight), provided that the diet also contained almost two-thirds of foods with the most favourable profile. Translating these results into concrete and quantified advice may have very tangible public health implications. PMID:21144095

  4. Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

  5. Iodised salt contribution to iodine nutrition status of pregnant and lactating women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihong; Lv, Shengmin; Mu, Zhenguo; Li, Weihong; Zhang, Xia; Wang, Yuchun; Rutherford, Shannon

    2015-07-14

    Sufficient iodine intake by pregnant and lactating women is crucial to their offspring's cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to explore the impact of iodised salt intake on the iodine status of pregnant and lactating women. Thirty towns were selected from 211 towns in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city using probability proportionate to size sampling in this cross-sectional survey. In each selected town, forty pregnant women and forty lactating women were randomly selected to contribute urine samples to determine iodine content. The median urinary iodine content (UIC) of 1200 pregnant women in all was 146 (interquartile range (IQR) 88-239) ?g/l. The median UIC in the first, second and third trimesters were 166 (IQR 92-276) ?g/l, 145 (IQR 83-248) ?g/l and 134 (IQR 79-221) ?g/l, respectively. The median UIC in the first trimester was significantly higher than that in the third trimester (P= 0.04). The median UIC of 1200 lactating women in all was 120 (IQR 66-195) ?g/l. Their median UIC in every 4-week block was higher than the WHO criteria except in weeks 25-28 and weeks 33-36 of lactation. Pregnant women's median UIC did not correlate with median salt iodine (MSI) (P= 0.402); however, there was a linear correlation between MSI and the lactating women's median UIC (P= 0.007). Iodised salt failed to provide adequate iodine to pregnant women possibly due to limited intake of iodised salt during pregnancy, though it was found to provide adequate iodine to lactating women in the rural areas of Shijiazhuang city. PMID:26058867

  6. Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

  7. Hemolymph osmolality and cation concentrations in Litopenaeus vannamei during exposure to artificial sea salt or a mixed-ion solution

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    , relative to decreases in salinity, indicating iono- and osmoregulation with adjustment for gradients Litopenaeus vannamei iono- and osmo- regulate over a wide range of salinities. Iono- and osmoregulation

  8. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C.; Velarde-Montes, Germán J.; García-de la Parra, Luz M.; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F.; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.

    2014-01-01

    White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96?h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96?h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

  9. Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.

    2013-11-01

    The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (?·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = ?{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its physiological changes, further contributing to the improvement of capture and rearing technique.

  10. Contribution of nutritional deficit to the pathogenesis of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome in critical illness: a rabbit model study.

    PubMed

    Mebis, Liese; Eerdekens, An; Güiza, Fabian; Princen, Leslie; Derde, Sarah; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2012-02-01

    Both starvation and critical illness are hallmarked by changes in circulating thyroid hormone parameters with typically low T(3) concentrations in the absence of elevated TSH. This constellation is labeled nonthyroidal illness (NTI). Because critical illness is often accompanied by anorexia and a failing gastrointestinal tract, the NTI of critical illness may be confounded by nutrient deficiency. In an experimental study performed in a rabbit model, we investigated the impact of nutritional deficit on the NTI of sustained critical illness. Critically ill rabbits were randomly allocated to parenteral nutrition (moderate dose 270 kcal/d) initiated on the day after injury and continued until d 7 of illness or to infusing a similar volume of dextrose 1.4% (14 kcal/d). With early parenteral nutrition during illness, the decrease in serum T(3) observed with fasting was reversed, whereas the fall in T(4) was not significantly affected. The rise in T(3) with parenteral nutrition paralleled an increase of liver and kidney type-1 and a decrease of liver and kidney type-3 deiodinase activity and an increase in circulating and central leptin. Nuclear staining of constitutive androstane receptor and its downstream expression of sulfotransferases were reduced in fasting ill animals. TRH expression in the hypothalamus was not different in fasted and fed ill rabbits, although circulating TSH levels were higher with feeding. In conclusion, in this rabbit model of sustained critical illness, reduced circulating T(3), but not T(4), levels could be prevented by parenteral nutrition, which may be mediated by leptin and its actions on tissue deiodinase activity. PMID:22166982

  11. Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

    2013-11-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

  12. Transcriptomic response to low salinity stress in gills of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongxu; Pan, Luqing; Zhao, Qun; Ren, Qin

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei), is one of the most farmed species. Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects its growth and distribution. However, the molecular mechanism of the shrimp in response to salinity stress remains largely unclear. High-throughput sequencing is a helpful tool to analyze the molecular response to salinity challenge in shrimp. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of the gills in L. vannamei under low salinity stress were detected by Illumina's digital gene expression system. A total of 10,725,789 and 10,827,411 reads were generated from the non-changed and low salinity changed groups, respectively. 64,590 Unigenes with an average length of 764bp were generated. Compared with the control, 585 genes were differentially expressed under low salinity. GO functional analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated some vital genes in response to the challenge. Ten genes related to osmoregulation and ambient salinity adaption were selected to validate the DGE results by RT-qPCR. This work provides valuable information to study the mechanism of salinity adaption in L. vannamei. Genes and pathways from the results will be beneficial to reveal the molecular basis of osmoregulation. It also gives an insight into the response to the salinity challenge in L. vannamei. PMID:26210687

  13. Characterization of a vasa-like gene from the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its expression during oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Aflalo, Eli D; Bakhrat, Anna; Raviv, Shaul; Harari, Daniel; Sagi, Amir; Abdu, Uri

    2007-02-01

    The vasa gene encodes an ATP-dependent RNA helicase belonging to the DEAD-box family that, in many organisms, is specifically expressed in germline cells throughout the life cycle. In this study we first cloned Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) partial cDNAs of two members of the DEAD-box family, one belonging to the vasa subfamily (Lv-Vasa) and the other to the PL10 subfamily (Lv-PL10). Examination of their spatial expression pattern in adult tissues revealed that Lv-Vasa is restricted to the gonads, whereas Lv-PL10 is found in gonads as well as in somatic tissues. Next, we cloned the full-length shrimp vasa cDNA and found that Lv-Vasa encoded a protein with a DEAD-like helicase domain followed by a helicase superfamily C-terminal domain. In addition, Lv-Vasa encoded N-terminal three repeats of the C2HC-type zinc finger domain, a motif encoded by vasa genes of several crustaceans and several other invertebrate organisms. In situ hybridization of ovarian sections showed that the Lv-Vasa transcript is localized to the cytoplasm of the oocyte throughout oogenesis. The abundance of Lv-Vasa mRNA in mature oocytes suggests a maternal contribution for the developing embryo. It is demonstrated that the vasa homolog from L. vannamei is a gonad specific germline cell marker that could be exploited to enhance our understanding of developmental and reproductive processes in the germline of this economically important shrimp. PMID:16955407

  14. Effects of methamidophos on acetylcholinesterase activity, behavior, and feeding rate of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    García-de la Parra, L M; Bautista-Covarrubias, J C; Rivera-de la Rosa, N; Betancourt-Lozano, M; Guilhermino, L

    2006-11-01

    The toxicity of methamidophos on the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, behavior, and feeding rate as effect criteria. The biochemical characterization of the soluble cholunesterase (ChE) present in both muscle and eye tissues of L. vannamei was performed in a first phase of the study. In both tissues, almost full inhibition of enzyme activity by eserine sulfate was found, indicating that the measured activity is mainly from ChE and not from other esterases. The highest rate of substrate hydrolysis was found when acetylthiocholine was used as substrate. To evaluate the effects of methamidophos on L. vannamei AChE, behavior, and feeding rate, shrimps were exposed for 24h to several sublethal concentrations of methamidophos. Significant effects of the pesticide on behavior and AChE were found, with behavior being a more sensitive endpoint than AChE inhibition. Feeding rate was not a sensible endpoint under conditions tested. PMID:16249032

  15. Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  16. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  17. Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system

    SciTech Connect

    Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

    1986-10-01

    Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

  18. A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-06-01

    A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P < 0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

  19. Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    injection with Vibrio Erin J. Burge*, Daniel J. Madigan, Louis E. Burnett, Karen G. Burnett Grice Marine and in circulating hemocytes for 48 h following challenge with the shrimp pathogen Vibrio campbellii Baumann rights reserved. Keywords: Litopenaeus vannamei; Shrimp; Hemocyte; Vibrio; Lysozyme; Gene expression

  20. Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

  1. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture 

    E-print Network

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Ryan, Doan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Jason A., Sawyer; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2014-07-28

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is ...

  2. Digital gene expression analysis in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to low salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Hu, Dongxu

    2015-02-01

    The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has been greatly impacted by low salinity stress. To gain knowledge on the immune response in L. vannamei under such stress, we investigated digital gene expression (DEG) in L. vannamei hemocytes using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 38,155 high quality unigenes with average length 770 bp were generated; 145 and 79 genes were identified up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune signaling pathways, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, apoptosis, cellular protein synthesis, lipid transport and energy metabolism were the differentially regulated processes occurring during low salinity stress. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding environmental stress and a valuable gene information for a better understanding of immune mechanisms of L. vannamei under low salinity stress. PMID:25463292

  3. Identification of cold responsive genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jinxia; Wei, Pinyuan; Chen, Xiuli; Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiaohan

    2016-01-10

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most widely cultured shrimp species in the world. Despite L. vannamei having tropical origins, it is being reared subtropically, with low temperature stress being one of the most severe threats to its growth, survival and distribution. To unravel the molecular basis of cold tolerance in L. vannamei, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) platform was employed to identify cold responsive genes in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Both forward and reverse cDNA libraries were constructed, followed by dot blot hybridization, cloning, sequence analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. These approaches identified 92 cold induced and 48 cold inhibited ESTs to give a total of 37 cold induced and 17 cold inhibited contigs. Some of the identified genes related to stress response or cell defense, such as tetraspanins (TSPANs), DEAD-box helicase, heat shock proteins (HSPs) and metallothionein (MT), which were more abundant in the forward SSH library than in the reverse SSH library. The most abundant Est was a tetraspanin-8 (TSPAN8) homolog dubbed LvTSPAN8. A multiple sequence alignment and transmembrane domain prediction was also performed for LvTSPAN8. LvTSPAN8 expression was also examined in the gills, muscle, heart and hepatopancreas following cold exposure and showed the highest expression levels in the hepatopancreas. Overall, this study was able to identify several known genes and novel genes via SSH that appear to be associated with cold stress and will help to provide further insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating cold tolerance in L. vannamei. PMID:26407639

  4. Nutrition and nutritional supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Manissier, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Skin acts as a natural barrier between internal and external environments thus plays an important role in vital biological functions such as protection against mechanical/chemical damages, micro-organisms, ultraviolet damage. Nutrition has a critical impact on strengthening skin’s capabilities to fight against these multiple aggressions. Nutritional deficiencies are often associated with skin health disorders, while diets can either positively or negatively influence skin condition. More recently, the concept of nutritional supplementation has emerged as a new strategy in the daily practice of dermatology as well as a complementary approach to topical cosmetics in the field of beauty. Focusing on human clinical data, this paper proposes to illustrate the link between skin health and nutrition and to exemplify the beneficial actions of nutritional supplementation in skin health and beauty. PMID:20808515

  5. Maternal perceptions of factors contributing to severe under-nutrition among children in a rural African setting

    PubMed Central

    Abubakar, A; Holding, P; Mwangome, M; Maitland, K

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In developing countries, severe undernutrition in early childhood is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, and 10–40% of hospital admissions. The current study aimed to elicit maternal perceptions of factors that contribute to severe undernutrition among children in a rural Kenyan community in order to identify appropriate and acceptable targeted interventions. Methods The study consisted of 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) of between eight and ten mothers each, in a rural coastal community in Kenya. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the FGD data. Results In all FGDs ‘financial constraints’ was the main reason given for severe undernutrition of children. The mothers reported the additional factors of inadequate food intake, ill health, inadequate care of children, heavy workload for mothers, inadequate control of family resources by women and a lack of resources for generating income for the family. The mothers also reported their local cultural belief that severe malnutrition was due to witchcraft and the violation of sexual taboos. Conclusions The mothers in the study community recognised multiple aetiologies for severe undernutrition. A multidisciplinary approach is needed address the range of issues raised and so combat severe undernutrition. Suggested interventions include poverty alleviation, medical education and psychosocial strategies. The content and approach of any program must address the need for variability, determined by individual and local needs, concerns, attitudes and beliefs. PMID:21323398

  6. Identification of bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei reveals distinct temperature-driven patterns.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-01-01

    Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

  7. Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

    2014-01-01

    Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

    2014-07-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

  9. Adult nutrition assessment tutorial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

  10. Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    E-print Network

    Burnett, Louis E.

    in Litopenaeus vannamei, the Pacific white shrimp, following injection with either saline (control) or a strain by 27% (from 11.0 to 8.2 mol g 1 h 1 ) after 4 h, while saline-injected shrimp showed no change-animal lactic acid levels increased in shrimp injected with bacteria (mean 2.59 mol lactate g 1 0.39 SEM, n 8

  11. Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) outbreaks in Penaeus vannamei and P. monodon cultured in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    la Peña, Leobert D de; Cabillon, Nikko Alvin R; Catedral, Demy D; Amar, Edgar C; Usero, Roselyn C; Monotilla, Wilberto D; Calpe, Adelaida T; Fernandez, Dalisay Dg; Saloma, Cynthia P

    2015-10-27

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has recently emerged as a serious disease of cultured shrimp. It has also been described as early mortality syndrome (EMS) due to mass mortalities occurring within 20 to 30 d after stocking of ponds with postlarvae. Here, Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon from shrimp farms in the Philippines were examined for the toxin-producing strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus due to AHPND-like symptoms occurring in marketable size shrimp. In the P. vannamei, histology revealed typical AHPND pathology, such as sloughing of undifferentiated cells in the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium. Analysis using the IQ2000 AHPND/EMS Toxin 1 PCR test generated 218 bp and 432 bp amplicons confirmative of the toxin-producing strain of V. parahaemolyticus among shrimp sampled from 8 of 9 ponds. In the P. monodon, histology revealed massive sloughing of undifferentiated cells of the hepatopancreatic tubule epithelium in the absence of basophilic bacterial cells. PCR testing generated the 2 amplicons confirmatory for AHPND among shrimp sampled from 5 of 7 ponds. This study confirms the presence of AHPND in P. vannamei and P. monodon farmed in the Philippines and suggests that the disease can also impact late-stage juvenile shrimp. PMID:26503780

  12. Estimating the relative contribution of parasitic infections and nutrition for anaemia among school-aged children in Kenya: a subnational geostatistical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pullan, Rachel L; Gitonga, Carol; Mwandawiro, Charles; Snow, Robert William; Brooker, Simon J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To quantify geographical variation in the relative contribution of parasitic infections, socioeconomic factors and malnutrition in the aetiology of anaemia among schoolchildren across Kenya, thereby providing a rational basis for the targeting of an integrated school health package. Design Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data were collected using standard protocols. For all included children, data were recorded on haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and common parasitic infections (Plasmodium falciparum, hookworm and schistosomes) and socioeconomic indicators. Ecological proxies of malnutrition and food security were generated using Demographic and Health Survey and UN Food and Agriculture Organization food security data, respectively. Spatially explicit, multilevel models were used to quantify impact upon child Hb concentration. Setting Randomly selected schools in ecologically diverse settings across Kenya. Main outcome measures Mean Hb concentration adjusted for infection, nutritional and socioeconomic risk factors; associated risk ratios and adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) for anaemia, by region. Results Data were available for 16?941 children in 167 schools; mean Hb was 122.1?g/l and 35.3% of children were anaemic. In multivariate analysis, mean Hb was significantly lower in boys and younger children. Severe malnutrition and interactions between P falciparum and hookworm infections were significantly associated with lower Hb, with greater impacts seen for coinfected children. The contribution of risk factors to anaemia risk varied by province: in 14-year-old girls, PAFs ranged between 0% and 27.6% for P falciparum, 0% and 29% for hookworm and 0% and 18.4% for severe malnutrition. Conclusions The observed geographical heterogeneity in the burden of anaemia attributable to different aetiological factors has important implications for the rational targeting of antianaemia interventions that can be included in an integrated school health programme. PMID:23435794

  13. Nutrition in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ravasco, Paula

    2015-11-01

    In cancer patients, oral nutrition is the preferred route of feeding since it is a significant part of the patient's daily routine and contributes to the patient's autonomy. It represents a privileged time to spend with family and friends, avoiding the tendency for isolation in these patients. The acknowledgement that the prescribed diet is individualized, adapted and adequate to individual needs empowers the patient with a feeling of control, and thus it is also a highly effective approach of psychological modulation. All these factors may potentially contribute to improve the patient's quality of life and may modulate treatment morbidity. The referral to a nutrition professional responsible for the individualized dietary counseling should always be based on evidence-based decision-making plans. The implementation of individualized nutritional counseling should consider the common causes for a poor nutritional intake in elderly cancer patients. A proper approach through counseling requires professionals with specific experience in both nutrition and oncology. Oral nutritional supplements are a simple and practical way to meet nutritional requirements when normal food intake is compromised. Ideally, oral nutritional supplements should be in addition to and not instead of meals. Supplements should be administered at a time which does not interfere with the appetite of the patient. The administration after the meal theoretically potentiates the anabolic effect on protein metabolism. Supplements with high energy density (>1 kcal/ml) or enriched with x03C9;-3 fatty acid are probably the most effective. PMID:26544599

  14. Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

  15. Whole Transcriptome Analysis Provides Insights into Molecular Mechanisms for Molting in Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wei, Jiankai; Sun, Xiaoqing; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Molting is one of the most important biological processes in shrimp growth and development. All shrimp undergo cyclic molting periodically to shed and replace their exoskeletons. This process is essential for growth, metamorphosis, and reproduction in shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying shrimp molting remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated global expression changes in the transcriptomes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, the most commonly cultured shrimp species worldwide. The transcriptome of whole L. vannamei was investigated by RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) throughout the molting cycle, including the inter-molt (C), pre-molt (D0, D1, D2, D3, D4), and post-molt (P1 and P2) stages, and 93,756 unigenes were identified. Among these genes, we identified 5,117 genes differentially expressed (log2ratio ?1 and FDR ?0.001) in adjacent molt stages. The results were compared against the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant protein/nucleotide sequence database, Swiss-Prot, PFAM database, the Gene Ontology database, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database in order to annotate gene descriptions, associate them with gene ontology terms, and assign them to pathways. The expression patterns for genes involved in several molecular events critical for molting, such as hormone regulation, triggering events, implementation phases, skelemin, immune responses were characterized and considered as mechanisms underlying molting in L. vannamei. Comparisons with transcriptomic analyses in other arthropods were also performed. The characterization of major transcriptional changes in genes involved in the molting cycle provides candidates for future investigation of the molecular mechanisms. The data generated in this study will serve as an important transcriptomic resource for the shrimp research community to facilitate gene and genome annotation and to characterize key molecular processes underlying shrimp development. PMID:26650402

  16. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  17. Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen [1]. For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV...

  18. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePLUS

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  19. Nutrition Counter

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

  20. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  1. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  2. Identification and functional analysis of a Hemolin like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Hongliang; Li, Haoyang; Wei, Erman; Su, Ziqi; Zheng, Jieyao; Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yonggui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2015-03-01

    Hemolin is a specific immune protein belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and firstly identified in insects. Growing evidences suggest that Hemolin can be activated by bacterial and viral infections and may play an important role in antimicrobial immunity. In this paper, we firstly identified a Hemolin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHemolin). Sequence analysis showed that LvHemolin shares high similarity with insect Hemolins and is mainly composed of seven immunoglobulin (Ig) domains which form a 'horseshoe' tertiary structure. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that LvHemolin mainly expressed in stomach, gill, epithelium and pyloric cecum of L. vannamei. After challenge with pathogens or stimulants, expression of LvHemolin was significantly up-regulated in both gill and stomach. Agglutination analysis demonstrated that recombinant LvHemolin protein purified from Escherichia coli could accelerate the agglutination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis in the presence of Ca(2+). To verify the immune function of LvHemolin in vivo, shrimps were injected with gene-specific dsRNA, followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or V. parahaemolyticus. The results revealed that silence of LvHemolin could increase the cumulative mortalities of shrimps challenged by pathogens and increase the WSSV copies in shrimp tissues. These suggested that Hemolin could play an important role in shrimp innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25527138

  3. Responses of prophenoloxidase system and related defence parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei to low salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Xie, Peng; Hu, Fawen

    2010-09-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of low salinity (26 and 21) on the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system and related defence parameters in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that low salinity induced a significant increase of dopamine (DA) concentration in haemolymph at 6 h of the experiment; on the other hand, total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and PO activity decreased over time to the lowest level at 24 h and remained low thereafter. Serine Protease (SP) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI) activity in the two lower salinity treatments decreased to the lowest level at 12 and 24 h, respectively, and both recovered to the control level at 72 h. In contrast, ?2- macroglobulin (?2M) activity in the two lower salinity treatments peaked at 24 h and then decreased to the control level at 72 h. Therefore, it may be concluded that stress-induced DA plays an important temporary role in neurotransmission and causes immune response in L. vannamei in adapting to salinity changes.

  4. Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

    1999-01-01

    Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

  5. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauliac, Michel; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Nutrition education is the theme of this issue of "Children in the Tropics," which emphasizes an analysis of the situation of nutrition education programs, particularly in third world countries. It is noted that in most cases, it is necessary to integrate aspects of nutrition education into broader programs that encompass agricultural and food…

  6. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  7. Perioperative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Torgersen, Zachary; Balters, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Perioperative nutrition is a vitally important yet often overlooked aspect of surgical care. Significant disparity exists between evidenced-based recommendations and practices encouraged by traditional surgical teaching. The metabolic response to surgical stress is complex. Poor nutrition has been demonstrated to correlate with adverse surgical outcomes. Perioperative nutrition encompasses preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care. Preoperative nutritional assessment identifies at-risk patients who benefit from supplementation before surgery. Prehabilitation seeks to prepare patients for the impending surgical stress. Immunonutrition seems to provide a benefit, although its precise mechanisms are unknown. This article provides a review of the current state of perioperative nutrition. PMID:25814105

  8. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ?2 years (n?=?16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended consequence of lowering overall dietary quality. PMID:23927718

  9. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Lin, Heizhao; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans. PMID:26147449

  10. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Wang, Xiaodan; Lin, Heizhao; Qin, Jian G.; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control) to 3 practical salinity units (psu) for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans. PMID:26147449

  11. Nutrition Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Lloyd E.

    Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

  12. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  13. Microbiome analyses of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from disparate geographical locations

    PubMed Central

    Seetharam, Arun S.; Kawaler, Emily; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Rothschild, Max F.; Severin, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the tail muscle microbiota of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) sourced from five countries across Central and South America and Southeast Asia were determined and compared. The genomic DNA was sequenced at around 10 × coverage for each geographical location and was assembled de novo for comparative analysis. The assembled sequences for all the lines were classified based on their similarity to the sequences in the public database. We found that there is high correlation among the microbiota of shrimp from disparate regions, as well as the presence of some DNA from bacteria known to cause food poisoning in humans. Sequencing data has been deposited at NCBI-SRA database and can be found under the BioProject ID PRJNA282154.

  14. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  15. Selectively enhanced expression of prophenoloxidase activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1) at a bacteria clearance site in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prophenoloxidase-activating (PO activating) system plays an important role in the crustacean innate immunity, particularly in wound healing and pathogen defense. A key member of this system is prophenoloxidase-activating enzyme (PPAE), which is the direct activator of prophenoloxidase (proPO). Despite their importance in crustacean PO activating system, the studies on them remain limited. Results Here we report on a PPAE of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (lvPPAE1), which showed 94% similarity to PPAE1 of Penaeus monodon. We found that lvPPAE1 in fluid hemocytes was down regulated after challenge by Vibrio harveyi but was enhanced when shrimps were exposed to a bacteria-rich environment for long-term. In vivo gene silence of lvPPAE1 by RNAi can significantly reduce the phenoloxidase activity (PO) and increase the susceptibility of shrimps to V. harveyi. Although lvPPAE1 was down-regulated in fluid hemocytes by Vibrio challenge, its expression increased significantly in gill after bacteria injection, which is the primary bacteria-clearance tissue. Conclusion Suppressed expression in fluid hemocytes and enhanced expression in gill indicates selectively enhanced expression at the bacterial clearance site. This is a novel feature for PPAE expression. The results will contribute to our understanding of the PO activating system in crustaceans. PMID:22208405

  16. A comparative study of intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture on four bottom substrates without water change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuepeng; Bao, Weiyang; Ma, Shen

    2014-08-01

    The effect of four bottom substrates, oyster shell powder (OP), sugarcane bagasse (SB), a mixture of OP and SB (OS) and fresh soil (FS), on the water quality and bacterial and zooplankton density of intensive shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) culture tanks without water change and the growth performance of cultured shrimp were compared in this study. At the end of a 110 days culturing trial, the total ammonium-N (TAN) of the water on SB and the nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) on OS was significantly lower than that on the other substrates ( P<0.05), which coincided with the high density of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the water on SB and OS, respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) increased slowly on OP, SB and OS but remained low on FS. The density of total bacteria on OP, SB and OS was one order of magnitude higher than that on FS, and the density of zooplankton on SB and OS was significantly higher than that on FS or OP ( P<0.05). The improved water quality and increased density of bacteria and zooplankton on SB and OS may have had a synergistic effect on shrimp culture, improving its growth performance (high survival rate and yield and low feed conversion rate). SB and OS were more effective for improving the growth performance of intensively cultured L. vannamei without water change than OP and FS. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence regarding the effect of different bottom substrates on intensive shrimp culture.

  17. Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L.; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H.; Malecha, Spencer R.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

    2009-01-01

    The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg7-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species. PMID:19852991

  18. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

  19. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis on alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M) of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Vaseeharan, Baskaralingam; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2008-01-01

    The full-length sequence of alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M) was cloned from the hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloning and sequencing of overlapping PCR, and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends method. The alpha2-M cDNA consists of 4682bp with an open reading frame of 4479bp, a 52-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 132-bp 3'-untranslated region. The predicted molecular mass of the mature protein (1475 amino acids) is 167.1kDa, with an estimated pI of 5.70. The L. vannamei alpha2-M sequence contains putative functional domains including a bait region, a GCGEQNM (985-991) thiol ester domain, and a receptor-binding domain. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses show that alpha2-M deduced amino acid sequence of L. vannamei has a high level of similarity to that of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. The alpha2-M transcript was mainly expressed in hemocytes, and was significantly higher in premoult stage than in intermoult and postmoult stages. PMID:17706773

  20. Silencing of Gonad-Inhibiting Hormone Transcripts in Litopenaeus vannamei Females by use of the RNA Interference Technology.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Rubens G; Braga, André L; Lanes, Carlos F C; Figueiredo, Márcio A; Romano, Luis A; Klosterhoff, Marta C; Nery, Luis E M; Maggioni, Rodrigo; Wasielesky, Wilson; Marins, Luis F

    2016-02-01

    The method usually employed to stimulate gonadal maturation and spawning of captive shrimp involves unilateral eyestalk ablation, which results in the removal of the endocrine complex responsible for gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) synthesis and release. In the present study, RNAi technology was used to inhibit transcripts of GIH in Litopenaeus vannamei females. The effect of gene silencing on gonad development was assessed by analyzing the expression of GIH and vitellogenin, respectively, in the eyestalk and ovaries of L. vannamei females, following ablation or injection with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D (non-related dsRNA), or saline solution. Histological analyses were performed to determine the stage of gonadal development and to assess the diameter of oocytes throughout the experimental procedure. Only oocytes at pre-vitellogenesis and primary vitellogenesis stages were identified in females injected with dsRNA-GIH, dsRNA-IGSF4D, or saline solution. Oocytes at all developmental stages were observed in eyestalk-ablated females, with predominance of later stages, such as secondary vitellogenesis and mature oocytes. Despite achieving 64, 73, and 71 % knockdown of eyestalk GIH mRNA levels by 15, 30, and 37 days post-injection (dpi), respectively, in dsRNA-GIH-injected females, the expected increase in ovary vitellogenin mRNA expression was only observed on the 37th dpi. This is the first report of the use of RNAi technology to develop an alternative method to eyestalk ablation in captive L. vannamei shrimps. PMID:26573611

  1. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in the Hepatopancreas Tissue of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Lipid Sources at Low Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Li, Erchao; Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Xu, Chang; Qin, Jian G.; Chen, Liqiao

    2015-01-01

    RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of hepatopancreas in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed three diets with different lipid sources, including beef tallow (BT), fish oil (FO), and an equal combination of soybean oil + BT + linseed oil (SBL) for 8 weeks at 3 practical salinity unit (psu). A total of 9622 isogenes were annotated in 316 KEGG pathways and 39, 42 and 32 pathways significantly changed in the paired comparisons of FO vs SBL, BT vs SBL, or FO vs BT, respectively. The pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, fatty acid degradation, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid were significantly changed in all paired comparisons between dietary lipid sources, and the pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly changed in the FO vs SBL and BT vs SBL comparisons. These pathways are associated with energy metabolism and cell membrane structure. The results indicate that lipids sources affect the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity by providing extra energy or specific fatty acids to change gill membrane structure and control iron balance. The results of this study lay a foundation for further understanding lipid or fatty acid metabolism in L. vannamei at low salinity. PMID:26670122

  2. Nutritional epigenetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is intended to provide a timely overview of the current state of research at the intersection of nutrition and epigenetics. I begin by describing epigenetics and molecular mechanisms of eigenetic regulation, then highlight four classes of nutritional exposures currently being investiga...

  3. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  4. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtkooper, Linda; And Others

    This kit provides coaches, physical education teachers, and health professionals with current nutrition information and guidelines for applying that information in classes and athletic training programs. The kit contains four components. A "Key Terms" section provides an index to nutrition-fitness terminology and concepts. The instructional…

  5. Sports Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

    This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

  6. Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge

    Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

  7. Neonatal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Denne, Scott C

    2015-04-01

    Optimal nutrition in infancy is the foundation of health in later life. Based on the demonstrated health benefits of human milk, breastfeeding should be the primary means of nutrition for most infants. Although many mothers experience some problems with breastfeeding, health professionals can use simple strategies to overcome most of these problems. For infants who cannot breastfeed, standard infant formulas support adequate nutrition and growth. Gastroesophageal reflux is a common feeding-related event and occurs in most infants; it is part of normal physiology and requires no intervention. Gastroesophageal reflux disease occurs in a small number of infants necessitating the use of an algorithm-based evaluation and management strategy. PMID:25836706

  8. Assessing and Improving the Quality of Food Composition Databases for Nutrition and Health Applications in Europe: The Contribution of EuroFIR123

    PubMed Central

    Finglas, Paul M.; Berry, Rachel; Astley, Siân

    2014-01-01

    Food composition databases (FCDBs) form an integral part of nutrition and health research, patient treatment, manufacturing processes, and consumer information. FCDBs have traditionally been compiled at a national level; therefore, until recently, there was limited standardization of procedures across different data sets. Digital technologies now allow FCDB users to access a variety of information from different sources, which has emphasized the need for greater harmonization. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR) Network of Excellence and Nexus projects (2005–2013) has been instrumental in addressing differences in FCDBs and in producing standardized protocols and quality schemes to compile and manage them. A formal, recognized European standard for food composition data has been prepared, which will further assist in the production of comparable data. Quality schemes need to address both the composition data, plus the methods of sampling, analysis, and calculation, and the documentation of processes. The EuroFIR data exchange platform provides a wealth of resources for composition compilers and end users and continues to develop new and innovative tools and methodologies. EuroFIR also is working in collaboration with the European Food Safety Authority, and as a partner in several European projects. Through such collaborations, EuroFIR will continue to develop FCDB harmonization and to use new technologies to ensure sustainable future initiatives in the food composition activities that underpin food and health research in Europe. PMID:25469406

  9. NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritional assessment is an essential component of the history and physical examination of children with gastrointestinal disorders. Protein-energy malnutrition, linear growth failure, overweight, and iron deficiency anemia frequently complicate the clinical course of common gastrointestinal proble...

  10. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, milk and dairy product consumption by children and adolescents in many countries has waned over the past decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source o...

  11. Space Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  12. Fetal nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Franz W.; Turshen, Meredeth

    1970-01-01

    The extensive literature on nutrition in pregnancy is reviewed with special reference to international experience, including observations on nutritional trials in pregnancy, pregnancy during famines caused by war, and studies of birth-weight in relation to pregnancy interval, parity and multiple pregnancies. Recent research on the significance of fetal nutrition suggests that ”small-for-dates” infants, i.e., those that are developmentally retarded in utero, suffer long-term developmental sequelae. A high world-wide incidence of small-for-dates births was reported by the World Health Organization in 1960. Although a definite correlation has been found between socio-economic status and birth-weight, it is not known to what extent the smaller birth-weights observed in the lower socio-economic groups can be improved by specific nutritional measures. In addition to the general advice given on maternal nutrition and family-planning, further studies are needed to determine the precise means of achieving improvement in fetal nutrition and a better outcome of pregnancy. PMID:5314013

  13. Early-life adversity programs emotional functions and the neuroendocrine stress system: the contribution of nutrition, metabolic hormones and epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kit-Yi; Naninck, Eva F G; Schmidt, Mathias V; Lucassen, Paul J; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-05-01

    Clinical and pre-clinical studies have shown that early-life adversities, such as abuse or neglect, can increase the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. Remarkably, the lasting consequences of stress during this sensitive period on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and emotional function closely resemble the long-term effects of early malnutrition and suggest a possible common pathway mediating these effects. During early-life, brain development is affected by both exogenous factors, like nutrition and maternal care as well as by endogenous modulators including stress hormones. These elements, while mostly considered for their independent actions, clearly do not act alone but rather in a synergistic manner. In order to better understand how the programming by early-life stress takes place, it is important to gain further insight into the exact interplay of these key elements, the possible common pathways as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms that mediate their effects. We here review evidence that exposure to both early-life stress and early-life under-/malnutrition similarly lead to life-long alterations on the neuroendocrine stress system and modify emotional functions. We further discuss how the different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and next suggest a possible role for the early-life adversity induced alterations in metabolic hormones and nutrient availability in shaping later stress responses and emotional function throughout life, possibly via epigenetic mechanisms. Such knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies, which gives the advantage of viewing the synergistic action of a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:26260665

  14. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge technology using nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae can improve productivity of white shrimp by increasing the biomass and maintaining a stable water quality especially ammonium concentration.

  15. Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L

    1993-09-01

    There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

  16. Nutritional Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Lane, Helen W.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutritional status is critical for maintenance of crew health during extended- duration space flight and postflight rehabilitation. Nutrition issues relate to intake of required nutrients, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, psychological adaptation to extreme environments, and countermeasures to ameliorate the negative effects of space flight. Thus, defining the nutrient requirements for space flight and ensuring provision and intake of those nutrients are critical issues for crew health and mission success. Specialized nutritional requirements have only been considered for what are referred to here as extended- duration flights, i.e., those greater than 30 days in length. While adequate nutrition is important on the 1- to 3-week Shuttle flights, intakes of specific nutrients above or below space specific requirements for this period will not produce cause for concern. Thus, Shuttle flights have always used the recognized nutritional requirements for adult men and women. In this chapter, long-duration flights will be further differentiated into orbital missions (e.g., International Space Station) and interplanetary exploration missions.

  17. Medical Issues: Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

  18. Purification of sinus gland peptides having vitellogenesis-inhibiting activity from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Naoaki; Ohira, Tsuyoshi; Kawazoe, Ichiro; Takahashi, Akiyoshi; Wilder, Marcy N

    2007-01-01

    Vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in Crustacea belongs to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH)-family. To characterize multiple VIH molecules in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, seven CHH-family peptides designated as Liv-SGP-A, -B, -C, -D, -E, -F, and -G were purified by reversed-phase HPLC and identified by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. The dose-response effects of these peptides on vitellogenin mRNA levels were examined using in vitro incubation of ovarian fragments of the kuruma prawn Marsupenaeus japonicus. Liv-SGP-D showed no significant inhibitory activities, while the other six peptides significantly reduced vitellogenin mRNA levels, however, with differing efficacies, in the order of Liv-SGP-C, -F, -G > -A, -B > -E. Liv-SGP-G was the most abundant CHH-family peptide in the sinus gland and showed strong vitellogenesis-inhibiting activity. As a result of detailed structural analysis, its complete primary structure was determined; it consisted of 72 amino acid residues and possesses an amidated C-terminus. PMID:17357858

  19. Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

  20. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

  1. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals' stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps' responses to Cd(2+). They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses. PMID:25863597

  2. Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sowers, A.; Young, S.P.; Isely, J.J.; Browdy, C.L.; Tomasso, J.R., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

  3. A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-11-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  4. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

  5. Roles of receptor for activated protein kinase C1 for modulating immune responses in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhong-Wen; Chang, Chin-Chyuan

    2015-10-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding a receptor for activated protein kinase C1 (RACK1) messenger (m)RNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, designated LvRACK1, consisted a 1136-bp cDNA containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 954 bp, a 111-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 71-bp 3'-UTR, which is a 36 kDa cytosolic protein, belonging to the Trp-Asp40 (WD40) family of proteins, characterized by containing seven highly conserved Trp-Asp40 (WD40) internal repeats, and a poly A tail. The WD repeat of LvRACK1 can be predicted to form a seven-bladed propeller structure with each WD repeat composed of four antiparallel ?-sheets. The WD40 domains have been implicated in protein-protein interactions. A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that LvRACK1 was closely related to arthropods RACK1. LvRACK1 cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues detected with real-time PCR including haemocytes, hepatopancreas, gills, muscles, subcuticular epithelium, intestines, abdominal nervous ganglia, thoracic nervous ganglia, lymphoid organ, stomach, heart, and antennal gland, especially in subcuticular epithelium and gill. LvRACK1 mRNA transcription in haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus decreased. The depletion of LvRACK1 of haemocytes in L. vannamei received its dsRNA revealed the increased respiratory bursts per haemocyte, superoxide dismutase (SOD), activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and clotting time, but showed the decreased total haemocyte count (THC), hyaline cells (HCs), phagocytic activity, and transglutaminase (TG) activity. LvRACK1 silenced shrimp showed the upregulated gene expressions of cyMnSOD, mtMnSOD, peroxinectin (PE), and TGI, and showed the downregulated ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), clottable protein (CP), lysozyme, and crustin gene expressions. It is therefore concluded that LvRACK1 is involved in immune defense and signaling transduction in haemocytes of L. vannamei infected with V. alginolyticus. PMID:26297966

  6. Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( P<0.05). After challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the cumulative mortality of shrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

  7. Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

    2014-04-01

    Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation of a commercial prebiotic on survival, growth, immune responses, and gut microbiota of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 35-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth, bacterial populations of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing the commercial prebiotic PrevidaTM. Four diets were formulated to contain Previda at 0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.6% by wei...

  9. Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

    2014-02-01

    Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

  10. Nutritional Needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

  11. Nutritional requirements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic growth of infants during the first year of life (e.g., a 3-fold increase in weight and a 2-fold increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from a year of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. Moreover, these needs for growth are superimposed on ...

  12. Diet & Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and the National School Lunch Program. Meals on Wheels America – Online search tool to locate home-delivered meal programs throughout the U.S. Share Smaller Text Larger Text Print Diet & Nutrition Take Control of Your Weight Portion Control Low Carb Omega-3 Publication Diet ...

  13. Nutrition Integrity in School Menu Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenshaw, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Nutrition integrity ensures that all foods available in schools for children are consistent with recommended dietary allowances and contribute to the development of lifelong, healthy eating habits. Attaining nutrition integrity is the goal of numerous changes in National School Lunch and Breakfast Program regulations. Outlines new federal…

  14. cDNA cloning, identification, tissue localisation, and transcription profile of a transglutaminase from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection by Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Hung; Hung, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Winton

    2009-12-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134); tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAL78166); and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AF336805). The 2638-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2172 bp, a 55-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 411-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (757 aa) was 84.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.2. The L. vannamei TG (abbreviated LvTG) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, a putative integrin-binding motif (RGD), and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two subgroups, STGS1 and STGS2, and LvTG is more closely related to STGS1 than to STGS2. LvTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, with LvTG mainly being synthesised in haemocytes. However, the pattern of LvTG mRNA expression was not directly correlated with TG activity. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant decrease of TG activity at 3 h and a significant increase of LvTG mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease from 12 to 24 h, which indicated that cloned LvTG was involved in the immune response of shrimp. The results also imply that more than one type of TG may be involved in the defense response in L. vannamei. PMID:19782141

  15. Identification of differentially transcribed genes in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to osmotic stress and challenged with WSSV virus.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-Soares, Daniela; Seiffert, Walter Quadros; Schlindwein, Aline Daiane; Toledo-Silva, Guilherme; Zanette, Juliano; Marques, Maria Risoleta Freire; Bainy, Afonso Celso Dias

    2012-03-01

    The effects of hyposmotic stress and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge in expression was studied in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Messenger RNA from gills of shrimp submitted to osmotic stress was isolated to identify genes differentially expressed through the suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) method. Two subtractive libraries forward and two reverse were constructed to identify up and down-regulated genes under these conditions. About 192 clones were sequenced, of which 46 genes were identified. These genes encode proteins corresponding to a wide range of biological roles, including defense, cell signaling, electron transfer, cell proliferation and differentiation, apoptosis, intermediary metabolism, cytoskeleton and digestion. Among the identified genes, 19 were up-regulated and 27 were down-regulated in the animals kept at a lower ion concentration. We evaluated the expression of eight genes by RT-qPCR in shrimp submitted to hyposmotic conditions with and without WSSV challenge. The SSH enabled the identification of genes that are influenced by hyposmotic stress. A significant up-regulation was observed in lectin-C, QM, TGF beta inducible nuclear protein 1, ciclophilin, malate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial ATP synthase F chain and ATP synthase subunit 9 precursor transcripts. However, the expression of these genes in L. vannamei was not affected by WSSV infection both at isosmotic and hyposmotic conditions. PMID:22169266

  16. Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

    2013-03-01

    The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

  17. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND...Early Childhood Development and Health...1304.23 Child nutrition...contribute to the development and socialization of enrolled children by...

  18. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND...Early Childhood Development and Health...1304.23 Child nutrition...contribute to the development and socialization of enrolled children by...

  19. 45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND...Early Childhood Development and Health...1304.23 Child nutrition...contribute to the development and socialization of enrolled children by...

  20. Pediatric nutrition.

    PubMed

    Greco, Deborah S

    2014-03-01

    This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

  1. Nutritional Biochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

  2. PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

  3. Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234

    PubMed Central

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

    2012-01-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

  4. Contributions of processed foods to dietary intake in the US from 2003-2008: a report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council.

    PubMed

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2012-11-01

    Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003-2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods' nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

  5. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

  6. Nutrition and Diet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

  7. Food and Nutrition Service

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Find A Report SNAP WIC Food Distribution Programs Food Security Nutrition Education Program Integrity Child Nutrition Programs Demos/Grant Projects FNS Strategic Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative ...

  8. Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

    2013-11-01

    Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in coagulation of haemolymp and immune response of white shrimp, L. vannamei. PMID:24036331

  9. Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition Bldg.Pedestrian Link from Ardmore Tower to Comprehensive Nutrition Education Wing Hanes Bldg. Gray Bldg. Library Creative Communications University Dental Associates

  10. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

  11. Kiloniella litopenaei sp. nov., isolated from the gut microflora of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xiaoyi; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

    2015-12-01

    A cream-coloured rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain P1-1(T), was isolated from the gut microflora of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from the Taiwan Strait, China. P1-1(T) was was found to be Gram-negative, oxidase and catalase positive and motile by means of a single flagellum. Growth is observed at salinities of 0.5-7 % (w/v; optimum 3 %), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0-9.0) and at 15-37 °C (optimum 28-32 °C). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P1-1(T) belongs to the genus Kiloniella, and is closely related to Kiloniella spongiae MEBiC09566(T) (99.0 % similarity), followed by Kiloniella laminariae LD81(T) (96.6 % similarity). The genomic ANIm value between strain P1-1(T) and K. spongiae MEBiC09566(T) was found to be 81.7 %. The DNA-DNA hybridization estimate between strains P1-1(T) and MEBiC09566(T) was 24.6 %. The principal fatty acids detected were identified as summed feature 8 (C18:1 ?6c/C18:1 ?7c, 74.2 %) and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ?6c/C16:1 ?7c, 9.7 %). The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA, determined from the draft genome sequence, was found to be 46.1 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was determined to be Q-9, while the major polar lipids are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids, one unidentified aminolipid and nine unidentified lipids. The combined genotypic and phenotypic data indicate that strain P1-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Kiloniella, for which the name Kiloniella litopenaei sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain P1-1(T) (=MCCC 1A09869(T) = LMG 27755(T)). PMID:26386704

  12. Isolation and characterisation of tropomyosin from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone) and its association property at high ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Huang, Luyao; Du, Bingjian; Bai, Guangling; Wang, Qunqun; Zhao, Guanghua; Ning, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps are important and highly demanded seafood, but they have been reported as a cause of food hypersensitive reaction. The major allergen of shrimp is tropomyosin (TM). However, so far, there has been few report on such purification procedure. In this study, we developed a strategy for the purification of TM from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone). Subsequently, we demonstrated that the apparent MW of this protein is about 66 kDa, and this protein naturally contains two subunits (38.5 and 36.6 kDa) with a ratio of 1 to 1. Interestingly, different from other known TMs from vertebrates, shrimp TM can self-assemble into nanofibres at high ionic strength induced by ATP. These findings help to understand the structure and polymerisation property of TM from shrimps. PMID:25894734

  13. Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

    2014-01-01

    We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

  14. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P <0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11% ˜ 2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, respectively. Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11% ˜2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, although the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  15. The Global Nutrition Report 2014: actions and accountability to accelerate the world's progress on nutrition.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Lawrence; Achadi, Endang; Bendech, Mohamed Ag; Ahuja, Arti; Bhatia, Komal; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blössner, Monika; Borghi, Elaine; Colecraft, Esi; de Onis, Mercedes; Eriksen, Kamilla; Fanzo, Jessica; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Fracassi, Patrizia; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Nago Koukoubou, Eunice; Krasevec, Julia; Newby, Holly; Nugent, Rachel; Oenema, Stineke; Martin-Prével, Yves; Randel, Judith; Requejo, Jennifer; Shyam, Tara; Udomkesmalee, Emorn; Reddy, K Srinath

    2015-04-01

    In 2013, the Nutrition for Growth Summit called for a Global Nutrition Report (GNR) to strengthen accountability in nutrition so that progress in reducing malnutrition could be accelerated. This article summarizes the results of the first GNR. By focusing on undernutrition and overweight, the GNR puts malnutrition in a new light. Nearly every country in the world is affected by malnutrition, and multiple malnutrition burdens are the "new normal." Unfortunately, the world is off track to meet the 2025 World Health Assembly (WHA) targets for nutrition. Many countries are, however, making good progress on WHA indicators, providing inspiration and guidance for others. Beyond the WHA goals, nutrition needs to be more strongly represented in the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) framework. At present, it is only explicitly mentioned in 1 of 169 SDG targets despite the many contributions improved nutritional status will make to their attainment. To achieve improvements in nutrition status, it is vital to scale up nutrition programs. We identify bottlenecks in the scale-up of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive approaches and highlight actions to accelerate coverage and reach. Holding stakeholders to account for delivery on nutrition actions requires a well-functioning accountability infrastructure, which is lacking in nutrition. New accountability mechanisms need piloting and evaluation, financial resource flows to nutrition need to be made explicit, nutrition spending targets should be established, and some key data gaps need to be filled. For example, many UN member states cannot report on their WHA progress and those that can often rely on data >5 y old. The world can accelerate malnutrition reduction substantially, but this will require stronger accountability mechanisms to hold all stakeholders to account. PMID:25740908

  16. Strategies for High-Quality Nutrition Therapy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, Dan L; Correia, Maria Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for improving nutrition therapy (NT) are of utmost importance in any healthcare system. The identification and treatment of malnourished patients improves clinical outcome and reduces the length of hospital length of stay and the associated costs. In particular, federal policy regulating the use of NT in Brazil and reimbursement of enteral nutrition (EN) treatment were 2 powerful mechanisms that stimulated the development of nutrition care. Basic and clinical research have also contributed to best practices in NT, thereby highlighting the need for nutrition therapy teams, quality indicators, and nutrition education for the delivery of high-quality NT. It is clear that the availability of training and continuing education programs in clinical nutrition is key to improving nutrition awareness and care, as well as patient outcome. On the basis of our experience, we recommend the Brazilian model as a strategy for improving nutrition care, with appropriate and necessary adaptations made to accommodate different settings. PMID:26272947

  17. In vivo and in vitro inhibitory action of 17?-estradiol and environmental estrogen 4-nonylphenol on gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) expression in the eyestalks of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Li, G L; Chen, H P; Deng, S P; Ye, M; Jiang, S; Chan, S F; Zhu, C H

    2015-01-01

    The gonad-inhibiting hormone (GIH) belongs to a neuropeptide family synthesized and released in an X-organ sinus gland complex of crustacean eyestalks. GIH inhibits crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis, whereas estrogen is responsible for the stimulation of vitellogenesis (not established). In this study, the effects of 17?-estradiol (E2, 10(-6) M), estrogen receptor antagonist tamoxifen (TAM, 10(-6), 10(-7), and 10(-8) M), and the environmental estrogen nonylphenol (NP, 1 ?g/L and 100 ?g/L) on LvGIH expression in the eyestalks of shrimp were determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that LvGIH expression decreased significantly during the L. vannamei ovarian maturation cycle. E2 and NP significantly reduced LvGIH transcripts in vivo, but TAM neutralized the inhibitory action of E2 in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). In addition, the LvGIH expression levels decreased significantly in a time-dependent manner (P < 0.05) when ovary fragments were cultured in vitro with E2. The results of this study suggested that estrogen regulates GIH expression in L. vannamei eyestalks. E2 promoted ovarian development not only by directly upregulating vitellogenesis in the hepatopancreas, but it was also capable of downregulating LvGIH expression, which indirectly resulted in the stimulation of L. vannamei vitellogenesis. PMID:26535720

  18. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  19. Nutrition surveys in Burma and northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bunce, George E

    2005-05-01

    Participation of the author in the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense sponsored nutrition surveys of Burma and northeast Brazil is described. These surveys not only collected important data on nutritional status but also guided the subsequent research interests of the author. The Brazil survey results contributed to the creation of legislation that mandated the addition of water-dispersible vitamin A to skimmed-milk powder products. This additive has greatly diminished the likelihood of vitamin A deficiency syndrome occurring in children after famine relief efforts. PMID:15867322

  20. History of nutrition in space flight: overview.

    PubMed

    Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

    2002-10-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

  1. History of nutrition in space flight: overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

    2002-01-01

    Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

  2. Nutrition for Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-12-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progression of sarcopenia. However, the effectiveness and safety of caloric restriction for sarcopenia remained unclear. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. As optimal dietary protein intake, 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg (body weight)/day with an optimal repartition over each daily meal or 25 - 30 g of high quality protein per meal were recommended to prevent sarcopenia, which was supported by some observational studies. Protein supplementation using cheese and milk protein, essential amino acids, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and vitamin D has been investigated as a potential supplement to improve muscle quality in sarcopenic elderly people. PMID:26566405

  3. Nutrition and nail disease.

    PubMed

    Cashman, Michael W; Sloan, Steven Brett

    2010-01-01

    The nail is a specialized keratinous skin appendage that grows approximately 2 to 3 mm per month, with complete replacement achieved in 6 to 9 months. Although this structure can be easily overlooked, nail disorders comprise approximately 10% of all dermatologic conditions. This contribution first provides an overview on the basic anatomy of the nail that will delineate between the nail unit (eg, hyponychium, nail bed, proximal nail fold, and matrix) and anatomic components not part of the nail unit (eg, lateral nail folds, nail plate, and eponychium). The function of each nail structure will also be presented. The chemical profile of the normal nail plate is reviewed with a discussion of its keratin content (hair type keratin vs epithelial type keratin), sulfur content, and mineral composition, including magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, and copper. The remainder will focus on nail manifestations seen in states of malnutrition. Virtually every nutritional deficiency can affect the growth of the nail in some manner. Finally, the discussion will include anecdotal use of nutritional and dietary supplements in the setting of brittle nail syndrome as well as a brief overview of biotin and its promising utility in the treatment of nail disorders. PMID:20620759

  4. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progression of sarcopenia. However, the effectiveness and safety of caloric restriction for sarcopenia remained unclear. Protein intake and physical activity are the main anabolic stimuli for muscle protein synthesis. As optimal dietary protein intake, 1.0 - 1.2 g/kg (body weight)/day with an optimal repartition over each daily meal or 25 - 30 g of high quality protein per meal were recommended to prevent sarcopenia, which was supported by some observational studies. Protein supplementation using cheese and milk protein, essential amino acids, leucine, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and vitamin D has been investigated as a potential supplement to improve muscle quality in sarcopenic elderly people. PMID:26566405

  5. Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

  6. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and this could be exacerbated by the possibility of horizontal transmission revealed by laboratory challenge tests. Thus, it is recommended that the PCR and in situ hybridization methods developed herein be used to identify the natural reservoir species so they can be eliminated from the shrimp rearing system. PMID:23856195

  7. Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

    2014-09-01

    Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

  8. Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Rings Frequently Asked Questions Definitions Transplantation Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is most important ... Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Generic Zinc Options Inheritence Diet & Nutrition Kayser-Fleischer Rings Wilson Disease FAQs Definitions Transplantation ...

  9. Total Parenteral Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Print This Page Email This Page Total Parenteral Nutrition Brand Name(s): TPN WHY is this medicine prescribed? Your doctor has ordered total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for you. TPN will drip through a ...

  10. Nutrition.gov

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Tips Browse by Subject What's In Food Smart Nutrition 101 Life Stages Weight Management Nutrition and Health Issues Shopping, Cooking & Meal Planning Dietary Supplements Food Assistance Programs Home Providing easy, online access to government information on ...

  11. Sweeteners: Nutritive and Non-Nutritive

    E-print Network

    Tullos, Desiree

    1 Sweeteners: Nutritive and Non-Nutritive SP 50935 Agave This sugar derives from the blue agave, this form of the sweetener has no Calories. Coconut Sugar Produced from the sap of the flowers artificially for the food industry. It is an "inversion" of sucrose achieved by treating it with acids. Invert

  12. Peri-operative nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ali Abdelhamid, Y; Chapman, M J; Deane, A M

    2016-01-01

    Patients are frequently malnourished or are at risk of malnutrition before surgery. Peri-operative nutritional support can improve their outcomes. This review focuses on new developments in peri-operative nutrition, including: patient preparation and pre-operative fasting; the role of nutritional supplementation; the optimal route and timing of nutrient delivery; and the nutritional management of specific groups including critically ill, obese and elderly patients. PMID:26620142

  13. Nutrition in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

    1997-01-01

    The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

  14. Nutrition and Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

  15. Nutrition for Sport Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

  16. Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

    2002-01-01

    Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

  17. Our Nutrition Education Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Donald C.

    1976-01-01

    Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

  18. Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Anderson, Paul R.

    Comprehensive Cancer Center Nutrition Bldg.Pedestrian Link from Ardmore Tower to Comprehensive Tower Reynolds Tower Financial Couns. Meads Hall Nutrition Education Wing Hanes Bldg. Gray Bldg. Urology Discharge Waiting Church & Comm. Relations West Elevators to Hanes Bldg., Gray Bldg., Nutrition

  19. [European nutrition policy: regulatory dynamics and trajectories].

    PubMed

    Leone, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In the light of the relationship between health and nutrition, this paper focuses on the policy strategy designed by the European institutions with regard to nutrition. Starting from the analysis of the World Declaration for Nutrition adopted by FAO and WHO in 1992, the main European regulatory measures adopted on the issue are analysed and some reflections are offered about their normative status (hard and soft law), as well as on some problematic aspects and implications. Moreover, the contribution focuses on two major European strategies in regulating nutrition, namely the health-in-all-policies and whole-of-government approaches, characterized by the combination of heterogeneous legal instruments together with the coexistence of actions undertaken by public and private actors. The framework thus conceived - though noteworthy and commendable for several reasons - turns out to be problematic in achieving the desired goals: health protection and citizens' well-being. PMID:26554694

  20. Promoting Perioperative Metabolic and Nutritional Care.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Chelsia; Carli, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    Surgery represents a major stressor that disrupts homeostasis and can lead to loss of body cell mass. Integrated, multidisciplinary medical strategies, including enhanced recovery programs and perioperative nutrition support, can mitigate the surgically induced metabolic response, promoting optimal patient recovery following major surgery. Clinical therapies should identify those who are poorly nourished before surgery and aim to attenuate catabolism while preserving the processes that promote recovery and immunoprotection after surgery. This review will address the impact of surgery on intermediary metabolism and describe the clinical consequences that ensue. It will also focus on the role of perioperative nutrition, including preoperative nutrition risk, carbohydrate loading, and early initiation of oral feeding (centered on macronutrients) in modulating surgical stress, as well as highlight the contribution of the anesthesiologist to nutritional care. Emerging therapeutic concepts such as preoperative glycemic control and prehabilitation will be discussed. PMID:26248016

  1. Molecular Characterization and Antibacterial Activity Analysis of Two Novel Penaeidin Isoforms from Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhi-Qiang; Jin, Yan-Hui

    2015-12-01

    Penaeidins were important immunity effector molecules, which played a crucial role in innate immunity system of penaeid shrimp. Here, we reported two penaeidin isoforms from Litopenaeus vannamei, which were named as Lva-PEN 2 and Lva-PEN 3 according to the respective structure features. The results of amino acid sequence multiple alignments showed that high similarities existed among these penaeidins. A signal peptide sequence and a cysteine-rich domain which contained six cysteine amino acid residues existed in each penaeidin at the same time. Besides, there was a proline-rich motif which was composed of eight proline residues existed in each penaeidin. After the expression profile analysis was studied, we found that both Lva-pen 2 and Lva-pen 3 transcripts were up-regulated at 48 h after bacteria challenge. Except for the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria like other penaeidins, these two penaeidins could strongly bind to bacteria and possessed antiproteinase activity. It was speculated that these two penaeidins could prevent bacteria pervasion through bacteria-binding activity and antiproteinase activity. Meantime, the proline-rich motif played a crucial role in these biological processes. PMID:26373944

  2. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT). Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed. PMID:26692362

  3. Recombinant expression and characterization of a serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin7) from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Wang, Xianzong; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-02-01

    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are widely known to its inhibitory role on proteases involved in the immune responses. Herein, a novel serine protease inhibitor (Lvserpin7), encoding for 411 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 46.29 kDa and isoelectric point of 6.98 was characterized from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Lvserpin7 shared 92.9% identities to Penaeus monodon serpin7. Among the tested tissues, Lvserpin7 was mainly expressed in hemocytes and gill. The expression profiles analysis indicated that Lvserpin7 was significantly up-regulated in the early stage upon Vibrio anguillarum, Micrococcus lysodeikticus or White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) infection. Fusion protein expression was induced by IPTG, and the purified recombinant Lvserpin7 protein (rLvserpin7) binds to both the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Also rLvserpin7 exhibited inhibitory activity against the proteases secreted by Bacillus subtilis. Moreover, rLvserpin7 showed inhibition role on prophenoloxidase activation. To recap, we proposed that Lvserpin7 was implicated in the shrimp immunity via the inhibition of bacterial proteases and proteases involved in prophenoloxidase system. PMID:25462553

  4. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  5. Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.

    PubMed

    López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2014-09-01

    Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

  6. Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) ?-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) ?-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA ?-subunit and V-ATPase ?-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA ?-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA ?-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA ?-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

  7. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 ?g mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  8. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  9. Accumulation and Elimination of Enrofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in Tissues of Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Laboratory and Farm Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Miranda, Brisa Marisol; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angelica; Gómez-Jiménez, Silvia; López-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; González-Carrillo, Haydé Hayamaí; Bermúdez-Almada, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the accumulation and elimination of Enrofloxacin (ENRO) and Ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory and farm conditions. Laboratory- and farm-raised shrimp were given feed supplemented with 200?mg/kg ENRO for 14 days, followed by a 16-day diet without antibiotics. The levels of ENRO and CIPRO were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the laboratory, ENRO concentrations in the muscle and hepatopancreas reached a maximum (Cmax) of 0.54 ± 0.26??g/g and 3.52 ± 1.9??g/g, respectively; Cmax values for CIPRO in the laboratory were 0.18 ± 0.13??g/g (muscle) and 1.05 ± 0.20??g/g (hepatopancreas). In farmed shrimp, Cmax values for ENRO were 0.36 ± 0.17??g/g muscle and 1.60 ± 0.82??g/g in the hepatopancreas; CIPRO Cmax values were 0.03 ± 0.02??g/g (muscle) and 0.36 ± 0.08??g/g (hepatopancreas). Two to fourteen days were necessary to eliminate both antibiotics from muscular tissue and four to more fourteen days for complete elimination of the antibiotics from the hepatopancreas. These results should be considered in terms of minimum concentrations necessary to inhibit Vibrio bacteria to determine whether the current use of this antibiotic is effective in controlling disease. PMID:22779008

  10. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  11. Nutritional Status Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

  12. Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

  13. E. V. McCollum, A Nutrition Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todhunter, E. Neige

    1979-01-01

    Relates the biography of one of the earliest U.S. nutrition educators of this century. Cites scientific achievements and educational contributions of E. V. McCollum, including the discovery of vitamin A and the communication of nutrition education to the public. (MA)

  14. Administration of the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis enhanced the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Tayag, Carina Miranda; Lin, Yong-Chin; Li, Chang-Che; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2010-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been injected with the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), or immersed in aerated seawater containing extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1.5 x 10(6) or 1.4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. Survival rates of shrimp that received the extract of S. platensis at 6-20 microg g(-1), and those of shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 400 and 600 mg L(-1) were significantly higher than those of control shrimp after 24-96 and 48-96 h, respectively. In a separate experiment, the hyaline cell (HC) count, granular cell (GC, including semi-granular cell) count, total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and lysozyme activity were measured when shrimp were injected with the extract at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), and immersed in seawater containing the extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1). These parameters directly increased with the concentration, and significantly increased when shrimp were immersed in the seawater containing the extract at 0.5-4 h. L. vannamei that received all doses of the extract via injection or via immersion all had increased phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus at 12-72 h and 3-4 h, respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that received the hot-water extract of S. platensis had enhanced innate immunity and increased resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:20139007

  15. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH. PMID:24451988

  16. Effect of cadmium-polluted diet on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity of juvenile Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): Protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying-Ying; Chen, Shi-Jun; Chen, Ming; Tian, Li-Xia; Niu, Jin; Liu, Yong-Jian; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals that have toxic effects on aquatic organisms. To investigate the effects of dietary cadmium on growth, salinity stress, hepatotoxicity in juvenile Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) and potential protective effect of Zn(II)-curcumin, five experimental diets (control, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd, 30mg/kg Cd+100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin, 30mg/kg Cd+200mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin) were formulated. The results showed that Cd at 30mg/kg induced significant increase in weight gain, specific growth rate and visible alterations to the hepatopancreas structures of L. vannamei. Compared with control diet, 100mg/kg Zn(II)-curcumin added diet had no effect on growth performance or feed utilization, while healthier hepatopancreas and less plasma ALT, AST production was found. Moreover, 200mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin significantly ameliorated the Cd induced hepatotoxicity while 100mg/kg dietary Zn(II)-curcumin slightly ameliorated. Cd accumulation in the whole body was decreasing and Metallothioneins like was increasing in hepatopancreas with increasing dietary Zn(II)-curcumin level. The shrimp fed with dietary Zn(II)-curcumin showed higher survival rate after acute salinity change. Therefore, it can be demonstrated that hepatotoxicity and hormesis could be induced by Cd when Cd levels were 30mg/kg, Zn(II)-curcumin could mitigate the effects of dietary Cd on L. vannamei. PMID:26702716

  17. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

  18. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

  19. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

  20. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

  1. 45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

  2. Draft genome sequence of the denitrifying strain Kiloniella sp. P1-1 isolated from the gut microflora of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Li, Xiaoyi; Shao, Zongze

    2015-12-01

    A denitrifying bacterium, Kiloniella sp. P1-1, was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from the Taiwan Strait, China. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Kiloniella sp. P1-1, which comprised 4,312,146 bp in 85 contigs with a G+C content of 46.09%. Related genes involved in the denitrification process could be identified in this genome. The genome sequence of Kiloniella sp. P1-1 may provide insights into the mechanism of denitrification. PMID:26303669

  3. 78 FR 9529 - National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program: Nutrition Standards for All Foods...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ..., Nutrition Standards in the National School Lunch and School Breakfast Programs, (77 FR 4088, January 26.... The Impact of Removing Snacks of Low Nutritional Value from Middle Schools. Health Education... reinforce school-based nutrition education and promotion efforts and contribute significantly to the...

  4. Replacement of fish meal with soybean meal, alone or in combination with distiller’s dried grains with solubles in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, grown in a clear-water system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  5. Nutrition in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Wahl, R

    1999-02-01

    This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

  6. Integrated Nutrition Education Junior High.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This collection of nutrition lessons has been produced so that junior high school teachers of various subject areas may offer an occasional lesson on a nutrition topic. The objectives of each nutrition lesson are consistent with concepts which the Nutrition Education and Training Program in Illinois has identified as the most important nutrition

  7. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional

  8. Nutrition policy in Finland.

    PubMed

    Pietinen, Pirjo; Männistö, Satu; Valsta, Liisa M; Sarlio-Lähteenkorva, Sirpa

    2010-06-01

    The present study describes the main actions in Finnish nutrition policy during the past decades. The main actor is the National Nutrition Council, which provides nutritional recommendations and action programmes, and sets up expert groups to solve nutritional problems in the population. The main fortification programmes have been the iodization of table salt, supplementation of selenium to fertilizers and the vitamin D fortification programme. As an example of national legislation, labelling the salt content of foods is described. Finnish nutrition policy is based on a good monitoring system of nutrition and risk factors of chronic diseases, as well as active epidemiological research. However, the authorities have not often taken proposed fiscal measures seriously but have instead considered agricultural and economic policies more important than health policy. PMID:20513258

  9. Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

    2013-01-01

    The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PMID:23405063

  10. Effect of dietary potassium on growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulation and immunity of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in low salinity seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Tan, Beiping; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

    2013-11-01

    An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physiological acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+ per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

  11. Oxidative stress, DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in the pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) when exposed to hypoxia and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuhu; Wei, Lin; Cao, Jiangrong; Qiu, Liguo; Jiang, Xiu; Li, Ping; Song, Qinqin; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the genotoxic and physiological effects of acute hypoxia on the pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei), shrimps were treated firstly with three dissolved oxygen levels 6.5 ppm (control), 3.0 ppm and 1.5 ppm for 24 h, respectively, and then reoxygenated (6.5 ppm) for 24 h. The changes of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidases (GPX) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and DNA damage in the tissues of gill, hepatopancreas and hemolymph were examined during the period of hypoxia and reoxygenation. The results indicated SOD activity, GPX activity, MDA concentration and DNA damage all increased basically compared with the control during the period of hypoxia except for MDA concentrations in the gill at 12 h and 24 h hypoxia (3.0 ppm), and these parameters were recovered to some degree during the period of reoxygenation. Moreover, the comet assays in the tissues of gill and hepatopancreas showed an obvious time- and dose-dependent response to hypoxia, which indicated comet assay in the two tissues could be used as sensitive biomarker to detect the occurrence of hypoxia. We conclude that acute hypoxia can induce oxidative stress, DNA damage and lipid peroxidation in the tissues of gill, hepatopancreas and hemolymph of L. vannamei and the DNA damage may come from hypoxia-induced oxidative stress. PMID:26363325

  12. Molecular cloning, expression of a galectin gene in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the antibacterial activity of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Cha, Gui-Hong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Ting; Huang, Ming-Zhu; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    Galectins play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrate by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a cDNA encoding a galectin in the Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei) was identified and characterized. A recombinant variant of this lectin, rLvgalectin, was expressed in the model organism P. pastoris and its expression was confirmed by Western blot. Biochemical assays indicated that the recombinant protein antibacterial rLvgalectin activity and was expressed in all of the organism's tested tissues Injection of the bacterium V. alginolyticus into L. vannamei induced hemocytes upregulation of Lvgalectin. The recombinant Lvgalectin protein (rLvgalectin) could bind various microorganism including Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. And it revealed antimicrobial activity against the test Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, but did not inhibit the growth of fungus Pichia pastoris. Moreover, rLvgalectin could significantly enhance the clearance activity of V. alginolyticus in vivo. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant rLvgalectin protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. alginolyticus injection. Furthermore, Compared to their wild-type counterparts, Lvgalectin-silenced shrimp exhibited increased mortality and hemocyte apoptosis, decreased bacterial clearance ability and total hemocyte counts, and stronger expression of Lvp53, LvproPO, LvPEN3, and LvCrustin following V. alginolyticus challenge. Taken together, these results suggest that galectin is important in the innate immune response of shrimp to pathogens infection. PMID:26143399

  13. Genome survey and high-density genetic map construction provide genomic and genetic resources for the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhao, Yongzhen; Huang, Long; Zheng, Hongkun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the dominant crustacean species in global seafood mariculture. Understanding the genome and genetic architecture is useful for deciphering complex traits and accelerating the breeding program in shrimp. In this study, a genome survey was conducted and a high-density linkage map was constructed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome survey was used to identify preliminary genome characteristics and to generate a rough reference for linkage map construction. De novo SNP discovery resulted in 25,140 polymorphic markers. A total of 6,359 high-quality markers were selected for linkage map construction based on marker coverage among individuals and read depths. For the linkage map, a total of 6,146 markers spanning 4,271.43?cM were mapped to 44 sex-averaged linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 0.7?cM. An integration analysis linked 5,885 genome scaffolds and 1,504 BAC clones to the linkage map. Based on the high-density linkage map, several QTLs for body weight and body length were detected. This high-density genetic linkage map reveals basic genomic architecture and will be useful for comparative genomics research, genome assembly and genetic improvement of L. vannamei and other penaeid shrimp species. PMID:26503227

  14. Genome survey and high-density genetic map construction provide genomic and genetic resources for the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Li, Fuhua; Chen, Xiaohan; Zhao, Yongzhen; Huang, Long; Zheng, Hongkun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is the dominant crustacean species in global seafood mariculture. Understanding the genome and genetic architecture is useful for deciphering complex traits and accelerating the breeding program in shrimp. In this study, a genome survey was conducted and a high-density linkage map was constructed using a next-generation sequencing approach. The genome survey was used to identify preliminary genome characteristics and to generate a rough reference for linkage map construction. De novo SNP discovery resulted in 25,140 polymorphic markers. A total of 6,359 high-quality markers were selected for linkage map construction based on marker coverage among individuals and read depths. For the linkage map, a total of 6,146 markers spanning 4,271.43?cM were mapped to 44 sex-averaged linkage groups, with an average marker distance of 0.7?cM. An integration analysis linked 5,885 genome scaffolds and 1,504 BAC clones to the linkage map. Based on the high-density linkage map, several QTLs for body weight and body length were detected. This high-density genetic linkage map reveals basic genomic architecture and will be useful for comparative genomics research, genome assembly and genetic improvement of L. vannamei and other penaeid shrimp species. PMID:26503227

  15. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05), while crude lipid content of the whole body fed Diet 5 or 6 was significantly higher than that fed Diet 2 ( P < 0.05). Protein digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P < 0.05). Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  16. Making a nutritional assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Pencharz, P. B.

    1982-01-01

    The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

  17. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-12-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  18. Cachexia: a nutritional syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Anker, Stefan D; Morley, John E

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia leads to nutritional deficits including anorexia and loss of fat and muscle mass. In persons with precachexia or early cachexia, for example, old persons with weight loss and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, there is strong evidence that nutritional support improves outcomes. Limited evidence suggests that this may be true for heart failure and chronic kidney disease. The evidence for nutritional support in refractory cachexia is, not surprisingly, less dramatic. It would appear that early in the cachectic process, nutrition, coupled with exercise, may be an important therapeutic approach. PMID:26675043

  19. Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

    2013-12-01

    The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores. PMID:24329954

  20. A Dicer-1 gene from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: expression pattern in the processes of immune response and larval development.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xuemei; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng; Zhang, Huan; Dong, Chaohua; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Limei; Shi, Yaohua; Zhao, Jianmin; Bi, Yongkun

    2010-10-01

    Dicer is a member of the RNAase III family which catalyzes the cleavage of double-stranded RNA to small interfering RNAs and micro RNAs, and then directs sequence-specific gene silencing. In this paper, the full-length cDNA of Dicer-1 was cloned from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvDcr1). It was of 7636 bp, including a poly A tail, a 5' UTR of 136 bp, a 3' UTR of 78 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 7422 bp encoding a putative protein of 2473 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence comprised all recognized functional domains found in other Dicer-1 homologues and showed the highest (97.7%) similarity to the Dicer-1 from tiger shrimp Penaeus mondon. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the tissue distribution of LvDcr1 mRNA, and its expression in shrimps under virus challenge and larvae at different developmental stages. The LvDcr1 mRNA could be detected in all examined tissues with the highest expression level in hemocyte, and was up-regulated in hemocytes and gills after virus injection. These results indicated that LvDcr1 was involved in antiviral defense in adult shrimp. During the developmental stages from fertilized egg to postlarva VII, LvDcr1 was constitutively expressed at all examined development stages, but the expression level varied significantly. The highest expression level was observed in fertilized eggs and followed a decrease from fertilized egg to nauplius I stage. Then, the higher levels of expression were detected at nauplius V and postlarva stages. LvDcr1 expression regularly increased at the upper phase of nauplius, zoea and mysis stages than their prophase. The different expression of LvDcr1 in the larval stages could provide clues for understanding the early innate immunity in the process of shrimp larval development. PMID:20599620

  1. Cloning and characterization of hemolymph clottable proteins of kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Winton; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Huang, Chang-Jen; Chiang, Pei-Chi; Cheng, Chia-Hsiung; Yeh, Maw-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    The hemolymph clottable protein (CP) of Marsupenaeus japonica (designated as Mj-CP) was purified by a DEAE anion-exchanger and a Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration column. In the presence of Ca(2+), it formed stable clots in vitro upon the addition of the hemocytes lysate containing transglutaminase. Results of gel filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE indicated that Mj-CP mainly existed as disulfide-linked homodimers of 390 kDa. Specific primers were designed; PCR as well as RACE help to clone and sequence Mj-CP cDNA of 5660 bp. The predicted CP-precursor contains a signal peptide followed by a subunit of 1671 amino acids (isoelectric point 5.6), including two RGD motifs and three potential N-glycosylation sites. Mj-CP is structurally 80% and 38% identical to the CPs of tiger shrimp and crayfish, respectively. Likewise, CP cDNA of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was also cloned and sequenced; the predicted CP has 1666 amino acid residues and an isoelectric point of 5.2. Both CPs bear potential transglutaminase cross-linking sites, i.e. seven Ser-Lys-Thr repeats near the N-terminus, a Ser- and Gln-rich region in the middle, and polyGln (n=8-11) near the C-terminus. Phylogenetic analyses of crustacean CPs and vitellogenins revealed divergent evolution of the two protein families. By RT-PCR, the sub-cuticular epidermis was identified as one of the major tissues that express CP in M. japonica. PMID:17658599

  2. Economic and Nutritional Analyses Offer Substantial Synergies for Understanding Human Nutrition1

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Hoddinott, John

    2007-01-01

    There is growing recognition that interventions designed to improve human nutritional status have, in addition to their intrinsic value, instrumental value in terms of economic outcomes. In many cases, productivity gains alone provide sufficient economic returns to justify investments using benefit and cost criteria. The often-held belief that nutrition programs are welfare interventions that divert resources that could be better used in other ways to raise national incomes is incorrect. Many investments in nutrition are in fact very good economic investments. This recognition has developed out of work that integrates insights from nutrition and economics. Further exploration of this interface is the focus of this article, which seeks: 1) to outline recent contributions that integrate research results from both economics and nutrition, particularly in the context of poor countries; and 2) to describe some areas in which enhanced collaboration is likely to have substantial payoffs in terms of both improved knowledge and more informed policy choices. Collaborative cross-disciplinary research on the topics described here is likely to have substantial payoffs, not only in terms of our understanding of nutritional and economic issues, but also in the improved design of programs and policies that seek to benefit nutritional-related outcomes. PMID:17311936

  3. Economic and nutritional analyses offer substantial synergies for understanding human nutrition.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R; Hoddinott, John

    2007-03-01

    There is growing recognition that interventions designed to improve human nutritional status have, in addition to their intrinsic value, instrumental value in terms of economic outcomes. In many cases, productivity gains alone provide sufficient economic returns to justify investments using benefit and cost criteria. The often-held belief that nutrition programs are welfare interventions that divert resources that could be better used in other ways to raise national incomes is incorrect. Many investments in nutrition are in fact very good economic investments. This recognition has developed out of work that integrates insights from nutrition and economics. Further exploration of this interface is the focus of this article, which seeks: 1) to outline recent contributions that integrate research results from both economics and nutrition, particularly in the context of poor countries; and 2) to describe some areas in which enhanced collaboration is likely to have substantial payoffs in terms of both improved knowledge and more informed policy choices. Collaborative cross-disciplinary research on the topics described here is likely to have substantial payoffs, not only in terms of our understanding of nutritional and economic issues, but also in the improved design of programs and policies that seek to benefit nutritional-related outcomes. PMID:17311936

  4. Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Anna Marie

    The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

  5. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

    The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

  6. Nutrition and athletes.

    PubMed

    Holt, W S

    1993-06-01

    Athletes differ from nonathletes in their nutritional requirements. Proper determination of nutritional needs in athletes requires knowledge of the athlete's body-fat composition and daily caloric expenditure. A balanced diet for athletes consists of 60 percent of calories from carbohydrates, 15 percent from protein and 25 percent from fat. Other important considerations include adequate intake of minerals and fluids. PMID:8498285

  7. Geological impacts on nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

  8. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

  9. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  10. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Robert H.

    Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

  11. Teaching about Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

    1983-01-01

    Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

  12. Nutrition Learning Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

  13. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  14. Nutritional Quality of Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lettuce is a popular leafy vegetable and plays an important role in American diet and nutrition. Crisphead lettuce has much lower nutrient content than leaf and romaine types. As the synthesis or absorption of many nutrients is light dependent, the lower nutritional value of crisphead lettuce is due...

  15. Nutrition and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2000-01-01

    Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

  16. Heredity and Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Mary W.

    1970-01-01

    Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

  17. Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

  18. National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

    The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

  19. Nutrition humaine et sant Mention : Nutrition, sant, aliments

    E-print Network

    Sart, Remi

    Nutrition humaine et santé Mention : Nutrition, santé, aliments Nature de la formation : Diplôme : Formation initiale #12;2 Nutrition humaine et santé UFR Sciences et Technologies PRÉSENTATION Objectifs Mention Nutrition, Santé, Aliments L'objectif de cette mention est de former des étudiants ayant des

  20. The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Vitamin D Intake Needed. Stephensen3,5 3 Nutrition Department and 4 Entomology Department and Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA, 95616; 5 USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 95616; 6 AusSun Research

  1. Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

    This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

  2. Nutrition and nutritional issues for dancers.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Carvalho, Pedro; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor H

    2013-09-01

    Proper nutrition, not simply adequate energetic intake, is needed to achieve optimal dance performance. However, little scientific research exists concerning nutrition in dance, and so, to propose nutritional guidelines for this field, recommendations need to be based mainly on studies done in other physically active groups. To diminish the risk of energy imbalance and associated disorders, dancers must consume at least 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass/day, plus the training energy expenditure. For macronutrients, a daily intake of 3 to 5 g carbohydrates/kg, 1.2 to 1.7 g protein/kg, and 20 to 35% of energy intake from fat can be recommended. Dancers may be at increased risk of poor micronutrient status due to their restricted energy intake; micronutrients that deserve concern are iron, calcium, and vitamin D. During training, dancers should give special attention to fluid and carbohydrate intake in order to maintain optimal cognition, motivation, and motor skill performance. For competition/stage performance preparation, it is also important to ensure that an adequate dietary intake is being achieved. Nutritional supplements that may help in achieving specific nutritional goals when dietary intake is inadequate include multivitamins and mineral, iron, calcium, and vitamin D supplements, sports drinks, sports bars, and liquid meal supplements. Caffeine can also be used as an ergogenic aid. It is important that dancers seek dietary advice from qualified specialists, since the pressure to maintain a low body weight and low body fat levels is high, especially in styles as ballet, and this can lead to an unbalanced diet and health problems if not correctly supervised. PMID:24013282

  3. Effective programmes for improving nutrition in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agble, R

    1997-12-01

    This brief article identifies some lessons learned from effective programs for improving nutrition in Ghana. The Ghana nutrition program was initiated in the mid-1980s with the introduction of corn milling machines in over 50 communities. The milling machines were donated by UNICEF. The milling machines were used for the production of an improved cereal and a legume-based weaning food (Weanimix). The program included training and nutrition education. After the program was underway, an income generation component was added. The income from the sale of milled cereal was used to support other community-based activities. The number of mothers using the new weaning food increased. Maternal knowledge of basic nutrition improved in project communities compared to non-project communities. The program contributed to greater household food security and improved nutritional status of children. One important lesson learned was that, in order for community interest to remain high, there must be quality operation and few breakdowns of the milling machines. It is also important for agencies and nongovernmental groups to collaborate and define roles carefully. This program was successful in remote rural communities. Existing women's groups managed the project and maintained a simple record system to monitor progress. An appropriate amount of supervision is necessary to prevent laxness in the community from too little supervision or lack of initiative from too much supervision. The program staff was undecided regarding the use of incentives. PMID:12293189

  4. Unilever Nutrition Strategy and Examples in Asia.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Karen; Kamonpatana, Kom; Bao, Jason; Ramos-Buenviaje, Joy; Wagianto, Andriyani; Yeap, Pau-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Millions of people in Asia are facing challenges from undernutrition, obesity, and diet-related non-communicable diseases. Unilever, as a global food business, has a simple approach to nutrition strategy: 'better products' help people to enjoy 'better diets' and live 'better lives.' For 'Better Products,' Unilever strives to improve the taste and nutritional qualities of all our products. By 2020, we commit to double the proportion of our entire global portfolio meeting the highest nutrition standards, based on globally recognised dietary guidelines. Unilever sets a clear plan to achieve reduction of sodium, saturated fat, trans fat, sugar, and calories in our products. Unilever developed fortified seasoning and spread products in 2013 for Vietnam, Indonesia, and the Philippines in collaboration with government bodies to address nutrient deficiencies. For 'Better Diets and Better Lives,' Unilever uses targeted communication to raise awareness and promote behavior change for healthy lifestyles. We committed to full nutrition labeling on our food products by 2015. We contribute experience to science-based regional initiatives on product labeling as well as nutrient profiling. Unilever collaborated with international, regional and country bodies to promote consumer understanding and food accessibility on public health priorities such as proper salt consumption, healthier meals, and employee well-being programs. Looking ahead, we are continuing to improve the nutritional profile of our products as well as our communication to improve diets and lives. Collaboration between industry, government and public health organizations is needed to address complex diet and life style issues. PMID:26598880

  5. Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palermo, Karen R.

    A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

  6. Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Engman, David M.

    Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Fellowship Program Barry K. Wershil, MD Division Head, Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Program Contact information: Phone: 312 and Nutrition 7-17 Division Overview 7 Faculty Members 8-15 Fellows 16 Clinical Nursing and Nutrition Staff 17

  7. Clinical Nutrition SHRP Department of

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    Doctorate of Clinical Nutrition SHRP Department of Nutritional Sciences about it's all Choi: Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition Office 973-972-8525 · 973-972-9048 How to Apply Applications, Doctorate of Clinical Nutrition Riva Touger-Decker, PhD, RD, CDN, FADA Chair and Professor Laura D. Byham

  8. Master of Science Clinical Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Delgado, Mauricio

    SHRP Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition Department of Nutritional Sciences about it's all Choi.rutgers.edu/dept/nutr/programs/m_clinutr Email: ms-cn@shrp.rutgers.edu Call: Graduate Programs in Clinical Nutrition Office 973-972-8525 · 973? Laura D. Byham-Gray, PhD, RD Associate Professor Director, Master of Science in Clinical Nutrition Jane

  9. Drugs and Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Gloria J.

    1978-01-01

    The importance of a balanced diet with proper quantities of foods cannot be overemphasized. Consideration must be given also to food's digestion and absorption, transport to tissues, and utilization by cells. Interference during any stage of this process can result in nutritional deficiency. Certain foodstuffs can alter susceptibility to a drug, and certain drugs can affect the nutritional status of an individual. There are special considerations to be taken in giving drugs to patients with certain diseases in the treatment of which diet therapy plays an important role. Extra consideration and monitoring must be done when dispensing certain drugs to such patients because of their special nutritional requirements. PMID:712863

  10. Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science

    PubMed Central

    Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

  11. Nutrition and Wellness

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually ... lifestyle changes on the development and progression of prostate cancer. Which foods and nutrients have been shown to ...

  12. Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

  13. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    MedlinePLUS

    IV fluids - infants; TPN - infants; Intravenous fluids - infants; Hyperalimentation - infants ... Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. Fluids are given into a ...

  14. Nutrition in humanitarian crises.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, K; Musani, A; Tomeh, L; Taha, A

    2004-11-01

    It is anticipated that humanitarian crisis situations will continue to occur in countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region affecting large segments of vulnerable populations. Subsequently the magnitude and effectiveness of the humanitarian response, particularly for food and nutrition, must be based on best practices and sound information of affected populations. To bridge the burgeoning gap between the food and nutrition needs of affected populations and the available resources, four key areas need to be addressed by the humanitarian agencies: adequate knowledge and skills in public health nutrition; effective coordination between humanitarian organizations when conducting nutritional assessments and interventions; efficient and appropriate delivery of services; communication, awareness and advocacy. This paper discusses approaches to how these may be improved. PMID:16335760

  15. Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

    Cancer.gov

    Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

  16. Nutrition Update, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

  17. Nutrition 210, Spring 2013 syllabus draft December 17, 2012 Nutrition 210 Survey Research in Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    Nutrition 210, Spring 2013 syllabus ­ draft December 17, 2012 1 Nutrition 210 Survey Research in Nutrition Spring Semester, 2012 Friday 9-12, Jaharis Room 118 Instructor: Beatrice Lorge Rogers, Ph nutrition. At the end of the course, students should be capable of designing a field study related

  18. Expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphofructokinase is induced in hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Cota-Ruiz, Keni; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martínez-Quintana, José A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Marine organisms are exposed to hypoxia in natural ecosystems and during farming. In these circumstances marine shrimp survive and synthesize ATP by anaerobic metabolism. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) are key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we report the cDNA of FBP from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas and expression of PFK and FBP under normoxia and hypoxia. Hypoxia induces PFK and FBP expression in hepatopancreas but not in gills and muscle. Induction in hepatopancreas of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic key enzymes, PFK and FBP, suggests that PFK could be a key factor for increasing anaerobic rate, while FBP is probably involved in the activation of gluconeogenesis or the pentose-phosphates pathway during hypoxia in the highly active metabolism of hepatopancreas. PMID:25725474

  19. An Integrative Review of Sleep for Nutrition Professionals12

    PubMed Central

    Golem, Devon L.; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer T.; Koenings, Mallory M.; Davis, Katherine Finn; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is an essential lifestyle factor that contributes to overall health. The inverse relation between sleep duration and weight status has revealed the importance of sleep in nutritional health. This integrative review builds foundational knowledge with regard to sleep vis-à-vis nutrition by summarizing the importance and process of sleep, current sleep recommendations and trends, as well as lifestyle contributors to poor sleep. Additionally, it details the association between sleep and obesity and potential mechanisms for this association. Furthermore, guidance is offered regarding the incorporation of sleep considerations in nutrition counseling, communication, and research. Like many other lifestyle factors that contribute to nutritional health, sleep needs to be considered when examining weight management and health promotion. PMID:25398735

  20. Immune responses of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), to bacterially expressed dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Taju, G; Madan, N; Abdul Majeed, S; Kumar, T Raj; Thamizhvanan, S; Otta, S K; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2015-05-01

    In this study, dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp was synthesized in Escherichia coli in large scale and studied the immune response of shrimp to dsRNA-VP28. The haematological parameters such as clotting time and total haemocytes counts, and immunological parameters such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), superoxide anion (SOA) and malondialdehyde content, as well as the mRNA expression of ten immune-related genes were examined to estimate the effect of dsRNA-VP28 on the innate immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei. The activities of proPO, SOA and SOD significantly increased in haemocyte after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, whereas MDA content did not change significantly. Among the ten immune-related genes examined, only the mRNA expression of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, lipopolysaccharides (LPs), lectin and lysozyme in haemocytes, gill and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei, was significantly upregulated at 12 h after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, while no significant expression changes were observed in Toll receptor and tumour receptor genes. The increase of proPO and SOD activities, and SOA level and mRNA expression level of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, LPs, lectin and lysozyme after dsRNA-VP28 stimulation indicate that these immune-related genes were involved in dsRNA-VP28-induced innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:24917208

  1. Nutrition and Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Joseph Andrew; Underdown, Mary Jane; Clark, William Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Significance: Nutrition is one of the most basic of medical issues and is often ignored as a problem in the management of our chronic wound patients. Unfortunately, malnutrition is widespread in our geriatric patients even in nursing homes in developed countries. Attention to basic nutrition and providing appropriate supplements may assist in the healing of our chronic wounds. Recent Advances: Recent research has revealed the epidemiology of malnutrition in developed countries, the similarities to malnutrition in developing countries, and some of the physiologic and sociologic causes for this problem. More information is now available on the biochemical effects of nutrient deficiency and supplementation with macronutrients and micronutrients. In some cases, administration of isolated nutrients beyond recommended amounts for healthy individuals may have a pharmacologic effect to help wounds heal. Critical Issues: Much of the knowledge of the nutritional support of chronic wounds is based on information that has been obtained from trauma management. Due to the demographic differences of the patients and differences in the physiology of acute and chronic wounds, it is not logical to assume that all aspects of nutritional support are identical in these patient groups. Before providing specific nutritional supplements, appropriate assessments of patient general nutritional status and the reasons for malnutrition must be obtained or specific nutrient supplementation will not be utilized. Future Directions: Future research must concentrate on the biochemical and physiologic differences of the acute and chronic wounds and the interaction with specific supplements, such as antioxidants, vitamin A, and vitamin D. PMID:25371850

  2. Nutrition Reconciliation and Nutrition Prophylaxis: Toward Total Health

    PubMed Central

    Tuso, Phillip; Beattie, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common and debilitating condition in the acute hospital setting that is associated with many adverse outcomes, including prolonged length of hospital stay, increased readmission rates, and increased mortality. However, malnutrition by definition may be an abnormality in either under- or overnutrition. With obesity rates rising, many patients admitted to the hospital may be overnourished from unhealthy eating habits. Unhealthy eating habits and obesity increase a patient’s risk for cardiovascular events and complications in the hospital setting. Nutrition risk screening or nutrition reconciliation is an underutilized tool in the hospital that would identify patients with over- and undernutrition. Nutrition intervention or nutrition prophylaxis initiated in the hospital may help reduce hospital days, readmissions, and mortality. Nutrition reconciliation is a new term developed to increase the awareness of nutrition in total health. Nutrition reconciliation means that all patients have their nutritional status reconciled on admission to and discharge from the hospital. Nutrition reconciliation is defined as the process of maximizing health by helping align an individual’s current diet to the diet prescribed for him or her by the health care team. Nutrition prophylaxis is a proactive intervention to prevent a medical complication. Mandatory nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis is not widely performed in most hospitals. Such an intervention may help our patients by improving their short-and long-term health. In addition, nutrition reconciliation and nutrition prophylaxis may allow for a more effective use of resources to prevent a preventable disease. PMID:25902344

  3. 77 FR 25127 - Food and Nutrition Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Food and Nutrition Service Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request--Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-- Disaster Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (D-SNAP) AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  4. Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions. PMID:25415364

  5. Nutrition in severe dementia.

    PubMed

    Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

    2012-01-01

    An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608

  6. Nutrition Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

  7. Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

  8. The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

  9. Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.

    The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

  10. Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety and Health (IFSH), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists, and food industry

  11. Food and Nutrition Information Center

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search Tips Browse By Subject Dietary Guidance Lifecycle Nutrition Diet and Disease Food Composition Food Safety Weight and Obesity Food Labeling Dietary Supplements Nutrition Assistance Programs Surveys, Reports and Research Professional and ...

  12. Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Login Menu Food Food Find out more Categories Nutrition Planning and Prep Vitamins and Supplements Resources Topics ... Fueling Your Workout Benefits of Physical Activity Exercise Nutrition Top Articles Your Health and Your Weight Your ...

  13. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... enteral or parenteral nutrients to treat or prevent malnutrition. Nutrition Support Therapy is part of Nutrition Therapy ... Data Advertisement Twitter A.S.P.E.N. @ASPENWEB Malnutrition: A Hidden Epidemic in Elders--Especially Latinos via @ ...

  14. Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... You are here Home About Porphyria Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

  15. Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

  16. Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Scientific and Medical Advisory Board Volunteer Advisory Council Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Ver esta página en español ... in the stool, it causes diarrhea and poor nutrition. Patients may also experience bloating, excessive gas production ...

  17. Senior Farmers' Market Nutrition Program

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Plan Other Resources Food & Nutrition Information Center National Agriculture Library National Collaborative on Childhood Obesity Research Nutrition. ... at farmers' markets, roadside stands, and community supported agriculture programs. The majority of the grant funds must ...

  18. Nutrition and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Emmanuel

    1984-01-01

    Nutrition has a close association with cancer. Carcinogens in foods, macronutrients, micronutrients such as vitamins A, C and E and selenium, dietary fiber, the modulation of metabolism by diet, food additives and anticarcinogens in foods all affect the development of cancer. In particular, macronutrients (especially meat and animal fat) appear to have a significant effect on the development of cancer of the colon, breast and uterus. This article discusses research on the links between nutrition and cancer, and describes current dietary recommendations to decrease the likelihood of cancer. PMID:21278974

  19. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  20. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  1. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  2. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  3. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goal. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to... agency shall integrate nutrition education into SFMNP operations and may satisfy nutrition...

  4. The Federal Government and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Margaret A.

    1980-01-01

    Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

  5. Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

    2007-01-01

    Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

  6. Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

  7. MSc Nutrition for Global Health

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    MSc Nutrition for Global Health The Mission of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Learning about the many dimensions of nutrition from some of the world's experts in the subject provided of nutrition I wanted to focus on! Since graduating, I have had a varied career, including: providing technical

  8. Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics

    E-print Network

    Engel, Robert

    1 Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics Student Handbook Students accepted into Queens College must also apply for acceptance into the Nutrition and Dietetics Program. Please go to our webpage/Pages/Dietetics.aspx #12;2 Queens College Didactic Program in Dietetics DEPARTMENT and PROGRAM MISSIONS Family, Nutrition

  9. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

  10. Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

    The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

  11. Insects: A nutritional alternative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1981-01-01

    Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

  12. Tuberculosis and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Krishna Bihari; Gupta, Rajesh; Atreja, Atulya; Verma, Manish; Vishvkarma, Suman

    2009-01-01

    Malnutrition and tuberculosis are both problems of considerable magnitude in most of the underdeveloped regions of the world. These two problems tend to interact with each other. Tuberculosis mortality rates in different economic groups in a community tend to vary inversely with their economic levels. Similarly, nutritional status is significantly lower in patients with active tuberculosis compared with healthy controls. Malnutrition can lead to secondary immunodeficiency that increases the host's susceptibility to infection. In patients with tuberculosis, it leads to reduction in appetite, nutrient malabsorption, micronutrient malabsorption, and altered metabolism leading to wasting. Both, protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrients deficiencies increase the risk of tuberculosis. It has been found that malnourished tuberculosis patients have delayed recovery and higher mortality rates than well-nourished patients. Nutritional status of patients improves during tuberculosis chemotherapy. High prevalence of human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection in the underdeveloped countries further aggravates the problem of malnutrition and tuberculosis. Effect of malnutrition on childhood tuberculosis and tuberculin skin test are other important considerations. Nutritional supplementation may represent a novel approach for fast recovery in tuberculosis patients. In addition, raising nutritional status of population may prove to be an effective measure to control tuberculosis in underdeveloped areas of world. PMID:20165588

  13. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  14. Nutrition in Children's Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nathan J.

    Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

  15. Nutrition, growth, and cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tryfiates, G.P. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 26 papers. Some of the titles are: Defects in early and late stages of nucleotide excision repair and the origins of cancer; Mutagenesis, carcinogenesis, and the metal elements - DNA interaction; An overview of the role of diet and nutrition in carcinogenesis; Dietary modifiers in cancer; and Factors influencing glia growth in culture: Nutrients and cell-secreted factors.

  16. Nutrition. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of the courses from the Oklahoma Practical Nursing series of competency-based training programs designed to coordinate the job-related experience and knowledge needed by personnel working in a practical nursing position. The nutrition module includes several concepts that are integrated throughout the Practical Nursing…

  17. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  18. Teenage Nutrition and Physique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

    Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

  19. Horse Nutrition and Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

  20. Immunity and Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

    1990-01-01

    The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

  1. NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition, via food, is a necessity of human life. Humans must obtain the appropriate types of nutrients from the diet, in varying amounts throughout the lifecycle, to adequately sustain life. Food provides energy, essential macro- and micronutrients required for growth, tissue maintenance and the r...

  2. NUTRITION AND FEEDING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

  3. Applications Animal nutrition

    E-print Network

    Porcs Cosmetics Skinn care Hair cares Human nutrition Spiruline Diatom Chlorella Nutraceuticals PUFAs, Cosmetics, Nutraceuticals, Diagnosis, Jean-Paul Cadoret #12;THE CORE Microalgae/Purification of biomoleculesbiomoleculesbiomoleculesbiomolecules · Ingredients for cosmetics · Fluorescents tags Jean-Paul Cadoret #12;· Microalgae strains bio

  4. The Science of Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

    2000-01-01

    Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

  5. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  6. Skylab nutritional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

    1976-01-01

    Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

  7. Artificial nutrition at the end of life: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    Artificial nutrition is a medical treatment that first of all needs a sound scientific base before prescribing it. This base is absent for dying patients and patients in the end stage of dementia. Because feeding is a very emotional and symbolical issue, patient and family may request this treatment despite the lack of evidence. These issues should be addressed in good communication with patient and relatives. For comatose patients and patients in a persistent vegetative state artificial nutrition is a necessary support to bridge the time until either recovery is imminent or improbable. At that moment artificial nutrition no longer contributes to the life of the patient and should be ceased. Artificial nutrition has no place in patients that voluntary decide to stop eating and drinking in order to die. PMID:24810185

  8. Nutritional Vulnerability in Older Adults: A Continuum of Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Porter Starr, Kathryn N.; McDonald, Shelley R.; Bales, Connie W.

    2015-01-01

    A nutritionally vulnerable older adult has a reduced physical reserve that limits the ability to mount a vigorous recovery in the face of an acute health threat or stressor. Often this vulnerability contributes to more medical complications, longer hospital stays, and increased likelihood of nursing home admission. We have characterized in this review the etiology of nutritional vulnerability across the continuum of the community, hospital, and long term care settings. Frail older adults may become less vulnerable with strong, consistent, and individualized nutritional care. Interventions for the vulnerable older adult must take their nutritional needs into account to optimize resiliency in the face of the acute and/or chronic health challenges they will surely face in their life course. PMID:26042189

  9. Workshop Report: concepts and methods in the economics of nutrition--gateways to better economic evaluation of nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Nuijten, M J C; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Poley, M J; Segal, L; Bresson, J L; van Ganse, E; Jones, P; Moreno, L; Salminen, S; Dubois, D

    2012-11-14

    Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition. PMID:22947201

  10. Nutrition issues for space exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2008-09-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

  11. Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

    2006-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

  12. Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukudi, E.

    2003-01-01

    National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

  13. It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

  14. NUTRITION OF OYSTERS: GLYCOGEN FORMATION AND ByPhilip H. Mitchell

    E-print Network

    NUTRITION OF OYSTERS: GLYCOGEN FORMATION AND STORAGE ByPhilip H. Mitchell Contribution from of Brown University #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;NUTRITION OF OYSTERS : GLYCOGEN FORMAn the difficulties of producing well-nourished oysters for market are prone to increase. The continued increment

  15. Isolation of a putative probiotic strain S12 and its effect on growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease-resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Li, Zheng; Tan, Beiping; Lao, Ye; Duan, Zhiyong; Sun, Wuwei; Dong, Xiaohui

    2014-12-01

    The common pathogens in aquaculture are very different from those in terrestrial animals. The objective of this study was to isolate probiotic strain (s) from the digestive tract of healthy white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which was effective against aquatic animal pathogens. The putative probiotic strain S12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed with five different diets: control (basal diet with no probiotics or antibiotics), antibiotic control (basal diet supplemented with 0.3% florfenicol), basal diet supplemented with 5 × 10(9) cfu kg(-1) , 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) and 5 × 10(11) cfu kg(-1) probiotic S12 (PS1-3). Each diet was randomly fed to quadruplication groups of 40 shrimps (0.4 ± 0.01 g) reared in tanks. After an 8-week feeding, the survival rate of shrimps fed with PS1 and PS3 were the highest among all treatments (P < 0.05). The moisture content of shrimps fed with florfenicol was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The supplement of probiotic S12 decreased the body crude lipid significantly (P < 0.05). The activities of phagocytic rate, lysozyme (LZ), superoxide dismutase phenoloxidase (SOD) and antibacterial activity were significantly higher than those in the control (P < 0.05), and the activities of SOD and the antibacterial activity in PS2 and PS3 were significantly higher than those in antibiotic control (P < 0.05). When infected with Vibrio harveyi at 4-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PS2 and PS3 groups than that in the control. After being infected with V. harveyi at 8-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower in the probiotic and antibiotic groups than that in the control (P < 0.05). This study suggested that probiotics could be used as an effective immunopotentiator, the optimal dose of the probiotic strain S12 is 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) diet. PMID:25218684

  16. Neuromuscular contributions to age-related weakness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Age-related physiological change of neuromuscular function is not a linear process and is likely influenced by various biological and behavioral factors (e.g., genetics, nutrition, physical activity level, comorbidities, etc.). These factors contribute to heterogeneity among older adults, which chal...

  17. CELEBRATING TWO WOMEN WHO CONTRIBUTED TO VITAMIN AND MINERAL RESEARCH: MARY SWARTZ ROSE AND HELEN T. PARSONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Celebration of the 75th anniversary of the American Society of Nutritional Sciences encourages historic reflection. It is especially fitting to honor the substantial contributions of women to nutrition research, including vitamin and mineral nutrition. Two early examples are: Mary Swartz Rose (1874-...

  18. Evolution of tree nutrition.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

    2010-09-01

    Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

  19. [Sports and nutrition].

    PubMed

    Mannhart, C

    1995-09-01

    A varied, well-balanced, healthy diet, rich in carbohydrates, is one of the cornerstones of sports nutrition. In addition, an equilibrated supply in energy and nitrogen, the ideal distribution of the nutrients (6 to 9 g carbohydrates per kilogram body weight, 1 to 1.5 g fat per kilogram body weight, 1.2 to 1.8 g protein per kilogram body weight), a well-balanced fluid intake and the choice of food with a high density of nutrients constitute an important cornerstone. All the forementioned elements, which are contained in a basic nutrition, guarantee the needs of the micro- and macronutrients in combination with a cautious substitution of minerals, trace elements and vitamins. The endurance capacity is supported by this high-quality basic diet which can be modified minimally during performance and for regeneration. PMID:7481288

  20. Nutrition in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Recasens, M A Asunción; Puig, Celia; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and heart). After the skin, the organ most affected with a frequency of 75 to 90%, the gastrointestinal tract is more often involved. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is manifested by the appearance of oropharyngeal dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, pseudo-obstruction, bacterial overgrowth and intestinal malabsorption, constipation, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence. These effects influence food intake and intestinal absorption leading to the gradual emergence of nutritional deficiencies. About 30% of patients with systemic sclerosis are at risk of malnutrition. In 5-10%, gastrointestinal disorders are the leading cause of death. Therapeutic strategies currently available are limited and aimed at reducing clinical symptoms. The multidisciplinary management of these patients, including nutritional intervention, helps improve gastrointestinal symptoms, and avoid malnutrition, morbidity and improve quality of life. PMID:22197834

  1. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    PubMed

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format. PMID:2071796

  2. Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and health: Evidence from low-income individuals in Tennessee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigate the factors that contribute to participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and the effects of such participation on self-assessed health (SAH). An endogenous switching ordered probability model is developed with alternative error distributional assumptions, ...

  3. Nutrition and athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, P M

    1990-08-01

    Energy, CHO and possibly protein needs are higher for athletes than for typical persons. CHO supplementation during and after exercise is important for endurance athletes. A balanced diet, adequate in calories, can meet the vitamin and mineral needs of virtually all athletes. Athletes must be aware of maintaining an optimum hydration status. Intensive nutrition education efforts are needed to combat to combat quackery and fads that are targeted to athletes. PMID:2261031

  4. Nutrition for athletes.

    PubMed

    Zanecosky, A

    1986-10-01

    The nutrition needs of athletes can be best met by a well-balanced diet that satisfies recommended dietary allowances and calorie demands. Endurance athletes should maintain optimal glycogen stores through adequate carbohydrate ingestion. I encourage athletes anticipating dehydration to follow sound principles of fluid replacement. Nutrient supplements to a well-balanced diet are discouraged unless there is a clinical diagnosis of deficiency, since there is little evidence that such practice will improve performance. PMID:2946391

  5. Priority nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The Philippine Food and Nutrition Program deliver priority short, simple, clear, and action filled nutrition messages in different languages and dialects to different audiences. Its 1st priority task is to promote breast feeding. It informs mothers that breast milk is the most nutritious food for infants and that it protects them from infectious diseases. The program also encourages breast feeding as long as possible. If mothers cannot breast feed, they should talk to an infant nutrition expert to help them choose the best formula and learn about proper preparation. A 4-6 month infant needs to begin eating small amounts of semisolid nutritious foods. Moreover these foods must include body building foods, such as meat and eggs, and energy providing foods, such as corn and rice. Mothers must 1st attend to food needs of infants and preschoolers since they are more likely to suffer malnutrition than older children and adults. This is especially important when they suffer from an infection. Specifically, the very young need a variety of foods each day including the vitamin and mineral rich vegetables and fruits. In fact, families should grow their own fruits and vegetables to ensure an adequate supply. Hands must be cleaned with soap and water after defecation and before preparing foods. Mothers should add fats and oils when preparing foods because they provide concentrated energy, fatty acids, and fat soluble vitamins. Pregnant mothers must consume increased amounts of fish, beans, and other body building foods as well as regulating foods (vegetables and fruits). Mothers must also space births. They should weigh children each month to monitor nutritional levels. Moreover they must pay attention to signs indicating inadequate and insufficient food intake e.g., underweight and night blindness. PMID:12284666

  6. Nutrition for adventure racing.

    PubMed

    Ranchordas, Mayur K

    2012-11-01

    Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

  7. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  8. A novel functional glucose transporter in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei -LvGLUT2- is up-regulated during hypoxia in hepatopancreas.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Quintana, José A; Kikuta, Shingo; Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2015-12-01

    In hypoxia conditions, the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei shifts its energetic metabolism from aerobic to anaerobic, requiring more glucose uptake into the cells by GLUT proteins. We here report a novel glucose transporter in shrimp. The Lvglut2 cDNA is 2473 bp-long containing an ORF of 1458 bp encoding 486 amino acid residues. The deduced protein has the features of a facilitative sugar transporter. The Lvglut2 gene product tagged with GFP was expressed in the cell membrane of Xenopus oocytes. In the same expression system, untagged LvGLUT2 resulted to be a bidirectional glucose transporter that functions moving glucose down its concentration gradient in and out of the cell. Lvglut2 mRNA is expressed in hepatopancreas while in muscle and gills it was not detected. Hypoxia up-regulates the expression of Lvglut2 transcripts in hepatopancreas. These results provide a better understanding of facilitative glucose transporters and gene regulation during hypoxia in crustaceans. PMID:26415036

  9. Hyperglycemic activity of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone B1 isoform (CHH-B1) of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Aguilar, Manuel B; Re, Ana Denisse; Díaz, Fernando

    2015-09-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) is the most abundant neuropeptide produced by the X-organ/sinus gland (XO/SG) complex in the crustacean eyestalk. CHH plays a principal role in the control of glucose metabolism. The CHH-B1 isoform is produced in the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by alternative splicing of the chhB gene and its cDNA sequence has revealed that this isoform has a non-amidated C-terminal residue (CHH-like peptide). In this work, a recombinant CHH-B1 (rCHH-B1) with a sequence identical to the native hormone was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris X-33 and purified from the culture medium by RP-HPLC. The identity of the purified rCHH-B1 was confirmed by N-terminal sequencing and by using an anti-CHH-B1 polyclonal antibody. An in vivo assay showed that the hyperglycemic effect was dependant of the dosage of rCHH-B1, and the maximal hyperglycemic response was obtained with 250pmol treatment. These results suggest that the amino acid sequence of the C-terminus and its correct structure are both important for the hyperglycemic activity of naturally occurring non-amidated CHH peptides, such as CHH-B1. CHH-B1 appears to be the first reported CHH-like peptide with significant hyperglycemic activity produced in the sinus gland of a penaeid shrimp. PMID:26079393

  10. Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection. PMID:25561847

  11. Effect of preservatives, temperature and storage duration on stability of nucleic acids of pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei (Boone) and screening of viral infections.

    PubMed

    Remany, M C; Cyriac, Daly; Raju, P Krishnakanth Varada; Prem, Sruthi O C; Panda, A K; Kumar, Jaideep; Samraj, Y C Thampi

    2015-10-01

    In shrimp farming, screening for economically significant viral pathogens in nucleic acids of shrimps is vital for disease surveillance programmes and further, to take necessary precautions to ensure the sustainability of the farms and thereby the shrimp industry. Different preservatives, temperature and storage durations of the pleopod tissues of Penaeus vannamei broodstock were tested to investigate its effect on the quality and quantity of the nucleic acids. The pleopods were subjected to two preservation regimes and the yield and stability of the extracted nucleic acids were monitored over a time period of 12 months. Stability of the nucleic acids was assessed with nested polymerase chain reaction, and the yield was checked spectrophotometrically. Data was analysed by performing two way ANOVA and Tukeys Paired test. Preservation treatments included storage at -20 degrees C and 5 degrees C in RNAlater and in 70% ethanol. Significant variation (P < 0.05) was observed in both DNA and RNA yield and stability from ethanol and RNAlater stored pleopods at 5 degrees C. However, the yield and stability did not differ (P > 0.05) in both the preservatives at -20 degrees C. The RNA was degraded and yielded lesser quantity when pleopod tissues were stored in ethanol at -20 degrees C than when stored in RNAlater during storage duration of 9 months. This study would help the shrimp farmers and researchers to adopt better preservation strategy, vital for shrimp disease surveillance programmes and for traceability studies in the event of any disease outbreak. PMID:26665297

  12. Molecular characterization and organ-specific expression of the gene that encodes betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Gaytán, María F; Hernández-Palomares, Magally L E; Soñanez-Organis, José G; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; Stephens-Camacho, Norma A; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M; Rosas-Rodríguez, Jesús A

    2015-11-01

    Crustaceans overcome osmotic disturbances by regulating their intracellular concentration of ions and osmolytes. Glycine betaine (GB), an osmolyte accumulated in response to hyperosmotic stress, is synthesized by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH EC 1.2.1.8) through the oxidation of betaine aldehyde. A partial BADH cDNA sequence from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained and its organ-specific expression during osmotic stress (low and high salinity) was evaluated. The partial BADH cDNA sequence (LvBADH) is 1103bp long and encodes an open reading frame for 217 protein residues. The amino acid sequence of LvBADH is related to that of other BADHs, TMABA-DH and ALDH9 from invertebrate and vertebrate homologues, and includes the essential domains of their function and regulation. LvBADH activity and mRNA expression were detected in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle with the highest levels in the hepatopancreas. LvBADH mRNA expression increased 2-3-fold in the hepatopancreas and gills after 7days of osmotic variation (25 and 40ppt). In contrast, LvBADH mRNA expression in muscle decreased 4-fold and 15-fold after 7days at low and high salinity, respectively. The results indicate that LvBADH is ubiquitously expressed, but its levels are organ-specific and regulated by osmotic stress, and that LvBADH is involved in the cellular response of crustaceans to variations in environmental salinity. PMID:26219579

  13. Protein hydrolysate of salted duck egg white as a substitute of phosphate and its effect on quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2009-10-01

    Protein hydrolysate from salted egg white (PHSEW) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) (3%, 6%, and 9%) was produced using pepsin. Disappearance of proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 108 and 85 kDa with the concomitant formation of proteins with MW of 23, 20, 13, and 5 kDa was observed in PHSEW. The use of PHSEW for quality improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Shrimp soaked in 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphates (0.625% sodium acid pyrophosphate [SAPP] and 1.875% tetrasodium pyrophosphate [TSPP]) had the highest cooking yield with the lowest cooking loss (P < 0.05), compared with shrimps with other treatments. Nevertheless, no difference in weight gain was obtained in comparison with those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate (P > 0.05). Cooked shrimp treated with 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphate or those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate had the higher score of appearance, texture, and overall likeness but less shear force, in comparison with the control (no treatment) (P < 0.05). Microstructure study revealed that muscle fibers of cooked shrimp from both treatments had the swollen fibrils and gaps, while the control had the swollen compact structure. Therefore, use of PHSEW could reduce phosphate residue in shrimps without an adverse effect on sensory properties. PMID:19799680

  14. Financial and nutrition outcomes for patients placed on enteral nutrition versus oral intake 

    E-print Network

    Barry, Kristina Marie

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition ...

  15. Nutrition and Cognition in Older Adults With Heart Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Mara W; Traylor, Abigail C; Bratzke, Lisa C

    2015-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is commonly observed in older adults with heart failure; nutrition is a possible contributing factor. The purpose of the current systematic review is to examine the relationship between nutrition and cognition in older adults with heart failure. A literature review was performed through August 2015 that examined published, peer-reviewed studies from PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science. Four articles were selected for inclusion. Findings revealed that poorer nutritional habits were associated with poorer attention, executive functioning, and memory in older adults with heart failure. Nutritional biomarkers, including anemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and hypoalbuminemia, were also associated with cognitive impairment. More research is needed to explore the relationship between nutrition and cognition in this population. Descriptive studies will inform scientists as they design and test nutritional interventions to optimize cognitive function in older adults with heart failure. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 41(11), 50-59.]. PMID:26505248

  16. Nutrition Support for Children Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgeries: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Judith J M; Cheifetz, Ira M; Ong, Chengsi; Nakao, Masakazu; Lee, Jan Hau

    2015-07-01

    Energy imbalance in infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD) is common and influenced by age, underlying cardiac diagnoses, and presence or absence of congestive heart failure. During the surgical hospitalization period, these children are prone to nutritional deterioration due to stress of surgery, anesthetic/perfusion techniques, and postoperative care. Poor nutrition is associated with increased perioperative morbidity and mortality. This review aims to examine various aspects of nutrition in critically ill children with CHD, including (1) energy expenditure, (2) perioperative factors that contribute to energy metabolism, (3) bedside practices that are potentially able to optimize nutrient delivery, and (4) medium- to long-term impact of energy balance on clinical outcomes. We propose a nutrition algorithm to optimize nutrition of these children in the perioperative period where improvements in nutrition status will likely impact surgical outcomes. PMID:26180163

  17. The role of nutrition in enhancing immunity in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aging is associated with declined immunity, particularly T cell-mediated activity, which contributes to increased morbidity and mortality from infectious disease and cancer in the elderly. Studies have shown that nutritional intervention may be a promising approach to reversing impaired immune func...

  18. Gluconeogenesis continues in premature infants receiving total parenteral nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the contribution of total gluconeogenesis, to glucose production in preterm infants receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) providing glucose exceeding normal infant glucose turnover rate, eight infants (0.955 +/- 0.066 kg, 26.5 - 0.5 wks, 4-1 d) were studied while receiving routine ...

  19. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and...

  20. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and...

  1. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and...

  2. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and...

  3. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture... Nutrition education. (a) Goals. Nutrition education shall emphasize the relationship of proper nutrition to.... (b) Requirement. The State agency shall integrate nutrition education into FMNP operations and...

  4. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...

  5. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...

  6. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...

  7. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...

  8. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1326.15 Section 1326.15 Public... INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Indians, a tribal organization may: (1) Provide nutrition services...

  9. Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies.

    PubMed

    van Ommen, Ben; Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O; Drevon, Christian A; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T

    2010-09-01

    The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in 'omics' technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the "Nutritional Phenotype database" (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different-omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed-omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and-omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure. PMID:21052526

  10. The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action

    PubMed Central

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Obeid, Omar

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. PMID:22016708

  11. Nutrition and health technology assessment: when two worlds meet

    PubMed Central

    Poley, Marten J.

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that nutrition may have a positive impact on public health and that it may reduce medical expenditures. Yet, such claims need to be substantiated by evidence. This evidence could be delivered by health technology assessment (HTA), which can be thought of as the evaluation of technologies for clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and ethical, legal, and social impacts. The application of HTA to the field of “nutrition interventions” is recent. So far, HTA and nutrition have represented two worlds far apart in many respects. This contribution, roughly, addresses the following issues: is there a need for HTAs in the field of nutrition, what would such HTAs look like, and how can the results coming from these HTAs optimally aid policy making? In essence, HTAs of nutrition have much of the same basic principles and structure as HTAs of “classical” health care treatments. Nevertheless, there are challenges to rigorous HTAs of nutrition interventions, for various reasons. To mention a few: the evidence base for nutrition interventions is less well developed than that for many health care treatments. Furthermore, it is a matter of debate which outcome measures should be used in HTAs of nutrition. For example, one may argue that nutrition not only has health effects, but also effects that are not captured by traditional health-related quality of life measures (e.g., the pleasure of eating, effects relating to ease of use, or effects on well-being). HTAs in the field of nutrition may deliver information valuable to a wide range of stakeholders, including consumers/patients, health professionals, hospital administrators, insurers, and decision makers. The results of HTAs are typically used in making treatment guidelines, in informing decisions about reimbursement or about public health campaigns, etc. Yet, it is uncertain how the results of HTAs of nutrition can be used optimally. For example, would it be possible to summarize the results of a HTA in a single ratio (such as costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained) and then to either approve or reject the intervention based on this ratio, compared to a certain threshold? Apart from that, in the field of nutrition, it is typically not about reimbursement of a technology. Related to this, it is important that the message from HTAs of nutrition is brought to a range of stakeholders including the general population and that these HTAs are tailored to the decision-making context. To conclude, a growing need is felt for HTA-type evaluations of nutrition, which are sparse these days. Little thought has been given to developing an optimal methodology for HTAs of nutrition and to how its results should be integrated into policy making. Further work in these areas would stimulate the development of nutrition interventions that yield a gain in societal welfare. To achieve this, the two worlds of HTA and nutrition need to be brought together. PMID:26539116

  12. Nutrition and health technology assessment: when two worlds meet.

    PubMed

    Poley, Marten J

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing recognition that nutrition may have a positive impact on public health and that it may reduce medical expenditures. Yet, such claims need to be substantiated by evidence. This evidence could be delivered by health technology assessment (HTA), which can be thought of as the evaluation of technologies for clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and ethical, legal, and social impacts. The application of HTA to the field of "nutrition interventions" is recent. So far, HTA and nutrition have represented two worlds far apart in many respects. This contribution, roughly, addresses the following issues: is there a need for HTAs in the field of nutrition, what would such HTAs look like, and how can the results coming from these HTAs optimally aid policy making? In essence, HTAs of nutrition have much of the same basic principles and structure as HTAs of "classical" health care treatments. Nevertheless, there are challenges to rigorous HTAs of nutrition interventions, for various reasons. To mention a few: the evidence base for nutrition interventions is less well developed than that for many health care treatments. Furthermore, it is a matter of debate which outcome measures should be used in HTAs of nutrition. For example, one may argue that nutrition not only has health effects, but also effects that are not captured by traditional health-related quality of life measures (e.g., the pleasure of eating, effects relating to ease of use, or effects on well-being). HTAs in the field of nutrition may deliver information valuable to a wide range of stakeholders, including consumers/patients, health professionals, hospital administrators, insurers, and decision makers. The results of HTAs are typically used in making treatment guidelines, in informing decisions about reimbursement or about public health campaigns, etc. Yet, it is uncertain how the results of HTAs of nutrition can be used optimally. For example, would it be possible to summarize the results of a HTA in a single ratio (such as costs per quality-adjusted life-year gained) and then to either approve or reject the intervention based on this ratio, compared to a certain threshold? Apart from that, in the field of nutrition, it is typically not about reimbursement of a technology. Related to this, it is important that the message from HTAs of nutrition is brought to a range of stakeholders including the general population and that these HTAs are tailored to the decision-making context. To conclude, a growing need is felt for HTA-type evaluations of nutrition, which are sparse these days. Little thought has been given to developing an optimal methodology for HTAs of nutrition and to how its results should be integrated into policy making. Further work in these areas would stimulate the development of nutrition interventions that yield a gain in societal welfare. To achieve this, the two worlds of HTA and nutrition need to be brought together. PMID:26539116

  13. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  14. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  15. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  16. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  17. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  18. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  19. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  20. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  1. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

  2. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

  3. 7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150.116 Agriculture...Research Order Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended to...

  4. University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure.............................................................................................................. 7 #12;University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure # Chemical Spills Page 3

  5. Public Health Nutrition MPH Degree Program

    E-print Network

    Minnesota, University of

    Public Health Nutrition MPH Degree Program Division of Epidemiology and Community Health 2015 .............................................................................................................................................. 3 1. Public Health Nutrition MPH Degree Program) ....................................................................... 9 1.3 Fall 2014 Nutritional Epidemiology Program Curriculum (NEP

  6. Nutrition and the Athlete. New Horizons in Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.

    This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This booklet examines some of the more common myths associated with sport nutrition and provides basic guidelines for sound dietary habits for both athletes and nonathletes. It contains a page of teaching…

  7. Nutritional Aspects of Depression.

    PubMed

    Lang, Undine E; Beglinger, Christoph; Schweinfurth, Nina; Walter, Marc; Borgwardt, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Several nutrition, food and dietary compounds have been suggested to be involved in the onset and maintenance of depressive disorders and in the severity of depressive symptoms. Nutritional compounds might modulate depression associated biomarkers and parallel the development of depression, obesity and diabetes. In this context, recent studies revealed new mediators of both energy homeostasis and mood changes (i.e. IGF-1, NPY, BDNF, ghrelin, leptin, CCK, GLP-1, AGE, glucose metabolism and microbiota) acting in gut brain circuits. In this context several healthy foods such as olive oil, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, poultry, dairy and unprocessed meat have been inversely associated with depression risk and even have been postulated to improve depressive symptoms. In contrast, unhealthy western dietary patterns including the consumption of sweetened beverage, refined food, fried food, processed meat, refined grain, and high fat diary, biscuits, snacking and pastries have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, it is always difficult to conclude a real prospective causal relationship from these mostly retrospective studies as depressed individuals might also change their eating habits secondarily to their depression. Additionally specific selected nutritional compounds, e.g. calcium, chromium, folate, PUFAs, vitamin D, B12, zinc, magnesium and D-serine have been postulated to be used as ad-on strategies in antidepressant treatment. In this context, dietary and lifestyle interventions may be a desirable, effective, pragmatical and non-stigmatizing prevention and treatment strategy for depression. At last, several medications (pioglitazone, metformin, exenatide, atorvastatin, gram-negative antibiotics), which have traditionally been used to treat metabolic disorders showed a certain potential to treat depression in first randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:26402520

  8. The changing nutrition scenario

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, C.

    2013-01-01

    The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

  9. Clinical nutrition and drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ekincio?lu, Aygin Bayraktar; Demirkan, Kutay

    2013-01-01

    A drug’s plasma level, pharmacological effects or side effects, elimination, physicochemical properties or stability could be changed by interactions of drug-drug or drug-nutrition products in patients who receive enteral or parenteral nutritional support. As a result, patients might experience ineffective outcomes or unexpected effects of therapy (such as drug toxicity, embolism). Stability or incompatibility problems between parenteral nutrition admixtures and drugs might lead to alterations in expected therapeutic responses from drug and/or parenteral nutrition, occlusion in venous catheter or symptoms or mortality due to infusion of composed particles. Compatibilities between parenteral nutrition and drugs are not always guaranteed in clinical practice. Although the list of compatibility or incompatibilities of drugs are published for the use of clinicians in their practices, factors such as composition of parenteral nutrition admixture, drug concentration, contact time in catheter, temperature of the environment and exposure to light could change the status of compatibilities between drugs and nutrition admixtures. There could be substantial clinical changes occurring in the patient’s nutritional status and pharmacological effects of drugs due to interactions between enteral nutrition and drugs. Drug toxicity and ineffective nutritional support might occur as a result of those predictable interactions. Although administration of drugs via feeding tube is a complex and problematic route for drug usage, it is possible to minimise the risk of tube occlusion, decreased effects of drug and drug toxicity by using an appropriate technique. Therefore, it is important to consider pharmacological dosage forms of drugs while administering drugs via a feeding tube. In conclusion, since the pharmacists are well-experienced and more knowledgeable professionals in drugs and drug usage compared to other healthcare providers, it is suggested that provision of information and drug counselling by pharmacists in terms of detection and prevention of problems (such as interactions, stability, incompatibility) related with enteral/parenteral nutrition and drugs are invaluable in clinical practice. PMID:25931873

  10. Nutritional effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Falck-Ytter, Y; McCullough, A J

    2000-08-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently used drug worldwide and remains a socially acceptable hepatotoxin. Although the toxic effects of alcohol on various organs (liver, pancreas, heart, and intestine) are well recognized, the role of alcohol in overall energy and protein metabolism is less well understood. In particular, the efficiency of alcohol as a source of calories and as a substrate for energy production appears to be influenced by the amount of both alcohol and fat consumption as well as by gender. The relationship between alcohol intake and body weight is complex, but it is a clinical dilemma with important nutritional implications for weight management in addition to specific organ toxicity. PMID:10981033

  11. Nutrition of aging cats.

    PubMed

    Laflamme, Dottie; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle

    2014-07-01

    At least one-third of cats seen by veterinarians are mature, defined as 7 years of age or older, and approximately 13% of cats are geriatric, defined as 12 years of age or older. The article reviews physiologic differences between these life stages and relates the changes to nutritional needs. Geriatric cats have increased requirements for dietary energy and protein. Feeding management addresses what, when, how, and where food is provided. This article provides an update on diet-sensitive conditions, including cognitive dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, and hyperthyroidism. Although guidelines are provided, patients must be evaluated and fed according to their individual needs. PMID:24951345

  12. Standardised Parenteral Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Simmer, Karen; Rakshasbhuvankar, Abhijeet; Deshpande, Girish

    2013-01-01

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) has become an integral part of clinical management of very low birth weight premature neonates. Traditionally different components of PN are prescribed individually considering requirements of an individual neonate (IPN). More recently, standardised PN formulations (SPN) for preterm neonates have been assessed and may have advantages including better provision of nutrients, less prescription and administration errors, decreased risk of infection, and cost savings. The recent introduction of triple-chamber bag that provides total nutrient admixture for neonates may have additional advantage of decreased risk of contamination and ease of administration. PMID:23538938

  13. Nutrition, diet and immunosenescence.

    PubMed

    Maijó, Mònica; Clements, Sarah J; Ivory, Kamal; Nicoletti, Claudio; Carding, Simon R

    2014-01-01

    Ageing is characterized by immunosenescence and the progressive decline in immunity in association with an increased frequency of infections and chronic disease. This complex process affects both the innate and adaptive immune systems with a progressive decline in most immune cell populations and defects in activation resulting in loss of function. Although host genetics and environmental factors, such as stress, exercise and diet can impact on the onset or course of immunosenescence, the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. This review focusses on identifying the most significant aspects of immunosenescence and on the evidence that nutritional intervention might delay this process, and consequently improve the quality of life of the elderly. PMID:24373813

  14. The challenges for molecular nutrition research 2: quantification of the nutritional phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Elliott, Ruan; Drevon, Christian A.; McArdle, Harry; Gibney, Mike; Müller, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In quantifying the beneficial effect of dietary interventions in healthy subjects, nutrition research meets a number of new challenges. Inter individual variation in biomarker values often is larger than the effect related to the intervention. Healthy subjects have a remarkable capacity to maintain homeostasis, both through direct metabolic regulation, metabolic compensation of altered diets, and effective defence and repair mechanisms in oxidative and inflammatory stress. Processes involved in these regulatory activities essentially different from processes involved in early onset of diet related diseases. So, new concepts and approaches are needed to better quantify the subtle effects possibly achieved by dietary interventions in healthy subjects. Apart from quantification of the genotype and food intake (these are discussed in separate reviews in this series), four major areas of innovation are discussed: the biomarker profile concept, perturbation of homeostasis combined with omics analysis, imaging, modelling and fluxes. All of these areas contribute to a better understanding and quantification of the nutritional phenotype. PMID:18850187

  15. Nutrition Education: Selected Resources. Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhea, Harold C.

    Intended chiefly for nutrition instructors in elementary, secondary, and college classes, this bibliography can supplement the reading lists of other nutrition fields, such as food science and diet therapy. Separate sections of the document are devoted to books, documents and journal articles culled from the ERIC data base, films, multimedia…

  16. Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

  17. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

  18. SPEAC for Nutrition. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinze, Laurel Lee

    This final report discusses the administration, staffing, planning, implementation and evaluation of the SPEAC (Student Parent Educator Administrator Children) for Nutrition Program. The principle objective of the program is to provide nutrition education and increased understanding of the role of the Child Care Food Program through increased…

  19. CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

  20. Nutrition and Food: Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. Div. of Vocational Education.

    The curriculum guide is designed to serve as a resource for local teachers and community members to design their own special curriculum around the unique nutritional needs of individuals and families making up the population. The guide is organized around six major topics: the individual's involvement in nutrition and food, factors involved in…

  1. The New Nutrition: Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Instructional Materials Center.

    This student guide on nutrition contains activities categorized according to the seven dietary guidelines for Americans developed by the United States Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture. The seven goals for which activities are provided are (1) to eat a variety of foods (daily nutrition guide, nutrients,…

  2. PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

  3. Community-based nutrition monitoring.

    PubMed

    Campbell, C C

    1989-01-01

    A community-based nutrition monitoring system is an information system to generate, on a regular basis, an integrated picture of the nutritious condition of a community for local decision-makers. Community-based nutrition monitoring is an extension of international nutrition surveillance and national nutrition monitoring work to the community level where much of the substantive nutrition activity happens. It represents a constructive integration of familiar concepts related to needs assessment, evaluation and program management information systems. The objectives of community-based nutrition monitoring are to provide, in a timely manner, information pertinent to program targeting, funding, priority-setting decisions; to inform and educate decision-makers and enhance the visibility of nutrition-related activities in the community and to provide a vehicle for community-wide nutrition planning. Information about food access, the needs of specific life-cycle or risk groups and chronic disease prevention can all be part of a monitoring system. The specific foci of a system depend on the policy and programming decisions actually or potentially made in the specific community. The monitoring system utilizes multiple simple indicators collected routinely and reported on a regular basis. The development of such a system is a multi-year, inter-agency effort. It presents significant challenges and opportunities to local nutritionists. PMID:10293668

  4. Nutrition Education Curriculum. Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…

  5. Nutritional regulation of epigenetic changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The "Nutritional Regulation of Epigenetic Changes" Symposium was held in San Diego on April 25 in conjunction with the 2012 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Nutrition. The symposium was co-chaired by Drs. Romagnoo and Ziegler. In his opening remarks, Dr. Zeigler highlighted salient aspec...

  6. Nutrition for cyclists.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, A C; Ruud, J S

    1994-01-01

    Good nutrition is important at every stage of training and competition. Both the serious competitive cyclist as well as the recreational cyclist should eat a balanced diet that provides calories adequate to meet energy demands. Athletes consuming less than 2000 calories a day may have difficulty meeting nutrient needs, particularly for iron and calcium. Weight loss, glycogen depletion, and dehydration also are possible results of an inadequate diet. Dietary strategies to enhance or maintain the body's carbohydrate stores are necessary for performance, especially for cyclists with high training miles or participating in road racing and other endurance events. Additionally, cyclists should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, especially when in a hot environment. It appears that protein requirements of endurance athletes increase as the duration and intensity of exercise increases. However, factors such as total calorie intake and protein quality should be considered when determining protein needs. Many athletes are concerned about vitamin and mineral intake and often use nutritional supplements both for "insurance" as well as performance reasons. The supplements taken most often include vitamin C, the B-complex, and iron. Vitamins and minerals in excess of the RDA do not improve performance and can be toxic when consumed in large amounts. On the other hand, vegetarians and cyclists with low-calorie intakes may benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement. PMID:8111855

  7. Nutrition and Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Torres, Nimbe; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Velázquez-Villegas, Laura A; Tovar, Armando R

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a universal problem in modern society. Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of CVD resulting in high rate of mortality in the population. Nutrition science has focused on the role of essential nutrients in preventing deficiencies, at the present time, the nutritional strategies are crucial to promote health and intervene with these global noncommunicable diseases. In many cases, diet is a major driving force, which is much easier to change and follow than other factors. It is important to establish that the first strategy to treat atherosclerosis is to modify lifestyle habits, focusing on the beneficial properties of specific nutrients. In the last decades, epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that diet plays a central role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. In this review we will focus on the effect of specific foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds, including epidemiological facts, potential mechanisms of action and dietary recommendations to reduce the risk of atherosclerosis. In particular, we include information about fiber, plant sterols and stanols, niacin, taurine, olive oil, omega 3 fatty acids, antioxidants, minerals, methyl nutrients and soy. In addition, we also show that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota associated with a consumption of certain animal food sources can generate some metabolites that are involved in the development of atherosclerosis and its consequences on CVD. According to the epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies we suggest a recommendation for some dietary foods, nutrients and bioactive compounds to support the complementary clinical management of patients with atherosclerosis. PMID:26031780

  8. Nutrition in team sports.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

    2010-01-01

    Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. PMID:21346334

  9. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Waitzberg, D L; Plopper, C; Terra, R M

    1999-06-01

    Surgical trauma induces complex physiologic changes that lead to catabolism and loss of body cell mass. This reaction is usually mild but can be exacerbated by previous malnutrition and postoperative complications. To avoid severe metabolic distress, nutritional therapy may be prescribed, using the enteral route whenever possible. Postoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is indicated for patients already receiving TPN preoperatively, those severely malnourished prior to major surgery, those unable to eat satisfactorily for 7 days, or patients presenting with severe complications. Postoperative TPN should last for at least 7 days. The total energy requirements are between 30 and 35 kcal/kg/day. About 50% to 70% should be provided in the form of carbohydrates, and 20% to 30% in the form of lipids. The optimal input rates for glucose and lipids are 4 to 5 g/kg/day and 80 mg/kg/hr, respectively. The ideal nitrogen administration is 250 to 300 mg/kg/day, and the optimal calorie/nitrogen ratio is 150 to 200. Some specific amino acids can be added as intravenous dipeptides. An adequate follow-up must include clinical and biochemical parameters. Several trials evaluated the impact of TPN in postoperative patients, but further well designed, controlled clinical trials are still necessary to address a great number of unanswered questions. PMID:10227924

  10. Nutrition for swimmers.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, A C

    1986-01-01

    Good nutrition is one of the elements of training and conditioning necessary for optimal performance. The athlete should consume a diet composed of a wide variety of foods to help ensure that nutrient needs are met, whereas maintenance of ideal competitive weight is the indicator of adequate calorie intake. The best diet is one that considers physiological, sociological, and psychological factors--an individualized diet. The precompetition meal should consist of foods the athlete likes, tolerates well, and usually eats. The main nutrition consideration during the all-day meet is fluid replacement, and swimmers should be encouraged to drink ample water, especially when in a hot environment. Foods and beverages the athlete likes, taken in small amounts throughout the day, can ward off hunger, provide needed calories, help maintain blood glucose levels, and meet fluid needs. Although vitamins and minerals taken at levels in excess of the RDA have been shown not to benefit performance, use of high levels of supplements is not uncommon among athletes. Athletes are often unaware that some nutrients can be toxic when taken in excess. PMID:3512105

  11. The nutrition advisor expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

    1991-01-01

    The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

  12. Complete sequence of Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda) vitellogenin cDNA and its expression in endocrinologically induced sub-adult females.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Shaul; Parnes, Shmuel; Segall, Carmen; Davis, Claytus; Sagi, Amir

    2006-01-01

    The gene that encodes vitellogenin (Vg), the precursor of the major yolk protein, vitellin, is expressed during vitellogenesis in decapod crustaceans. In this study, we sequenced the full-length cDNA from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Vg gene (LvVg). This is the first open thelycum penaeid shrimp Vg cDNA to be sequenced. The transcript encodes a 2587 amino acid polypeptide with up to 85% identity to Vg of different penaeid species. Peptide mass fingerprints (PMFs) of the vitelline polypeptides suggest that the predicted endoprotease cleavage site at amino acids 725-728 does indeed undergo cleavage. Five prominent high-density lipoprotein polypeptides of masses 179, 113, 78, 61, and 42kDa were isolated from vitellogenic ovary, and their PMFs were determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) spectrometry. It is likely that these polypeptides are all products of the LvVg gene. Removal of the X-organ sinus gland complex (XO-SG), which secretes the neurohormones that control the endocrine system regulating molt and reproduction, can induce both these processes. During the course of a number of molt cycles in induced sub-adult females, periodic ovarian growth and resorption were observed. Ovary growth correlated with LvVg expression in both the hepatopancreas and the ovary. Expression in ovaries of induced intermolt-early premolt females was significantly higher compared to all other sub-groups. Expression in ovaries of induced females was significantly higher compared to hepatopancreas at all molt cycle stages. Periodicity of molt and vitellogenesis in endocrinologically induced sub-adult shrimps may serve as a model to study alternate regulation of gene expression during these two processes. PMID:16122741

  13. Optimization of thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) previously treated with freezing-point regulators using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Liu, Zunying; Zhao, Yuanhui; Dong, Shiyuan; Zeng, Mingyong; Yang, Huicheng

    2015-08-01

    Three freezing-point regulators (glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol) were employed to optimize thermophysical properties of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using response surface methodology (RSM). The independent variables were glycine content (0.250-1.250 %), sodium chloride content (0.500-2.500 %) and D-sorbitol content (0.125-0.625 %) and analysis of variance showed that the effects of glycine, sodium chloride and D-sorbitol on the thermophysical properties were statistically significant (P?

  14. Lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) bind to seaweed polysaccharides and activate the prophenoloxidase system in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Yong-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Gong, Hong-Yi; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide and ?-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ?-1,3-glucan (?G), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and subsequently trigger innate immunity. Several seaweed polysaccharides and seaweed extracts increase immune parameters and resistance to pathogens. Here, we constructed the expression vector pET28b-LvLGBP and transferred it into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression and to produce the recombinant protein LGBP (rLvLGBP) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. We examined the binding of rLvLGBP with seaweed-derived polysaccharides including alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE), and Sargassum duplicatum extract (SDE), and examined the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and each polysaccharide. We also examined the binding of rLvLGBP with LPS and ?G, and the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS (rLvLGBP-LPS) or a mixture of rLvLGBP and ?G (rLvLGBP-?G). An ELISA binding assay indicated that rLvLGBP binds to LPS, ?G, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE with dissociation constants of 0.1138-0.1770 ?M. Furthermore, our results also indicated that the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS, ?G, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE significantly increased by 328%, 172%, 200%, 213%, 197%, 194%, 191%, and 197%, respectively compared to controls (cacodylate buffer). We conclude that LvLGBP functions as a PRP, recognizes and binds to LPS, ?G, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE, and subsequently leads to activating innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:26522339

  15. High CO2 alters the hypoxia response of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) transcriptome including known and novel hemocyanin isoforms.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jillian G; Paul, Matthew R; Kniffin, Casey D; Anderson, Paul E; Burnett, Louis E; Burnett, Karen G

    2015-11-01

    Acclimation to low O2 in many organisms involves changes at the level of the transcriptome. Here we used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to explore the global transcriptomic response and specific involvement of a suite of hemocyanin (Hc) subunits to low O2 alone and in combination with high CO2, which naturally co-occurs with low O2. Hepatopancreas mRNA of juvenile L. vannamei exposed to air-saturated water, low O2, or low O2/high CO2 for 4 or 24 h was pooled, sequenced (HiSeq 2500) and assembled (Trinity: 52,190 contigs) to create a deep strand-specific reference transcriptome. Annotation of the assembly revealed sequences encoding the previously described small Hc subunit (HcS), and three full-length isoforms of the large subunit (HcL1-3). In addition to this, a previously unidentified full-length Hc subunit was discovered. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the subunit to be a ?-type Hc subunit (denoted HcB), making this the first report of a ?-type hemocyanin subunit in the Penaeoidea. RNAs of individual shrimp were sequenced; regulated genes identified from pairwise comparisons demonstrated a distinct pattern of regulation between prolonged low O2 and low O2/high CO2 treatments by GO term enrichment analysis (Roff-Bentzen, P < 0.0001), showcasing the stabilization of energetically costly translational machinery, mobilization of energy stores, and downregulation of the ubiquitin/proteasomal degradation machinery. Exposure to hypoxia for 24 h resulted in an increase in all of the full-length hemocyanin subunits (HcS, HcL1, HcL2, HcL3, and HcB). The addition of CO2 to hypoxia muted the transcriptomic response of all the Hc subunits to low O2, except for the ?-type subunit. PMID:26330487

  16. Use of Probiotic Bacillus spp. in Rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis) and Artemia (Artemia urmiana) Enrichment: Effects on Growth and Survival of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Larvae.

    PubMed

    Jamali, Hadi; Imani, Ahmad; Abdollahi, Daruosh; Roozbehfar, Reza; Isari, Amin

    2015-06-01

    This study was to evaluate the effect of a preparation of Bacillus probiotic (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis, 1:1) on growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. The larvae were fed on Artemia urmiana nauplii and Brachionus plicatilis enriched with the probiotic preparation at 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1) rate. The experimental setup was completely randomized design comprised of six treatments, namely solo Artemia nauplii (A) or rotifer (R), Artemia nauplii and rotifer without any enrichment (A + R), Artemia nauplii enrichment with probiotic bacilli (Bacillus licheniformis and B. subtilis) (A + B), rotifer enrichment with probiotic bacilli (R + B) and enriched Artemia nauplii and rotifer (A + R + B). All treatments were performed in triplicate. Chemical parameters of rearing water viz. pH, salinity and temperature were 7.5-8, 30-31 ppt and 31-32 °C, respectively. Photoperiod was 16L:8D. Shrimp larvae were fed Artemia nauplii and rotifers at 5-20 and 10-40 individuals per shrimp larvae four times a day, respectively. Growth and survival rate of larvae were determined at MII, MIII, PL1, PL4, PL7 and PL10 stages. Larvae in A + R + B treatment showed the highest total length (10.89 ± 0.51 mm), weight (674 ± 73 ?g) and survival rate (65 % ± 3.5). Lowest total length, weight and survival rate (7.96 ± 0.63 mm, 493 ± 52 ?g and 24.5 ± 2.4 %, respectively) were recorded in treatment B larvae. We concluded that Bacillus probiotic can improve growth and survival rate of Pacific white shrimp larvae without conceivably undesirable effects. PMID:25721675

  17. Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

  18. Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  20. Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8). Testosterone. Documented that blood concentrations of testosterone were unchanged during flight, but a transient decline occurred after landing (9). Calcium. Nutrition SMO data contributed to the ISS Program by helping understand how and why the Urine Processor Assembly clogged with calcium sulfate precipitate (10). Sample Processing. Ground-based analytical testing results have also been published (11).

  1. Women's nutrition -- convergence of programmes -- a critical issue.

    PubMed

    Vir, S

    1990-01-01

    Many factors are responsible for malnutrition among women. Malnutrition is mainly caused by inadequate energy intake and nutritional anemia. Social factors affecting the energy balance include inappropriate intra family distribution, inadequate food intake during pregnancy, conception when younger than 18 years old, and continued high physical activity during pregnancy. Discrimination against girls in the form of insufficient food intake affects girls throughout their lives and contributes to poor adolescent growth and poor maternal stature (height and weight). Poor maternal stature has been linked with adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes: low birth weight infants and infant mortality. About 66% of infants were found to be of low birth weight among mothers weighing less than 40 kg and with a pregnancy weight gain of less than 5 kg. The recommended weight gain during pregnancy is 10-12 kg. Maternal weight has been found to be closely linked with negative effects on fetal growth and birth weight. Nutrition programs must contend with a variety of social, economic, health, and legislative approaches for improving women's status. Food supplementation during pregnancy and adolescence are as important as raising the marriage and conception age. Energy deficits of iron, vitamin A, and iodine need to be fulfilled. Energy saving devices would help to reduce the physical demands on women during pregnancy. Nutrition education for promoting adequate nutritional and energy intake and prevention of nutrient deficiencies needs to be implemented. Health workers have been known for inadequate attention to nutrition. The opportunity for nutritional supplementation and education is available during women's contacts with immunization interventions. A complex prescription applied continuously and in harmony with other health efforts will assure maternal nutritional support. PMID:12288697

  2. [Nutritional value of beef].

    PubMed

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2011-11-01

    Beef has specific nutritional qualities relative to other meats. In humans, a balanced diet, based on a ten-day period, requires intake of several nutrient classes, including iron (in the form of heme, for its high bioavailability), zinc and selenium, vitamin B12, B vitamins (especially B2 (PP) and B6), and biologically useful proteins. The lipid profile of beef depends largely on the cut. It is also influenced by the fatty acid profile of the animalfeed, andby the race andage of the animal. Adequate meat intake is recommended for all individuals, and especially those most at risk of malnutrition, such as adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, the elderly, and those individuals with a high level sports activity. PMID:22844741

  3. Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

    Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

  4. [Enteral nutrition in cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    The significance of nutritional management in patients with malignant tumors is under-recognized due to the lack of clear evidence of a direct link with survival rate. However, for cancer patients, with markedly reduced food intake continuing for?7 days or intake of under 60% of estimated energy expenditure for?10 days, as referred to in the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, rapid implementation of nutritional support constitutes a clinically appropriate intervention. With regard to route of administration, as with other conditions, enteral nutritional management is recommended if the gastrointestinal tract is available. The utility of enteral immunonutrition formulae containing eicosapentaenoic acid and other forms of nutritional management has also recently been reported and further studies are anticipated. However, the principles of nutritional management for cancer patients comprise not simply weight increase or improvement in nutritional markers but the maintenance of patient QOL in ways that include alleviation of symptoms and antitumor therapy side-effects, and decreased risk of infection. Administration routes such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy should therefore also be discussed from this perspective. PMID:25335700

  5. The psychology of nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Heather; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore consumer thinking about nutrition decisions and how firms can use consumers' awareness of the links between nutrients and health generated by public health messages to market products, including ones, which have little nutritional value. We approach this issue by tracking the development of public health messages based on scientific research, dissemination of those messages in the popular press, and use of nutrition claims in food advertisements to assess whether firms are timing the use of nutrition claims to take advantage of heuristic-based decision-making. Our findings suggest that the timing of the development of nutrition information, its dissemination in the press, and use in advertising accords well with a heuristic processing model in which firms take advantage of associations between nutrient information and health in their advertisements. However, the demonstrated relationships may not be causal. Further research will be needed to provide stronger and more comprehensive evidence regarding the proposed message hijacking process. If the message hijacking framework is borne out: (1) simple overall health rating scales could significantly improve consumer decision-making, (2) the impact of misleading advertisements could be mitigated by encouraging a multidimensional view of nutrition, and (3) more intensive regulation of product labeling could limit the impact of hijacked messages. Overall, this paper considers a novel hypothesis about the impact of public health messages on nutrition and health. PMID:19548517

  6. Factors Influencing Adoption and Implementation of Cooking with Kids, an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Education Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition

  7. The Relationship between Nutrition Knowledge and School Cafeteria Purchases of Seventh Grade Students in a Rural Indiana School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pucciarelli, Deanna; McNeany, Terry; Friesen, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: School cafeterias have the potential to positively contribute to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The purpose of this project was to assess adolescents' nutrition knowledge and dietary choices, and to measure the relationship between students' nutrition knowledge and the type of food items purchased…

  8. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are the State agency's responsibilities in ensuring that nutrition education is provided? The State...

  9. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are the State agency's responsibilities in ensuring that nutrition education is provided? The State...

  10. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are the State agency's responsibilities in ensuring that nutrition education is provided? The State...

  11. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are the State agency's responsibilities in ensuring that nutrition education is provided? The State...

  12. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture... Participant Benefits § 246.11 Nutrition education. (a) General. (1) Nutrition education shall be considered a benefit of the Program, and shall be made available at no cost to the participant. Nutrition...

  13. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture... CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What are the State agency's responsibilities in ensuring that nutrition education is provided? The State...

  14. Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

  15. Sport and Nutrition Education Interaction on Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Mehmet Ertugrul

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine sport and nutrition education interaction on stress. Three groups were selected for the study: control, single treatment and social treatment under nutrition treatment, too. The groups that were under nutrition treatments should have information about the nutrition resources. This experiment was done for two…

  16. NUTRITION MARKETING AND THE WORLDWIDE OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrition used to market food products on a wide scale is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early 1990s very few products used nutrition marketing (health claims or nutrition information on labels beyond minimum requirements) to market their products. Over a 15-year period, the use of nutrition ma...

  17. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  18. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...

  19. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  20. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  1. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  2. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  3. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  4. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  5. June 17, 2015 DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN NUTRITION

    E-print Network

    June 17, 2015 DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN NUTRITION Limited Term Position The Department of Human Nutrition.Sc. in Human Nutrition with Major, Advanced Major and Honours degrees, and an Integrated Dietetic Internship have a PhD or MSc in nutrition or a related field, eligibility for registration as a dietitian in Nova

  6. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  7. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...

  8. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...

  9. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  10. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  11. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  12. 7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (FMNP) Recipient Benefits §...

  13. A Public Health Nutrition Collateral within the

    E-print Network

    Neimark, Alexander V.

    A Public Health Nutrition Collateral within the Department of Quantitative Methods (Epidemiology), Newark Campus #12;Nutrition is an integral component of health and wellbeing of the population/ Nutritionists (RD/RDNs) are the only credentialed nutrition/ dietetics practitioners, nutrition spans across

  14. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  15. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...

  16. 45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328.15 Public... SUPPORTIVE AND NUTRITIONAL SERVICES TO OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives, a grantee may: (1) Provide...

  17. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  18. 7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM (SFMNP) Participant Benefits §...

  19. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  20. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL NUTRITION PROGRAM FOR WOMEN, INFANTS AND...

  1. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  2. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  3. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 247.18 Section 247.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.18 Nutrition education. (a) What...

  4. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  5. Nutrition systems for pressure suits.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

  6. The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

    2012-01-01

    In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

  7. Role of School Meal Service in Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiromi

    2015-01-01

    School meal service programs are essential for children's long-term nutrition and health promotion. The programs vary in content, depending on the economic condition, health condition and the food supply situation in each country. Children are encouraged to improve their nutrition, and choose healthy foods and learn good dietary habits through school meals and nutrition education. In Japan, the school lunch program started in 1889. The percentage of elementary schools serving school lunches had reached 99.2% in 2014, and the Nutrition Teacher system started in 2004. Nutrition teachers are to play the roles of teachers on food and nutrition education in addition to managers of foodservice operations in schools. Nutrition teachers are expected to have effects on school nutrition programs by providing meal service together with nutrition education. And so, significant effort is needed from both academia and the field to raise the related nutritional issues. PMID:26598858

  8. Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Best Self Smart Snacking Losing Weight Safely Cystic Fibrosis: Diet and Nutrition KidsHealth > Teens > Diseases & Conditions > Digestive ... Enzyme Supplements Beating the Frustration What Is Cystic Fibrosis? At lunch, Lindsay often gets bored with having ...

  9. Neonatal weight gain and nutrition

    MedlinePLUS

    ... getting the right balance of fluids and nutrition. Incubators or special warmers help babies maintain their body ... and in an open crib rather than an incubator. Some hospitals have a rule how much the ...

  10. Use the Nutrition Facts Label

    MedlinePLUS

    ... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... enough of these: potassium, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron Use the Percent Daily Value (% ...

  11. Nutrition Assessment of College Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Suzanne Nelson; McKinney, Shortie

    1986-01-01

    Diet recall, a food record, a written test, interviews, questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were used to examine the nutrition and weight control practices and knowledge of 42 wrestlers from two college teams. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

  12. Evolution of infant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Cuthbertson, W F

    1999-05-01

    Homo sapiens has developed during the course of over two million years. The social and physical conditions of life, the availability of milk and infant foods as well as the presence of diseases have all undergone radical transformations from the Stone Age, at first without and then with fire, to the hunter-gatherer, farmer-herder, agricultural and, now, developed societies. These changes in the human environment may have induced modifications in the length of pregnancy, the development of the neonate at birth, the duration of lactation, the composition of breast milk and use of weaning foods and milk substitutes. Darwinian selection for the nutrient, anti-infective and other components of breast milk may have been determined by the effects of nutrition, through genetic variations in milk composition, on the survival of infants and perhaps also on fecundity and disease resistance in later adult life. Today Darwinian selection may no longer be effective in maintaining or modifying human mammary function, because modern hygienic environments, together with the availability of nutritionally adequate breast-milk substitutes, permit infant survival even under conditions of total lactational failure. National and international promulgations strictly control the composition of infant formulas offered as breast-milk substitutes or as weaning foods. These recommendations are modified as beliefs suggest, and research indicates, the effects of nutrients and other factors on the health and well-being of the child. Preliminary observations on child health have often proved valuable in furthering research. Unquestioning acceptance of apparently desirable, but untested, epidemiological associations have led to unexpected but dangerous iatrogenic problems. Recommendations for change cannot safely be made without proper comparisons with present products and procedures under practical conditions. Such tests are time consuming and require protocols of appropriate statistical design and power while still meeting the required sociological and ethical constraints, but are essential to identify possible harmful effects of any proposed change. It is suggested that no novel ingredients should be added, or major changes permitted in any component, until appropriate trials have established the value and safety of the proposed modifications. Breast-feeding is vital to maximize infant survival in developing countries. There are major difficulties in assessing any differences in morbidity and mortality of breast-fed v. artificially reared infants in the developed world. Carefully controlled studies with comparisons of health and well-being, not only in infancy but throughout life, are desirable if the effects of infant nutrition on adult well-being, suggested by epidemiological studies, are to be validated and ultimately applied. There are considerable variations in the composition of breast milk. This variance suggests that it may ultimately be possible to design formulas better able to meet the needs of individual infants than the milk available from the mother's breast. PMID:10615208

  13. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Max

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

  14. Evidence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Nnyepi, Maria S; Gwisai, Namo; Lekgoa, Malebogo; Seru, Tumelo

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition transition is characterised by shift to highly refined diets high in fat, salt and caloric sweeteners and low in fibre in rapidly growing economies. Dietary shifts occur almost concurrently with demographic and epidemiologic shifts, urbanisation and industrialisation and together contribute to increased prevalence of nutrition related (NR)-non-communicable disease (NCR). The emergence of nutrition transition in Southern Africa countries (SAC) was examined using anthropometric, NCD prevalence, and food consumption data. The findings reveal growing prevalence of overweight and obesity (OWOB) across SAC, with national prevalence estimated between 30 and 60 % in all but two SAC. Overweight prevalence in excess of 60 % has been reported in some sub-population groups. Hypertension prevalence of at least 30 % has also been reported. Further, the prevalence of OWOB and hypertension in many SAC exceeds that of HIV and is often at par with stunting in children. NCD are equally serious public health problems as stunting and HIV. Collectively, NR-NCD explain 20-31 % of mortality for Botswana, South Africa, Swaziland, Mozambique and Zambia. At least 72 % of adults in SAC have fewer servings of fruit and vegetable servings daily than recommended. Additionally, adults in SAC do poorly in physical activity; 31-75 % do not exercise regularly. Not surprisingly, 15-40 % of adults in SAC have at least three risk factors of CVD. SAC are grappling with NR-NCD which threaten to surpass infectious diseases burden. SAC are at various levels in interventions for moving their populations to stage 5, but there is room for much improvement. PMID:25686639

  15. Elite athlete immunology: importance of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, M; Bishop, N C

    2000-05-01

    Immunosuppression in athletes involved in heavy training is undoubtedly multifactorial in origin. Training and competitive surroundings may increase the athlete's exposure to pathogens and provide optimal conditions for pathogen transmission. Heavy prolonged exertion is associated with numerous hormonal and biochemical changes, many of which potentially have detrimental effects on immune function. Furthermore, improper nutrition can compound the negative influence of heavy exertion on immunocompetence. An athlete exercising in a carbohydrate-depleted state experiences larger increases in circulating stress hormones and a greater perturbation of several immune function indices. The poor nutritional status of some athletes may predispose them to immunosuppression. For example, dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients have long been associated with immune dysfunction. An adequate intake of iron, zinc and B vitamins is particularly important but the dangers of over-supplementation should also be emphasized; many micronutrients given in quantities beyond a certain threshold will in fact reduce immune responses and may have other toxic effects that are detrimental to health. Although it is impossible to counter the effects of all of the factors that contribute to exercise-induced immunosuppression, it has been shown to be possible to minimize the effects of many factors. Athletes can help themselves by eating a well-balanced diet that includes adequate protein and carbohydrate, sufficient to meet their energy requirements. This will ensure a more than adequate intake of trace elements without the need for special supplements. Consuming carbohydrate (but not glutamine) during exercise attenuates rises in stress hormones such as cortisol and appears to limit the degree of exercise-induced immunosuppression. By adopting sound nutritional practice, reducing other life stresses, maintaining good hygiene, obtaining adequate rest and spacing prolonged training sessions and competition as far apart as possible, athletes can reduce their risk of infection. PMID:10893024

  16. Basics in Clinical Medical Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Meier, Rémy F; Forbes, Alastair

    2015-11-01

    Nutrition is a basic requirement for life and plays an important role in health and in disease prevention, but malnutrition is a common event and a cause of increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with disease-related malnutrition showing inflammation and a catabolic state. Malnutrition is often overlooked, and deterioration in the nutritional status following admission to hospital is common. It should be actively pursued by a ubiquitous system of nutrition screening, and full nutritional assessment is required for those found to be at risk. There are simple screening tools which can be used by all health care professionals. Assessment considers body composition, inflammatory status and other aspects of underlying diseases and their functional consequences; it is a more specialist process. It is important to determine the energy and protein needs of each individual patient. Appropriate nutritional intervention can often be offered by the oral route, using food with or without special supplements. When this is insufficient, enteral tube feeding will normally be sufficient, but there is an important subgroup of patients in whom enteral feeding is contraindicated or unsuccessful, and in these patients parenteral nutrition (either total or supplemental) is required. A number of immunonutrients and other special substrates have been shown to be helpful in specific circumstances, but their use is not without potential hazards, and therefore adherence to international guidelines is recommended. PMID:26544878

  17. The Healthy Communities Study Nutrition Assessments: Child Diet and the School Nutrition Environment.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Lorrene D; Wakimoto, Patricia; Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Thompson, Frances E; Loria, Catherine M; Wilson, Dawn K; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B; Webb, Karen L

    2015-10-01

    Multifaceted community interventions directed at improving food environments are emerging, but their impact on dietary change and obesity prevalence has not been adequately documented. The Healthy Communities Study (HCS) is seeking to identify characteristics and combinations of programs and policies that are associated with children's diets and obesity-related outcomes in various types of communities across the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used in 2013-2015 in the HCS to assess dietary intake, school nutrition environments, and other nutrition-related behaviors. The conceptual framework of the HCS is based on the socioecological model and behaviors shown in previous studies to be related to obesity in children guided selection of domains. Nine domains were identified as essential measures of nutrition in the HCS: (1) intake of selected foods and beverages; (2) food patterns and behaviors; (3) social support; (4) home environment; (5) school environment; (6) community environment; (7) breastfeeding history; (8) household food insecurity; and (9) dieting behaviors and body image. Children's dietary intake was assessed using a dietary screener and up to two automated 24-hour recalls. Dietary-related behaviors were assessed by a survey administered to the parent, child, or both, depending on child age. School nutrition measures were obtained from a combination of school staff surveys and researcher observations. Information from these measures is expected to contribute to a better understanding of "what is working" to improve the dietary behaviors that are likely to prevent obesity and improve health in children. PMID:26384936

  18. Nutritional and Pubertal Disorders.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Calvo, M Teresa; Argente, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Caloric-protein malnutrition can slow growth and cause pubertal delay. This chapter focuses on endocrine abnormalities and pubertal alterations in patients with eating disorders, childhood obesity, the female athlete triad and children cancer survivors. Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) exhibit multiple endocrine abnormalities, including isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The delay in pubertal development and reduction in growth seen in AN patients may be a direct result of malnutrition. Appropriate psychiatric, nutritional and hormonal therapy is necessary. It is suggested that obesity during childhood can accelerate pubertal onset and these children usually exhibit accelerated linear growth during puberty. In girls the relationship between childhood obesity and early pubertal onset could be related to their insulin resistance and/or hyperinsulinemia. The female athlete triad is often observed in physically active girls and women in whom low energy availability with or without disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction and low bone mineral density can be present. In prepubertal girls excess exercise can cause delayed menarche with no effects on adult height, while in postpubertal females it results in menstrual cycle irregularities. The consequences of childhood cancer depend on the type of cancer, its location, the age at which the disease was diagnosed, the dose of radiotherapy, and the type and dose of chemotherapy. PMID:26680577

  19. Nutritional aspects of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Choe, M.

    1987-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

  20. Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2000-01-01

    Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng space flight. This is critical due to the red blood cell changes which occur, and the increase in iron storage that has been observed after space flight. The Iron Absorption and Metabolism experiment is currently planned for long-term flights on the International Space Station.

  1. Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.

    PubMed

    Leitzmann, Claus

    2014-07-01

    Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. PMID:24898226

  2. [Descriptive study of 43 nutritional education programs in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Dehollaín, P L; Pérez Schael, I; Sfeir, L

    1983-06-01

    This study aimed to determine the existing resources and specific characteristics of non-formal nutrition education programs in Venezuela. Of the 174 institutions initially contacted, 43 were involved in these activities-22 official and 21 private institutions. The bulk of the programs fell under the official health sector and the private food industry. While objectives of the former were to motivate and educate the audience, the latter's goal was basically commercial. Forty-three per cent of the program content dealt with basic nutrition concepts; only 19% of programs included information on breast feeding, and maternal and child nutrition. There is a significantly greater use of interpersonal communication (65%) as compared to mass media (35%), irrespective of the type of institution. In the majority of programs, the nutritionist-dietitians and medical doctors carry out their activities, primarily oriented towards homemakers and school-age children. The official health sector gears its programs toward the poor, while the main interest of private industry are the middle and upper class communities. A total of 46% of the official programs and 55% of the private institutions do not include an evaluation component. It is concluded that the nutrition education programs in the country appear to follow traditional concepts as far as objectives, program content, media and target groups are concerned. This could have contributed to the apparent lack of impact of non-formal nutrition education in the country; thus the re-planning of existing programs, is suggested. This should be based on well-defined and measurable objectives: include messages geared toward the practical solution of specific nutrition problems, and the use of combined techniques of social communication with as much participation of the community as possible, not only in program implementation but also in its conception and planning. PMID:6673677

  3. [Prevalence of nutritional inadequacy among Portuguese children].

    PubMed

    Valente, Hugo; Padez, Cristina; Mourão, Isabel; Rosado, Vítor; Moreira, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in children, and it's frequently related to low activity levels and inadequate nutrition. To evaluate the prevalence of nutritional inadequacy a total of 4845 children (2445 girls and 2400 boys) aged 7-9 years old, were observed. Height and weight were measured according to international standards, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overweight and obesity, using age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points as defined by the International Obesity Taskforce, were used. Children's dietary intake was measured using a 24-h dietary recall by trained researchers. To evaluate nutritional inadequacy, Food and Nutrition Board Dietary Reference Intakes and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended intake goals were used. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this sample was 30.8% and the proportion of children with an intake below the Estimated Average Intake/Adequate Intake was very low (= 10%) for the following nutrients: vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, and PP; and for magnesium, zinc, iodine, phosphorous, selenium, and iron. High prevalences of inadequacy were found for folate (60.5% in girls and 54.6% in boys), vitamin E (63.9% in girls and 59.5% in boys), calcium (45% in girls and 40.7% in boys), molybdenum (89.7% in girls and 87.4% in boys, and fibre (87.8% in girls and 86.7% in boys). Regarding the macronutrients, 65.9% and 78.8% of the individuals were above WHO recommended intake values for protein and total fats, respectively; 22% didn't ingest lower than WHO carbohydrates intake recommendation. We've also found that 81.4% and 97.3% of the individuals were above WHO recommendations for saturated fatty acids and total sugars, respectively. Regarding cholesterol intake, 53% of the individuals ingested more than the recommended by WHO. In conclusion, the prevalence of inadequate intakes of calcium, vitamin E, folate, molybdenum and fibre was unacceptably high, while and the contribution of total fat, saturated fat and sugars were far above the recommended by WHO. This could be associated to major chronic diseases, such as coronary heart diseases, in later life. PMID:20654253

  4. School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodrigo, C; Aranceta, J

    2001-02-01

    Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices. PMID:11255503

  5. Metabolic acidosis during parenteral nutrition: Pathophysiological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dounousi, Evangelia; Zikou, Xanthi; Koulouras, Vasilis; Katopodis, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with metabolic complications including metabolic acidosis (MA), one of the main disorders of acid-base balance. The main causes involved in the appearance of MA during TPN administration are the metabolism of cationic amino acids and amino acids containing sulfuric acid (exogenous addition), the titratable acidity of the infused parenteral solution, the addition of acidificant agents (hydrochloric acid, acetic acid), thiamine deficiency, disruption of carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and D-fructose administration. Moreover, hypophosphatemia that appears during TPN therapy contributes significantly to the maintenance of MA. This review describes in a comprehensive way the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the appearance of MA induced by intravenous administration of TPN products most commonly used in critically ill-patients. PMID:25983433

  6. Metabolic acidosis during parenteral nutrition: Pathophysiological mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dounousi, Evangelia; Zikou, Xanthi; Koulouras, Vasilis; Katopodis, Kostas

    2015-05-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with metabolic complications including metabolic acidosis (MA), one of the main disorders of acid-base balance. The main causes involved in the appearance of MA during TPN administration are the metabolism of cationic amino acids and amino acids containing sulfuric acid (exogenous addition), the titratable acidity of the infused parenteral solution, the addition of acidificant agents (hydrochloric acid, acetic acid), thiamine deficiency, disruption of carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways and D-fructose administration. Moreover, hypophosphatemia that appears during TPN therapy contributes significantly to the maintenance of MA. This review describes in a comprehensive way the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the appearance of MA induced by intravenous administration of TPN products most commonly used in critically ill-patients. PMID:25983433

  7. STUDIES ON BACTERIAL NUTRITION

    PubMed Central

    Thjötta, Theodor

    1921-01-01

    From the data presented in the foregoing experiments it is evident that Bacillus influenzæ will grow in a fluid medium consisting of plain broth to which have been added small amounts of emulsions or extracts of mucoid bacilli or of Bacillus proteus. The bacterial extracts may be made by simple boiling of the bacillary emulsions in broth or saline solution and centrifuging out the bacterial bodies; they may be filtered without losing their growth-inducing property. Cultures of Bacillus influenzæ in bacterial extract broth, if not too small doses of the extracts were employed, always showed heavier growth than the control cultures in blood broth, and growth occurred at a considerably earlier period than in blood broth. In many instances growth could be seen after 3 to 4 hours, and a bacterial whirl was always visible after 6 hours incubation. When the nature of the culture used for seeding is not stated, this was 0.1 cc. of the supernatant fluid of a blood broth culture. All cultures were made in fluid medium; solid medium is much more difficult to use in connection with the extracts. In explanation of the remarkable growth of Bacillus influenzæ in this blood-free medium, the idea is proposed that the growth-stimulating effect of the bacterial extracts is due possibly to substances of the same nature as the so called vitamines. Further investigations on this principle of bacterial nutrition will appear in subsequent papers, together with a more thorough study of the sources and character of the growth-inducing substances. PMID:19868534

  8. Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

  9. Nutrition education and leadership for improved clinical outcomes: training and supporting junior doctors to run ‘Nutrition Awareness Weeks’ in three NHS hospitals across England

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One in four adults are estimated to be at medium to high risk of malnutrition when screened using the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ upon admission to hospital in the United Kingdom. The Need for Nutrition Education/Education Programme (NNEdPro) Group was developed to address this issue and the Nutrition Education and Leadership for Improved Clinical Outcomes (NELICO) is a project within this group. The objective of NELICO was to assess whether an intensive training intervention combining clinical and public health nutrition, organisational management and leadership strategies, could equip junior doctors to contribute to improvement in nutrition awareness among healthcare professionals in the National Health Service in England. Methods Three junior doctors were self-selected from the NNEdPro Group original training. Each junior doctor recruited three additional team members to attend an intensive training weekend incorporating nutrition, change management and leadership. This equipped them to run nutrition awareness weeks in their respective hospitals. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated at baseline as well as one and four months post-training as a quality assurance measure. The number and type of educational events held, pre-awareness week Online Hospital Survey results, attendance and qualitative feedback from training sessions, effectiveness of dissemination methods such as awareness stalls, Hospital Nutrition Attitude Survey results and overall feedback were also used to determine impact. Results When the weighted average score for knowledge, attitudes and practices at baseline was compared with four months post-intervention scores, there was a significant increase in the overall score (p?=?0.03). All three hospital teams conducted an effective nutrition awareness week, as determined by qualitative data collected from interviews and feedback from educational sessions. Conclusion The NELICO project and its resulting nutrition awareness weeks were considered innovative in terms of concept and content. It was considered useful, both for the junior doctors who showed improvement in their nutrition knowledge and reported enthusiasm and for the hospital setting, increasing awareness of clinical and public health nutrition among healthcare professionals. The NELICO project is one innovative method to promote nutrition awareness in tomorrow’s doctors and shows they have the enthusiasm and drive to be nutrition champions. PMID:24885676

  10. Celss nutrition system utilizing snails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.

    At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

  11. Nutritional status and nutritional management in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Edward P T; Sullivan, Peter B

    2015-12-01

    Malnutrition is often seen at the point of diagnosis in childhood malignancy or may develop during the course of treatment. Strategies for optimal diagnosis and management of nutritional problems in children with cancer are limited in the published literature. Identification of children who may be malnourished or at nutritional risk can be achieved through improved approaches for risk stratification and classification. Once recognised, various strategies have been demonstrated to reduce malnutrition, minimise side effects of treatment and improve survival. Novel approaches in vivo and adult oncology populations provide future avenues for investigation. PMID:26130383

  12. Improving Nutrition and Health through Non-timber Forest Products in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p<0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana. PMID:21608423

  13. Improving nutrition and health through non-timber forest products in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ahenkan, Albert; Boon, Emmanuel

    2011-04-01

    Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p < 0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana. PMID:21608423

  14. Nutrition and Health 255 Online Spring 2015 Course Syllabus

    E-print Network

    Chen, Kuang-Yu

    to nutrition science, emphasizing physiological and biochemical interactions between food and the human bodyNutrition and Health 255 ­ Online Spring 2015 Course Syllabus Course Description An introduction. Explores the relationship between foods, nutrition, and disease promotion/ prevention. Applies nutrition

  15. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  16. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  17. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  18. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  19. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  20. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  1. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  2. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  3. 9 CFR 317.302 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 317.302 Section 317...LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.302 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  4. 9 CFR 381.402 - Location of nutrition information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Location of nutrition information. 381.402 Section 381...POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Nutrition Labeling § 381.402 Location of nutrition information. (a) Nutrition...

  5. The Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and a nutrition education program for high risk cancer patients: strategies to improve dietary intake in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Chao, Pei-Chun; Chuang, Hui-Ju; Tsao, Li-Yen; Chen, Pei-Ying; Hsu, Chia-Fen; Lin, Hsing-Chun; Chang, Chiu-Yueh; Lin, Cheau-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Four hundred and forty-four high-risk oncology patients with malnutrition participated in this study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of nutrition education on improving an oncology patient's dietary intake. We used a nutritional risk screening to select oncology patients in need of nutritional care. Team Nutrition provides technical assistance for foodservice, nutrition education for patients and their caregivers, and support for healthy eating and physical activity to improve their diets and their lives. The average contribution of protein and total energy of each patient increased after imparting the nutritional education to them. Thus, nutritional education is an effective measure to bring about a favorable and significant change in oncology patients' nutrient intake. PMID:26264480

  6. Nutrition support for the elderly.

    PubMed

    Karkeck, J M

    1993-10-01

    The increasing size and longevity of the geriatric patient population dictates that all health care practitioners become more cognizant of the unique requirements for nutritional assessment and support of the elderly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the nutrition support needs of the old and oldest-old patients requiring enteral or parenteral feeding. When a nutrition support formula individualized for the geriatric patient is being developed, there is a fine line between excess and deficit, requiring the involvement of the entire support team in monitoring the success of feeding. Indications for choosing enteral or parenteral feeding are considered excessively invasive by some and necessarily "heroic" by others. The patient and his or her family should be part of the decision-making process. PMID:8302253

  7. Nutritional controls of food reward.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Maria F; Sharma, Sandeep; Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Auguste, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie

    2013-08-01

    The propensity to select and consume palatable nutrients is strongly influenced by the rewarding effects of food. Neural processes integrating reward, emotional states and decision-making can supersede satiety signals to promote excessive caloric intake and weight gain. While nutritional habits are influenced by reward-based neural mechanisms, nutrition and its impact on energy metabolism, in turn, plays an important role in the control of food reward. Feeding modulates the release of metabolic hormones that have an important influence on central controls of appetite. Nutrients themselves are also an essential source of energy fuel, while serving as key metabolites and acting as signalling molecules in the neural pathways that control feeding and food reward. Along these lines, this review discusses the impact of nutritionally regulated hormones and select macronutrients on the behavioural and neural processes underlying the rewarding effects of food. PMID:24070891

  8. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  9. The role of mycorrhizal associations in plant potassium nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Kevin; Zimmermann, Sabine D.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium (K+) is one of the most abundant elements of soil composition but it's very low availability limits plant growth and productivity of ecosystems. Because this cation participates in many biological processes, its constitutive uptake from soil solution is crucial for the plant cell machinery. Thus, the understanding of strategies responsible of K+ nutrition is a major issue in plant science. Mycorrhizal associations occurring between roots and hyphae of underground fungi improve hydro-mineral nutrition of the majority of terrestrial plants. The contribution of this mutualistic symbiosis to the enhancement of plant K+ nutrition is not well understood and poorly studied so far. This mini-review examines the current knowledge about the impact of both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses on the transfer of K+ from the soil to the plants. A model summarizing plant and fungal transport systems identified and hypothetically involved in K+ transport is proposed. In addition, some data related to benefits for plants provided by the improvement of K+ nutrition thanks to mycorrhizal symbioses are presented. PMID:25101097

  10. Effects of parasitism on aphid nutritional and protective symbioses.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Adam J; Weldon, Stephanie R; Oliver, Kerry M

    2014-03-01

    Insects often carry heritable symbionts that negotiate interactions with food plants or natural enemies. All pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, require infection with the nutritional symbiont Buchnera, and many are also infected with Hamiltonella, which protects against the parasitoid Aphidius ervi. Hamiltonella-based protection requires bacteriophages called APSEs with protection levels varying by strain and associated APSE. Endoparasitoids, including A. ervi, may benefit from protecting the nutritional symbiosis and suppressing the protective one, while the aphid and its heritable symbionts have aligned interests when attacked by the wasp. We investigated the effects of parasitism on the abundance of aphid nutritional and protective symbionts. First, we determined strength of protection associated with multiple symbiont strains and aphid genotypes as these likely impact symbiont responses. Unexpectedly, some A. pisum genotypes cured of facultative symbionts were resistant to parasitism and resistant aphid lines carried Hamiltonella strains that conferred no additional protection. Susceptible aphid clones carried protective strains. qPCR estimates show that parasitism significantly influenced both Buchnera and Hamiltonella titres, with multiple factors contributing to variation. In susceptible lines, parasitism led to increases in Buchnera near the time of larval wasp emergence consistent with parasite manipulation, but effects were variable in resistant lines. Parasitism also resulted in increases in APSE and subsequent decreases in Hamiltonella, and we discuss how this response may relate to the protective phenotype. In summary, we show that parasitism alters the within-host ecology of both nutritional and protective symbioses with effects likely significant for all players in this antagonistic interaction. PMID:24152321

  11. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

  12. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

  13. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

  14. 45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

  15. MOLASSES IN BEEF NUTRITION Findlay M. Pate

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    MOLASSES IN BEEF NUTRITION Findlay M. Pate University of Florida Range Cattle Research From MOLASSES IN ANIMAL NUTRITION Copyright C 1983 National Feed Ingredients Association West Des . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 EFFECT OF MOLASSES ON RUMEN METABOLISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Rumen

  16. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

  17. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

  18. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

  19. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

  20. Nutritional Preparation of Athletes: What Makes Sense?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Malcolm L.

    1984-01-01

    A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)

  1. Non-Nutritive Sweeters (Artificial Sweeteners)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Program Requirements Fit-Friendly Resources Non-Nutritive Sweeteners (Artificial Sweeteners) Updated:Mar 18,2014 Got a sweet tooth? Here’s the scoop on artificial sweeteners or “non-nutritive sweeteners” as we call ...

  2. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY...and to parents or caretakers of infants and child participants. Local agencies are...nutrition education available to children, where appropriate. (d)...

  3. 45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

  4. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...relationship between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...who is at nutritional risk in improving health status and achieving a positive change in dietary and physical activity habits, and in the...

  5. 7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...relationship between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...who is at nutritional risk in improving health status and achieving a positive change in dietary and physical activity habits, and in the...

  6. Factors Affecting Deer Diets and Nutrition 

    E-print Network

    Richardson, Calvin

    2000-04-25

    Knowledge of deer diets and nutrition can benefit ranchers who are interested in deer management and who want to coordinate vegetation management practices with changes in nutritional value of the habitat. Three important considerations...

  7. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Birth to 24 Months & Pregnant Women Nutrition Insights Internship Program Archived Projects Data Tools (tools) MyPlate/MiPlato ... Mixing Bowl Nutrition Evidence Library Annual/Monthly Reports Internship Program The Cost of Raising a Child Expenditures ...

  8. Health and Nutrition Information for Preschoolers

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cmp_responsive/preprocess/page.preprocess.inc ). Print Share Health and Nutrition Information Help your preschooler eat well, ... Updated: Jul 31, 2015 RESOURCES FOR NUTRITION AND HEALTH MYPLATE What Is MyPlate? Fruits Vegetables Grains Protein ...

  9. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY...postpartum women, the benefits of breastfeeding; (5) The importance of...or caretakers of infants and child participants. Local agencies...nutrition education available to children, where appropriate....

  10. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY...postpartum women, the benefits of breastfeeding; (5) The importance of...or caretakers of infants and child participants. Local agencies...nutrition education available to children, where appropriate....

  11. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY...postpartum women, the benefits of breastfeeding; (5) The importance of...or caretakers of infants and child participants. Local agencies...nutrition education available to children, where appropriate....

  12. 7 CFR 247.18 - Nutrition education.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY...postpartum women, the benefits of breastfeeding; (5) The importance of...or caretakers of infants and child participants. Local agencies...nutrition education available to children, where appropriate....

  13. Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

    The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

  14. Pet obesity management: beyond nutrition.

    PubMed

    Linder, Deborah; Mueller, Megan

    2014-07-01

    Excess weight has been associated with many clinical and subclinical conditions that put a pet's health at risk. Successful weight management programs extend beyond standard nutritional management and incorporate an understanding of human-animal interaction. Understanding the processes and dynamics of human-animal relationships can be a useful tool for practitioners in developing successful treatment plans for their clients. Obesity is a nutritional disorder requiring lifelong management; however, when veterinarians go beyond standard treatment to include an understanding of human-animal interaction, it is also one of the few conditions in veterinary medicine that is completely preventable and curable. PMID:24951347

  15. Nutrition Education in the Classroom: Project SNACK (Sharing Nutritional Awareness through Curriculum for Kids, K-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javid, Sue

    Funded under the Nutrition Education and Training Program, Michigan's Project SNACK (Sharing Nutritional Awareness through Curriculum for Kids, K-6) is an adaptable model of nutrition education that focuses on staff development (trainer of trainers) involving the infusion of nutrition education into the regular classroom curriculum. During the…

  16. Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…

  17. Priorities in Dealing with Nutrition Problems in Indonesia. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 1 (1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soekirman

    A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…

  18. Minor in Nutrition and Health Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University

    E-print Network

    Chen, Tsuhan

    129 Minor in Nutrition and Health Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University The Minor in Nutrition and Health will consist of NS 1150 plus 9 credits of didactic NS courses listed below. Students may be used. Global Perspectives on Human Health NS 3060 Nutrition and Global Health NS 4450 Toward

  19. 78 FR 20411 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... / Friday, April 5, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Part 272 RIN 0584-AE07 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service (FNS), USDA. ACTION: Interim...

  20. PRINCIPLES OF NUTRITION SCIENCE Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    NUTR 202 PRINCIPLES OF NUTRITION SCIENCE Tufts University, Friedman School of Nutrition ScienceD Candidate Biochemical and Molecular Nutrition emily.mohn@tufts.edu Phone: (203) 2416812 Tufts Graduate nutrition. During the course of the semester students will learn the components of a healthy diet