These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Nutritional value of various ray fish liver oils to the pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A 32-day comparative feeding trial was performed to evaluate the nutritional value of four different ray fish liver oils to the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Four feeds were prepared with liver oil extracted from Dasyatis brevis, Rhinoptera steindachneri, Aetobatus narinari, and R. bonasus. A control feed was prepared with Menhaden fish oil. Ray fish liver oils were mainly composed of poly- and highly unsaturated fatty acids and contained levels of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 comparable in magnitude to those of Menhaden fish oil, except for A. narinari liver oil, which had moderately low concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 but showed a particularly high level of 20:4n-6, more than six times greater than that of Menhaden fish oil. Dietary fatty acids significantly influenced the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle tissue, e.g., the diet with Menhaden fish oil elicited significantly higher shrimp muscle DHA level than diets with oil from D. brevis, and A. narinari, but not than diets with oil from R. steindachneri and R. bonasus. In spite of these differences, all four ray fish liver oils evaluated were as efficient in promoting growth and survival of L. vannamei as Menhaden fish oil, an ingredient known for its adequate nutritional quality to shrimp and fish. This study demonstrated one of the many possible applications of a locally-available resource that is currently being wasted. PMID:18807083

Perez-Velazquez, Martin; González-Félix, Mayra L; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Valenzuela-Escalante, Erasmo

2008-11-01

2

Processed foods: contributions to nutrition.  

PubMed

Both fresh and processed foods make up vital parts of the food supply. Processed food contributes to both food security (ensuring that sufficient food is available) and nutrition security (ensuring that food quality meets human nutrient needs). This ASN scientific statement focuses on one aspect of processed foods: their nutritional impacts. Specifically, this scientific statement 1) provides an introduction to how processed foods contribute to the health of populations, 2) analyzes the contribution of processed foods to "nutrients to encourage" and "constituents to limit" in the American diet as recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 3) identifies the responsibilities of various stakeholders in improving the American diet, and 4) reviews emerging technologies and the research needed for a better understanding of the role of processed foods in a healthy diet. Analyses of the NHANES 2003-2008 show that processed foods provide both nutrients to encourage and constituents to limit as specified in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the nutrients to encourage, processed foods contributed 55% of dietary fiber, 48% of calcium, 43% of potassium, 34% of vitamin D, 64% of iron, 65% of folate, and 46% of vitamin B-12. Of the constituents to limit, processed foods contributed 57% of energy, 52% of saturated fat, 75% of added sugars, and 57% of sodium. Diets are more likely to meet food guidance recommendations if nutrient-dense foods, either processed or not, are selected. Nutrition and food science professionals, the food industry, and other stakeholders can help to improve the diets of Americans by providing a nutritious food supply that is safe, enjoyable, affordable, and sustainable by communicating effectively and accurately with each other and by working together to improve the overall knowledge of consumers. PMID:24760975

Weaver, Connie M; Dwyer, Johanna; Fulgoni, Victor L; King, Janet C; Leveille, Gilbert A; MacDonald, Ruth S; Ordovas, Jose; Schnakenberg, David

2014-06-01

3

Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

diets were formulated to contain 1, 2 or 3% FO combined with either 1 or 4% LT. Shrimp fed diets containing 1% LT and 1% FO in both systems had significantly lower weight gain and higher feed conversion ratio. Cephalothorax lipids and phospholipids were...

Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

2012-07-16

4

Do Pollinators Contribute to Nutritional Health?  

PubMed Central

Despite suggestions that animal pollinators are crucial for human nutritional health, no studies have actually tested this claim. Here, we combined data on crop pollination requirements, food nutrient densities, and actual human diets to predict the effects of pollinator losses on the risk of nutrient deficiency. In four developing countries and across five nutrients, we found that 0 to 56% of populations would become newly at risk if pollinators were removed. Increases in risk were most pronounced for vitamin A in populations with moderate levels of total nutrient intake. Overall, the effects of pollinator decline varied widely among populations and nutrients. We conclude that the importance of pollinators to human nutrition depends critically on the composition of local diets, and cannot be reliably predicted from global commodity analyses. We identify conditions under which severe health effects of pollinator loss are most likely to occur. PMID:25575027

Ellis, Alicia M.; Myers, Samuel S.; Ricketts, Taylor H.

2015-01-01

5

Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The learning outcome was to understand the important contribution of lean beef to total nutrient intake in diets of American adults and to determine dietary intake differences between lean beef consumers and non-consumers. The National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey, 1999-2004, 24-hour di...

6

Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

7

Contribution of the dog to the science of nutrition.  

PubMed

In the 19th century when the basic principles of nutrition were established, the main work was done first in France and then in Germany. In each country dogs were the overwhelming choice as the model experimental animal. In France the complexity of nutritional requirements first came to be appreciated and the inadequacy of gelatin as a substitute for muscle protein was identified. In Germany quantitative balance procedures for nutrients were developed and it was shown that balance could be achieved at many levels after a period of adaptation. In the U.S.A. at the beginning of this century, Russell Chittenden showed that dogs could do well when fed low protein diets so long as they contained some nonprotein factors that were provided by meat and milk. On the basis of that work Joseph Goldberger developed a diet which produced a condition analogous to pellagra in dogs. This led to the discovery that yeast was a potent preventive of the disease and to the eventual identification of niacin as the primary active factor. Work in Britain with dogs as models for experimental rickets gave apparently conflicting results, with either environmental or dietary changes apparently protecting from the disease. Further work showed that calciferol could be obtained either by irradiation of the skin or by the consumption of another animal's store. Lastly, Edward Mellanby's continued work on the rachitic effect of cereals led to the spin-off finding that wheat flour improved with nitrogen chloride, although nontoxic to rats, was responsible for the problem of canine hysteria in dogs that had developed in the 1930s and 1940s. Its use by millers was than banned. PMID:1941202

Carpenter, K J

1991-11-01

8

[Contributions by food demand studies to the development of public policies in nutrition].  

PubMed

Food choice in diet composition is a determinant of individual health status. Currently, there are gradually fewer conditions involving food scarcity and more involving excess food. Changes in income and relative prices generate measurable effects on the population's food intake patterns. Economic models have significant explanatory power for food demand, and the interactions between consumption, income, and prices are usually expressed as elasticity. However, the construction of some studies shows important shortcomings, especially for public policy application. This conceptual article discusses the potential contribution of food demand studies, suggesting improvements in the structural design of such studies with the inclusion of current nutritional concepts for redirecting the nutritional transition from under-nutrition to healthy eating, avoiding the present trend towards epidemic obesity. PMID:21603747

Sarti, Flávia Mori; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

2011-04-01

9

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

Ms. Pearson

2007-10-12

10

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Updated September 27, 2010 Nutrition is a tool that you can use to improve your overall health and quality of life. You’ve probably heard conflicting information about nutrition and breast cancer. You may wonder whether the ...

11

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Mrs. Huish

2009-11-02

12

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

13

Structural and functional differences of Litopenaeus vannamei crustins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeid crustins were described in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus as proteins belonging to an antibacterial peptide family with similar sequences but different sizes. Six crustin-coding clones were isolated from a cDNA library from L. vannamei hemocytes, sequenced and compared. Two different isoforms (named I and P) were found, based on two nucleotide differences that produce one change in amino

Francisco Vargas-Albores; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Florinda Jiménez-Vega; Angélica Ávila-Villa

2004-01-01

14

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Mrs. Moffat

2010-12-13

15

Horizontal transmission dynamics of White spot syndrome virus by cohabitation trials in juvenile Penaeus monodon and P. vannamei.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. In the current study the dynamics of disease transmission of WSSV were investigated in small, closed populations of Penaeus monodon and Penaeus vannamei. Pair cohabitation experiments using PCR as a readout for virus infection were used to estimate transmission parameters for WSSV in these two species. The mortality rate of contact-infected shrimp in P. monodon was higher than the rate in P. vannamei. The transmission rate parameters for WSSV were not different between the two species. The relative contribution of direct and indirect transmission rates of WSSV differed between the two species. For P. vannamei the direct contact transmission rate of WSSV was significantly lower than the indirect environmental transmission rate, but for P. monodon, the opposite was found. The reproduction ratio R0 for WSSV for these two species of shrimp was estimated to be above one: 2.07 (95%CI 1.53, 2.79) for P. monodon and 1.51 (95%CI 1.12, 2.03) for P. vannamei. The difference in R0 between the two species is due to a lower host mortality and hence a longer infectious period of WSSV in P. monodon. PMID:25189688

Tuyen, N X; Verreth, J; Vlak, J M; de Jong, M C M

2014-11-01

16

Partial replacement of red crab ( Pleuroncodes planipes) meal for fish meal in practical diets for the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Effects on growth and in vivo digestibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nutritional value of red crab (Pleuroncodes planipes) meal (RCM) as a protein source and partial replacement for fish meal in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated. Fish meal in the control diet was replaced by increasing dietary levels of red crab meal (5%, 10% and 15%), replacing 12.7%, 25.3% and 38.0%, respectively, of the protein derived from fish

E. Goytortúa-Bores; R. Civera-Cerecedo; S. Rocha-Meza; A. Green-Yee

2006-01-01

17

Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp. PMID:22958647

2012-01-01

18

Disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary  

E-print Network

to Schizophyllum commune glucan significantly increased resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSVDisease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, following the dietary for its impact on disease resistance in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Animals were fed

Burnett, Louis E.

19

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

20

[Texture modified diet; digestibility, nutritional value, and contributions to menu of hospitals and nursing homes].  

PubMed

Texture modified diet is a significant loss of the organoleptic qualities of the feed, so often associated with suboptimal intake and can increase the risk of malnutrition in people with chewing or swallowing difficulties. It is known that these diets based on traditional ground, have varying nutritional adequacy. The emergence of numerous commercial products lyophilized or ready to eat, with a wide variety of nutritional value, according to the range and recipe is concerned, represent an important step in the normalization of nutritional value and food security in people with dysphagia. This review discussed the possible advantages or disadvantages compared to traditional ground, and the possibilities of inclusion in the menu of hospitals and nursing homes. PMID:24679030

Irles Rocamora, Jose Antonio; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

2014-01-01

21

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

22

Contributions of animal nutrition research in rostock to energetic feed evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rostock research in animal nutrition has underlain in continuation and progressive development of Kellner's starch value system, net energy fat as measuring unit for energetic feed evaluation. Net energy?fat was used as an uniform unit of measure for all farm animals with different performances. The scientific basis for the net energy?fat system was created by numerous studies on energy

M. Beyer; W. Jentsch; A. Chudy; P. Junghans; M. Klein

1998-01-01

23

Studies on feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) – Contributions to nutritional and safety assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 1997, 18 studies with feeds from genetically modified plants (GMP) in the nutrition of dairy cows, growing bulls, growing and finishing pigs, laying hens, chicken for finishing as well as growing and laying quails were conducted at the Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL) in Braunschweig (Germany).The majority of the experiments (16) were undertaken with GMP of the so-called first

G. Flachowsky; K. Aulrich; H. Böhme; I. Halle

2007-01-01

24

Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?  

PubMed

Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples. PMID:24629978

Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-08-01

25

The Complex Contributions of Genetics and Nutrition to Immunity in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Both malnutrition and undernutrition can lead to compromised immune defense in a diversity of animals, and “nutritional immunology” has been suggested as a means of understanding immunity and determining strategies for fighting infection. The genetic basis for the effects of diet on immunity, however, has been largely unknown. In the present study, we have conducted genome-wide association mapping in Drosophila melanogaster to identify the genetic basis for individual variation in resistance, and for variation in immunological sensitivity to diet (genotype-by-environment interaction, or GxE). D. melanogaster were reared for several generations on either high-glucose or low-glucose diets and then infected with Providencia rettgeri, a natural bacterial pathogen of D. melanogaster. Systemic pathogen load was measured at the peak of infection intensity, and several indicators of nutritional status were taken from uninfected flies reared on each diet. We find that dietary glucose level significantly alters the quality of immune defense, with elevated dietary glucose resulting in higher pathogen loads. The quality of immune defense is genetically variable within the sampled population, and we find genetic variation for immunological sensitivity to dietary glucose (genotype-by-diet interaction). Immune defense was genetically correlated with indicators of metabolic status in flies reared on the high-glucose diet, and we identified multiple genes that explain variation in immune defense, including several that have not been previously implicated in immune response but which are confirmed to alter pathogen load after RNAi knockdown. Our findings emphasize the importance of dietary composition to immune defense and reveal genes outside the conventional “immune system” that can be important in determining susceptibility to infection. Functional variation in these genes is segregating in a natural population, providing the substrate for evolutionary response to pathogen pressure in the context of nutritional environment. PMID:25764027

Unckless, Robert L.; Rottschaefer, Susan M.; Lazzaro, Brian P.

2015-01-01

26

Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience and psychological research  

PubMed Central

A central issue when designing multi-dimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting impact (sensitive periods). In this paper we review nutritional, neuroscience and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period where biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

Wachs, Theodore D.; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce

2014-01-01

27

Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.  

PubMed Central

Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people. PMID:9183207

James, W. P.; Nelson, M.; Ralph, A.; Leather, S.

1997-01-01

28

Carotenoids and Flavonoids Contribute to Nutritional Protection against Skin Damage from Sunlight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of photoprotection by dietary means is gaining momentum. Plant constituents such as carotenoids and flavonoids\\u000a are involved in protection against excess light in plants and contribute to the prevention of UV damage in humans. As micronutrients,\\u000a they are ingested with the diet and are distributed into light-exposed tissues, such as skin or the eye where they provide\\u000a systemic

Wilhelm Stahl; Helmut Sies

2007-01-01

29

Nutritional contribution of coffee, cacao and tea phenolics to human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  The intention of this short overview is to contribute to a better understanding of the physiological effects of the coffee,\\u000a cacao and tea phenolics to human health. The paper gives a short description of the principle phenolic compounds present in\\u000a each of the food stuffs, their intake, summarises the data available on their bioavailability and metabolism and gives finally\\u000a a

H. M. Rawel; S. E. Kulling

2007-01-01

30

Nutrient contribution of total and lean beef in diets of US children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the diet of US children and adolescents using the US Department of Agriculture definition of LB as defined in MyPyramid. Twenty-four hour dietary recall data from children 4-8 years of age [y] (n=2474), 9-13 y (n=32...

31

Lean beef contributes significant amounts of key nutrients to the diets of US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Consumption of lean meat is a valuable addition to a healthy diet because it provides complete protein and is a rich source of vitamin B12, iron, and zinc. The objective of this study was to examine the nutritional contribution of total beef and lean beef (LB) to the American diet using the USDA def...

32

New unusual alkaloids from the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei.  

PubMed

The MeOH extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei was found to contain three novel compounds, the adenine alkaloid derivatives 9-[N-(leucyl)-isoleucyl]- adenine (1) and 8-hydroxy-8-isopentyl-7,8-dihydroadenine (2), and the phenylalanine peptide derivative N-[N-(leucyl)-isoleucyl]phenethylamine (3). Other previously related compounds isolated from this extract include thymidine, 2'-deoxyuridine and phenylalanine. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated through the use of NMR and mass spectrometry. PMID:25632465

Pimenta, Antônia Torres Avila; Jimenez, Paula Christine; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras; Braz-Filhoc, Raimundo; Lima, Mary Anne Sousa

2014-12-01

33

Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

2013-01-01

34

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

2011-01-01

35

Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham

2009-01-01

36

How can agricultural interventions contribute in improving nutrition health and achieving the MDGs in least-developed countries?  

PubMed

There are strong conceptual linkages between agricultural development and nutrition improvements which may be categorized into three main pathways: the development, own-production and market pathways. Evidence on the efficacy of these pathways is mixed with some strong, some negative and some weak impacts. These findings reflect both the importance of agriculture for nutrition and the conditionality of that importance on contextual factors. They are also the result of insufficient high-quality empirical research investigating these linkages. The most effective 'pathways' and interventions linking agricultural change to improved nutritional outcomes change with economic growth and development, with declining importance of the development and own-production pathways and increasing importance of the market pathway. Substantial challenges in operationalizing agricultural-nutrition linkages need to be overcome to better exploit potential opportunities. PMID:24504210

Dorward, Andrew

2014-01-01

37

Quantitative genetic analysis of growth and survival in Penaeus vannamei versus temperature  

E-print Network

Two 8-week laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate quantitative genetic aspects of growth and survival in juveniles of the marine shrimp Penaeus vannamei versus temperature. Experiment I involved 4,486 progeny within 27 full-sib and 24...

De Tomas Kutz, Alvaro J

1998-01-01

38

Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda, Dendrobranchiata)  

E-print Network

Cleavage and gastrulation in the shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei (Malacostraca, Decapoda most malacostracan crustaceans develop through superficial cleavage, in the Amphipoda, Euphausiacea, and Dendrobranchiata (Decapoda) cleavage is complete. Euphausiaceans and dendrobranchiate shrimp share a similar early

Hertzler, Philip L.

39

Contribution of lactic acid fermentation to improved nutritive quality vegetable juices enriched with brewer’s yeast autolysate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vegetables are rich sources of the biologically active compounds which have beneficial effects in prevention of some diseases and certain types of cancer. From the point of view of protection and health, the objective of this paper was to optimize food content in order to obtain a functional food. In order to improve the nutritive and protective properties of the

Marica Rakin; Maja Vukasinovic; Slavica Siler-Marinkovic; Milan Maksimovic

2007-01-01

40

Contribution of nutritional deficit to the pathogenesis of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome in critical illness: a rabbit model study.  

PubMed

Both starvation and critical illness are hallmarked by changes in circulating thyroid hormone parameters with typically low T(3) concentrations in the absence of elevated TSH. This constellation is labeled nonthyroidal illness (NTI). Because critical illness is often accompanied by anorexia and a failing gastrointestinal tract, the NTI of critical illness may be confounded by nutrient deficiency. In an experimental study performed in a rabbit model, we investigated the impact of nutritional deficit on the NTI of sustained critical illness. Critically ill rabbits were randomly allocated to parenteral nutrition (moderate dose 270 kcal/d) initiated on the day after injury and continued until d 7 of illness or to infusing a similar volume of dextrose 1.4% (14 kcal/d). With early parenteral nutrition during illness, the decrease in serum T(3) observed with fasting was reversed, whereas the fall in T(4) was not significantly affected. The rise in T(3) with parenteral nutrition paralleled an increase of liver and kidney type-1 and a decrease of liver and kidney type-3 deiodinase activity and an increase in circulating and central leptin. Nuclear staining of constitutive androstane receptor and its downstream expression of sulfotransferases were reduced in fasting ill animals. TRH expression in the hypothalamus was not different in fasted and fed ill rabbits, although circulating TSH levels were higher with feeding. In conclusion, in this rabbit model of sustained critical illness, reduced circulating T(3), but not T(4), levels could be prevented by parenteral nutrition, which may be mediated by leptin and its actions on tissue deiodinase activity. PMID:22166982

Mebis, Liese; Eerdekens, An; Güiza, Fabian; Princen, Leslie; Derde, Sarah; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

2012-02-01

41

Nutritional contribution of lean beef in diets of children (9-13 Years): National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2004  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

NHANES, 1999-2004, 24-hr dietary recalls were used to examine the contribution of Lean Beef (LB) to total nutrient intake in diets of children 9-13 years (n=3,273), and determine dietary intake differences between LB consumers and non-consumers. LB was defined by MyPyramid Equivalents Database as be...

42

The nutritional contribution of males affects the feeding behavior and spatial distribution of females in a bruchid beetle, Bruchidius dorsalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the quality\\/quantity of male investment and the feeding behavior of females was investigated in a\\u000a bruchid weevil, Bruchidius dorsalis (Fahraeus), whose males donate nutrition via seminal fluid to females. Experiments on the effect of feeding regimes of both\\u000a sexes on the mating frequency of females showed that females mated at a higher frequency if given low-quality food

Koh-ichi Takakura

2004-01-01

43

Contributions to the botany and nutritional value of some wild amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae) of Nuevo leon, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and plants of Amaranthus have been a source of food for many cultures in the world. Some species can be found as weeds\\u000a or growing wild under severe climatic and soil conditions, but their potential as food sources has not been studied. The objective\\u000a of this work was to study the nutritional quality of four wild species ofAmaranthus,A. retroflexus

Pedro Wesche-Ebeling; Ratikanta Maiti; Graciela García-Díaz; Diana I. González; Fernando Sosa-Alvarado

1995-01-01

44

The Contribution of Organic Food Production to Sustainable Nutrition: A Case Study on the Organic Niche Market in Eastern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Healthy and tasty nutrition in sufficient quantities is a basic human need. The ways in which we eat and drink are part of\\u000a human culture. At the same time, the production of food is closely linked with the natural environment and ecological cycles,\\u000a demonstrating our dependence on nature. Altogether, food production and consumption form a complex system that is an

Benjamin Nölting

45

Effect of temperature on antioxidant enzyme gene expression and stress protein response in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most important economic species in shrimp farming and are frequently exposed to multiple stressors (including temperature) in aquaculture. The differential expression of seven genes encoding antioxidant enzymes and stressor biomarkers was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR in haemocytes and hepatopancreas and gill extracted from L. vannamei following acute temperature stress. Temperature

Jun Zhou; Lei Wang; Yu Xin; Wei-Na Wang; Wen-Yin He; An-Li Wang; Yuan Liu

2010-01-01

46

Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure  

PubMed Central

White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96?h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96?h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C.; Velarde-Montes, Germán J.; García-de la Parra, Luz M.; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F.; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G.

2014-01-01

47

Haemophilus responses to nutritional immunity: epigenetic and morphological contribution to biofilm architecture, invasion, persistence and disease severity.  

PubMed

In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. PMID:24130500

Szelestey, Blake R; Heimlich, Derek R; Raffel, Forrest K; Justice, Sheryl S; Mason, Kevin M

2013-01-01

48

Haemophilus Responses to Nutritional Immunity: Epigenetic and Morphological Contribution to Biofilm Architecture, Invasion, Persistence and Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. PMID:24130500

Szelestey, Blake R.; Heimlich, Derek R.; Raffel, Forrest K.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Mason, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

49

Litopenaeus vannamei NF-?B is required for WSSV replication.  

PubMed

Many viruses can hijack the host cell NF-?B as part of their life cycle, diverting NF-?B immune regulatory functions to favor their replications. There were several reports on the functions of Litopenaeus vannamei NF-?B (LvNF-?B) in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication in vitro. Here, we studied the relationship between LvNF-?B family protein Dorsal (LvDorsal) and Relish (LvRelish) with WSSV replication in vivo. The expressions of LvDorsal and LvRelish were significantly upregulated by WSSV challenge. Virus loads and expression of viral envelope protein VP28 in LvDorsal or LvRelish silencing shrimps were significantly lower than the control shrimps injected with EGFP-dsRNA or PBS after challenge with 1×10(5) copies WSSV/shrimp. In addition to the LvDorsal activation of WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter that we have reported, LvRelish can also activate WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter by dual luciferase reporter assays through screening 40 WSSV gene promoters that have putative multiple NF-?B binding sites. The promoter activity of the WSV069 (ie1) by LvDorsal activation was significantly higher than that by LvRelish activation. WSSV replication in LvDorsal, LvRelish or WSV303 silencing shrimps were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that the L. vannamei NF-?B family proteins LvDorsal and LvRelish expressions are significantly activated by WSSV challenge and WSSV replication partially relied on the activations of LvDorsal and LvRelish in vivo. PMID:24607287

Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wang, Pei-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Li, Chao-zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Fan, Wen-Zhou; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; FrancisChan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo

2014-07-01

50

Microbiological Investigation of Persistent Mortalities in Litopenaeus vannamei Grown in Low Saline Waters in India.  

PubMed

Abstract Microbial diseases are a serious hindrance to successful shrimp aquaculture. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is an exotic species recently introduced in India to supplement the failing aquaculture of the Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon due to viral diseases. However, after a brief initial success, the aquaculture of L. vannamei is also experiencing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In this study, we conducted a microbiological investigation into the problem of persistent mortalities in selected L. vannamei farms on the southeastern coast of India. The infected shrimps were positive for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by a nested PCR, though no visible white spots were present on the animals. The shrimps were heavily colonized by Vibrio parahemolyticus, which were isolated from the hepatopancreas, gills, and the body surface. The pond water, despite being low saline groundwater, harbored large numbers of V. parahemolyticus and other Vibrio species, and V. parahemolyticus isolated from L. vannamei were resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins. Our results strongly suggest that the persistent mortalities of L. vannamei were due to a co-infection by V. parahemolyticus and WSSV. Received December 16, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014. PMID:25229486

Sanathkumar, Hirekudel; Ravi, Charan; Padinhatupurayil, Suresh Babu; Mol, Mini; Prasad, Jilagam Krishna; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

2014-09-01

51

Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptome Using the Next-Generation DNA Sequencing Technique  

PubMed Central

Background Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the major species of farmed shrimps in the world, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. The now available transcriptome data of L. vannamei are insufficient for research requirements, and have not been adequately assembled and annotated. Methodology/Principal Findings This is the first study that used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Solexa/Illumina GA II method, to analyze the transcriptome from whole bodies of L. vannamei larvae. More than 2.4 Gb of raw data were generated, and 109,169 unigenes with a mean length of 396 bp were assembled using the SOAP denovo software. 73,505 unigenes (>200 bp) with good quality sequences were selected and subjected to annotation analysis, among which 37.80% can be matched in NCBI Nr database, 37.3% matched in Swissprot, and 44.1% matched in TrEMBL. Using BLAST and BLAST2Go softwares, 11,153 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) categories, 8171 unigenes were assigned into 51 Gene ontology (GO) functional groups, and 18,154 unigenes were divided into 220 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways. To primarily verify part of the results of assembly and annotations, 12 assembled unigenes that are homologous to many embryo development-related genes were chosen and subjected to RT-PCR for electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing analyses, and to real-time PCR for expression profile analyses during embryo development. Conclusions/Significance The L. vannamei transcriptome analyzed using the next-generation sequencing technique enriches the information of L. vannamei genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the genome background of crustaceans, and promote the studies on L. vannamei. PMID:23071809

Li, Chaozheng; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yonggui; Yu, Xiaoqiang; Lü, Ling; Zhang, Haiqing; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

52

Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

53

Acute toxicity of ammonia on Litopenaeus vannamei Boone juveniles at different salinity levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (total length 22±2.4 mm) were exposed to different concentrations of ammonia-N (un-ionized plus ionized ammonia as nitrogen), using the static renewal method at different salinity levels of 15‰, 25‰ and 35‰ at pH 8.05 and 23°C. The 24, 48, 72, 96 h LC50 values of ammonia-N on L. vannamei juveniles were 59.72, 40.58, 32.15, 24.39 mg l?1

Yong-Chin Lin; Jiann-Chu Chen

2001-01-01

54

Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

2011-03-01

55

Response of Penaeus vannamei to dietary protein level, protein source and polyculture  

E-print Network

(Colvin, 1976), P. 7~64' 9 (N , 1964; 1 , 1979), p. set'f 4 tt d 7 et 1. , 1979; F i, 1991), p. ~st 1( st is od P. vannamei (Fenucci, 1981), Palaemon serratus and Pa d 1 ~it os (F t d 9 Oe tt, 1971; F st 1972) and Procambrus clarkii (Nose, 1964). All...

Smith, Linda Louise

1988-01-01

56

Evaluating a quantitative methionine requirement for juvenile Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 10-wk feeding trial was conducted as a third study (all conducted in our laboratory) to determine a quantitative requirement of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei for sulfur amino acid methionine. Juvenile shrimp (mean weight 0.61 +/- 0.13 g) were reared in 110-L aquaria in a seawater recirculating sy...

57

A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P < 0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

2014-06-01

58

Hyperthermia reduces viral load of white spot syndrome virus in Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported that white spot syndrome virus-infected Penaeus van- namei (also called Litopenaeus vannamei) maintained at 32°C show higher survival rates and a sig- nificant increase in number of apoptotic cells when compared to infected shrimp kept at 26°C. As apoptosis plays an important part in the antiviral response of invertebrates, we hypothesized that this process would reduce

Clarissa B. Granja; Oscar M. Vidal; Gustavo Parra; Marcela Salazar

2006-01-01

59

Epidemiological Parameters of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infections in Litopenaeus vannamei and L. setiferus  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental protocol based on a mathematical epidemiology model was developed to study the transmission, virulence, and recovery rates of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV). Two modes of transmission were compared for WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei. We compared transmission by ingestion of infected cadavers to transmission by cohabitation with infected animals. In addition, we compared the ingestion transmission of WSSV

M. Andres Soto; Jeffrey M Lotz

2001-01-01

60

Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

Impact of Exposure to Bacteria on Metabolism in the Penaeid Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei DAVID A Carolina 29412 Abstract. We hypothesized that aggregation of bacteria and hemocytes at the gill, which was determined during the first 4 h after injection and after 24 h. Injection of bacteria decreased oxygen uptake

Burnett, Louis E.

61

Digital gene expression analysis in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to low salinity stress.  

PubMed

The white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has been greatly impacted by low salinity stress. To gain knowledge on the immune response in L. vannamei under such stress, we investigated digital gene expression (DEG) in L. vannamei hemocytes using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq 2000. In total, 38,155 high quality unigenes with average length 770 bp were generated; 145 and 79 genes were identified up- or down-regulated, respectively. Functional categorization and pathways of the differentially expressed genes revealed that immune signaling pathways, cellular immunity, humoral immunity, apoptosis, cellular protein synthesis, lipid transport and energy metabolism were the differentially regulated processes occurring during low salinity stress. These results will provide a resource for subsequent gene expression studies regarding environmental stress and a valuable gene information for a better understanding of immune mechanisms of L. vannamei under low salinity stress. PMID:25463292

Zhao, Qun; Pan, Luqing; Ren, Qin; Hu, Dongxu

2015-02-01

62

Adult nutrition assessment tutorial  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This tutorial presents a systematic approach to nutrition assessment based on a modern appreciation for the contributions of inflammation that serve as the foundation for newly proposed consensus definitions for malnutrition syndromes. Practical indicators of malnutrition and inflammation have been ...

63

Expansion of the Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon peptidomes using transcriptome shotgun assembly sequence data.  

PubMed

The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L. vannamei and P. monodon. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. vannamei and 25 P. monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L. vannamei and/or P. monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. vannamei and P. monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species. PMID:24787055

Christie, Andrew E

2014-09-15

64

SNP Discovery in the Transcriptome of White Pacific Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The application of next generation sequencing technology has greatly facilitated high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping in genetic research. In the present study, SNPs were discovered based on two transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) generated from Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000. One transcriptome of L. vannamei was obtained through sequencing on the RNA from larvae at mysis stage and its reference sequence was de novo assembled. The data from another transcriptome were downloaded from NCBI and the reads of the two transcriptomes were mapped separately to the assembled reference by BWA. SNP calling was performed using SAMtools. A total of 58,717 and 36,277 SNPs with high quality were predicted from the two transcriptomes, respectively. SNP calling was also performed using the reads of two transcriptomes together, and a total of 96,040 SNPs with high quality were predicted. Among these 96,040 SNPs, 5,242 and 29,129 were predicted as non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs respectively. Characterization analysis of the predicted SNPs in L. vannamei showed that the estimated SNP frequency was 0.21% (one SNP per 476 bp) and the estimated ratio for transition to transversion was 2.0. Fifty SNPs were randomly selected for validation by Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification and 76% of SNPs were confirmed, which indicated that the SNPs predicted in this study were reliable. These SNPs will be very useful for genetic study in L. vannamei, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies. PMID:24498047

Yu, Yang; Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

65

Cloning and expression of cathepsin l -like proteinases in the hepatopancreas of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei during the intermolt cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cysteine protease activities have been characterized with benzyloxycarbonyl-lysinep-nitrophenyl ester as a synthetic substrate and E64 as a specific inhibitor in the hepatopancreas of the shrimpPenaeus vannamei. An optimum pH of 5.1 has been measured. To characterize these cysteine proteases, a hepatopancreas cDNA library was screened\\u000a by hybridization to a Norway lobster cysteine protease cDNA fragment. Two cDNAs encodingP. vannamei cysteine

C. Le Boulay; A. Van Wormhoudt; D. Sellos

1996-01-01

66

Nutritional Methods  

MedlinePLUS

... Search for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Nutritional Methods Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements or diets ... for treating prostate cancer. Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Find Clinical Trials for Nutritional Methods Check for ...

67

The potential contribution of Iivestock to food and nutrition security: the application of the One Health approach in livestock policy and practice.  

PubMed

Animal products are critical to the nutrition,food security, livelihoods and resilience of hundreds of millions of people throughout the world. Livestock accounts for 40% of worldwide income from agriculture. Demand for animal products is set to continue increasing in the next three decades, as is their market price. If not carefully managed, a worldwide increase in the production of animal-derived products would increase pressure on natural resources (particularly water and land), significantly raising levels of dangerous greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the risk of people contracting zoonotic diseases. These realities are informing governments as they encourage the managed intensification of livestock production. They seek to do this in ways that take account of poorer people's contributions to the growth of rural economies. They look for ways to link together work on agricultural productivity, efficient food systems; infrastructure development; access to energy, water and affordable health care; and the sustenance of environmental services (including the mitigation of any further stimuli for changes in the global climate). Managed intensification of livestock production would also require long-term application of a One Health approach with its focus on mitigating health risks at the interfaces between animals and humans in different ecosystems. It will stimulate the joint working of multiple interests in pursuit of a common goal - ending hunger and malnutrition. The authors would like to see the One Health approach being incorporated within all nations' animal, environmental and public health policies and into the educational agendas of medical and veterinary undergraduate students. It must also be incorporated into preparedness, contingency planning, desk-top exercises and on-site simulations to get ready for the next mega disaster - no matter how improbable it might seem. PMID:25707178

Nabarro, D; Wannous, C

2014-08-01

68

Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns  

PubMed Central

Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

2014-01-01

69

A pilot metabolic profiling study in hepatopancreas of Litopenaeus vannamei with white spot syndrome virus based on ¹H NMR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus, which was a pathogen first found in 1992, had emerged globally affecting shrimp populations in aquaculture. Here, we comprehensively analyzed the metabolic changes of hepatopancreas from Litopenaeus vannamei which were infected with white spot syndrome virus by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Through the NOESYPR1D spectrum combined with multi-variate pattern recognition analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) models, significantly metabolic changes were observed in WSSV-infected groups compared with the control groups. In the first 48 h, ?-glucose and ?-glucose were higher in the WSSV-infected group. Meanwhile, acetate, lactate, N-acetyl glycoprotein signals, lysine, tyrosine and lipid were significantly decreased in the WSSV-infected group. These results suggest that WSSV caused absorption inhibition of amino acids and disturbed protein metabolism as well as cell metabolism in favor of its replication. Our findings could also contribute to further understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:25450952

Liu, Peng-fei; Liu, Qing-hui; Wu, Yin; Jie, Huang

2015-01-01

70

Construction and Characterization of a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Library of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is one of the most economically important marine aquaculture species in the world. To facilitate gene cloning and characterization,\\u000a genome analysis, physical mapping, and molecular selection breeding of marine shrimp, we have developed the techniques to\\u000a isolate high-quality megabase-sized DNA from hemocyte nuclear DNA of female shrimp and constructed a bacterial artificial\\u000a chromosome (BAC)

Xiaojun Zhang; Yang Zhang; Chantel Scheuring; Hong-Bin Zhang; Pin Huan; Bing Wang; Chengzhang Liu; Fuhua Li; Bin Liu; Jianhai Xiang

2010-01-01

71

Experimental broodstock diets as partial fresh food substitutes in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei B  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the first experiment, conducted in a research facility, Litopenaeus vannamei broodstock were fed either a 100% fresh food control treatment (FRE, consisting of frozen squid, oyster, mussel and enriched Artemia biomass in a 2.3:1.4:1.3:1 dry matter ratio) or one of the two treatments in which 50% (dry matter (DM)) of the fresh food was substituted with experimental artificial diets:

R. WOUTERS; B. ZAMBRANO; M. ESPIN; J. CALDERON; P. LAVENS; P. SORGELOOS

2002-01-01

72

Growth response and fatty acid composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei fed different sources of dietary lipid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipid on weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei. Seven semi-purified diets (35% protein and 3400 kcal of metabolizable energy kg?1) containing defatted, freeze-dried shrimp meal, 1.0% soybean lecithin and 0.5% cholesterol were supplemented with 6.5% of either stearic acid,

Chhorn Lim; Harry Ako; Christopher L. Brown; Kirk Hahn

1997-01-01

73

Antioxidant enzyme activities in Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) in response to environmental hypoxia and reoxygenation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia–reoxygenation represents a relevant physiological challenge for shrimp culture. The sudden input of oxygen (O2) after environmental hypoxia increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). It has been postulated that a relatively high activity of the main antioxidant enzymes allows several adapted invertebrate species to survive repetitive cycles of hypoxia–reoxygenation by counteracting ROS production and,

Delia Patricia Parrilla-Taylor; Tania Zenteno-Savín

2011-01-01

74

Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.  

PubMed

Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

2014-02-01

75

Immune gene expression for diverse haemocytes derived from pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

In this study, diverse haemocytes from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were spread by flow cytometer sorting system. Using the two commonly flow cytometric parameters FSC and SSC, the haemocytes could be divided into three populations. Microscopy observation of L. vannamei haemocytes in anticoagulant buffer revealed three morphologically distinct cell types designated as granular cell, hyaline cell and semigranular cell. Immune genes, which includes prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide-?-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin, crustin, lysozyme, penaeid-3a and transglutaminase (TGase), expressed from different haemocyte were analysed by quantitative real time PCR (qPCR). Results from the mRNA expression was estimated by relative level of each gene to ?-actin gene. Finally, the seven genes could be grouped by their dominant expression sites. ProPO, LGBP and peroxinectin were highly expressed in granular cells, while LGBP, crustin, lysozyme and P-3a were highly expressed in semigranular cells and TGase was highly expressed in hyaline cells. In this study, L. vannamei haemocytes were firstly grouped into three different types and the immune related genes expression in grouped haemocytes were estimated. PMID:25681751

Yang, Chih-Chiu; Lu, Chung-Lun; Chen, Sherwin; Liao, Wen-Liang; Chen, Shiu-Nan

2015-05-01

76

The detoxification process, bioaccumulation and damage effect in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to chrysene.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chrysene (CHR) on detoxification enzymes, bioaccumulation and effect of CHR on biomolecule damage in different organs of the juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed to CHR for 21 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.3, 2.1 and 14.7?g/L. Results showed that CHR bioaccumulation increased rapidly at first then reached a plateau. The activities of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT) and uridinediphosphate glucuronyltransferase (UGT) were induced and then became stable gradually. Moreover, 2.1 and 14.7?g/L CHR treatments increased activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in gills and hepatopancreas, while total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and GSH/GSSG were suppressed after CHR exposure. Additionally, lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels, protein carbonyl (PC) contents and DNA damage were induced throughout the exposure period, and different trends were detected with time of exposure. Overall, these novel findings of CHR bioaccumulation and resulted toxicity demonstrate that CHR could affect the physical status of L. vannamei. This study will form a solid basis for a realistic extrapolation scientific data for aquaculture water monitoring and food security. PMID:25600714

Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

2015-04-01

77

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating, or nutrition, environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. This article reports on the development and evaluation of measures of nutrition environments in retail food stores. Methods: The Nutrition Environment Measures Study developed observational measures of the nutrition environment within retail food stores (NEMS-S)

Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Brian E. Saelens; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

78

A low pulse food intake may contribute to the poor nutritional status and low dietary intakes of adolescent girls in rural southern ethiopia.  

PubMed

Poor nutrition in adolescent girls poses critical health risks on future pregnancy and birth outcomes especially in developing countries. Our purpose was to assess nutritional status and dietary intake of rural adolescent girls and determine pulse and food intake patterns associated with poor nutritional status. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in a traditional pulse growing region of southern Ethiopia on 188 girls between 15 to 19 years of age, with 70% being from food insecure families. Prevalence of stunting (30.9%) and underweight (13.3%) were associated with low food and nutrient intake. Diets were cereal-based, with both animal source foods and pulses rarely consumed. Improving dietary intakes of female adolescents with nutrient dense foods would ensure better health for themselves and for the next generation. PMID:25602600

Roba, Alemzewed C; Gabriel-Micheal, Kebebush; Zello, Gordon A; Jaffe, Joann; Whiting, Susan J; Henry, Carol J

2015-01-01

79

Nutrition Counter  

MedlinePLUS

... Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient AAKP Nutrition Counter: A Reference For The Kidney Patient Buy ... Harum RD, CSR, LD Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Miami, Florida Reviewed by: 2005 – Maria Karalis, MBA, ...

80

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

81

Mission Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...

swinward

2010-04-12

82

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

83

Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

84

Economic Research on the Joint Contributions of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) and Unemployment Insurance (UI) to the Nation's Social Safety Net  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers will analyze the interaction of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) caseloads and unemployment insurance (UI) benefits with participation in covered employment. Household composition dynamics of the caseloads will be examined and placed in the context of the business cycle. The project will demonstrate how analyses based on linked administrative data files can be replicated in other states.

OLeary Christopher J; HollenbeckKevin

2012-01-01

85

Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

2013-01-01

86

LvDJ-1 plays an important role in resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

DJ-1 was first identified as an oncogene that transformed mouse NIH3T3 cells in cooperation with activated Ras. It has since exhibited a variety of functions in a range of organisms. In this study, the DJ-1 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei (LvDJ-1) was identified and characterized. A recombinant protein LvDJ-1 was produced in Pichia pastoris. LvDJ-1 expression in vivo was knocked down by dsRNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi), which led to significantly decreased levels of LvDJ-1 mRNA and protein. When the L. vannamei were challenged with RNAi and Vibrio alginolyticus, the transcription and expression of copper zinc superoxide dismutase (LvCZSOD) in the hepatopancreas were dramatically lower in shrimp with knocked down LvDJ-1 than in controls. Transcription and expression of P53 (LvP53) were significantly higher in shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 than in controls. Hepatopancreas samples were analyzed using real time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Moreover, blood samples from the shrimp, assessed with flow cytometry, showed significant increases in respiratory burst and apoptosis in those lacking LvDJ-1 compared to the controls. Cumulative mortality in the shrimp lacking LvDJ-1 was significantly different from that in the control group after challenge with V. alginolyticus. Altogether, the results prove that LvDJ-1 regulates apoptosis and antioxidant activity, and that these functions play an important role in L. vannamei resistance against V. alginolyticus. PMID:25703712

Huang, Mingzhu; Liu, Yuan; Xie, Chenying; Wang, Wei-Na

2015-05-01

87

Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids. In this article, we report the first pathogenic spiroplasma to be discovered in shrimp and the results of its characterization through histological evaluation, in situ hybridization assays, transmission electron microscopy, 16S rRNA sequence homology, and injection infectivity studies. In addition, molecular methods are described that were developed for the detection of this microorganism, which was determined to be the causative disease agent in Colombian farm-raised Penaeus vannamei suffering from high mortalities. Using standard histological methods and in situ hybridization assays, it was confirmed that P. vannamei was infected with this pathogenic spiroplasma. Histological analysis revealed systemic inflammatory reactions in affected organs/tissues. In an attempt to identify the bacteria, frozen infected P. vannamei samples, from the initial epizootic, were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene and develop molecular detection methods. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The sequence data were analyzed using the GenBank BLAST search and the results revealed a 98% homology with Spiroplasma citri, a pathogen of citrus trees. The 16S rRNA sequence data were evaluated for development of unique PCR primers to the putative spiroplasma. Using PCR primers developed for the spiralin gene of Spiroplasma spp., a digoxigenin-labeled probe was developed and tested. This probe was species-specific, with no positive reactions or cross-reactivity occurring with other bacterial samples tested in this format. PMID:15672883

Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Salazar, Marcela; Aranguren, Fernando; Lightner, Donald V

2004-12-13

88

Pellino protein from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei positively regulates NF-?B activation.  

PubMed

Pellino, named after its property that binds Pelle (the Drosophila melanogaster homolog of IRAK1), is a highly conserved E3 class ubiquitin ligase in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Pellino interacts with phosphorylated IRAK1, causing polyubiquitination of IRAK1, and plays a critical upstream role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway. In this study, we firstly cloned and identified a crustacean Pellino from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPellino). LvPellino contains a putative N-terminal forkhead-associated (FHA) domain and a C-terminal ring finger (RING) domain with a potential E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity, and shows a high similarity with D. melanogaster Pellino. LvPellino could interact with L. vannamei Pelle (LvPelle) and over-expression of LvPellino could increase the activity of LvDorsal (a L. vannamei homolog of NF-?B) on promoters containing NF-?B binding motifs and enhance the expression of arthropod antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The LvPellino protein was located in the cytoplasm and nucleus and LvPellino mRNA was detected in all the tissues examined and could be up-regulated after lipopolysaccharides, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvPellino to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Knockdown of LvPellino in vivo could significantly decrease the expression of AMPs and increase the mortality of shrimps caused by V. parahaemolyticus challenge. However, suppression of the LvPellino expression could not change the mortality caused by WSSV infection, and dual-luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that over-expression of LvPellino could enhance the promoters of WSSV genes wsv069 (ie1), wsv303, and wsv371, indicating a complex role of LvPellino in WSSV pathogenesis and shrimp antiviral mechanisms. PMID:24463313

Li, Chaozheng; Chai, Jiaoting; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Wang, Sheng; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2014-06-01

89

Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The 2471-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2058 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 317-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (686 amino acids) was 78.1 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.02. It contained putative copper binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPQHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in white shrimp proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO is more closely related to the proPO of another penaeid than to that of a freshwater crayfish. White shrimp proPO mRNA was synthesized in haemocytes and not in the hepatopancreas or muscle. The activation responses of the proPO of the white shrimp to an exogenous protease (trypsin), a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and algal and microbial cell wall components (laminarin, sodium alginate, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide), and its susceptibility to protease inhibitors in vitro resemble the proPO activation system of other crustaceans. These facts suggest that the proPO system in haemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:15683918

Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

2005-05-01

90

Molecular characterization and functional analysis of Cactin gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Cactin (Cactus interactor) is a conserved protein which was initially discovered as a novel interactor of Drosophila IkB protein Cactus. Cactin was always characterized as a negative regulator of many different developmental processes, but only found to play an immune role in humans. To better know the immune function of Cactin gene, Litopenaeus vannamei Cactin (LvCactin) was identified and characterized in this study. The full-length cDNA of LvCactin is 3, 150 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a Cactin_mid domain in the N-terminus 356–547 residues and a CactinC_cactus domain in the C-terminal 731–855 residues. The LvCactin protein was located in the cytoplasm and LvCactin mRNA was constitutively expressed in healthy L. vannamei, with the highest expression level in the eyestalk. LvCactin could be regulated in hemocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvCactin inhibited the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Knockdown of LvCactin by RNA interference (RNAi) increased the expression of shrimp AMP genes PEN4, crustin and ALF2 but not Lyz2. However, the mortality rates of LvCactin-knockdown shrimp in response to V. parahaemolyticus or WSSV infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, all the results suggested that LvCactin may play a role in innate immune in L. vannamei. PMID:25462455

Zhang, Shuang; Shi, Lili; Yang, Qi-Hui; Dong, Xiao-Hui; Chi, Shu-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yu; Tan, Bei-Ping

2014-12-01

91

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

92

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

93

Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ?2 years (n?=?16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended consequence of lowering overall dietary quality. PMID:23927718

2013-01-01

94

Use of molasses as carbon source in limited discharge nursery and grow-out systems for Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased environmental regulations and loss of crops due to viral disease outbreaks have created a demand for productive, pathogen-free, efficient and sustainable shrimp production practices. These methods, for the most part, call for raising shrimp under limited, minimal, water exchange with careful monitoring of water quality. Two studies were conducted using the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to evaluate the

Tzachi M. Samocha; Susmita Patnaik; Mike Speed; Abdul-Mehdi Ali; Josh M. Burger; Rodrigo V. Almeida; Zarrein Ayub; Margasanto Harisanto; Ami Horowitz; David L. Brock

2007-01-01

95

Per os challenge of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles with six geographic isolates of white spot syndrome virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most important pathogens of penaeid shrimp. It is widely distributed in most Asian countries where penaeid shrimp are cultured, as well as in the Gulf of Mexico and SE USA. The virulence of six geographic isolates of WSSV was compared using Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae and Farfantepenaeus duorarum juveniles. The six geographic

Qiong Wang; Brenda L White; Rita M Redman; Donald V Lightner

1999-01-01

96

White spot syndrome virus infection in cultured Penaeus vannamei (Boone) in Ecuador with emphasis on histopathology and ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mortalities of cultured shrimp, Penaeus vannamei (Boone), induced by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) have occurred in Ecuador since May 1999. Three epidemiological surveys in Ecuadorian farms were carried out and showed an apparent associ- ation between lower temperature and increased mortality rates in commercial ponds. Infected ani- mals showed a reddish discolouration and lethargy and occasionally, white spots in

J Rodriguez; B Bayot; Y Amano; F Panchana; I de Blas; V Alday; J Calderon

2003-01-01

97

Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

98

Apparent digestibility of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acid in marine feedstuffs for juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent protein and amino acid digestibility coefficients of feedstuffs are needed for more accurate, environmentally friendly, and economical feed formulations for shrimp. Coefficients of digestibility of nine feedstuffs of marine origin were measured, in terms of apparent dry matter, protein, and essential amino acid, for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using 1% chromic oxide as the inert marker. The tested

Martín Terrazas-Fierro; Roberto Civera-Cerecedo; Lilia Ibarra-Martínez; Ernesto Goytortúa-Bores; Margarita Herrera-Andrade; Armando Reyes-Becerra

2010-01-01

99

Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.

100

Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts  

PubMed Central

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean

1999-01-01

101

Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts.  

PubMed

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

Vandenberghe, J; Verdonck, L; Robles-Arozarena, R; Rivera, G; Bolland, A; Balladares, M; Gomez-Gil, B; Calderon, J; Sorgeloos, P; Swings, J

1999-06-01

102

Identification and functional analysis of a Hemolin like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Hemolin is a specific immune protein belonging to immunoglobulin superfamily and firstly identified in insects. Growing evidences suggest that Hemolin can be activated by bacterial and viral infections and may play an important role in antimicrobial immunity. In this paper, we firstly identified a Hemolin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvHemolin). Sequence analysis showed that LvHemolin shares high similarity with insect Hemolins and is mainly composed of seven immunoglobulin (Ig) domains which form a 'horseshoe' tertiary structure. Tissue distribution analysis demonstrated that LvHemolin mainly expressed in stomach, gill, epithelium and pyloric cecum of L. vannamei. After challenge with pathogens or stimulants, expression of LvHemolin was significantly up-regulated in both gill and stomach. Agglutination analysis demonstrated that recombinant LvHemolin protein purified from Escherichia coli could accelerate the agglutination of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis in the presence of Ca(2+). To verify the immune function of LvHemolin in vivo, shrimps were injected with gene-specific dsRNA, followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) or V. parahaemolyticus. The results revealed that silence of LvHemolin could increase the cumulative mortalities of shrimps challenged by pathogens and increase the WSSV copies in shrimp tissues. These suggested that Hemolin could play an important role in shrimp innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections. PMID:25527138

Zuo, Hongliang; Li, Haoyang; Wei, Erman; Su, Ziqi; Zheng, Jieyao; Li, Chaozheng; Chen, Yonggui; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2015-03-01

103

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-01-01

104

Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil  

PubMed Central

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers. PMID:24031604

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria José; Massa Lima, Débora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria

2011-01-01

105

Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

2013-05-01

106

Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

2014-08-01

107

Transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis of protein hydrolysates from the white shrimp (L. vannamei).  

PubMed

An RNAseq approach associated to mass spectrometry was conducted to assess the composition, molecular mass distribution and primary sequence of hydrolytic peptides issued from hydrolysates of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-products. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses indicated that 69.2% of the 214-nm-absorbing components had apparent molecular masses below 1000 Da, and 88.3% below 2000 Da. OFFGEL-nLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF and nLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 808 peptides based on the NCBI EST databank (161,397 entries) completed by the new L. vannamei databank (58,508 entries) that we created from the RNAs of tissues used for hydrolysate production. Whereas most of hydrolytic peptides have a MW below 2000 Da, preliminary investigations of antimicrobial properties revealed three antibacterial fractions that demonstrate functional activities. The abundance of small peptides as well as the biological activities detected could imply very interesting applications for shrimp hydrolysate in the field of aquaculture feeding. PMID:24998765

Robert, Marie; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Fournier, Vincent; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Henry, Joël

2014-09-30

108

White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

2013-12-01

109

Sports Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide deals with various aspects of sports and nutrition. Twelve chapters are included: (1) "Sports and Nutrition"; (2) "Eat to Compete"; (3) "Fit Folks Need Fit Food"; (4) "The Food Guide Pyramid"; (5) "Fat Finder's Guide"; (6) "Pre- and Post-Event Meals"; (7) "Tips for the Diabetic Athlete"; (8) "Pinning Down Your Optimal Weight"; (9)…

Missouri State Dept. of Health, Jefferson City.

110

Nutritional Epidemiology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

111

Nutrition Cafe  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed jointly by the Pacific Science Center and the Washington State Dairy Council, Nutrition Cafe offers students three interactive games to explore the world of nutrition. The first game, Nutrient Sleuth, is an entertaining hangman-style game where students try to discover what nutrients different characters are missing based on clues and letter guesses. Another enjoyable offering is Grab A Grape, a Jeopardy-style game where site visitors try to match nutrition-related questions with answers, e.g. Question: What Are Contained in All Foods? Answer: Calories. In addition, the site links to a few other nutrition-related resources such as Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the USDA and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Site visitors are given a choice between Flash and non-Flash versions of the Nutrition Cafe.

112

Nutritional Science  

Cancer.gov

This group plans, develops, directs, and coordinates external research programs in diet and nutrition, including micronutrients as modifiers of cancer risk and tumor behavior, to help establish a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of bioactive food components.

113

Parenteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral nutrition becomes necessary when the gastrointestinal tract has insufficient function as to afford sufficient fluid,\\u000a electrolyte and nutrient absorption. Indications for this therapy include prolonged postoperative ileus, prolonged intestinal\\u000a obstruction, short bowel syndrome, various malabsorptive disorders, proximal enteric fistulas for which an enteral feeding\\u000a tube cannot be placed distal to, severe acute pancreatitis and severe mucositis\\/esophagitis. Parenteral nutrition, although

Christian S. Jackson; Alan L. Buchman

114

Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.

2009-01-01

115

Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection  

PubMed Central

The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

2015-01-01

116

Hsp70 expression in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in response to IHHNV and WSSV infection.  

PubMed

The effects of environmental changes, on non-target organisms may impact and bring consequences at the molecular level in marine organisms. There is a lack of data supporting the hypothesis according to which environmental stress modulates the immune system, leading to an increased susceptibility to infectious agents in shrimps. The present study was focused on changes occurring in cellular defense proteins in Litopenaeus vannamei infected by virus infection hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis (IHHNV) and white spot syndrome (WSSV). Western blot analysis was used to evaluate expression of protein Hsp70, in gill tissue. Up-regulation levels were supported by immune detection analysis, suggesting that IHHNV and WSSV-shrimp infection promotes changes in the expression of these proteins. PMID:25674619

Valentim-Neto, Pedro A; Moser, Juliana R; Fraga, Ana P M; Marques, Maria R F

2014-12-01

117

Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

PubMed Central

An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

2010-01-01

118

Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

2012-12-01

119

White spot syndrome virus VP51 interact with ribosomal protein L7 of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The interaction between viral structural proteins and host plays key functions in viral infection. In previous studies, most research have been undertaken to explore the interaction of envelope structural proteins with host molecules. However, how the nucleocapsid proteins of WSSV interacted with host molecules remained largely unknown. In this study, the interaction of nucleocapsid protein VP51 and ribosomal protein L7 of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvRPL7) was reported. Furthermore, the mRNA transcriptional response of LvRPL7 to WSSV was investigated. The results showed that LvRPL7 was widely distributed in all analyzed tissues of L. vannamei. The high expression levels of LvRPL7 were found in the tissues of muscle and gills. The temporal expression of LvRPL7 in WSSV-challenged shrimp showed that LvRPL7 was up-regulated (P < 0.5) in the muscle at 8 h and 24 h post WSSV challenge and then restored to the normal levels. But the LvRPL7 expression was up-regulated (P < 0.5) in the hepatopancreas at 8 h post WSSV challenge and down-regulated at 12 h and 24 h post WSSV challenge. Indirect immunofluorescence assay indicated that LvRPL7 was mainly located on the surface and cytoplasm of hemocytes. Far-Western blotting showed that VP51 bound with LvRPL7. Moreover, ELISA results appeared that LvRPL7 interacted with VP51 in concentration dependent manner. Neutralization assay in vivo showed that anti-LvRPL7 antibody significantly delayed WSSV infection. Our results reveal that LvRPL7 was involved in WSSV infection. PMID:25736720

Liu, Qing-Hui; Ma, Fang-Fang; Guan, Guang-Kuo; Wang, Xiu-Fang; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2015-05-01

120

Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

Wahlqvist, M L

1993-09-01

121

Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg7-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species. PMID:19852991

Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L.; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H.; Malecha, Spencer R.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

2009-01-01

122

Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. PMID:25449376

Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

2015-01-01

123

The microbial flora of pond-reared shrimp (Penaeus stylirostris, P. setiferus, P. vannamei, and Macrobrachium rosenbergii)  

E-print Network

THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF POND-REARED SHRIMP (PENAEUS STYLIROSTRIS, P. SETIFERUS, P. VANNAMEI, AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERQII) A Thesis Frank Mitchell Christopher Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1976 Major Subjectc Microbiology THE MICROBIAL FLORA OF POND-REARED SHRIMP ( PENAEUS STYLI ROSTR I S P SET I FERUS ~ P VANNAME I y AND MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGII ) A Thesis Frank Mitchell...

Christopher, Frank Mitchell

1976-01-01

124

The Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei , in Asia: The World’s Most Widely Cultured Alien Crustacean  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is native to the western Pacific coast of Latin America, from Peru to Mexico where water temperatures are normally over\\u000a 20oC throughout the year. It was introduced into Asia experimentally from 1978 to 1979, but commercially only since 1996 into\\u000a Taiwan and China and subsequently to several countries in southeast and south Asia. In

I Chiu Liao; Yew-Hu Chien

125

Effect of dietary traditional Chinese medicines on apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of crude protein (CP), lipid, phosphorus, essential amino acids (EAA), non-essential amino acids (NEAA) and fatty acids were determined for white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). One type of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comprising a mixture of equal proportions of six herbs and plant materials was used at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 8.0 g kg?1 in

Hei-Zhao Lin; Zhuo-Jia Li; Yong-Qing Chen; Wen-Hui Zheng; Keng Yang

2006-01-01

126

Fish meal replacement with rice protein concentrate in a practical diet for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931  

Microsoft Academic Search

Replacement of fish meal (FM) with rice protein concentrate (RPC) as a practical diet for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was evaluated. Five isonitrogenous (36.6% protein) diets, formulated by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of FM by RPC,\\u000a were fed to shrimp (initial weight of 6.99 ± 0.08 g) five times daily to satiation for 60 days. Relatively high final weight

Amin Oujifard; Jafar Seyfabadi; Abdolmohammad Abedian Kenari; Masood Rezaei

127

Effects of salinity and pH on ion-transport enzyme activities, survival and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of the salinity and pH on ion-transport enzyme activities, survival and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae were investigated. Shrimp were transferred from salinity 31‰ and pH 8.1 to different salinity levels of 22, 25, 28, 31 (control), and to different pH levels of 7.1, 7.6, 8.1 (control), 8.6 and 9.1. The results showed ion-transport enzyme activities and weight gains

Lu-Qing Pan; Lin-Juan Zhang; Hong-Yu Liu

2007-01-01

128

Identification and Function of Leucine-Rich Repeat Flightless-I-Interacting Protein 2 (LRRFIP2) in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression. PMID:23468989

Zhang, Shuang; Yan, Hui; Li, Chao-Zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Feng-hua; Chen, Yong-gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

129

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer; Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

130

Nutritional Needs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The dramatic growth of infants during the 1st yr of life (a 3-fold increase in weight; a 50% increase in length) and continued growth, albeit at lower rates, from 1 yr of age through adolescence impose unique nutritional needs. The needs for growth are superimposed on relatively high maintenance nee...

131

The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

132

Seminar in Nutrition "Nutrition and Politics"  

E-print Network

and politics: Part 2 Unit 3 Food aid: World Food Program, North Korea 2/13 Intersection of nutrition and politics: Part 3 Unit 4 Food assistance: SNAP, World Bank, Haiti 2/20 Intersection of nutritionSeminar in Nutrition "Nutrition and Politics" Thursday 2:00 ­ 3:30pm Davison 216 Instructor: Daniel

Chen, Kuang-Yu

133

The Russell Nutrition Nutrition & Cognitive Function  

E-print Network

The Russell Nutrition Symposium Nutrition & Cognitive Function Throughout the Life-Span October 24.D., Professor, Department of Neurobiology, Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences, Northwestern University Title and Biological Sciences, The Department of Nutritional Sciences, and The New Jersey Institute for Food, Nutrition

Jornsten, Rebecka

134

The involvement of bacterial quorum sensing in the spoilage of refrigerated Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Quorum-sensing signals in refrigerated shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) undergoing spoilage were examined using bioreporter assays, thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the results revealed the presence of three types of autoinducers including acetylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) (i.e., N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone, N-oxohexanoyl-homoserine lactone and N-octanoyl-homoserine lactone), autoinducer-2, and cyclic dipeptides (i.e., cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe)). Autoinducer-2, rather than any AHL, was detected in extracts from pure cultures of the specific spoilage organisms (SSO), i.e., Shewanella putrefaciens (SS01) and Shewanella baltica (SA02). As for the cyclic peptides, only SA02 was determined to produce cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu). According to the transcription levels of LuxR (the master quorum-sensing regulator) in the SSO in response to exogenous autoinducers, the SSO could sense AHLs and cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu), rather than autoinducer-2, cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). In accordance with the results of LuxR expression, the production of biofilm matrixes and extracellular proteases in the SSO was regulated by exogenous AHLs and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu), rather than 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the autoinducer-2 precursor), cyclo-(L-Leu-L-Leu) and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe). Exogenous N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) increased the growth rates and population percentages of the SSO in shrimp samples under refrigerated storage, and interestingly, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione also increased the population percentages of the SSO in vivo by inhibiting the growth of the competing bacteria. However, according to the levels of TVB-N and the volatile organic components in the shrimp samples, exogenous 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione did not accelerate the shrimp spoilage process as N-hexanoyl-homoserine lactone and cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Leu) did. In summary, our results suggest that quorum sensing involves the spoilage of refrigerated Litopenaeus vannamei. PMID:25305441

Zhu, Suqin; Wu, Haohao; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying; Wang, Ying

2015-01-01

135

Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge technology using nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae can improve productivity of white shrimp by increasing the biomass and maintaining a stable water quality especially ammonium concentration.

Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

2014-03-01

136

Nutrition Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.

137

Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.

2010-01-01

138

Pediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

This article discusses pediatric nutrition in puppies and kittens. Supplementation of basic nutrients such as fat, protein, minerals, vitamins, and essential fatty acids of the bitch is essential for the proper growth and development of puppies during the lactation period. Milk replacers are compared for use in puppies and kittens. Supplements such as colostrum and probiotics for promotion of a healthy immune system and prevention or treatment of stress-induced and weaning diarrhea are also discussed. PMID:24580990

Greco, Deborah S

2014-03-01

139

Molecular nutrition research: the modern way of performing nutritional science.  

PubMed

In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid Merethe Fange; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Langleite, Torgrim M; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C; Drevon, Christian A

2012-12-01

140

45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES...ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND...Early Childhood Development and Health...1304.23 Child nutrition...contribute to the development and socialization of enrolled children by...

2010-10-01

141

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

Maternal and Child nutrition Earn an advanced degree in a highly specialized field Taught #12;Courses: Nutrition During Pregnancy Lactation and Infant Nutrition Child and Adolescent Nutrition Applied Research Methods in Maternal and Child Nutrition Topics in Epidemiology of Maternal and Child

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

142

PREGNANCY NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PNSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...

143

A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-11-01

144

Metabolism of amino acids during hyposmotic adaptation in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The penaeid prawn, Litopenaeus vannamei, was employed to investigate intracellular isosmotic regulation in situations where invertebrates encounter hyposmosis. Hemolymph osmolality was first analyzed to confirm osmoregulatory conditions in the experimental animals, followed by analysis of amino acids in muscle and hemolymph using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total muscle amino acid levels decreased when hemolymph osmolality was extremely low, whereas glycine and L-serine levels increased in the hemolymph. These results suggest that tissue amino acids were released into the hemolymph to lower the osmolality of the tissues for purposes of low-salinity adaptation. Next, oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates were examined, and the O/N ratio was determined. Oxygen consumption levels and ammonia excretion rates increased, and the O/N ratio decreased when the animals were exposed to low salinity. These results suggest that amino acids were abundantly consumed as an energy source when animals were exposed to low salinity. To confirm the consumption of particular amino acids, the specific activity of L-serine ammonia lyase was also examined. Specific activity was highest when L-serine levels in the hemolymph were highest. Thus, it appears that L-serine levels increased under hyposmotic conditions due to the consumption of L-serine as an energy source. It was concluded that particular amino acids as osmolytes are likely metabolized as energy sources and consumed for purposes of hyposmotic adaptation. PMID:22418866

Shinji, Junpei; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Jayasankar, Vidya; Jasmani, Safiah; Wilder, Marcy N

2012-11-01

145

Mercury accumulation and metallothionein expression from aquafeeds by Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 under intensive aquaculture conditions.  

PubMed

This study describes the accumulation of Hg and metallothionein gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 with aquafeeds as the major source of Hg. Trials were conducted under controlled conditions in experimental tank facilities with high (indoor tanks) and low (outdoor tanks) Hg aquafeeds concentrations. Aquafeeds were the sole source of Hg for the shrimps and concentrations varied from 5.4 to 124 ng.g-1 d.w.. In the three animal fractions analysed; muscle (6,3 - 15,9 ng.g-1); hepatopancreas (5,1 - 22,0 ng.g-1) and exoskeleton (3,0 - 16,2 ng.g-1), Hg concentrations were significantly lower in the outdoor trials submitted to Hg-poor aquafeeds. Maximum shrimp muscle Hg concentrations were low (36.4 ng.g-1 w.w.) relative to maximum permissible concentrations for human consumption and Hg content in muscle and hepatopancreas were significantly correlated with Hg content in aquafeeds. Highest Hg concentrations in the exoskeleton of animals exposed to Hg-richer aquafeed, suggested that a detoxification mechanism is taking place. On the other hand the metallothionein suffered no variation in its relative expression in any of the experiments, meaning that the contact with feed containing the observed Hg concentrations were not sufficient to activate gene transcription. It was not possible, under the experimental design used, to infer Hg effects on the biological performance of the animals. PMID:21437409

Soares, T M; Coutinho, D A; Lacerda, L D; Moraes, M O; Rebelo, M F

2011-02-01

146

Identification of a JAK/STAT pathway receptor domeless from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway was known to participate in dozens of immune responses in organisms. Domeless, first identified in Drosophila melanogaster, is a unique receptor involved in invertebrate JAK/STAT pathway. In this study, a cytokine receptor (LvDOME) was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvDOME cDNA was 5178bp in length with an Open Reading Frame (ORF) of 4191bp. LvDOME contained two cytokine binding modules (CBMs) and three fibronectin-type-III-like (FNIII) domains, similar to most vertebrate IL-6 receptors. LvDOME was expressed highest in shrimp muscle and could be up-regulated in the late stage of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. LvDOME could significantly enhance the activity of the WSSV wsv069 gene promoter through acting on the STAT-binding motif, suggesting LvDOME could activate the JAK/STAT pathway. Moreover, knockdown of LvDOME resulted in lower cumulative mortality of shrimps and less WSSV copies, suggesting LvDOME may be hijacked by WSSV to benefit virus replication. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the receptor of JAK/STAT pathway in shrimp. PMID:25659232

Yan, Muting; Li, Chaozheng; Su, Ziqi; Liang, Qianhui; Li, Haoyang; Liang, Shizhong; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2015-05-01

147

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

148

One type of VEGFR is involved in WSSV infection to the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

VEGF signaling pathway plays vital roles in many physiological processes including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival, cell-cell communication, vessel permeability and virus-host interaction in mammalian species. However, the VEGF signaling pathway and its biological function are still poorly understood in crustaceans. In the present study, an essential member of VEGF signaling pathway, VEGF receptor (LvVEGFR), was isolated from Penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its function during virus infection was analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR possessed all common features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including a signal peptide, six IG-like domains, one immunoglobulin subtype 2 domain, a transmembrane domain, a juxtamembrane domain, a protein kinase domain separated by a kinase insert sequence, one ATP binding site and one tyrosine-protein kinase active site. LvVEGFR is mainly expressed in hemocytes and intestine. The transcriptional level of LvVEGFR could be obviously up-regulated in hemocytes and intestine after WSSV infection. Silencing of LvVEGFR gene by double-strand RNA (dsRNA) interference could not only lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV infected shrimp, but also reduce the mortality of shrimp during WSSV infection. These data suggested that VEGF signaling pathway might play an important role during viral infection to shrimp. PMID:25576099

Li, Shihao; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2015-05-01

149

Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

150

Effect of Thermal Processing on Astaxanthin and Astaxanthin Esters in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The red color of processed shrimp, one of the most attractive attributes and an important criterion for consumers, is often limited by thermal processing (microwaving, boiling and frying), due to astaxanthin degradation. The effect of thermal processing on astaxanthin in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. A High-performance liquid chromatographic - atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (LC-(APCI)-MS/MS) method was used to identify and quantify all-trans- and cis-isomers of astaxanthin, and molecular species of astaxanthin esters in fresh and thermal processed shrimps. Total astaxanthin loss ranged from 7.99% to 52.01% in first 3 min under three thermal processing. All-trans-astaxanthin was most affected, with a reduction from 32.81 to 8.72 ?g kg(-1), while 13-cis-astxanthin had a rise (from 2.38 to 4.58 ?g kg(-1)). Esterified astaxanthin was shown to hydrolyze and degrade, furthermore astaxanthin diesters had a better thermostability compare to astaxanthin monoesters. Astaxanthin monoesters with eicosapntemacnioc acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6), had a lower thermal stability than those with saturated fatty acids, however, it was the opposite of astaxanthin diesters. The findings suggested that the method of thermal processing should be carefully used in the manufacturing and domestic cooking of shrimps. The results also could be useful in calculating the dietary intake of astaxanthin and in assessing astaxanthin profiles and contents of shrimp containing products. PMID:25757428

Yang, Shu; Zhou, Qingxin; Yang, Lu; Xue, Yong; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu

2015-03-01

151

Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil  

PubMed Central

Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14–0.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain. PMID:24031779

de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, André Felipe das Mercês; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

2011-01-01

152

Nutrition and psoriasis.  

PubMed

Nutritional supplementation may provide a viable treatment alternative in patients with psoriasis. Randomized, controlled trials have shown the effectiveness of topical vitamin A and D derivatives, intravenous ?-3 fatty acids, oral inositol, and various combined therapies. Dual therapies of ultraviolet B phototherapy and fish oil, retinoids and thiazolidinediones, and cyclosporine and a low-calorie diet were effective in the treatment of psoriasis in randomized, controlled trials. This contribution also reviews the potential negative effect of alcohol and the potential positive effects of vitamin B(12), selenium, retinoic acid metabolism-blocking agents, and a gluten-free diet in the treatment of psoriasis. PMID:21034986

Ricketts, Janelle R; Rothe, Marti J; Grant-Kels, Jane M

2010-01-01

153

Flightless-I (FliI) is a potential negative regulator of the Toll pathway in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Flightless-I (FliI) is a protein negatively modulates the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway through interacting with Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). To investigate the function of FliI in innate immune responses in invertebrates, Litopenaeus vannamei FliI (LvFliI) was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvFliI is 4, 304 bp long, with an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative protein of 1292 amino acids, including 12 leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains at the N-terminus and 6 gelsolin homology (GEL) domains at the C-terminus. The LvFliI protein was located in the cytoplasm and LvFliI mRNA was constitutively expressed in healthy L. vannamei, with the highest expression level in the muscle. LvFliI could be up-regulated in hemocytes after lipopolysaccharide (LPS), poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting a stimulation response of LvFliI to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Upon LPS stimulation, overexpression of LvFliI in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to downregulation of Drosophila and shrimp antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes. Knockdown of LvFliI by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in an increase of the expression of three shrimp AMP genes (PEN2, crustin, and Lyz1). However, the mortality rates of LvFliI-knockdown shrimp in response to V. parahaemolyticus, S. aureus or WSSV infections were not significantly different from those of the control group. Taken together, all the results suggested that LvFliI may play a negative role in TLR signaling response in L. vannamei. PMID:25449702

Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-gui; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Li, Chao-Zheng; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2015-02-01

154

An activating transcription factor of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in WSSV genes Wsv059 and Wsv166 regulation.  

PubMed

Members of activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate response element binding protein (ATF/CREB) family are induced by various stress signals and function as effector molecules. Consequently, cellular changes occur in response to discrete sets of instructions. In this work, we found an ATF transcription factor in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvATF?. The full-length cDNA of LvATF? was 1388 bp long with an open reading frame of 939 bp that encoded a putative 313 amino acid protein. The protein contained a basic region-leucine zipper (bZip) domain that was a common feature among ATF/CREB transcription factors. LvATF? was highly expressed in intestines, gills, and heart. LvATF? expression was dramatically upregulated by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Pull-down assay revealed that LvATF? had strong affinity to promoters of WSSV genes, namely, wsv059 and wsv166. Dual-luciferase reporter assay showed that LvATF? could upregulate the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. Knocked down LvATF? resulted in decreased expression of wsv059 and wsv166 in WSSV-challenged L. vannamei. Knocked down expression of wsv059 and wsv166 by RNA interference inhibited the replication and reduce the mortality of L. vannamei during WSSV challenge inoculation. The copy numbers of WSSV in wsv059 and wsv166 knocked down group were significant lower than in the control. These results suggested that LvATF? may be involved in WSSV replication by regulating the expression of wsv059 and wsv166. PMID:25172110

Li, Xiao-Yun; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Bi, Hai-Tao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Chan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

2014-12-01

155

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

156

Nutrition.gov  

MedlinePLUS

... online access to government information on food and human nutrition for consumers. A service of the National Agricultural ... scientists at USDA's Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center (BHNRC) in Beltsville, Maryland. Nutrition.gov ...

157

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...

158

Nutrition for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle during space flight. Omega3 fatty acids are currently being studied as a means of protecting against radiation-induced cancer. They have also recently been implicated as having a role in mitigating the physical wasting, or cachexia, caused by cancer. The mechanism of muscle loss associated with this type of cachexia is similar to the mechanism of muscle loss during disuse or space flight. Omega3 fatty acids have already been shown to have protective effects on bone and cardiovascular function. Omega3 fatty acids could be an ideal countermeasure for space flight because they have protective effects on multiple systems. A definition of optimal nutrient intake requirements for long-duration space travel should also include antioxidants. Astronauts are exposed to numerous sources of oxidative stress, including radiation, elevated oxygen exposure during extravehicular activity, and physical and psychological stress. Elevated levels of oxidative damage are related to increased risk for cataracts, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Many groundbased studies show the protective effects of antioxidants against oxidative damage induced by radiation or oxygen. Balancing the diet with foods that have high levels of antioxidants would be another ideal countermeasure because it should have minimal side effects on crew health. Antioxidant supplements, however, are often used without having data on their effectiveness or side effects. High doses of supplements have been associated with bone and cardiovascular problems, but research on antioxidant effects during space flight has not been conducted. Much work must be done before we can send crews on exploration missions. Nutrition is often assumed to be the simple provision of food items that will be stable throughout the mission. As outlined briefly above, the situation is much more complex than food provision. As explorers throughout history have found, failure to truly understand the role of nutrition can be catastrophic. When huns are in environments unlike any they have seen before, this is more true than ever.

Smith, Scott M.

2005-01-01

159

Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs) and Energy Reserves (ERs) in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas. PMID:20862200

Nunez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Mouneyrac, Catherine; Muntz, Alice; Fernandez-Bringas, Laura

2010-01-01

160

Identification of ecdysteroid signaling late-response genes from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. This study was carried out to seek the late target genes of ecdysteroid signaling from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, eight isoforms of ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), two isoforms of retinoic acid X receptor (RXR), and one homolog of E75 were characterized from L. vannamei. The overall protein sequences and specific functional sites of EcR, RXR and E75 among crustacean species were found highly conserved. Tissue-specific, development stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression patterns of LvEcR, LvRXR, and LvE75 were detected by qPCR. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of any one of the three genes LvEcR, LvRXR and LvE75 caused specific expression changes of the other two, and resulted in corresponding expression changes of two molting related genes Cathepsin-L (LvCHSL) and Hemocyanin (LvHCyn) in the hepatopancreas, two chitin metabolism related genes chitin synthase (LvChS) and chitinase isoenzyme (LvChi2) in the epidermis, and two muscle growth related genes LvActin and myosin heavy chain (LvMHC) in the muscle. In correspondence, after in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone, specific expression changes of LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle were also observed, respectively. Results in our study indicate multiple functions of ecdysteroids signaling in L. vannamei and the function may be time- and space-specific; ecdysteroids may act through different pathways via its functional receptor heterodimer EcR-RXR and the early responsive gene E75 to perform specific regulation roles on the target genes in different shrimp tissues; LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle are potential targets for ecdysteroid control. This is the first report on nuclear receptors in the economically important shrimp L. vannamei. PMID:24556071

Qian, Zhaoying; He, Shulin; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Xianzong; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaolin

2014-06-01

161

Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234  

PubMed Central

Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

2012-01-01

162

Distinct regulation patterns of the two prophenoloxidase activating enzymes corresponding to bacteria challenge and their compensatory over expression feature in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Prophenoloxidase activating enzyme 2 (PPAE2), which belongs to the second PPAE family of prawns, was isolated from white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The currently identified lvPPAE2 and lvPPAE1 from our former report were taken as model candidates to analyze the relationship of the two shrimp PPAE families as well as the regulation mechanism of shrimp PPAEs. The tissue expression of lvPPAE2 was more ubiquitous than lvPPAE1. The mRNA abundance of lvPPAE2 was about 10 percent of lvPPAE1 in co-existed tissues. When challenged with Vibrio harveyi. LvPPAE2 showed a distinct transcriptional regulation pattern compared to lvPPAE1. Silence of lvPPAE2 significantly increased shrimp's susceptibility to V. harveyi, suggesting the lvPPAE2 plays essential role in shrimp host defense. A novel PPAE specific compensatory over expression feature was found in the two lvPPAEs. Single gene specific silence of lvPPAE1 and lvPPAE2 resulted in a significant difference in reduction of hemolymph PO activity. Double silence of the two lvPPAEs failed to cause a further reduction on PO activity or shrimp mortality to bacteria, despite that double silence sufficiently suppressed both of the two lvPPAEs. Our findings suggest both lvPPAEs contribute to shrimp melanization cascade and host defense against bacteria. Distinct regulation pattern corresponding to the same pathogen invasion suggests the two lvPPAEs are actually under different regulation ways. A novel PPAE specific compensatory over expression mechanism found in our study offered us a clue in understanding the robustness of shrimp innate immunity and network of crustacean proPO activating system. PMID:24821424

Pang, Zhenguo; Kim, Su-Kyoung; Yu, Jiaping; Jang, In-Kwon

2014-08-01

163

Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( P<0.05). After challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the cumulative mortality of shrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

2014-09-01

164

Profiling of differentially expressed genes in hepatopancreas of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) by suppression subtractive hybridisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to find immune-relevant factors responsible for virus resistance and response to the virus infection, the suppression subtractive hybridisation method was employed to identify differentially expressed genes and their expression profiles in the hepatopancreas of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) resistant and susceptible Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Two forward subtractive libraries (at 0 and 48h time point)

Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Shao-Ping Weng; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Ke Xing; Siu-Ming Chan; Jian-Guo He

2007-01-01

165

Genetic parameters and accuracy of selection for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei using different statistical models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic parameters for resistance to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in the shrimp species Penaeus vannamei were estimated by using five different statistical models to analyze challenge test data. Data were recorded on the offspring of 338 full-sib families experimentally infected with WSSV, corresponding to four consecutive generations. Both the linear model (LBM) and the threshold model (TBM) defined disease

Thomas Gitterle; Jørgen Ødegård; Bjarne Gjerde; Morten Rye; Ragnar Salte

2006-01-01

166

Supplementation of potassium, magnesium and sodium chloride in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Litopenaeus vannamei in inland low salinity waters is currently being practiced in various countries around the world. These environments are often deficient in key ions essential for normal physiological function, including potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Farmers have sometimes been able to counteract ionic deficiencies in the water profile by adding mineral salts containing sources of K+

L. A. ROY; D. A. DAVIS; I. P. SAOUD; R. P. HENRY

2007-01-01

167

cDNA cloning, identification, tissue localisation, and transcription profile of a transglutaminase from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection by Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134); tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAL78166); and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AF336805). The 2638-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2172 bp, a 55-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 411-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (757 aa) was 84.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.2. The L. vannamei TG (abbreviated LvTG) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, a putative integrin-binding motif (RGD), and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two subgroups, STGS1 and STGS2, and LvTG is more closely related to STGS1 than to STGS2. LvTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, with LvTG mainly being synthesised in haemocytes. However, the pattern of LvTG mRNA expression was not directly correlated with TG activity. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant decrease of TG activity at 3 h and a significant increase of LvTG mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease from 12 to 24 h, which indicated that cloned LvTG was involved in the immune response of shrimp. The results also imply that more than one type of TG may be involved in the defense response in L. vannamei. PMID:19782141

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Hung; Hung, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Winton

2009-12-01

168

A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity?  

PubMed Central

C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand binding specificity for mannose. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that LvCTL1 mRNA was specifically expressed in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. Recombinant LvCTL1 (rLvCTL1) had hemagglutinating activity and ligand binding specificity for mannose and glucose. rLvCTL1 also had a strong affinity for WSSV and interacted with several envelope proteins of WSSV. Furthermore, we showed that the binding of rLvCTL1 to WSSV could protect shrimps from viral infection and prolong the survival of shrimps against WSSV infection. Our results suggest that LvCTL1 is a mannose-binding C-type lectin that binds to envelope proteins of WSSV to exert its antiviral activity. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a shrimp C-type lectin that has direct anti-WSSV activity. PMID:18945787

Zhao, Zhi-Ying; Yin, Zhi-Xin; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Weng, Shao-Ping; Rao, Xia-Yu; Dai, Zong-Xian; Luo, Yong-Wen; Yang, Gan; Li, Zong-Sheng; Guan, Hao-Ji; Li, Se-Dong; Chan, Siu-Ming; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2009-01-01

169

Experimental infection of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei with Necrotizing Heptopancreatitis (NHP) bacterium by per os exposure.  

PubMed

Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis Bacterium (NHPB), which causes Necrotizing Hepatopancreatitis, was successfully transmitted in individually isolated Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei through per os exposure. Animals (140) were individually exposed orally to a 0.05 g piece of an NHPB-infected hepatopancreas and 120 control animals were each exposed to a 0.05 g piece of NHPB-negative hepatopancreas. Shrimp were maintained in Sterilite containers with approximately 41 of artificial seawater at 30 per thousand salinity and 30 degrees C for 60 d. Mortality of infected shrimp was observed from Day 16 to Day 51 post-exposure. Infected animals sustained reduced feeding activity and displayed empty guts. Some infected animals developed a pale hepatopancreas noticeable through the carapace. Survival probabilities fit a Weibull distribution and parametric survival analysis revealed lowered survival due to NHPB infection. Median survival time of NHPB-infected animals was 34.5 d. After correcting for background daily mortality in the controls, mean acute daily mortality of NHPB was estimated at 0.09, a value much lower than that estimated for other diseases in Kona stock L. vannamei such as White Spot Syndrome Virus (0.40) and Taura Syndrome Virus (0.30). A chronic, or carrier, state was not demonstrated in NHPB epizootics because all NHPB-positive animals experienced mortality and no animals surviving to 60 d post-exposure were diagnosed NHPB-positive through PCR or histology. PMID:15609877

Vincent, Amanda G; Breland, Verlee M; Lotz, Jeffrey M

2004-11-01

170

Evaluating the potential of marine Bacteriovorax sp. DA5 as a biocontrol agent against vibriosis in Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.  

PubMed

The potential application of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. However, no marine BALOs have been reported for Vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. In the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine Bacteriovorax strain DA5 against Vibrio alginolyticus zouA was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30-35°C and 20-30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity of infection. Then, we showed that experimentally infected Litopenaeus vannamei larvae exhibited significantly higher survival with incremental DA5 levels. Finally, variation in the bacterial counts and the bacterial community in larval rearing water was investigated after prophylactic application of DA5. The elimination effect of DA5 on vibrios was visible at early time points, whereas only a few non-dominant bacteria, rather than the predominant populations, were affected through analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rDNA V3 region. Accordingly, the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of DA5 on vibriosis associated with L. vannamei could markedly enhance larval survivability, and these results will facilitate the application of marine Bacteriovorax to control vibriosis in shrimp larviculture. PMID:25139659

Wen, Chongqing; Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; Zhou, Shining

2014-09-17

171

Effect of nitrite on immunity of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at low temperture and low salinity.  

PubMed

White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone (6-7 cm) were individually exposed during 8 h to 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 10.0 mg/l NO(2)(-)-N at 22 °C and 10 ‰ salinity. Nitrite concentration was measured, and hemolymph and hepatopancreas were sampled at 0, 4 and 8 h. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase (CAT) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) in haemolymph and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei Boone, and hemocyanin were examined. The results indicated significant relationships among hemocyanin concentration (Hc), nitrite concentration (nt), and exposure time (t) was as following: Hc = 1.250 + 0.0360 nt + 0.0636t, (R(2) = 0.702, P < 0.01), and Gompertz models with 3-parameters was used to describe well the increase trend of Hc with increase of nitrite concentration at 4, 8 h, respectively (R(2) > 0.99, P ? 0.05). MDA level and CAT activity in hemolymph decreased significantly at 8 h, and MDA level and CAT activity in hepatopancreas increased markedly. The SOD activity in hepatopancreas remained almost stably in the range of 0.22-0.24 U/g Hb within 8 h. The results showed there existed a immune difference between in hemolymph and hepatopancreas after white shrimp exposed to ambient nitrite within 8 h, and further experiments should be designed to answer the reason. PMID:22729754

Liao, Shaoan; Li, Qing; Wang, Anli; Xian, Jianan; Chen, Xiaodan; Gou, Nina; Zhang, Shengpeng; Wang, Liang; Xu, Xuerun

2012-08-01

172

Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

2010-09-01

173

ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

2012-03-01

174

The Global Nutrition Report 2014: Actions and Accountability to Accelerate the World's Progress on Nutrition.  

PubMed

In 2013, the Nutrition for Growth Summit called for a Global Nutrition Report (GNR) to strengthen accountability in nutrition so that progress in reducing malnutrition could be accelerated. This article summarizes the results of the first GNR. By focusing on undernutrition and overweight, the GNR puts malnutrition in a new light. Nearly every country in the world is affected by malnutrition, and multiple malnutrition burdens are the "new normal." Unfortunately, the world is off track to meet the 2025 World Health Assembly (WHA) targets for nutrition. Many countries are, however, making good progress on WHA indicators, providing inspiration and guidance for others. Beyond the WHA goals, nutrition needs to be more strongly represented in the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) framework. At present, it is only explicitly mentioned in 1 of 169 SDG targets despite the many contributions improved nutritional status will make to their attainment. To achieve improvements in nutrition status, it is vital to scale up nutrition programs. We identify bottlenecks in the scale-up of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive approaches and highlight actions to accelerate coverage and reach. Holding stakeholders to account for delivery on nutrition actions requires a well-functioning accountability infrastructure, which is lacking in nutrition. New accountability mechanisms need piloting and evaluation, financial resource flows to nutrition need to be made explicit, nutrition spending targets should be established, and some key data gaps need to be filled. For example, many UN member states cannot report on their WHA progress and those that can often rely on data >5 y old. The world can accelerate malnutrition reduction substantially, but this will require stronger accountability mechanisms to hold all stakeholders to account. PMID:25740908

Haddad, Lawrence; Achadi, Endang; Bendech, Mohamed Ag; Ahuja, Arti; Bhatia, Komal; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Blössner, Monika; Borghi, Elaine; Colecraft, Esi; de Onis, Mercedes; Eriksen, Kamilla; Fanzo, Jessica; Flores-Ayala, Rafael; Fracassi, Patrizia; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth; Nago Koukoubou, Eunice; Krasevec, Julia; Newby, Holly; Nugent, Rachel; Oenema, Stineke; Martin-Prével, Yves; Randel, Judith; Requejo, Jennifer; Shyam, Tara; Udomkesmalee, Emorn; Reddy, K Srinath

2015-04-01

175

Effect of salinity on transmission of necrotizing hepatopancreatitis bacterium (NHPB) to Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Elevated salinity and temperature have been observed prior to devastating necrotizing hepatopancreatitis (NHP) outbreaks in several geographically isolated shrimp ponds. These observations have led to the hypothesis that the NHP-bacterium (NHPB) is hindered by reduced salinity, even though the mechanism is not understood. The objective of this research was to examine the effect of salinity on transmission of NHPB. The transmission rate of NHPB was estimated through laboratory experiments whereby individuals of Kona stock Litopenaeus vannamei were orally exposed to a dead NHPB-infected shrimp. For each replicate, 12 susceptible shrimp were placed with a dead NHPB-infected shrimp in a 1 m2 bottom area cylindrical tank maintained at 30 degrees C for a period of 24 h. Four salinities of 10, 20, 30, and 40 per thousand were replicated 2 times in 2 trials, giving a total of 192 shrimp exposed per os to infective material. In each trial, a negative control group was included at each salinity, giving a total of 96 shrimp exposed orally to uninfected material. After the 24 h exposure period, susceptible shrimp were individually isolated at the same physical conditions for up to 60 d to determine NHPB transmission. The NHPB was transmissible regardless of salinity: nearly a quarter of susceptible shrimp exposed to NHPB at the lowest (10 per thousand) and highest (40 per thousand) salinity examined acquired NHPB. Transmission rates were highest at the intermediate salinities of 20 and 30 per thousand, suggesting that those salinities are optimal for NHPB transmission. The observed association between high salinity and NHP outbreak in a shrimp pond is not explained by these results because reduced transmission occurred at very low and very high salinities. PMID:17629122

Vincent, Amanda G; Lotz, Jeffrey M

2007-05-01

176

Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

2013-03-01

177

LabNotes - Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)

2006-10-15

178

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

179

Carbohydrate nutrition.  

PubMed

An understanding of carbohydrate nutrition is essential to optimize production of dairy cattle. Two rations, both of which appear to be balanced, may have dramatically different results when fed to high-producing dairy cattle. Carbohydrates directly affect microbial protein production and therefore protein nutrition of dairy cattle. Energy intake can be maximized by considering the amount and type of carbohydrate in the ration: 1. The fiber level of the ration should be evaluated. NDF levels should be between 25 and 30% for high-producing cows in early lactation. Within this range, less fiber is required with adequate forage particle length and high frequency of grain feeding, and when buffers are fed and slowly fermented NSC sources are included in the ratio. For mid- and late-lactation cows, fiber levels are higher, ranging between 30 and 36% NDF depending upon the energy required to support milk production and restoration of body condition. 2. Provide adequate effective fiber. There should be some forage particles 1.5 in long in the ration. Limit most high-fiber byproducts to 25% of fiber requirements. 3. Feed highly digestible fiber sources. Differences in fiber digestibility of 30% will result in over 4 Mcal of NEL per day with 15 lb NDF intake. In addition, highly digestible fiber has less gut fill effect, possibly increasing dry matter intake. 4. Consider site of starch digestion. Slowly degraded starch sources such as sorghum may require steam flaking to increase ruminal fermentation. Other situations may require the addition of a slowly degraded starch source. 5. Increase frequency of concentrate feeding. Feed grain at least four times per day or include in a total mixed ration. 6. Include buffers. Under some situations (corn silage, early lactation) buffers allow more grain to be fed. 7. Add fat. Fat supplementation to milking cows has become a common practice in high-producing herds. Fat has about three times the energy of cracked corn and is often used to replace a portion of the grain to increase the energy density of the ration. It is important to realize that fat can cost up to two to three times more per megacalorie of energy than grain. Before fat is added to the ration, less expensive ways to increase energy density (listed previously) should be thoroughly explored. PMID:1654174

Allen, M S

1991-07-01

180

Nutrition assessment and management of left ventricular assist device patients.  

PubMed

Nutrition evaluation and support is an integral component of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy. Malnutrition in the LVAD patient contributes to a host of post-operative problems, such as infection and limited functional capacity, which compromise long-term outcomes. Comprehensive pre-operative evaluation of the LVAD patient should include a nutrition assessment and formalized plan to initiate and advance nutrition support while addressing the metabolic imbalances associated with heart failure. An interdisciplinary approach, including a nutrition support team, is desirable to manage these patients effectively. This article reviews essential aspects regarding nutrition management of these patients. PMID:16210148

Holdy, Kalman; Dembitsky, Walter; Eaton, Laura L; Chillcott, Suzanne; Stahovich, Marcia; Rasmusson, Brad; Pagani, Francis

2005-10-01

181

The Baylor pediatric nutrition handbook for residents  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Baylor Pediatric Nutrition Handbook for Residents provides basic resource information about the assessment of growth, the nutritional status assessment and feeding guidelines, biochemical evaluation of nutritional status, infant nutrition, enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, nutritional man...

182

History of nutrition in space flight: overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.

2002-01-01

183

History of nutrition in space flight: overview.  

PubMed

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L

2002-10-01

184

Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in coagulation of haemolymp and immune response of white shrimp, L. vannamei. PMID:24036331

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

2013-11-01

185

A second proPO present in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and expression of the proPOs during a Vibrio alginolyticus injection, molt stage, and oral sodium alginate ingestion.  

PubMed

Prophenoloxidase (proPO) is a melanin-synthesising enzyme that plays important roles in immune responses by crustaceans. Previously, we cloned and characterized proPO-I from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, a novel prophenoloxidase-II (proPO-II) cDNA was also cloned from haemocytes of L. vannamei using oligonucleotide primers and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both 3'- and 5'-regions were isolated by the rapid amplification of complementary (c)DNA end (RACE) method. The 2504-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2073 bp, an 84-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 347-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (691 amino acids) was 78.8 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.07. It contains two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. Comparisons of the amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO-II is more closely related to the proPO of other penaeids than to that of crayfish, lobsters, crab, or a freshwater prawn, and is the ancestor type of known penaeid proPOs. proPO-I and proPO-II messenger (m)RNAs of shrimp were located on different loci, and were constitutively expressed mainly in haemocytes. The transcriptional regulation of these two proPOs in shrimp at different molt stages, those administered dietary sodium alginate, and those challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus were surveyed. The results showed that the proPOs may be directly involved in the acute-phase immune defence, and proPO-II may contribute earlier to immune defence in shrimp injected with V. alginolyticus, and it may be regulated by ecdysone. However, a similar effect was found by stimulating proPO-I and proPO-II mRNA expression in shrimp fed a sodium alginate-containing diet. Results of this study provide a basis for developing a comprehensive understanding of expression/function relationships of individual proPOs in shrimp. PMID:18984057

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Lai, Ching-Yi; Liu, Chun-Hung; Kuo, Ching-Ming; Cheng, Winton

2009-01-01

186

Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7?35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a “vaccine component” to modulate the immunity of shrimp. PMID:23894531

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

2013-01-01

187

Nutrition for Children with Cancer  

MedlinePLUS

... window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nutrition is ... nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...

188

Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others

1977-01-01

189

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

PubMed Central

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-01-01

190

Hyperthermia does not protect Kona stock Penaeus vannamei against infection by a Taura syndrome virus isolate from Belize.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the susceptibility of Penaeus vannamei, Kona stock-line, to infection by an isolate of Taura syndrome virus from Belize (TSV-BZ) under hyperthermic conditions (32 degrees C). Shrimp exposed to the reference Hawaii-94 isolate of TSV (TSV-HI) showed resistance to infection at 32 degrees C as demonstrated by the absence of mortality, histopathological lesions and decreased viral load by qPCR. However, at 32 degrees C, shrimp were fully susceptible to the disease caused by TSV-BZ, exhibiting high mortality, severe histopathological lesions and increased viral load. This susceptibility of shrimp to TSV-BZ infection under hyperthermic conditions was independent of the route of infection (injection vs. per os) and the salinity of the water (11 vs. 28). TSV-BZ might be a temperature-permissible mutant of TSV. PMID:20225676

Côté, Isabelle; Lightner, Donald V

2010-01-25

191

Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards. PMID:25029962

Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

2014-09-01

192

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture.  

PubMed

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance. PMID:25420880

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Carrasco, J Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D; Sawyer, Jason E; Johnson, Charles D; Dindot, Scott V; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Criscitiello, Michael F

2014-01-01

193

Nutrition Training Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Exceptional opportunities exist for support of training in nutrition, both pre- and postdoctoral, through programs at the National Institutes of Health. However the number of actual awards is small in comparison to the needs and importance of nutrition in health.

194

Nutrition Therapy Services (Medical)  

MedlinePLUS

... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Nutrition therapy services (medical) How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers medical nutrition therapy services and certain related services. A registered ...

195

Nutrition and Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually discuss ... some resources to help you answer these questions: Nutrition, Exercise and Prostate Cancer Guide By culling data ...

196

Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

2013-06-01

197

Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P <0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11% ˜ 2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, respectively. Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11% ˜2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, although the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

2013-07-01

198

A new anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) gene with its SNP polymorphisms related to WSSV-resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) of crustacean play an important role against bacteria or virus infection. In this study, the cDNA sequence and genomic sequence of one new isoform of ALF designated as nLvALF1 were reported. The open reading frame (ORF) of nLvALF1 consisted of 369 bp encoding 123 amino acids and the genomic structure of nLvALF1 comprised four introns and three exons. The predicted pI of the deduced protein was 8.82 and the molecular weight (MW) was 13.72 KDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of nLvALF1 contained a typical functional domain of ALF: LPS-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that nLvALF1 had the closest relationship with FcALF1 from Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The nLvALF1 was specifically expressed in lymphoid organ (Oka) of shrimp. Its transcriptional level was significantly up-regulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, suggesting that nLvALF1 might participate in defense against WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei. In order to search potential genetic markers associated with WSSV-resistance, we scanned the polymorphisms of the genomic fragment with 397 bp where the LPS-binding domain encoding sequence located and 18 SNPs were found. The distribution frequency of these SNPs was analyzed in WSSV susceptible shrimp and resistant shrimp separately. Significant differences existed in allelic frequencies at loci g.1361-T > C, g.1370-T > C, g.1419-T > A between the WSSV-resistant group and the WSSV-susceptible/susceptible group (P < 0.05). The specific haplotype CT consisted of g.1415-C > A and g.1419-T > A was associated with susceptibility to WSSV (P < 0.05). These findings provide theoretical support for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of L. vannamei. PMID:24769128

Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-07-01

199

Health and Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

I\\'ve included a few awesome websites to help you learn more about nutrition. Check them out here. Nutrition Cafe On Nutrition Cafe first click on the flash version, then you can play a number of fun games that help with learning about nutrition. Make sure to try out Grab a Grape. This has good facts about food and bone building. It has good information and ...

Mrs. Haslam

2007-11-26

200

Nutrition in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.

1997-01-01

201

Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin

2013-07-01

202

Comparison of four Taura syndrome virus (TSV) isolates in oral challenge studies with Litopenaeus vannamei unselected or selected for resistance to TSV.  

PubMed

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) infection in TSV-resistant (TSR) and TSV-susceptible (Kona) Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) was investigated using histology, in situ hybridization (ISH), conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays, and SYBR-Green real-time RT-PCR analysis. The shrimp were challenged by feeding with minced tissues of L. vannamei infected with 4 genotypic variants of TSV (Bz01, Th04, UsHi94, and Ve05). Survival probabilities of TSR shrimp were higher than those for Kona shrimp with all 4 variants. Th04, UsHi94, and Ve05 gave no Taura syndrome lesions with TSR shrimp. In contrast, TSR shrimp challenged with Bz01 and Kona shrimp with all 4 TSV variants exhibited severe necrosis of cuticular epithelial cells and lymphoid organ spheroids, indicative of acute and chronic phases of TSV infection, respectively. TSV was not detected by RT-PCR in TSR shrimp infected with Th04, UsHi94, and Ve05, or in Kona shrimp infected with Ve05 but was detected in TSR shrimp infected with Bz01 and in Kona shrimp infected with Bz01, Th04, and UsHi94. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that mean TSV copy numbers in TSR shrimp infected with Bz01, Th04, and UsHi94 were significantly (p < 0.0005) lower than those in Kona shrimp. In contrast, mean TSV copy numbers in TSR and Kona shrimp infected with Ve05 were not significantly different (p > 0.4). The results show that TSR L. vannamei are susceptible to infection but give high survival rates following challenge by all 4 variants of TSV. PMID:16921995

Srisuvan, Thinnarat; Noble, Brenda L; Schofield, Paul J; Lightner, Donald V

2006-07-11

203

Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

204

RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene ( LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3× control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5

KC Han-Ching Wang; Chun-Wei Tseng; Han-You Lin; I-Tung Chen; Ya-Hui Chen; Yi-Min Chen; Tzong-Yueh Chen; Huey-Lang Yang

2010-01-01

205

Trophic Transfer of Lead Through a Model Marine Four-Level Food Chain: Tetraselmis suecica , Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei , and Haemulon scudderi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain:\\u000a Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) ? Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) ? Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) ? Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences\\u000a in Pb

M. F. Soto-Jiménez; C. Arellano-Fiore; R. Rocha-Velarde; M. E. Jara-Marini; J. Ruelas-Inzunza; F. Páez-Osuna

2011-01-01

206

Nutrition Connections has the help  

E-print Network

's Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-SNAP. 8/12 Visit us at: extension.unh.edu NutritionNutrition Connections has the help you need... Eat HEaltHiEr and SavE MonEy Nutrition Connections Nutrition Connections is a program of the University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. Nutrition

New Hampshire, University of

207

PROCEEDINGS OFTHE COMPARATIVE NUTRITION SOCIETY 2M)O Assessing the Role of Nutritional Stress in the Decline of Wild Populations: A  

E-print Network

PROCEEDINGS OFTHE COMPARATIVE NUTRITION SOCIETY 2M)O Assessing the Role of Nutritional Stress Marine Mammal Research Unit University of British Columbia, 6248 Biological Sciences Rd., Vancouver, B statusofwild animals. Unfortunately, it is difficult to assess whether nutritional stress is a contributing

208

Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.

1976-01-01

209

Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.

210

Nutrition During Weight Gain  

E-print Network

, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, 3/09 MSU is an affirmative-action, equal-opportunity employerNutrition During Pregnancy Weight Gain: The right weight gain (not too little and not too much you are taking, such as vitamins, minerals or herbs. Nutrition during pregnancy is very important

211

Food & Nutrition Resource Guide  

E-print Network

4-H Food & Nutrition Resource Guide Developed by: 4-H Food & Nutrition Issue Group Renee Sanders System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating #12;Food of the resources used everyday for the 4-H Food & Nutrition project. This resource guide provides information

212

[Nutrition of patients with liver diseases. (lst of 2 parts)].  

PubMed

Diet may be modified and can alter the hepatic function or contributes to maintain it on excellent state. The objective of this paper was to review the recently advances on the clinical aspects of nutrition in chronic liver diseases and the underlying rationale for specific nutritional therapies focusing in the works in Mexico. Original papers in english and spanish informed on Medline until 1994 were included. We also review the national literature about nutrition aspects on liver diseases. PMID:7638529

Rodríguez-Leal, G A; Marín-López, E; Méndez, Y; Hoyos de Takahashi, C; Milke García, P; Lisker Melman, M; Morán Villota, S; Uribe Esquivel, M

1995-01-01

213

The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

214

Nutritional Status Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

Smith, Scott M.

2008-01-01

215

Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

216

Triploidy induction in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: an assessment of induction agents and parameters, embryo viability, and early larval survival.  

PubMed

In this study, we trialed 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) chemical shocks to induce meiosis I or meiosis II Pacific White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, triploids for the first time, and cold temperature shocks to induce meiosis II L. vannamei triploids as done previously. Inductions were performed on 37 spawnings in total with experiments being progressively designed in a factorial manner to allow optimization of induction parameters. Treatment with a 200-?m 6-DMAP final concentration at 1 min post-spawning detection for a 6 to 8 min duration resulted in the most consistent induction of chemically induced meiosis I triploids while treatment at 7 min 30 s post-spawning detection for a 10-min duration resulted in the most consistent induction of chemically induced meiosis II triploids. A cold temperature shock of 11.7°C to 13.25°C (final treatment temperature; spawning water temperature 28.5°C) applied at 8 min post-spawning detection for a 4 to 10 min duration resulted in the most consistent induction of cold-temperature-induced meiosis II triploids. 6-DMAP shocks resulted in meiosis I induction rates from 29% to 100% in unhatched embryos and 50% in nauplii, and meiosis II induction rates from 65% to 100% in unhatched embryos and 52% to 100% in nauplii. Cold shocks resulted in induction rates from 5% to 100% in unhatched embryos and nauplii. Confocal microscopy analysis of embryos revealed that there are major developmental abnormalities in a large proportion of later stage triploid L. vannamei embryos compared to their diploid sibling controls. Despite this, however, some triploid embryos did appear normal and both shock agents induced small numbers of viable triploid L. vannamei nauplii which were successfully reared to protozoeal stage 3 as confirmed by flow cytometry. Triploids beyond this life-history stage were not observed in the present study as confirmed by flow cytometry at mysis stages. This study adds to our knowledge base of triploid induction in L. vannamei and further highlights the inherent difficulties with triploid embryonic and larval viability in this species. PMID:22327414

Sellars, M J; Arce, S M; Hertzler, P L

2012-12-01

217

History of nutrition in space flight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life

Daniel L Feeback

2002-01-01

218

The role of nucleotides in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary NT are reported to have significant effects upon lymphoid, intestinal and hepatic tissues, and lipid metabolism (Table 3). The mechanism remains unknown, and the nutritional role of NT remains controversial. However, maintenance of the endogenous NT supply via de novo synthesis and salvage is metabolically costly. Preformed NT supplied by the diet may contribute to tissue NT pools and

Jane D. Carver; W. Allan Walker

1995-01-01

219

Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

2014-09-01

220

Identification of a C-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a CTL from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL3) was identified. LvCTL3 contains a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp CTLs and has a mutated 'EPD' motif in Ca(2+)-binding site 2. LvCTL3 mRNA can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of LvCTL3 in gills was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting activation responses of LvCTL3 to bacterial, virus and immune stimulant challenges. The 5'flanking regulatory region of LvCTL3 was cloned and we identified a NF-?B binding motif in the LvCTL3 promoter region. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that over-expression of L. vannamei dorsal can dramatically up regulate the promoter activity of LvCTL3, suggesting that LvCTL3 expression could be regulated through NF-?B signaling pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on signaling pathway involve in shrimp CTLs expression. The recombinant LvCTL3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified LvCTL3 can agglutinate Gram-negative microbe Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in the presence of calcium ions, but cannot agglutinate Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae. The agglutination activity of LvCTL3 was abolished when Ca(2+) was chelated with EDTA, suggesting the function of LvCTL3 is Ca(2+)-dependent. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant LvCTL3 protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. parahemolyticus and WSSV infection, indicating LvCTL3 might play significant roles in shrimp innate immunity defense against bacterial and viral infection. PMID:24792214

Li, Ming; Li, Chaozheng; Ma, Chunxia; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Xiaohan; Zeng, Digang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2014-10-01

221

The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and this could be exacerbated by the possibility of horizontal transmission revealed by laboratory challenge tests. Thus, it is recommended that the PCR and in situ hybridization methods developed herein be used to identify the natural reservoir species so they can be eliminated from the shrimp rearing system. PMID:23856195

2013-01-01

222

Nutrition News Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by David M. Klurfeld, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Wayne State University in Detroit, this free, daily newsletter offers concise nutrition tips and analyses of breaking nutrition news. Nutrition News Focus aims at delivering information that ordinary people can use and understand, with a minimum of jargon and no tolerance for "mumbo-jumbo." Users can subscribe to the newsletter at the site. Subscribers receive one short mailing per day, with the topic briefly described and followed by analysis. Old newsletters are added to the archive two weeks after publication, and users can browse the archive by issue date or topic.

223

Nutrition for Everyone  

MedlinePLUS

... Trans Fat Saturated Fat Cholesterol Polyunsaturated Fats and Monounsaturated Fats Carbohydrates Protein Vitamins and Minerals Fruits and Vegetables Nutrition Information How Many Fruits and Vegetables Do You ...

224

Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition  

E-print Network

of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

Barthelat, Francois

225

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Webinar Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation (PDF) Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ... survey, Nutrition and You: Trends 2008. Read More Media Meet Our Spokespeople expand/collapse Spokespeople Schedule an ...

226

Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label  

MedlinePLUS

... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates. You might see ... the first ingredient listed than any other ingredient. Nutrition Facts Label. At the top of the Nutrition ...

227

Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

Jones, Anna Marie

228

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

Goldsmith, Robert H.

229

Future of enteral nutrition.  

PubMed Central

Although there has been agreement that enteral nutrition remains an excellent means of providing nutritional support to malnourished patients with normal or near normal gastrointestinal function, it is clear that areas of controversy do exist, and attention needs to be directed towards these in the future. PMID:3098637

Silk, D B

1986-01-01

230

Heredity and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

Marshall, Mary W.

1970-01-01

231

Teaching about Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concepts, such as nutrition density, that teachers need to understand to teach children good nutrition are explained. Teachers can use food diaries, protein picture charts, and class discussions about health problems related to excessive sugar and fats to instill healthy eating habits in their students. (PP)

Rush, Marylou; Arnold, Anne Jurmu

1983-01-01

232

Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1995-01-01

233

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

234

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

H. Sports Nutrition #12;Reference Guide HANDOUT Safe Practices For Athletes What is the best game and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during fluid, and urine formation will stop. H--SportsNutrition 176 #12;How much should I drink right after

235

Nutrition and Athletics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

236

Nutrition in centenarians.  

PubMed

The oldest old are among the fastest growing segment of the population and it is important to understand not only the influence of modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet and nutrition on the achievement of exceptional longevity but also the role, if any, of these factors on maintaining optimal cognitive, mental and physical health into advanced age. This review summarizes studies of dietary intake and patterns of long-lived peoples and presents current knowledge of nutritional status of centenarians as determined with nutritionally relevant biomarkers, providing information on comparative levels of the various biomarkers between centenarians and older adult controls and on the prevalence and predictors of nutritional deficiencies in centenarians. The studies indicate that BMI and nutritional status as indicated by circulating levels of antioxidant vitamins, vitamin B12, folate, homocysteine and 25(OH) vitamin D of centenarians are quite heterogeneous and influenced by region of residency and many of the demographic, dietary and lifestyle factors that influence nutritional status in other older adults. While many of the studies have been small, convenience samples of relatively healthy community-dwelling centenarians, a few have population-based or included participants of varying cognitive functioning. These and future studies examining associations between nutritional status and cognitive, mental and physical function should be instrumental in determining the role of nutrition in promoting longevity and improving the quality of life in these exceptional survivors. PMID:21276673

Hausman, Dorothy B; Fischer, Joan G; Johnson, Mary Ann

2011-03-01

237

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

: Applied Positive Deviance Delivery Science in International Nutrition Nutrition Science and Communications are strongly advised to have regular access to a high-speed Internet connection. #12;Applied Positive Deviance Certificate from Tufts and United Nations University Positive Deviance (PD) is a behavioral and social change

Tufts University

238

Geological impacts on nutrition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter reviews the nutritional roles of mineral elements, as part of a volume on health implications of geology. The chapter addresses the absorption and post-absorptive utilization of the nutritionally essential minerals, including their physiological functions and quantitative requirements....

239

On nutritional pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem associated with pollution, and more specifically, nutritional pollution are approached from the concept of energy residuals expended by increasing elevation of life style. More specifically, residuals are characterized as biodegradable, bacterial, conserved, thermal, sediments and aggregated entrophication—or nutritional pollution. The streams or river response to nutrients (primarily nitrogen and phosphorous) is formulated in terms of stream character, population

G. W. Reid

1971-01-01

240

Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

2015-02-01

241

Protein turnover, amino acid profile and amino acid flux in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: effects of dietary protein source.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary protein on protein synthesis and growth of juvenile shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated using three different diets with equivalent protein content. Protein synthesis was investigated by a flooding dose of tritiated phenylalanine. Survival, specific growth and protein synthesis rates were higher, and protein degradation was lower, in shrimps fed a fish/squid/shrimp meal diet, or a 50% laboratory diet/50% soybean meal variant diet, than in those fed a casein-based diet. The efficiency of retention of synthesized protein as growth was 94% for shrimps fed the fish meal diet, suggesting a very low protein turnover rate; by contrast, the retention of synthesized protein was only 80% for shrimps fed the casein diet. The amino acid profile of the casein diet was poorly correlated with that of the shrimps. 4 h after a single meal the protein synthesis rates increased following an increase in RNA activity. A model was developed for amino acid flux, suggesting that high growth rates involve a reduction in the turnover of proteins, while amino acid loss appears to be high. PMID:12235191

Mente, Eleni; Coutteau, Peter; Houlihan, Dominic; Davidson, Ian; Sorgeloos, Patrick

2002-10-01

242

Comparison of immune response of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after multiple and single infections with WSSV and Vibrio anguillarum.  

PubMed

Our previous study demonstrated that Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) infected by multiple pathogens showed higher mortality and death occurred more quickly than those infected by a single pathogen (Jang et al., 2014). For better understanding the defense mechanism against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum, immune responses of shrimp were evaluated in this study. The mRNA expression levels of five immune-related genes were analyzed by quantitative reverse real-time PCR, which included proPO-activating enzyme 1 (PPAE1), PPAE2, proPO activating factor (PPAF), masquerade-like serine proteinase (Mas) and ras-related nuclear gene (Ran). Results demonstrated that the transcription was suppressed more intensively in the multiple infection group than those in single infection groups. The transcriptional suppression was directly related to the higher mortality. The hypoimmunity could benefit pathogen invasion, replication and release of toxin in vivo. Results in this study will help to understand immune defense mechanism after shrimp were infected by multiple pathogens in aquaculture. PMID:25700782

Qiao, Guo; Xu, De-Hai; Wang, Zishen; Jang, In-Kwon; Qi, Zhitao; Zhang, Mingming; Kim, Su-Kyoung

2015-05-01

243

Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) ?-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) ?-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA ?-subunit and V-ATPase ?-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA ?-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA ?-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA ?-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

2014-06-01

244

Bacillus subtilis spores expressing the VP28 antigen: a potential oral treatment to protect Litopenaeus vannamei against white spot syndrome.  

PubMed

The envelope protein VP28 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is considered a candidate antigen for use in a potential vaccine to this important shrimp pathogen (the cause of white spot syndrome, WSS). Here, we used spores of Bacillus subtilis to display VP28 on the spore surface. Trials were conducted to evaluate their ability to protect shrimps against WSSV infection. The gene cotB-vp28 was integrated into the chromosome of the laboratory strain B. subtilis PY79, and expression of CotB-VP28 was detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Expression of CotB-VP28 was equivalent to 1000 molecules per spore. PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores were mixed with pellets for feeding of whiteleg shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei), followed by WSSV challenge. Superoxidase dismutase (SOD), phenoloxidase activities and mortality rates of the two shrimp groups were evaluated. Groups fed with PY79 and CotB-VP28 spores at day 7 had increased SOD activities of 29% and increased phenoloxidase activities of 15% and 33%, respectively, compared to those of the control group. Fourteen days postchallenge, 35% of vaccinated shrimps had died compared to 49% of those fed naked spores (PY79) and 66% untreated, unchallenged animals. These data suggest that spores expressing VP28 have potential as a prophylactic treatment of WSS. PMID:25066511

Nguyen, Anh T V; Pham, Cuong K; Pham, Huong T T; Pham, Hang L; Nguyen, Anh H; Dang, Lua T; Huynh, Hong A; Cutting, Simon M; Phan, Tuan-Nghia

2014-09-01

245

TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 ?g mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

2012-06-01

246

Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.  

PubMed

Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (p<0.05). The increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and p-anisidine value (AV) of lipids were noticeable when autolysis time increased (p<0.05). However, no changes in free fatty acid (FFA) content were observed within the first 60 min of autolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (p<0.05). No differences in fatty acid profiles of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas without and with 60 min prior autolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. PMID:23107697

Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat

2012-09-15

247

Comparison of the cryoprotective effects of trehalose, alginate, and its oligosaccharides on peeled shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei) during frozen storage.  

PubMed

The cryoprotective effects of trehalose, alginate, and its oligosaccharides on peeled shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during frozen storage was investigated by monitoring thawing loss, color, texture, myofibrillar protein content, Ca(2+) -ATPase activity, and performing microscopic structural analysis. Data revealed significant (p < 0.05) inhibitory effects on thawing loss and textural variables (springiness and chewiness) in trehalose-, alginate oligosaccharides-, and sodium pyrophosphate-treated shrimp compared with the control and alginate-treated batches. L* values revealed that these saccharides had a positive effect on color stability during frozen storage. In addition, the results of chemical analyses showed that trehalose and alginate oligosaccharide treatments effectively maintained an increased myofibrillar protein content and Ca(2+) -ATPase activity in frozen shrimp. In addition, hematoxylin & eosin staining and SDS-PAGE confirmed that these cryoprotective saccharides slowed the degradation of muscle proteins and the damage to muscle tissue structures. Overall, the application of trehalose and alginate oligosaccharides to peeled frozen shrimp might maintain better quality and extend the commercialization of these refrigerated products. PMID:25656542

Ma, Lu-Kai; Zhang, Bin; Deng, Shang-Gui; Xie, Chao

2015-03-01

248

Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.  

PubMed

Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH. PMID:24451988

Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

2014-03-01

249

Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge  

PubMed Central

Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education. PMID:24899813

Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

2014-01-01

250

National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

251

Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics  

E-print Network

is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

McConnell, Terry

252

The Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition  

E-print Network

, Davis, CA, 95616; 5 USDA Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Davis, CA, 95616; 6 AusSun ResearchThe Journal of Nutrition Nutrient Requirements and Optimal Nutrition Vitamin D Intake Needed. Stephensen3,5 3 Nutrition Department and 4 Entomology Department and Cancer Center, University of California

Hammock, Bruce D.

253

HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

254

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition  

E-print Network

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5 Gorecki, BSP 1969, and look to our successes. We have created the College of Pharmacy and Nutrition

Saskatchewan, University of

255

Nutritional scientist or biochemist?  

PubMed

When invited by the editors to provide a prefatory article for the Annual Review of Nutrition, I attempted to decide what might be unique about my experiences as a nutritional biochemist. Although a large proportion of contemporary nutritional scientists were trained as biochemists, the impact of the historical research efforts related to nutrition within the Biochemistry Department at the University of Wisconsin 50 to 60 years ago was, I think, unique, and I have tried to summarize that historical focus. My scientific training was rather standard, but I have tried to review the two major, but greatly different, areas of research that I have been involved in over my career: inorganic fluorides as an industrial pollutant and the metabolic role of vitamin K. I have also had the opportunity to become involved with the activities of the societies representing the nutritional sciences (American Society for Nutrition), biochemistry (American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology), Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, the Food and Nutrition Board, the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics. These interactions can be productive or frustrating but are always time-consuming. PMID:21756131

Suttie, J W

2011-08-21

256

2011 nutritional assessment guidelines.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximise the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. Routinely doing a brief screening evaluation of the nutritional status during history taking and the physical examination can be seamlessly performed as part of every patient exam. Nutrition-related risk factors that can be easily identified from the history and physical examination include age (growing or old), suboptimal body condition score (overweight or thin), muscle loss, atypical or homemade diet, medical conditions, or changes in appetite. An extended evaluation would follow, if one or more risk factors is identified on screening. These guidelines provide criteria to evaluate the animal and the diet, as well as key feeding and environmental factors. In addition, recommendations for interpretation, analysis, and action are included so that a plan for optimising the animal's nutritional status can be instituted. Client compliance with nutritional recommendations requires input from the veterinarian, veterinary technicians/nurses, and the hospital staff. A team approach to continuous nutritional education, implementation of appropriate protocols, and focused client communication, utilising these WSAVA Nutritional Guidelines, are key components to reach this 5VA goal. PMID:22616443

2011-12-01

257

Nutrition and fluid management.  

PubMed

Management of fluid intake and nutrition is an essential component of nursing care and should be practised skilfully by all nurses and nursing students. This requirement forms the basis of the fourth essential skills cluster, nutrition and fluid management. The essential skills clusters stipulate key skills and behaviours to be demonstrated to meet the standards for registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. This article, the fourth in a series on the essential skills clusters, discusses the core aspects of nutrition and fluid management and emphasises their importance in recovery from illness and in maintaining optimal health. PMID:25828020

Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

2015-04-01

258

WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines.  

PubMed

Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration, and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. PMID:23705173

Freeman, Lisa; Becvarova, Iveta; Cave, Nick; MacKay, Clayton; Nguyen, Patrick; Rama, Betina; Takashima, Gregg; Tiffin, Ross; van Beukelen, Peter; Yathiraj, S

2011-08-01

259

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

260

Molecular Nutrition Research—The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science  

PubMed Central

In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, Jørgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

2012-01-01

261

Nutrition Aspects of Liver Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because the liver performs hundreds of metabolic functions, nutritional status and nutrient metabolism are altered in individuals\\u000a with liver disease. This chapter reviews relationships between nutritional status and liver disease, describes effects of\\u000a malnutrition and nutrition support on outcomes, and defines nutrition therapies for patients with liver disease.\\u000a \\u000a Objective nutrition assessment parameters are often confounded by symptoms of liver disease;

Jeanette M. Hasse

262

Nutrition Update, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

1978-01-01

263

FAO: Food and Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.

264

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Soy and Cancer: Wish You Were Young Again Star Speaker Stephen Barnes, PhD Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Alabama Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama Meeting Date Monday, October 04, 2010

265

Team Nutrition: Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.

2013-04-26

266

Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Diet and Nutrition Food . . . . Adherence to a low copper diet is most important during the initial phase ... recommendation is to avoid the foods highest in copper content: organ meats, shellfish, chocolate, nuts, and mushrooms. ...

267

Nutrition and athletic performance  

MedlinePLUS

... Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American ...

268

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

269

Nutrition for Older Men  

MedlinePLUS

... Men For Women For Seniors Nutrition for Older Men Published February 01, 2014 Print Email The Difference ... mind sharp and extend quality of life. Older men need: Calcium and Vitamin D Older adults need ...

270

Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

271

Lead - nutritional considerations  

MedlinePLUS

... some containers. See: Cooking utensils and nutrition Old paint poses the greatest danger for lead poisoning , especially ... leach out into the liquid. Other important recommendations: Paint over old leaded paint if in good condition, ...

272

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications  

PubMed Central

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei. PMID:24086466

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-01-01

273

Effect of dietary potassium on growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulation and immunity of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in low salinity seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physiological acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+ per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

Liu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Tan, Beiping; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

2013-11-01

274

Litopenaeus vannamei Sterile-Alpha and Armadillo Motif Containing Protein (LvSARM) Is Involved in Regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors  

PubMed Central

The Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated NF-?B pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM) plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM) was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-?B pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors. PMID:23405063

Wang, Pei-Hui; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Wan, Ding-Hui; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

275

Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains  

PubMed Central

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

2011-01-01

276

Characterization of Four Novel Caspases from Litopenaeus vannamei (Lvcaspase2-5) and Their Role in WSSV Infection through dsRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogenesis, and caspases are central players in apoptosis. Here, we cloned four novel caspases (Lvcaspase2-5) from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and investigated their potential roles in WSSV replication using dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. Lvcaspase2-5 have the typical domain structure of caspase family proteins, with the conserved consensus motifs p20 and p10. Lvcaspase2 and Lvcaspase5 were highly expressed in muscle, while Lvcaspase3 was highly expressed in hemocytes and Lvcaspase4 was mainly expressed in intestine. Lvcaspase2-5 could also be upregulated by WSSV infection, and they showed different patterns in various tissues. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Lvcaspase2-5 showed different cellular localizations. Using dsRNA-medicated gene silencing, the expression of Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3, and Lvcaspase5 were effectively knocked down. In Lvcaspase2-, Lvcaspase3- or Lvcaspase5-silenced L. vannamei, expression of WSSV VP28 gene was significantly enhanced, suggesting protective roles for Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3 and Lvcaspase5 in the host defense against WSSV infection. PMID:24376496

Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

277

Nutrition and Bone Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Fifth graders wil1 be able to select appropriate foods to maximize bone mass.Nutrition and Bone Health is the topic of a nutrition education curriculum for fifth graders based on a collaborative project funded by NASA through the Arkansas Space Grant Consortium. The multi-disciplinary undertaking has many facets. It began with a group of Arkansas educators touring NASA's Johnson

M. M. Shock; J. Johnson; M. H. Harlan

1997-01-01

278

Overview of geriatric nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restoration and maintenance of optimal nutritional status in the long-term care setting may enhance the quality of life for\\u000a geriatric patients. The elderly are at increased risk for poor nutrition due to age-related physiological and psychosocial\\u000a changes, as well as the added toll of chronic disease. All of these may have a negative impact on adequate food intake. Health\\u000a care

Jean Curran

1990-01-01

279

Nutrition and Genomics Workshop  

Cancer.gov

This workshop was a joint NCI, USDA, and American Society for Nutritional Sciences effort to raise awareness of the linkages between nutrients and genes as determinants of growth, development, and disease risk. The ultimate goal was to promote the use of new and innovative gene technologies in the science of nutrition. This workshop capitalized on the expertise of various disciplines to showcase opportunities for examining nutrients as modifiers of genes and gene products.

280

Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores. PMID:24329954

Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

2013-12-01

281

Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): compositions and deterioration as affected by iced storage.  

PubMed

Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) stored in ice for up to 6 days were extracted and characterised. The extraction yields of lipids from hepatopancreas (10.65-12.64%) were higher than those from cephalothorax (2.59-2.88%). However, no changes in the extraction yield were observed during the storage (p>0.05). The carotenoid contents of lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas slightly increased within the first 2 and 4 days of iced storage (p<0.05), respectively, but decreased thereafter (p<0.05). With increasing storage time, a progressive formation of hydroperoxide was found as evidenced by the increase in the absorbance band at 3600-3200 cm(-1) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and increased peroxide values (PVs) (p<0.05). The increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), p-anisidine value (AnV) and free fatty acid (FFA) content of lipids were noticeable when iced storage time increased (p<0.05). Those changes indicated that lipid oxidation and hydrolysis occurred in both samples. Phospholipids (PL) were the major components in lipids from cephalothorax (82.51% of total lipids). Nevertheless, lipids from hepatopancreas contained triglyceride (TG) and PL as the dominant components (45.35% and 38.03% of total lipids, respectively). A decrease in the TG content with a concomitant increase in free fatty acid was observed at the end of storage (day 6) (p<0.05). Decreases in unsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) were noticeable at day 6 of storage (p<0.05). Thus, the extended storage time resulted in the enhanced deterioration of extracted lipids. PMID:23442657

Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat; H-kittikun, Aran

2012-10-15

282

Why are elderly individuals at risk of nutritional deficiency?  

PubMed

The older population is the single largest demographic group at disproportionate risk of inadequate diet and malnutrition. Ageing is associated with a decline in a number of physiological functions that can impact nutritional status, including reduced lean body mass and a resultant decrease in basal metabolic rate, decreased gastric secretion of digestive juices and changes in the oral cavity, sensory function deficits, changes in fluid and electrolyte regulation and chronic illness. Medication, hospitalization and other social determinants also can contribute to nutritional inadequacy. The nutritional status of older people is an important determinant of quality of life, morbidity and mortality. This review critically examines the factors that contribute to the development of poor nutritional status in older people and considers the consequences of malnutrition. PMID:16529597

Brownie, Sonya

2006-04-01

283

Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ?150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (?) monounsaturated fatty acids, ? n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less ? n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

2014-01-01

284

Prealbumin in nutrition evaluation.  

PubMed

We compressed 16 test-pattern classes of albumin (ALB), cholesterol (CHOL), and total protein (TPR) in 545 chemistry profiles to 4 classes by converting decision values to a number code to separate malnourished (1 or 2) from nonmalnourished (NM) (0) patients, using as cutoff values for nonmalnourished (0), mild (1), and moderate (2): ALB 35, 27 g/L; TPR 63, 53 g/L; CHOL 3.9, 2.8 mmol/L; and BUN 9.3, 3.6 mmol/L. The BUN was found to have too low an S-value to make a contribution to the compressed classification. The cutoff values for classifying the data were assigned prior to statistical analysis, after examining information in the structured data. The data was obtained by a natural experiment in which the test profiles routinely done by the laboratory were randomly extracted. The analysis identifies the values for the variables used that best classify the data and are not dependent on distributional assumptions. The data were converted to 0, 1, or 2 as outcomes, to create a ternary truth table (each row is nnnn, the n value is 0 to 2). This allows for 3(4) (81) possible patterns, without the inclusion of prealbumin (PAB). The emerging system has much fewer patterns in the information-rich truth table formed (a purposeful, far from random, event). We added PAB, coded, and examined the data for 129 patients. The classes are a compressed truth table of n-coded patients with outcomes of 0, 1, or 2 with protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) increasing from an all-0 to all-2 pattern. Pattern class (F = 154), PAB (F = 35), ALB (F = 56), and CHOL (F = 18) were different across PEM class and predicted PEM class (R2 = 0.7864, F = 119, p < E-5). Kruskal-Wallis analysis of class by ranks was significant for pattern class (1E-18), PAB (6.1E-15), ALB (1E-16), CHOL (9E-10), and TPR (5.3E-13). The medians and standard error (SEM) for PAB, ALB, and CHOL of all four PABCLASSES (NM, mild, moderate, severe) are: PAB = 209, 8.7; 159, 9.3; 137, 10.4; 72, 11.1 mg/L, ALB = 36, 0.7; 30.5, 0.8; 25.0, 0.8; 24.5, 0.8 g/L; CHOL = 4.43, 0.17; 4.04, 0.20; 3.11, 0.21; 2.54, 0.22 mmol/L. PAB and CHOL values show the effect of nutrition support on PAB and CHOL in PEM. Moderately malnourished patients receiving nutrition support have PAB values in the normal range at 137 mg/L and at 159 mg/L when the ALB is at 25 g/L or at 30.5 g/L. PMID:8862531

Bernstein, L; Pleban, W

1996-04-01

285

Effects of humic substances on iron nutrition of lupin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Poorly crystalline Fe oxides and organic matter are two important factors affecting Fe nutrition of plants. The main objective\\u000a of this work was to study the contribution of humic substances to Fe nutrition of a typical Fe-chlorosis sensitive plant (white\\u000a lupin, Lupinus albus L.). An experiment was performed involving two growing media (siliceous and calcareous) and different Fe sources: control

Ana de Santiago; Antonio Delgado

2007-01-01

286

Goals for Preventive Nutrition in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Low- and middle-income countries increasingly face extremely complex problems in the arena of public health nutrition. Persistent\\u000a endemic malnutrition affecting primarily children and women of reproductive age contributes hugely to global burdens of disease\\u000a and disability. Recent estimates are that one-third of child deaths worldwide and 11% of the global disease burden are due\\u000a to largely preventable maternal and child

Osman M. Galal; Gail G. Harrison

287

Nutrition and pubertal development  

PubMed Central

Nutrition is one of the most important factors affecting pubertal development. Puberty entails a progressive nonlinear process starting from prepubescent to full sexual maturity through the interaction and cooperation of biological, physical, and psychological changes. Consuming an adequate and balanced healthy diet during all phases of growth (infancy, childhood and puberty) appears necessary both for proper growth and normal pubertal development. Girls begin puberty at an earlier age compared to past decades. Excessive eating of many processed, high-fat foods, may be the cause of this phenomenon. Overweight or obese children are more likely to enter puberty early. Some evidence suggests that obesity can accelerate the onset of puberty in girls and may delay the onset of puberty in boys. Moreover, the progression of puberty is affected by nutrition. On the other hand, puberty triggers a growth spurt, which increases nutritional needs including macro and micronutrients. Increased caloric, protein, iron, calcium, zinc and folate needs have to be provided during this critical period of rapid growth. Severe primary or secondary malnutrition also can delay the onset and progression of puberty. The higher incidence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescents imposes a nutritional risk on pubertal development. Moreover, many environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) have been identified that can significantly impair the normal course of puberty. This mini-review sums up some important findings in this important complex that link nutrition and pubertal development. PMID:25538876

Soliman, Ashraf; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Elalaily, Rania

2014-01-01

288

Nutrition Session Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.

1999-01-01

289

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

290

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

291

Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition  

E-print Network

Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety and Health (IFSH), with IIT faculty, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists, and food industry

Heller, Barbara

292

Doorway to Nutrition: A Nutrition Education Program for the Handicapped.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide contains objectives and activities for teaching nutrition education to trainable mentally retarded students. Section I explains nutrition education as a means of promoting positive attitudes about food and developing the knowledge and abilities to make healthful food selections. Nutrition education as it relates to the…

Craft, Patricia; Herring, Blanche

293

Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Growth Branch (ENGB)  

E-print Network

Endocrinology, Nutrition, and Growth Branch (ENGB) NICHD Report to the NACHHD Council June .............................................................................. 6 CHILDHOOD OBESITY)................................................... 23 NUTRITION RESEARCH

Rau, Don C.

294

Contents Special Issue on Public Nutrition  

E-print Network

The aims and content of public nutrition —John B. Mason............................................................................ 281 Why public nutrition? —Jean-Pierre Habicht................................................................................................... 286

unknown authors

295

Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions. PMID:25415364

2014-01-01

296

Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label  

MedlinePLUS

... My Go4Life Get Free Stuff Be a Partner Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label Reading labels can help ... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates . You might see ...

297

MSc Nutrition for Global Health  

E-print Network

MSc Nutrition for Global Health The Mission of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine for Global Health 2009. formerly MSc Public Health Nutrition (PHN) #12;Aims and Objectives This course trains

Maizels, Rick

298

Diet and Nutrition in Porphyria  

MedlinePLUS

... You are here Home About Porphyria Diet and Nutrition A proper diet is important to all individuals, ... alter food intake. Therefore, attention to diet and nutrition is important in almost any disease. Porphyrias are ...

299

Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

300

Clinical avian nutrition.  

PubMed

Psittacine birds eat plant-based foods. Birds in the wild seem to be able to balance their energy needs, amino acids, and calcium. Companion birds in captivity do not do as well when self-selecting, and balanced diets are needed to improve their general health. A nutritional history is important to determine whether the avian patient is in balance nutritionally. Understanding the various sources of the fat-soluble vitamins, calcium, and protein will help guide clients to provide nutritious foods for their birds. Owners need to learn to use foraging as a major source of their bird's diet and techniques. PMID:25155663

Orosz, Susan E

2014-09-01

301

Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

1 Queens College Nutrition and Dietetics Student Handbook Students accepted into Queens College/Pages/Dietetics.aspx #12;2 Queens College Didactic Program in Dietetics DEPARTMENT and PROGRAM MISSIONS Family, Nutrition The Department of Family, Nutrition, and Exercise Sciences of Queens College of The City University of New York

Engel, Robert

302

College Students' Nutrition Information Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition information networks accessible to or being accessed by college students were studied. Data were collected on the types of networks, the extent of their use, and the relationship of use tofood behavior. Undergraduate students (179 men, 300 women) in an introductory nutrition class rated their perceived use of nutrition information networks; provided frequency-of-use responses to a survey offood choicesfat

Ann A. Hertzler; Robert B. Frary

1995-01-01

303

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

304

The Federal Government and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

Powers, Margaret A.

1980-01-01

305

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

306

NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF CHICKPEA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition, via food, is a necessity of human life. Humans must obtain the appropriate types of nutrients from the diet, in varying amounts throughout the lifecycle, to adequately sustain life. Food provides energy, essential macro- and micronutrients required for growth, tissue maintenance and the r...

307

Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

308

Nutrition on match day  

Microsoft Academic Search

What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

2006-01-01

309

Nutrition for distance events  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of training is to prepare the distance athlete to perform at his or her best during major competitions. Whatever the event, nutrition plays a major role in the achievement of various factors that will see a runner or walker take the starting line in the best possible form. Everyday eating patterns must supply fuel and nutrients needed to

Louise M. Burke; Gregoire Millet; Mark A. Tarnopolsky

2007-01-01

310

Nutrition of Penaeus japonicus  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of larval and juvenile Penaeus japonicus, referring to past studies briefly and focusing on recent studies on proteins, lipids, and other essential nutrients. Also, the quantitative requirements of nutrients in crustacean species were critically evaluated in relation to net nutrient intake in P. japonicus. Like fish and other vertebrates, larval and

Shin-ichi Teshima

1998-01-01

311

Nutrition and pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

Andrew Prentice

2004-01-01

312

Nutrition in Children's Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

Smith, Nathan J.

313

Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.  

PubMed

Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. PMID:24726388

Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

2014-09-01

314

Horse Nutrition and Management  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Horses are used in a variety of activities with over 5.32 million animals reported in the US. Many of these horses are owned and managed for profit and a significant number are for recreation and sport. Regardless of the use, proper nutrition is essential for maximizing animal growth and productivit...

315

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

316

NUTRITION IN THE ELDERLY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been estimated that by the year 2030, 71 million or nearly 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years old and 19.5 million will live to see their 80th birthdays. This graying of the population has wide-ranging implications for almost every aspect of health care, including nutrition. Many factors inf...

317

NUTRITION AND FEEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Most girls with Rett syndrome present a challenge when it comes to providing enough nutrition. Even those with healthy appetites are usually quite thin and short, and many meet the definition for protein-energy malnutrition. Girls with RTT have lower dietary energy intakes than unaffected girls. ...

318

Nutrition and psoriasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional supplementation may provide a viable treatment alternative in patients with psoriasis. Randomized, controlled trials have shown the effectiveness of topical vitamin A and D derivatives, intravenous ?-3 fatty acids, oral inositol, and various combined therapies. Dual therapies of ultraviolet B phototherapy and fish oil, retinoids and thiazolidinediones, and cyclosporine and a low-calorie diet were effective in the treatment of

Janelle R. Ricketts; Marti J. Rothe; Jane M. Grant-Kels

2010-01-01

319

Skylab nutritional studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.

1977-01-01

320

Skylab nutritional studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.

1976-01-01

321

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

322

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

323

Nutrition and colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and colorectal cancer is reviewed. Colon cancer varies approximately 20-fold internationally. Although there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition to colon cancer, much of this variation appears to be related to differences in dietary habits. At present, the data suggest that vegetables are associated with lower risk, and that fiber alone does not

John D. Potter

1996-01-01

324

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

325

Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro

2011-01-01

326

Director of Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

sugary soft drinks, chips, and chocolate bars in school vending machines. Some school fund- raisers even enlisted students as a miniature sales force to hawk chocolate confections to pay for school trips, library books, and sports equipment. Health Canada should help establish na- tional model nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines, and fundraising activities. In the classroom, we don't

Stephen B. Schmidt; Jayne Hurley; David Schardt; Senior Nutritionists; Heather Jones; Tamara Goldis; Danielle Weinberg; Debra Brink; James Nocera; Damon Dorsey; Myriam Pierre; Louella Fennell; Cecilia Saad; Greg Hildebrandt; Chris Schmidt; Ken Waldmiller; Greta R. Bunin; Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr; Stephen Havas; David Jacobs; Norman M. Kaplan; JoAnn E. Manson; Susan Taylor Mayne; Julie Mares

2005-01-01

327

Nutrition Action Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

328

Medical Issues: Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... or specialist can help you make the right decision. Support & Care For Newly Diagnosed Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life Grief & Loss Community & Local Support For Healthcare Providers Support & Care Publications Related news January 21, ...

329

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

330

Nutrition and Athletic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a

2009-01-01

331

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

332

The Science of Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

2000-01-01

333

Expression of fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase and phosphofructokinase is induced in hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by hypoxia.  

PubMed

Marine organisms are exposed to hypoxia in natural ecosystems and during farming. In these circumstances marine shrimp survive and synthesize ATP by anaerobic metabolism. Phosphofructokinase (PFK) and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP) are key enzymes in carbohydrate metabolism. Here we report the cDNA of FBP from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas and expression of PFK and FBP under normoxia and hypoxia. Hypoxia induces PFK and FBP expression in hepatopancreas but not in gills and muscle. Induction in hepatopancreas of the glycolytic and gluconeogenic key enzymes, PFK and FBP, suggests that PFK could be a key factor for increasing anaerobic rate, while FBP is probably involved in the activation of gluconeogenesis or the pentose-phosphates pathway during hypoxia in the highly active metabolism of hepatopancreas. PMID:25725474

Cota-Ruiz, Keni; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Felix-Portillo, Monserrath; Martínez-Quintana, José A; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

2015-05-01

334

Immune responses of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931), to bacterially expressed dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus.  

PubMed

In this study, dsRNA specific to VP28 gene of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of shrimp was synthesized in Escherichia coli in large scale and studied the immune response of shrimp to dsRNA-VP28. The haematological parameters such as clotting time and total haemocytes counts, and immunological parameters such as prophenoloxidase (proPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), superoxide anion (SOA) and malondialdehyde content, as well as the mRNA expression of ten immune-related genes were examined to estimate the effect of dsRNA-VP28 on the innate immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei. The activities of proPO, SOA and SOD significantly increased in haemocyte after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, whereas MDA content did not change significantly. Among the ten immune-related genes examined, only the mRNA expression of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, lipopolysaccharides (LPs), lectin and lysozyme in haemocytes, gill and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei, was significantly upregulated at 12 h after dsRNA-VP28 treatment, while no significant expression changes were observed in Toll receptor and tumour receptor genes. The increase of proPO and SOD activities, and SOA level and mRNA expression level of proPO, cMnSOD, haemocyanin, crustin, BGBP, LPs, lectin and lysozyme after dsRNA-VP28 stimulation indicate that these immune-related genes were involved in dsRNA-VP28-induced innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:24917208

Taju, G; Madan, N; Abdul Majeed, S; Raj Kumar, T; Thamizhvanan, S; Otta, S K; Sahul Hameed, A S

2014-06-10

335

Identification of a c-Jun homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei as a downstream substrate of JNK in response to WSSV infection.  

PubMed

c-Jun, a major substrate of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), participates in regulating gene transcription in response to various stimuli, including cytokines, stress signals, bacterial and viral infection. Results from our previous studies suggested that Litopenaeus vannamei JNK (LvJNK) could be utilized by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) to facilitate viral replication and gene expression. In this article, a c-Jun homolog from Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as Lvc-Jun) was cloned and its role in WSSV infection was studied. Sequence analysis displayed that Lvc-Jun was a novel homolog of c-Jun family, which contained characteristic Jun and basic leucine zipper (bZIP) domains, and two conserved serine phosphorylation sites (Ser49/59). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that Lvc-Jun mRNAs were expressed in all examined tissues. Further investigation determined that Lvc-Jun was located in the nucleus through self-interaction and its phosphorylation levels could be reduced by JNK inhibitor, suggesting that Lvc-Jun could be regulated by LvJNK through phosphorylation and function as a transcription regulator in a homodimer. During the process of WSSV infection, the transcription levels of Lvc-Jun were up-regulated associating with the raising expression and phosphorylation levels of its protein. Moreover, TPA (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate), a potent inducer of c-Jun, could remarkably promote viral immediate-early gene wsv069 transcription in crayfish hemocytes. Conclusively, our results provided experimental evidences that Lvc-Jun was engaged in WSSV infection and further implied that JNK-c-Jun signaling pathway might be important for WSSV replication and viral gene expression. PMID:25530093

Yao, Defu; Ruan, Lingwei; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

2015-04-01

336

Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.

2006-01-01

337

Effect of high water temperature (33 °C) on the clinical and virological outcome of experimental infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most lethal pathogen of cultured shrimp. Previous studies done with undefined WSSV titers showed that high water temperature (32–33 °C) reduced\\/delayed mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of high water temperature on the clinical and virological outcome of a WSSV infection under standardized conditions. Groups of specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei were

M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Corteel; J. J. Dantas-Lima; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

2006-01-01

338

Nutrition situation in metropolitan Jakarta.  

PubMed

Jakarta is the capital and biggest city of Indonesia with a total population of 10 million. The National Census Office revealed a rapid increase in population through 1985 to 1990. This rapid increase has brought many devastating effects on various aspects of life such as housing, food stock and food production, health and environmental conditions, education, socio-economic and cultural life and political stability. All of these factors contribute to malnutrition in the city as well as in the country as a whole. Data obtained from the Municipal Health Offices showed an unsatisfactory health status having a crude birth rate (CBR) of 2.80%; crude death rate (CDR) of 0.68%; and family size of 5.5. Undernutrition among under-five children still is alarming with a prevalence of 27.91%. Anemia also afflicts a great number of pregnant mothers (70%) and preschool children (38.6%). Nutrition problems are worst in urban areas with their high population density; moderate and severe PEM is 5.63% in urban areas compared with 3.7% moderate PEM and no PEM in rural areas. Jakarta is experiencing rapid urbanization. The presence of slums, air and water pollution in city is a paramount factor leading to poor environmental conditions. The existing health system cannot keep pace with the increasing occurrence of infectious diseases brought about by these unfavorable conditions. Unemployment and underemployment as well as rising costs of foodstuffs cause inadequate food availability at the household level. Due to the grinding poverty experienced by the low socio-economic groups, female workers occupy almost one-third of Indonesia's labor force, hence inadequate care is given to children. All these are factors aggravating the nutritional problems in the country. PMID:1342755

Matulessy, P F; Asumi, R; Thamrin, M H; Husaini; Angeles, T I; Kariadi, D

1992-01-01

339

Health and Nutritional Status Related To Socioeconomic Conditions and Environmental Health In Honduras, Central America  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify conditions associated with poor health and nutritional status in children living in Honduras in order to plan future outreach and intervention programs in similar underdeveloped communities.The interwoven nature of poverty, illness, malnutrition, and unsanitary environmental conditions common in underdeveloped communities of the world contribute to inadequate health and nutritional status of children. The purpose of this

K. H. Register; P. B. Brevard; M. L. Ball; J. M. Pearson; R. J. Domangue

1997-01-01

340

It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben

2014-01-01

341

THE ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) IN PUBLIC HEALTH NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract: This book chapter describes the major agencies within USDA that contribute to the practice of public health nutrition; identifies the primary USDA programs that provide food assistance and nutrition education; discusses the agencies whose roles are to provide research data to support hum...

342

The failure of charitable school- and community-based nutrition programmes to feed hungry children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing rates of child poverty in Canada and recognition of relationships among poverty, compromised nutrition, health and educational opportunities have led to a proliferation of child-feeding programmes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the contributions of charitable school- and community-based nutrition programmes toward meeting their goal of feeding hungry children through a critical ethnography of nine diverse programmes

Kim Raine; Lynn McIntyre; Jutta B. Dayle

2003-01-01

343

The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues.The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact

David E. Beever

2006-01-01

344

Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata  

E-print Network

Evolution of a novel function: nutritive milk in the viviparous cockroach, Diploptera punctata Anna Cockroach species show different degrees of maternal contribution to the developing offspring. In this study of nutritive ``Milk'' in the cockroach, Diploptera punctata. This gene family is asso- ciated

Bhattacharya, Debashish

345

Nutrition in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and heart). After the skin, the organ most affected with a frequency of 75 to 90%, the gastrointestinal tract is more often involved. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is manifested by the appearance of oropharyngeal dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, pseudo-obstruction, bacterial overgrowth and intestinal malabsorption, constipation, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence. These effects influence food intake and intestinal absorption leading to the gradual emergence of nutritional deficiencies. About 30% of patients with systemic sclerosis are at risk of malnutrition. In 5-10%, gastrointestinal disorders are the leading cause of death. Therapeutic strategies currently available are limited and aimed at reducing clinical symptoms. The multidisciplinary management of these patients, including nutritional intervention, helps improve gastrointestinal symptoms, and avoid malnutrition, morbidity and improve quality of life. PMID:22197834

Recasens, M A Asunción; Puig, Celia; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera

2012-01-01

346

Foundations of Nutrition Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

McKay, Diane

2013-01-01

347

USDA: Food & Nutrition Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.

348

Review of nutrition labeling formats.  

PubMed

This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format. PMID:2071796

Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

1991-07-01

349

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

350

Osteoporosis prevention and nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although calcium and vitamin D have been the primary focus of nutritional prevention of osteoporosis, recent research has\\u000a clarified the importance of several additional nutrients and food constituents. Further, results of calcium and vitamin D\\u000a supplementation trials have been inconsistent, suggesting that reliance on this intervention may be inadequate. In addition\\u000a to dairy, fruit and vegetable intake has emerged as

Katherine L. Tucker

2009-01-01

351

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson

352

School Meal Nutritional  

E-print Network

School Meal Nutritional Information #12;Portion Total Component Size Cals Fiber G Protn G Carb G.82 6.25 Grain/Meat-2 Items Chicken Alfredo(Red.-Fat)&Rotini 1 cup 488 6.20 23.72 25.00 10.00 Grain-1 Item Turkey Deli Meat 1.5 oz. 59 0.28 9.68 2.39 0.94 Meat-1 Item Fish Shapes 3 oz. 180 1.15 9

O'Toole, Alice J.

353

Financial and nutrition outcomes for patients placed on enteral nutrition versus oral intake  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to determine if providing either enteral nutrition or oral nutrition to patients influenced nutritional parameters, length of stay (LOS) and cost. All patients who received enteral nutrition support between January 1...

Barry, Kristina Marie

2002-01-01

354

Supplemental nutrition assistance program participation and health: Evidence from low-income individuals in Tennessee  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigate the factors that contribute to participation in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), and the effects of such participation on self-assessed health (SAH). An endogenous switching ordered probability model is developed with alternative error distributional assumptions, ...

355

[Artificial nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Despite increasing knowledge and available guidelines in the fields of nutritional support in pancreatic diseases there do still exist a lot of controversies, aversions, delusions in the clinical work. Hungarian Society of Clinical Nutrition has already published it's own guideline on nutrition in pancreatic diseases in 2002. European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) also published a Consensus Statement based on the proposals of an international Consensus Conference with active Hungarian participation. The aim of this article is to clear up habitual considerations of some physicians and to share current knowledge from physiology/pathophysiology to quality control upon these guidelines, meta-analyses, and, the daily practice of Hungarian pioneers of nutrition support in pancreatic diseases. PMID:15997665

Harsányi, László

2005-05-29

356

Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies  

PubMed Central

The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure. PMID:21052526

Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O.; Drevon, Christian A.; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C.; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T.

2010-01-01

357

Developmental Perspectives on Nutrition and Obesity From Gestation to Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity results from a complex combination of fac- tors that act at many stages throughout a person's life. Therefore, examining childhood nutrition and obesity from a developmental perspective is warranted. A developmen- tal perspective recognizes the cumulative effects of factors that contribute to eating behavior and obesity, including biological and socioenvironmental factors that are relevant at different stages of development.

Layla Esposito; Jennifer O. Fisher; Julie A. Mennella; Deanna M. Hoelscher; Terry T. Huang

358

Bamboo Shoots: A novel source of nutrition and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource.

Poonam Singhal; Santosh Satya; Lalit Mohan Bal; P. Sudhakar

2011-01-01

359

DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

360

Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing

2007-01-01

361

Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

Chen, Angela

1985-01-01

362

The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. PMID:22016708

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Obeid, Omar

2011-01-01

363

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

to pursue a minor. Dietetics is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which cover basic and advanced nutrition, medical nutrition

Raina, Ramesh

364

Agriculture and nutrition in India: mapping evidence to pathways.  

PubMed

In India, progress against undernutrition has been slow. Given its importance for income generation, improving diets, care practices, and maternal health, the agriculture sector is widely regarded as playing an important role in accelerating the reduction in undernutrition. This paper comprehensively maps existing evidence along agriculture-nutrition pathways in India and assesses both the quality and coverage of the existing literature. We present a conceptual framework delineating six key pathways between agriculture and nutrition. Three pathways pertain to the nutritional impacts of farm production, farm incomes, and food prices. The other three pertain to agriculture-gender linkages. After an extensive search, we found 78 research papers that provided evidence to populate these pathways. The literature suggests that Indian agriculture has a range of important influences on nutrition. Agriculture seems to influence diets even when controlling for income, and relative food prices could partly explain observed dietary changes in recent decades. The evidence on agriculture-gender linkages to nutrition is relatively weak. Sizeable knowledge gaps remain. The root causes of these gaps include an interdisciplinary disconnect between nutrition and economics/agriculture, a related problem of inadequate survey data, and limited policy-driven experimentation. Closing these gaps is essential to strengthening the agriculture sector's contribution to reducing undernutrition. PMID:25098622

Kadiyala, Suneetha; Harris, Jody; Headey, Derek; Yosef, Sivan; Gillespie, Stuart

2014-12-01

365

Nutrition and health - transforming research traditions.  

PubMed

In this contribution, we show that current scientific methodologies used in nutrition science and by regulatory agencies, such as the randomized control trial, limit our understanding of nutrition and health as they are to crude to capture the subtle pleiotropic nature of most nutrients. Thereby, regulatory agencies such as the European Food Safety Authority curb the development of scientific knowledge and industrial innovations within the nutritional field. In order to develop insights into the health impact of certain food and food-components, we need to realize that health is adaptation set within a homeostatic range. Increased performance of health, i.e., the maximum stimulation of health, typically seems 30-60% greater than the control group, with a width of no more than about a factor of ten, clarifying the difficulty of documenting responses of food-endogenous components within the homeostatic range of healthy people. A strategy to record subtle responses of food components is the summation of procentual effects of relevant health outcomes. We illustrate this approach with the action of flavanols on vascular health, specifically endothelial function. PMID:24915340

Hanekamp, Jaap C; Bast, Aalt; Calabrese, Edward J

2015-07-01

366

Nutritional Proteomics: Methods and Concepts for Research in Nutritional Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional proteomics or nutriproteomics is the application of proteomics methodology to nutrition-related research but also represents the interaction of bioactive food ingredients with proteins, whereby the interaction with proteins occurs in two basically specific ways. Firstly, the effect of nutrients on protein expression, which can be monitored by protein mapping, and secondly, the interaction of nutrients with proteins by post-translational

Florian J. Schweigert

2007-01-01

367

Nutrition knowledge and consumer use of nutritional food labels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting nutritional food label use in Greece are examined using primary data collected from personal interviews with consumers shopping at supermarkets in Athens. The econometric approach treats nutrition knowledge, where appropriate, as an endogenous variable when estimating the models for general label use, degree of general label use and use of information on nutrient content. The results suggest that

Andreas C. Drichoutis; Panagiotis Lazaridis; Rodolfo M. Nayga

2005-01-01

368

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2011-01-01

369

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2011-01-01

370

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2010-01-01

371

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2010-01-01

372

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

373

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 17-21, 2008 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

374

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

375

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

376

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

377

7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

2012-01-01

378

7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

2014-01-01

379

7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Goals. Nutrition education shall be designed to...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities:...

2010-01-01

380

7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Goals. Nutrition education shall be designed to...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities:...

2011-01-01

381

7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Goals. Nutrition education including breastfeeding...between nutrition, physical activity and health with special emphasis...change in dietary and physical activity habits...carrying out nutrition education responsibilities,...

2013-01-01

382

How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety ... a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth > Parents > Nutrition & Fitness Center > Special Dietary Needs > How to Read a ...

383

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2012-01-01

384

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2014-01-01

385

7 CFR 248.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 248.9 Section 248.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS WIC FARMERS' MARKET...

2013-01-01

386

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2014-01-01

387

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2013-01-01

388

7 CFR 249.9 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition education. 249.9 Section 249.9...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET...

2012-01-01

389

University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition  

E-print Network

University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure.............................................................................................................. 7 #12;University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure # Chemical Spills Page 3

Saskatchewan, University of

390

The changing nutrition scenario.  

PubMed

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and 'Green Revolution fatigue'. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and "hidden hunger" from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C

2013-09-01

391

Nutrition and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objectives: You will assess your own nutrition and health. You will also convert units in a recipe. You will need a computer with internet access and a printer to print off your personal eating plan. You will also need a paper and pen to record information. Materials Needed: computer with internet access printer paper and pen to record information Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI). Calculate Your Body Mass Index What\\'s your body mass index? Assess an Adult\\'s Health with a given scenario. Calculator For BMI Describe the adult\\'s health status and suggested ...

Ms. Parrish and Mrs. Neves

2007-11-30

392

Nutrition 3: Got Broccoli?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

393

Nutrition of aging cats.  

PubMed

At least one-third of cats seen by veterinarians are mature, defined as 7 years of age or older, and approximately 13% of cats are geriatric, defined as 12 years of age or older. The article reviews physiologic differences between these life stages and relates the changes to nutritional needs. Geriatric cats have increased requirements for dietary energy and protein. Feeding management addresses what, when, how, and where food is provided. This article provides an update on diet-sensitive conditions, including cognitive dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, and hyperthyroidism. Although guidelines are provided, patients must be evaluated and fed according to their individual needs. PMID:24951345

Laflamme, Dottie; Gunn-Moore, Danièlle

2014-07-01

394

Nutrition Navigator: A Rating Guide to Nutrition Websites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Navigator, published by the Tufts University School of Nutrition Science and Policy, is a database of evaluated and categorized nutrition-related web sites. Each site indexed by the Nutrition Navigator has been carefully evaluated by a nutritionist and rated numerically in various categories. The site reviews contain brief descriptions, an indication of the intended audience, and other information. These evaluations are searchable, but the search results are not returned in order of the numeric evaluation. The evaluations are, however, organized for browsing by interest category (Educator, Parent, Health Professional, etc.), and are arranged in order of numeric evaluation. The detailed, useful reviews outweigh any inconvenience experienced due to the limitations of this search engine. Although there are relatively few items in the database at present, as it grows it should become a highly valued nutrition metasite.

1998-01-01

395

The critically ill patient: nutritional implications.  

PubMed

The nutritional needs of critically ill patients are increased by the metabolic demands generated from injury and sepsis. Parenteral nutrition may be necessary initially to meet their nutritional requirements, with transition to enteral nutrition when their nutritional requirements can be met via the gastrointestinal tract. Meeting the nutritional needs of patients enhances their ability to tolerate the medical and surgical interventions necessary to promote resolution of their illness. PMID:6403928

Forlaw, L

1983-03-01

396

Isolation of a putative probiotic strain S12 and its effect on growth performance, non-specific immunity and disease-resistance of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The common pathogens in aquaculture are very different from those in terrestrial animals. The objective of this study was to isolate probiotic strain (s) from the digestive tract of healthy white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which was effective against aquatic animal pathogens. The putative probiotic strain S12 was identified as Bacillus subtilis based on the morphological and biochemical properties and 16S rDNA gene sequencing. The L. vannamei were fed with five different diets: control (basal diet with no probiotics or antibiotics), antibiotic control (basal diet supplemented with 0.3% florfenicol), basal diet supplemented with 5 × 10(9) cfu kg(-1) , 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) and 5 × 10(11) cfu kg(-1) probiotic S12 (PS1-3). Each diet was randomly fed to quadruplication groups of 40 shrimps (0.4 ± 0.01 g) reared in tanks. After an 8-week feeding, the survival rate of shrimps fed with PS1 and PS3 were the highest among all treatments (P < 0.05). The moisture content of shrimps fed with florfenicol was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The supplement of probiotic S12 decreased the body crude lipid significantly (P < 0.05). The activities of phagocytic rate, lysozyme (LZ), superoxide dismutase phenoloxidase (SOD) and antibacterial activity were significantly higher than those in the control (P < 0.05), and the activities of SOD and the antibacterial activity in PS2 and PS3 were significantly higher than those in antibiotic control (P < 0.05). When infected with Vibrio harveyi at 4-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in PS2 and PS3 groups than that in the control. After being infected with V. harveyi at 8-weeks, the mortality was significantly lower in the probiotic and antibiotic groups than that in the control (P < 0.05). This study suggested that probiotics could be used as an effective immunopotentiator, the optimal dose of the probiotic strain S12 is 5 × 10(10) cfu kg(-1) diet. PMID:25218684

Liu, Hongyu; Li, Zheng; Tan, Beiping; Lao, Ye; Duan, Zhiyong; Sun, Wuwei; Dong, Xiaohui

2014-12-01

397

Counselors, Nutrition, and Mental Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses current nutritional trends and the ways our bodies convert foods into chemicals that may affect thought, mood, perception, and behavior. A review of current literature suggests that nutritional deficits and food allergies may adversely alter emotional adjustment. Examines implications for counseling and suggests training and program…

Pearson, Judith E.; Long, Thomas J.

1982-01-01

398

Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition  

E-print Network

and Nutrition 7-17 Division Overview 7 Faculty Members 8-15 Fellows 16 Clinical Nursing and Nutrition Staff 17 gastroenterology. Our mission is to train the future academic and clinical leaders in pediatric gastroenterology is predominantly clinical with an exposure to a vast array of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. As well

Engman, David M.

399

NUTRITION AND TOLERANCE TO ATABRINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little study has been made of the effect of continuous drug admin istration upon the nutritive requirements, or conversely, of the effect of nutritive state upon the ability of the animal to withstand phar macological agents. However, a survey of the literature reveals suf ficient evidence to indicate that the action of some drugs may depend to a certain extent

D. M. HEGSTED; F. J. STABE

400

Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present and illustrate using data from insects an integrative approach to modelling animal nutrition. This framework enables the unification within simple geometrical models of several nutritionally relevant measures. These include: the optimal balance and amounts of nutrients required to be ingested and allocated to growth by an animal over a given time period (the intake and growth targets, respectively);

D. Raubenheimer; S. J. Simpson

1999-01-01

401

NUTRITIONAL EVALUATION OF TAEKWONDO ATHLETES  

Microsoft Academic Search

ROSSI, L.; GOYA, R. E.; MATAYOSHI, M. A. V.; PEREIRA, C. C. C.; SILVA, J. B. Nutritional evaluation of taekwondo athletes. Brazilian Journal Biomotricity, v. 3, n. 2, p. 159-166, 2009. This work aimed to evaluate food intake by Brazilian high-rank taekwondo athletes in order to assess nutritional adequacy and draw comparisons with other sport modalities of fight. The study

Luciana Rossi; Rosecler Elen Goya; Magna Aparecida; Veridiano Matayoshi; Carla Cristine; Cardoso Pereira; Juliana Bernardo da Silva

402

Nutritional regulation of epigenetic changes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The "Nutritional Regulation of Epigenetic Changes" Symposium was held in San Diego on April 25 in conjunction with the 2012 Annual Meetings of the American Society of Nutrition. The symposium was co-chaired by Drs. Romagnoo and Ziegler. In his opening remarks, Dr. Zeigler highlighted salient aspec...

403

Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition marketing may influence purchasing behavior and thereby be a factor in the obesity epidemic. Very little peer-reviewed research has been published which investigates the relationship between nutrition marketing on food labels and consumer behavior. The purpose of this paper was to give an ...

404

CHINA HEALTH AND NUTRITION SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...

405

Lynn Hellenga MSRD Nutrition Coordinator  

E-print Network

Lynn Hellenga MSRD Nutrition Coordinator Montana Nutrition and Physical Activity Program #12;www.montananapa.org 2 #12; Learning List two ways breastfeeding is thought to decrease obesity in childhood List's) Necrotizing Enterocolitis ( NEC) #12; Child long term Obesity Type 1 & 2 diabetes Asthma Childhood

Maxwell, Bruce D.

406

Nutritional issues in cancer management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

1996-01-01

407

PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

408

Nutrition for winter sports.  

PubMed

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

2011-01-01

409

Nutrition and multiple gestation.  

PubMed

Multiple pregnancy represents a state of magnified nutritional requirements, resulting in a greater nutrient drain on maternal resources and an accelerated depletion of nutritional reserves. The accelerated starvation which occurs in pregnancy is exaggerated with a multiple gestation, particularly during the second half of pregnancy, with more rapid depletion of glycogen stores and resultant metabolism of fat between meals and during an overnight fast. A reduced glucose stream from mother to fetus results in slower fetal growth, smaller birth size, as well as a higher risk of preterm labor and preterm birth. For this reason, diet therapy with a diabetic regimen of 20% of calories from protein, 40% of calories from carbohydrate, and 40% of calories from fat may be particularly useful. Iron-deficiency anemia has also been linked to preterm delivery and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mobilization of maternal iron stores, in addition to an adequate amount and pattern of gestational weight gain (including BMI-specific weight gain goals by 20 and 28 weeks gestation), has been associated with significantly better fetal growth and longer gestations in twin pregnancies. Supplementation with calcium, magnesium, and zinc, as well as multivitamins and essential fatty acids may also reduce pregnancy complications and improve postnatal health for infants born from a multiple gestation. Diet therapy for women pregnant with multiples is an important component of effective prenatal care. PMID:16360494

Luke, Barbara

2005-10-01

410

Nutrition in team sports.  

PubMed

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs of the training program. Acute issues, both for training and in games, include strategies that allow the player to be well fuelled and hydrated over the duration of exercise. Each player should develop a plan of consuming fluid and carbohydrate according to the needs of their activity patterns, within the breaks that are provided in their sport. In seasonal fixtures, competition varies from a weekly game in some codes to 2-3 games over a weekend road trip in others, and a tournament fixture usually involves 1-3 days between matches. Recovery between events is a major priority, involving rehydration, refuelling and repair/adaptation activities. Some sports supplements may be of value to the team athlete. Sports drinks, gels and liquid meals may be valuable in allowing nutritional goals to be met, while caffeine, creatine and buffering agents may directly enhance performance. PMID:21346334

Mujika, Iñigo; Burke, Louise M

2010-01-01

411

["Care" and public nutrition].  

PubMed

In 1990, the Unicef conceptual framework for nutrition recognised the role of care, along with household food security and health services and environment, as one of the three underlying factors of child survival, growth, and development. This model has been adopted at a policy level at the International Conference on Nutrition (Rome, 1992) and over the past ten years the concept of care has been refined through literature reviews, consultative meetings and empirical works. "Care is the provision in the household and the community of time, attention, and support to meet the physical, mental, and social needs of the growing child and other household members". Basically, care refers to the actions of caregivers (mainly, but not only mothers) that translate food and health resources into positive outcomes for the child's nutrition. Even under circumstances of poverty, enhanced caregiving can optimise the use of resources to promote good nutrition. Care practices have been grouped into six categories: care for women, breastfeeding and child feeding practices, psychosocial care, food preparation, hygiene practices, household health practices. They cover a wide range of behaviours, are often culturally specific and are daily, repetitive, and time-consuming activities. It must be underlined that the way care practices are performed (i.e., quality of care) is as important as the practices themselves. It has also been emphasised that children play a significant role in determining the quality of care that they receive, through an interactive process: an active child elicits more care from the caregiver, who is in turn more responsive. Care resources at household level have been described according to three categories: human (knowledge, beliefs, education, physical and mental health of the caregiver), economic (control on income, workload and time), and organisational (alternate caregivers, community support). But the availability of care also depends on support at the national or international level. As the mother is the primary caregiver, most of the obstacles to care are the constraints to the mothers, the most common characteristic of which being the low status of women in many societies. More studies are required to better understand the causal relationship between care and nutrition. Methods to measure the qualitative aspects of care and indicators that capture the complexity of care must be developed and cross-culturally tested. These will also be useful to design and monitor more effective interventions incorporating care. These programmes should first identify and support the good traditional care practices rather than simply ask for change; the activities proposed should not break the balance between the time women spend on care and the time they spend on work. Therefore one must be sure that enough resources are available. Finally, to achieve sustainable changes a participatory and comprehensive approach is definitely needed. PMID:11943643

Martin-Prével, Yves

2002-01-01

412

The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

1991-01-01

413

Economic assessment of nutritional recommendations.  

PubMed

The effect of consumers' compliance with nutritional recommendations is uncertain because of potentially complex substitutions. To lift this uncertainty, we adapt a model of consumer behaviour under rationing to the case of linear nutritional constraints. Dietary adjustments are derived from information on consumer preferences, consumption levels, and nutritional contents of foods. A calibration exercise simulates, for different income groups, how the French diet would respond to various nutrition recommendations, and those behavioural adjustments are translated into health outcomes through the DIETRON epidemiological model. This allows for the ex-ante comparison of the efficiency, equity and health effects of ten nutritional recommendations. Although most recommendations impose significant taste costs on consumers, they are highly cost-effective, with the recommendations targeting salt, saturated fat, and fruits and vegetables (F&V) ranking highest in terms of efficiency. Most recommendations are also economically progressive, with the exception of that targeting F&V. PMID:25443618

Irz, Xavier; Leroy, Pascal; Réquillart, Vincent; Soler, Louis-Georges

2015-01-01

414

Nutritional Status and Liver Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Chronic liver disease has a profound effect on nutritional status and undernourishment is almost universally present in patients with end-stage liver disease undergoing liver transplantation. In the last decades, due to epidemiological changes, a trend showing an increase in patients with end-stage liver disease and associated obesity has also been reported in developed countries. Nutrition abnormalities may influence the outcome after transplantation therefore, the importance to carefully assess the nutritional status in the work-up of patients candidates for liver transplantation is widely accepted. More attention has been given to malnourished patients as they represent the greater number. The subjective global nutritional assessment and anthropometric measurements are recognized in current guidelines to be adequate in identifying those patients at risk of malnutrition. Cirrhotic patients with a depletion in lean body mass and fat deposits have an increased surgical risk and malnutrition may impact on morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. For this reason an adequate calorie and protein intake should always be ensured to malnourished cirrhotic patient either through the diet, or using oral nutritional supplements or by enteral or parenteral nutrition although studies supporting the efficacy of nutritional supplementation in improving the clinical outcomes after transplantation are still scarce. When liver function is restored, an amelioration in the nutritional status is expected. After liver transplantation in fact dietary intake rapidly normalizes and fat mass is progressively regained while the recovery of muscle mass can be slower. In some patients unregulated weight gain may lead to over-nutrition and may favor metabolic disorders (hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia). This condition, defined as ‘metabolic syndrome’, may play a negative role on the overall survival of liver transplant patients. In this report we review data on nutrition and liver transplantation.

Merli, Manuela; Giusto, Michela; Giannelli, Valerio; Lucidi, Cristina; Riggio, Oliviero

2012-01-01

415

Nutrition and chemosensory perception in the elderly.  

PubMed

The elderly person's perception of foods and food flavor is affected by age-associated changes in the chemical senses (taste, smell, and trigeminal sensation). Both classic and modern psychophysical techniques have been applied to achieve some understanding of these changes. Taste threshold sensitivity declines with age; however, the magnitude of the decline and the degree to which taste qualities are differentially affected remains to be understood. Suprathreshold taste intensity perception is affected by age, but there is a differential effect of taste quality. Experiments with blended foods have indicated that both olfactory and taste deficits contribute to older people's difficulty with food identification. Experiments assessing threshold sensitivity, suprathreshold intensity, and suprathreshold identification have all demonstrated significant impairment in olfaction in old age. In fact, these effects are far greater than in the taste system. Patients with Alzheimer's disease show even greater olfactory deficits than normal elderly and the effect is related to the degree of dementia. We have ruled out nasal disease in these patients as the primary causes of olfactory insensitivity, because significant impairment remains when the influence of nasal airflow and nasal cytology has been removed statistically. Both normal elderly and patients with Alzheimer's disease show impairment in odor memory. Sensitivity to, familiarity with, and identifiability of the odors all play a role in odor memory performance. Flavor preference also changes over the lifespan. Older subjects, for instance, rate high concentration of sugar and salt as pleasanter than young subjects do. Multiple influences contribute to this phenomenon. Elderly persons and those of lower nutritional status have shown preferences for higher concentrations of casein hydrolysate than young persons and those of higher nutritional status, suggesting that dietary preference can be related to chemosensory cues. There are significant age-associated changes in chemosensory perception that have the potential to interact with dietary selection and nutrition in the elderly. A better understanding of these phenomena may promote health and well-being in the elderly. PMID:8424852

Murphy, C

1993-01-01

416

Advances in clinical nutrition in GI surgery.  

PubMed

This review addresses recent relevant advances to clinical nutrition regarding gastrointestinal disease surgery. Medline Ovid, EMBASE and Central were searched systematically in April 2014. Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials and observational studies evaluating nutritional support in gastrointestinal surgery published within 5 years. The review included 56 relevant studies. Themes were: nutrition screening and risk factors predict outcome; preoperative nutritional support; shortening fasting periods and including carbohydrate solutions; early nutrition after surgery; immune modulating nutrition; synbiotics, growth hormone, omega-3 and oral, enteral and parenteral nutrition in combination. Screening for nutritional risk is profound, with special focus on dietary intake in the past week. Age and severity of disease need to be included in the screening system. Patients at severe nutritional risk benefit from nutritional therapy before surgery. New standards are developing quickly and clinical guidelines on surgery should include updated knowledge within clinical nutrition. PMID:25339536

Holst, Mette; Rasmussen, Henrik H; Irtun, Oivind

2015-04-01

417

Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

2010-01-01

418

Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

Dufour, P. A.

1984-01-01

419

The role of agriculture in the nutrition of children.  

PubMed

Data from across the developing world show consistently that a fundamental cause of poor nutrition is low agricultural productivity and consequent low incomes, especially amongst poor rural households. Conventionally, technical solutions have been sought to contribute to greater household food security, and thus better childhood nutrition. A more holistic approach is required. This paper draws from field examples, mainly in southern and east Africa, to illustrate the implementation and effectiveness of what is termed a 'green evolution' approach which emphasizes the efficient use of available resources of land, labour and inputs, thus allowing food to be sold profitably at low prices. With low food prices, the poor can use their limited funds to invest in better housing, education and health care. This is achieved through building thoughtful, farmer demand-led initiatives, backed by high quality science to deliver widespread improvements in nutrition for the poor. PMID:25309997

Blackie, Malcolm

2014-11-01

420

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

421

Nutrition is Important  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...

Allison

2010-06-17

422

Human milk: nutritional resource.  

PubMed

A comprehensive discussion of the nutritional value and components of human milk presents research findings on milk composition, including discussions of the influence of maternal diet and general health on milk production. The separate milk components considered include lipids, protein, carbohydrates, water, salt, calcium and phosphorus, iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, iodine, fluoride, vitamins D, K, A, E, C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folate, and cyanocobalamine. Other aspects considered include the differences in composition of colostrum and mature milk, caloric cost of human lactation, possible reasons for failure to thrive in nursing newborns, effects on lactation of maternal dietary supplementation, and the differences between dietary requirements of nonnursing and nursing women. The influence of different dietary patterns and malnutrition on the proportions of different components of milk is assessed. PMID:7033974

Nichols, E L; Nichols, V N

1981-01-01

423

[Nutrition in critical illness].  

PubMed

Critically ill patients are often unable to eat by themselves over a long period of time, sometimes for weeks. In the acute phase, serious protein-energy malnutrition may develop with progressive muscle weakness, which may result in assisted respiration of longer duration as well as longer stay in intensive care unit and hospital. In view of the metabolic processes, energy and protein intake targets should be defined and the performance of metabolism should be monitored. Enteral nutrition is primarily recommended. However, parenteral supplementation is often necessary because of the disrupted tolerance levels of the gastrointestinal system. Apparently, an early parenteral supplementation started within a week would be of no benefit. Some experts believe that muscle loss can be reduced by increased target levels of protein. Further studies are needed on the effect of immune system feeding, fatty acids and micronutrients. PMID:25497155

Ökrös, Ilona

2014-12-21

424

Susceptibility to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) in three batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present study evaluated the susceptibility of three different batches of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei from Mexico to an inoculum of infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV). Each of the three shrimp batches came from a different hatchery. Because of their origin, it was possible that the genetic makeup of these batches was different among each other. The three batches tested showed differences in IHHNV susceptibility. Here, susceptibility is defined as the capacity of the host to become infected, and it can be measured by the infectivity titer. Susceptibility to IHHNV was observed in decreasing order in shrimp from batch 1 (hatchery from El Rosario, Sinaloa), batch 3 (hatchery from Nayarit) and batch 2 (hatchery from El Walamo, Sinaloa), respectively. The largest susceptibility difference between batches was 5012 times, and that between early and late juveniles from the same batch was 25 times. These results indicate that within a species, susceptibility to a pathogen such as IHHNV can have large differences. Susceptibility to pathogens is an important trait to consider before performing studies on pathogenesis. It may influence virological parameters such as speed of replication, pathogenicity and virus titer. In order to evaluate the potential use of IHHNV as a natural control agent against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), it is necessary to know host susceptibility and the kinetics of IHHNV infection. These features can help to determine the conditions in which IHHNV could be used as antagonist in a WSSV infection. PMID:25561847

Escobedo-Bonilla, César Marcial; Rangel, José Luis Ibarra

2014-01-01

425

Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.  

PubMed

The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

2011-11-01

426

Sequence-optimized and targeted double-stranded RNA as a therapeutic antiviral treatment against infectious myonecrosis virus in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV) is a significant and emerging pathogen that has a tremendous impact on the culture of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. IMNV first emerged in Brazil in 2002 and subsequently spread to Indonesia, causing large economic losses in both countries. No existing therapeutic treatments or effective interventions currently exist for IMNV. RNA interference (RNAi) is an effective technique for preventing viral disease in shrimp. Here, we describe the efficacy of a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) applied as an antiviral therapeutic following virus challenge. The antiviral molecule is an optimized dsRNA construct that targets an IMNV sequence at the 5' end of the genome and that showed outstanding antiviral protection previously when administered prior to infection. At least 50% survival is observed with a low dose of dsRNA administered 48 h post-infection with a lethal dose of IMNV; this degree of protection was not observed when dsRNA was administered 72 h post-infection. Additionally, administration of the dsRNA antiviral resulted in a significant reduction of the viral load in the muscle of shrimp that died from disease or survived until termination of the present study, as assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. These data indicate that this optimized RNAi antiviral molecule holds promise for use as an antiviral therapeutic against IMNV. PMID:23836770

Loy, J Dustin; Loy, Duan S; Mogler, Mark A; Janke, Bruce; Kamrud, Kurt; Harris, D L Hank; Bartholomay, Lyric C

2013-07-01

427

Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.  

PubMed

Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2) copies ?L(-1)), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5) CFU mL(-1) of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3) CFU mL(-1), suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. PMID:24127689

Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

2014-10-01

428

Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  

PubMed

Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

2014-10-01

429

Spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the midgut of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic circulation in Crustacea.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary protein concentration on the spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic enzyme circulation in this species. Samples recovered from the midgut gland tissues, stomach contents, three different portions of the midgut and feces were used for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the composition and distribution of the digestive proteinases. Animals were divided into three different groups: (1) animals (controls) fed with a commercial 35% protein diet, (2) animals fed with a commercial diet supplemented with ovalbumin to a final protein concentration of 60%; (3) animals fed with an 80% protein diet. Quantitative determinations using different substrates and zymograms showed that increasing protein concentration in the diet alters the distribution of proteinases along the digestive tract. Composition of proteinases in the midgut gland, stomach contents, midgut sections and feces were similar, but not identical. Chymotrypsin and trypsin paralogues were identified in all enzyme sources in a concentration gradient along the midgut in the control shrimp, the expected distribution supporting the existence of a recycling mechanism. The occurrence of a peritrophic membrane in other Decapoda suggests that endo-ectoperitrophic circulation of digestive enzymes and nutrients may also occur in other crustaceans and also extends beyond the Insecta. PMID:24813823

Alexandre, Daniel; Ozório, Renata A; Derner, Roberto B; Fracalossi, Débora M; Oliveira, Gabriel B; Samuels, Richard I; Terra, Walter R; Silva, Carlos P

2014-01-01

430

Combined use of DGT and transplanted shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to assess the bioavailable metals of complex contamination: implications for implementing bioavailability-based water quality criteria.  

PubMed

The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) were field deployed alongside the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at seven sites with different levels of contamination to assess the potentially bioavailable and toxic fraction of metal contaminants. After 7 days of exposure, several antioxidant biomarkers were quantified in hepatopancreas of exposed shrimps, and tissue levels as well as the total, dissolved, and DGT-labile concentrations of metal contaminants were determined in the pooled site samples. The results showed that the caged shrimps had high tissue contaminant concentrations and significantly inhibited antioxidant responses at the more contaminated sites. DGT-labile metal concentrations provided better spatial resolution of differences in metal contamination when compared with traditional bottle sampling and transplanted shrimp. The total, dissolved, and DGT-labile metal fractions were used to evaluate the potential bioavailability of metal contaminants, comparing with metal accumulation and further linking to antioxidant biomarker responses in tissues of exposed shrimps. Regression analysis showed the significant correlations between DGT-Cu concentrations and tissue-Cu and activities of some biomarker responses in the shrimp hepatopancreas. This indicated that DGT-labile Cu concentrations provided the better prediction of produced biological effects and of the bioavailability than the total or dissolved concentrations. The study supports the use of methods combining transplanted organisms and passive sampling for assessing the chemical and ecotoxicological status of aqueous environments and demonstrates the capability of the DGT technique as a powerful tool for measuring the bioavailability-based water quality in variable coastal environments. PMID:24337999

Wang, Zaosheng; Zhao, Peihong; Yan, Changzhou; Chris, Vulpe D; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

2014-03-01

431

Contamination assessments of surface water in coastal lagoon (Maluan Bay, China) incorporating biomarker responses and bioaccumulation in hepatopancreas of exposed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)--an integrative approach.  

PubMed

Maluan Bay, characterized by various degrees of anthropogenic contamination, is considered as one of the most industrialized and urbanized coastal lagoon in China, where large amounts of metal contaminants in surface water and biota were detected in previous studies. However, no clear discriminating power among sampling sites could be made only through comparisons between contaminant levels and Environmental Quality Standards and especially biological-based monitoring integrating biomarkers and bioaccumulation of exposure are scarce. For this purpose, antioxidants enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione-S-transferase were assessed using the hepatopancreas of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 7 days laboratory exposure under controlled conditions to characterize the effects of polluted waters to shrimps. The metal concentrations of sampled water and bioaccumulation in hepatopancreatic tissues were also analyzed, and data were linked to biomarkers' responses by multivariate (principal component analysis-factor) analysis. A representation of estimated factor scores was performed to confirm the factor descriptions classifying the pollution status and characterizing the studied sites, which pointed out the impact of multiple sources of contaminants to the water quality and provided further evidences to the existence of clear pollution and toxicological gradients in critical areas. The results of the present investigation underlined that the integrated approach could be a powerful tool for the identification of causal toxic contaminants in complex mixtures and the assessment of human-induced environmental quality of the system in coastal zones. PMID:23589269

Wang, Zaosheng; Dong, Xiaoxia; Zhou, Shilei; Yan, Changzhou; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

2014-01-01

432

Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8). Testosterone. Documented that blood concentrations of testosterone were unchanged during flight, but a transient decline occurred after landing (9). Calcium. Nutrition SMO data contributed to the ISS Program by helping understand how and why the Urine Processor Assembly clogged with calcium sulfate precipitate (10). Sample Processing. Ground-based analytical testing results have also been published (11).

Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

2014-01-01

433

Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily gene, TNF receptor superfamily gene and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LITAF) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

In vertebrates, the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (TNFR) system participates in diverse physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and protective immune responses to microbial infections. There are few reports about the role of the invertebrate TNF-TNFR system in immune responses. Here, we isolated and characterized the TNF superfamily (LvTNFSF) gene, TNFR superfamily (LvTNFRSF) gene and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-? factor (LvLITAF) gene from Litopenaeus vannamei. LvTNFSF consists of 472 amino acids with a conserved C-terminal TNF domain and has 89.8% identity with the Marsupenaeus japonicus TNF superfamily gene. LvTNFRSF consists of 296 amino acids with a conserved TNFR domain and has 18.0% identity with Chlamys farreri TNFR, 14.6% identity with Drosophila melanogaster Wengen and 14.6% identity with Homo sapiens TNFR1. LvLITAF consists of 124 amino acids with the LITAF domain and shows 62.6% identity with D. melanogaster LITAF and 32.3% identity with H. sapiens LITAF. The promoter region of LvTNFSF was cloned and used to construct a luciferase reporter. In Drosophila S2 cells, the promoter of LvTNFSF can be activated by LvLITAF, L. vannamei NF-?B family proteins (LvRelish and LvDorsal) and LvSTAT. Unlike its mammalian counterparts, LvTNFRSF could not activate the NF-?B pathway in Drosophila S2 cells. Using real-time quantitative PCR, we obtained expression profiles of LvTNFSF, LvTNFRSF and LvLITAF in the gill, intestine and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei after challenge with Gram-negative Vibrio alginolyticus, Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus, the fungus Candida albicans and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Taken together, our results reveal that LvTNFSF, LvTNFRSF and LvLITAF may be involved in shrimp immune responses to pathogenic infections. PMID:21736897

Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Pang, Li-Ran; Gu, Zhi-Hua; Qiu, Wei; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2012-01-01

434

NUTRITION 203 as an STS course Principles of Human Nutrition  

E-print Network

system. Dial up not recommended. Resources on-line from Pearson publisher (information will be emailed). Additional suggested readings, general nutrition topics and resources: Food Marketing to Children and Youth

Bolding, M. Chad

435

PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA  

PubMed Central

Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

Desai, B.P.

1990-01-01

436

Nutrition systems for pressure suits.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

1973-01-01

437

Access Routes for Nutritional Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition (EN) and total\\u000a parenteral nutrition (TPN) may provide life-sustaining therapy for\\u000a surgical patients. The duration of nutritional therapy (enteral or\\u000a parenteral) implies distinct access routes. We review the main aspects\\u000a related to access routes for nutrient delivery. The enteral route,\\u000a whenever feasible, is preferred. For EN lasting less than 6 weeks,\\u000a nasoenteric tubes are the route of choice.

2000-01-01

438

What is the Food and Nutrition Project?  

E-print Network

'ers and other youth groups. · Design and create an exhibit on a food-nutrition related topic for a health fair about food safety; interview a public health inspector. · Research a food-related topic such as special, � basic nutrition, and � how nutrition affects health. · Food and Nutrition Educational Activity �

439

CPH 560 INTERNATIONAL NUTRITION Spring 2011  

E-print Network

and resources available to combat malnutrition will be evaluated. The role of world food production, food - infection interactions. 3. Describe the nutrition transition and factors affecting it. 4. The role of women in nutrition and how nutrition affects women 5. Determine the effect of governmental policies on nutritional

Arizona, University of

440

STUDY ABROADFOR NUTRITION MAJORS study abroad  

E-print Network

STUDY ABROADFOR NUTRITION MAJORS study abroad #12;WHY YOU SHOULD STUDY ABROAD 2 STUDY ABROAD FOR NUTRITION MAJORS Study abroad programs provide Nutrition majors with access to interesting and relevant. It is possible for Nutrition students to go abroad for a semester and still graduate on time! WHAT YOU NEED

John, Lizy Kurian

441

NUTRITION MARKETING AND THE WORLDWIDE OBESITY EPIDEMIC  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nutrition used to market food products on a wide scale is a relatively new phenomenon. In the early 1990s very few products used nutrition marketing (health claims or nutrition information on labels beyond minimum requirements) to market their products. Over a 15-year period, the use of nutrition ma...

442

Effective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

of the action of biologically active components of food and their role in maintaining human health. NutritionEffective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Contact: Dr. Cathy English Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (http

Rhode Island, University of

443

Nutrition: What Hospitality Students Think and Know  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to determine the nutrition knowledge level of students in four-year hospitality programs in Texas, their attitudes toward nutrition in general (general attitudes), and their attitudes toward the role of nutrition in commercial foodservice (restaurant attitudes). Correlations between knowledge and attitudes and differences based on gender, age, college classification, and completion of a college nutrition

Agnes R. Bruce; Joyce I. Nies

1994-01-01

444

Nutrition Education in Colleges of Pharmacy1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Colleges of pharmacy in the United States were surveyed to determine the status of nutrition education; 54 colleges responded. Entry-level programs required a median of 12 to 15 contact hours of nutrition-related coursework. Experiential training was offered by 69 percent. Increased emphasis on nutrition over the next five years was anticipated by 44 percent. Continuing education in nutrition was offered

Sarah J. Miller

1995-01-01

445

Nutrition and Health with an Evaluation on Nutritional Surveillance in the United States.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focusing on America's self-knowledge about its nutritional health, this report deals with the availability of nutrition evaluation and counseling to individuals and the adequacy of the national nutrition monitoring system. Bureaucratic and political problems of applying nutritional health considerations to food policy are also examined. Nutrition

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

446

The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena

2012-01-01

447

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2014­2015 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

448

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2013­2014 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

449

Metabolomic differentiation of nutritional stress in an aquatic invertebrate.  

PubMed

Poor diet quality frequently constrains the growth and reproduction of primary consumers, altering their population dynamics, interactions in food webs, and contributions to ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling. The identification and measurement of an animal's nutritional state are thus central to studying the connections between diet and animal ecology. Here we show how the nutritional state of a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna, can be determined by analyzing its endogenous metabolites using hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics. With a multivariate analysis, we observed the differentiation of the metabolite composition of animals grown under control conditions (good food and no environmental stress), raised on different diets (low quantity, nitrogen limited, and phosphorus limited), and exposed to two common environmental stressors (bacterial infection and salt stress). We identified 18 metabolites that were significantly different between control animals and at least one limiting food type or environmental stressor. The unique metabolite responses of animals caused by inadequate nutrition and environmental stress are reflective of dramatic and distinctive effects that each stressor has on animal metabolism. Our results suggest that dietary-specific induced changes in metabolite composition of animal consumers hold considerable promise as indicators of nutritional stress and will be invaluable to future studies of animal nutrition. PMID:25590592

Wagner, Nicole D; Lankadurai, Brian P; Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, Andre J; Frost, Paul C

2015-01-01

450

The Relationship between Nutrition Knowledge and School Cafeteria Purchases of Seventh Grade Students in a Rural Indiana School District  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objective: School cafeterias have the potential to positively contribute to the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The purpose of this project was to assess adolescents' nutrition knowledge and dietary choices, and to measure the relationship between students' nutrition knowledge and the type of food items purchased…

Pucciarelli, Deanna; McNeany, Terry; Friesen, Carol

2013-01-01

451

Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies.  

PubMed

Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health. PMID:22787388

Kalnins, Daina; Wilschanski, Michael

2012-01-01

452

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

453

Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

Reber, Robert J.

1991-01-01

454

Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration  

Cancer.gov

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.

455

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities NIH Research Training & Research Career Development http://grants.nih.gov/training/index.htm Research and training opportunities at NIH, range from summer programs for high school students through employment

456

Nutrition: What Your Body Needs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson designed to enhance literacy skills, students examine the nutritional content of different foods and learn about the health benefits and risks associated with the food choices they make.

WGBH Educational Foundation

2011-12-23

457

Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care  

PubMed Central

There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

2013-01-01

458

Nutrition and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y

1999-08-01

459

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

460

Nutritional Analysis of Thomazeau, Haiti  

E-print Network

- such as earthquakes, floods, famines, and warfare ? is at risk. Yet, once first responders have come and gone, the misconception that order and health has been restored may exist, even though long-term assessment has not taken place. Similarly, nutrition... supplement programs, whether short-term or long-term, have lacked the proper process and outcome evaluations needed to understand their effectiveness. Using physical growth and nutrition data gathered by a mobile medical team since the 2010 earthquake...

Vanderpool, John Mark

2013-02-04

461

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

462

Nutritional requirements after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

This article presents an overview of postoperative nutritional requirements and goals following bariatric surgery. It summarizes current diet progression and nutrient intake guidelines geared toward optimizing weight loss and maintaining adequate nutritional status, nutrient absorption, as well as hydration. The article further emphasizes the importance of postoperative follow-up with a bariatric multidisciplinary team for appropriate postoperative care, diet management, and nutrient deficiency screenings. PMID:24878210

Bosnic, Gordana

2014-06-01

463

Nutrition and equine performance.  

PubMed

Some aspects of energy, protein and vitamin E nutrition of the performance horse are discussed. The amount, dietary source and time of ingestion of energy before exercise can influence performance. In 1989 the National Research Council (NRC) increased their estimates of energy required by racehorses. Recent studies indicate that the increase was reasonable. Many factors, however, can influence energy requirements. Therefore, the best measure would be body weight and composition of the horse. A proper balance of soluble carbohydrate, fiber, fat and protein is essential. Some guidelines are presented. The amount and type energy source given before exercise can influence level of plasma glucose and free fatty acids during exercise, but the effects of these changes in the concentration of metabolites remains to be determined. There is no evidence that increased dietary concentrations of protein are needed and, in fact, may impair performance. Supplemental histidine (to enhance carnosine levels) or carnitine appear to be of limited value for horses fed conventional diets. Dietary concentrations of vitamin E less than the 80 IU/kg recommended by NRC seem to adequately protect against exercise-induced peroxidation. The NRC value may be justified on the basis of immune response, but further studies are needed. Vitamin E has been shown to be involved with familial equine degenerative myeloencephalopathy and may be involved with equine motor neuron disease, a condition considered to be similar to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in humans. PMID:7996280

Hintz, H F

1994-12-01

464

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

465

Nutrition and disease.  

PubMed

Mortality from digestive diseases in feedlot cattle is second only to that from respiratory diseases. Acidosis and bloat are the major digestive disorders and are likely to continue because of ongoing attempts to improve the efficiency of beef production by feeding more grain and less roughage. Subacute acidosis is probably the most prevalent form of acidosis in feedlots and is difficult to diagnose because of the absence of overt clinical signs. Ruminal changes in subacute acidosis are not as dramatic as those in acute acidosis. Also, the subacute form is not severe enough to induce systemic acidosis. Ruminal acidosis is also a predisposing factor for many other ailments in feedlot cattle such as laminitis, polioencephalomalacia, sudden death syndrome, and liver abscesses. Control of acidosis is achieved largely by sound nutritional management. Antimicrobial compounds (i.e., ionophores and nonionophores), have become management tools to impart stability to ruminal fermentation, modulate feed intake, and control acidosis. Bloat in feedlot cattle can be of free gas or frothy type. Frothy bloat is more common but is rarely the reason for bloat deaths. The economic impact of bloat results mainly from decreased animal performance. The etiology of bloat is complex and is the result of interactions between three major groups of factors: animal, dietary, and microbial. Presently, an effective method to control frothy bloat in feedlot cattle is not available. Ionophore antibiotics, particularly monensin, have been shown to be effective in decreasing the incidence and severity of bloat in cattle. PMID:9704414

Nagaraja, T G; Galyean, M L; Cole, N A

1998-07-01

466

Douglas-fir nutrition: Summary of results from the  

E-print Network

Cooperative SILVICULTURE WOOD QUALITY NUTRITION MODELING College of Forest Resources University of WashingtonDouglas-fir nutrition: Summary of results from the Regional Forest Nutrition Research Project

467

Nutritional analysis of a fiesta on Guam  

PubMed Central

Fiestas in Guam are celebrated year round, but documentation of the preparation and nutritional components of foods served at a traditional fiesta on Guam is limited. Food preparation was observed during a fiesta celebrated in the village of Sinajana, Guam. A food scale was used to weigh the ingredients of food dishes. Nutritional analysis software was used to determine the nutrient content of each food dish served. Of the thirty-four dishes that were prepared and served, 32 dishes were analyzed. These dishes comprised 609,210 kcal, 38,761 g protein, 42,883 g carbohydrates, 30,260 g total fat, 10,019 g saturated fat, and 1890 g dietary fiber. More than 95% of the food prepared was potentially consumed. Of the food potentially consumed, 24% of the energy was from protein, 29% of the energy was from carbohydrates, 45% of the energy was from total fat, and 15% of the energy was from saturated fat. Of the top 10 foods contributing the most energy, 8 were totche (fish and meat) dishes. The nutrient availability for fiesta-goers was estimated. The assessment of fiesta nutrient intake is recommended for future research. PMID:19756167

Paulino, Yvette C.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Aguon, Charissa M.

2009-01-01

468

Acupoint energetics of nutritional supplement intolerance: patient self-prescribing may impair clinical progress.  

PubMed

Chronically ill patients failing to obtain effective treatment with conventional medicine often self-prescribe multiple nutritional supplements. In some cases, supplements can exacerbate pathology or block therapeutic progress because of negative effects on gastrointestinal, immunological, neurotransmitter, and hormonal functions. Nutritional supplements may also contribute to the growth of bacterial, viral, and fungal pathogens. Case studies involving evaluation of supplement energetics through acupoint biophoton coherence measurements at Pericardium-6 reflect the potential for harm from patient self medication. PMID:10513099

Van Benschoten, M M

1999-01-01

469

From the imperial to the empty calorie: how nutrition relations underpin food regime transitions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article works in a recursive manner by using the tools of a food regime approach to reinterpret the nutrition transition\\u000a that has been underway internationally for 100 years, and then describing the contributions of nutrition science to the 1st\\u000a and 2nd Food Regimes and the passages between Food Regimes. The resulting history—from the ‘imperial calorie’ through the\\u000a ‘protective’ vitamin to

Jane Dixon

2009-01-01

470

Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng space flight. This is critical due to the red blood cell changes which occur, and the increase in iron storage that has been observed after space flight. The Iron Absorption and Metabolism experiment is currently planned for long-term flights on the International Space Station.

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

471

Vegetarian nutrition: past, present, future.  

PubMed

Early human food cultures were plant-based. Major religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism have recommended a vegetarian way of life since their conception. The recorded history of vegetarian nutrition started in the sixth century bc by followers of the Orphic mysteries. The Greek philosopher Pythagoras is considered the father of ethical vegetarianism. The Pythagorean way of life was followed by a number of important personalities and influenced vegetarian nutrition until the 19th century. In Europe, vegetarian nutrition more or less disappeared during the Middle Ages. In the Renaissance era and in the Age of Enlightenment, various personalities practiced vegetarianism. The first vegetarian society was started in England in 1847. The International Vegetarian Society was founded in 1908 and the first vegan society began in 1944. Prominent vegetarians during this time included Sylvester Graham, John Harvey Kellogg, and Maximilian Bircher-Benner. A paradigm shift occurred at the turn of the 21st century. The former prejudices that vegetarianism leads to malnutrition were replaced by scientific evidence showing that vegetarian nutrition reduces the risk of most contemporary diseases. Today, vegetarian nutrition has a growing international following and is increasingly accepted. The main reasons for this trend are health concerns and ethical, ecologic, and social issues. The future of vegetarian nutrition is promising because sustainable nutrition is crucial for the well-being of humankind. An increasing number of people do not want animals to suffer nor do they want climate change; they want to avoid preventable diseases and to secure a livable future for generations to come. PMID:24898226

Leitzmann, Claus

2014-07-01

472

Nutrition Environment Measures Study in Restaurants (NEMS-R)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Americans are increasingly eating out, but nutrition environments in restaurants are poorly understood. An observational measure was developed to assess factors believed to contribute to food choices in restaurants, including availability of more healthy foods, facilitators and barriers to healthful eating, pricing, and signage\\/promotion of healthy and unhealthy foods. Methods: Inter-rater and test-retest reliability were assessed in 217 sit-down

Brian E. Saelens; Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

473

Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.

1999-01-01