Note: This page contains sample records for the topic vannamei nutritional contribution from
While these samples are representative of the content of,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.

Nutrition in Burns: Galveston Contributions  

PubMed Central

Aggressive nutrition support is recommended following severe burn injury. Initially, such injury results in a prolonged and persistent hypermetabolic response mediated by a 10- to 20-fold elevation in plasma catecholamines, cortisol, and inflammatory mediators. This response leads to twice-normal metabolic rates, whole-body catabolism, muscle wasting, and severe cachexia. Thus, it is relevant to review the literature on nutrition in burns to adjust/update treatment. Failure to meet the increased substrate requirements may result in impaired wound healing, multiorgan dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infection, and death. Therefore, aggressive nutrition support is essential to ensure adequate burn care, attenuate the hypermetabolic response, optimize wound healing, minimize devastating catabolism, and reduce morbidity and mortality. Here, the authors provide nutrition recommendations gained from prospective trials, retrospective analyses, and expert opinions based on the authors' practices in Galveston, Texas, and Vienna, Austria.

Rodriguez, Noe A.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Williams, Felicia N.; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Herndon, David N.



Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.  


Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable. PMID:12936962

Leitzmann, Claus



Biochemical, physiological, and immunological changes during starvation in juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to know how the protein level modulates catabolism and its effects on the immune response, we studied juvenile L. vannamei that had been starved for varying period after being conditioned on diet containing either maintenance or optimal dietary protein levels (DPL). The effect of dietary protein level on nutritional reserves management of shrimp and its relation with

Cristina Pascual; Ariadna Sánchez; Edgar Zenteno; Gerard Cuzon; Gaxiola Gabriela; Roberto Brito; Rolando Gelabert; Enrique Hidalgo; Carlos Rosas



Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior  

EPA Science Inventory

Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...


Microbiota from Litopenaeus vannamei: digestive tract microbial community of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  


Bacteria capable of producing different extracellular enzymes of potential relevance in digestive processes were isolated from the stomach, hepatopancreas and intestine of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. A total of 64 strains with proteolytic activity were isolated and grouped into 16 clusters based on morphological characteristics: 4 groups were isolated from the intestine; 5 from the hepatopancreas; and 7 from the stomach. Molecular methods (16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing) and phenotypic criteria (Gram stain, catalase and oxidase tests, cell and colony morphology) were used to identify strains, which corresponded to Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio genera. These genera are reported to form part of the digestive tract microbial community in shrimp. Both genera were isolated from all three tested tissues. One member of each morphologic group was selected for analysis of the presence of amylases, lipases/esterases and chitinases. Most of the strains had all the tested enzymes, indicating that the L. vannamei digestive tract microbiotic flora includes groups which have the potential to contribute to the degradation of dietary components. PMID:24955302

Tzuc, Jaqueline Tuyub; Escalante, Diana Rendíz; Rojas Herrera, Rafael; Gaxiola Cortés, Gabriela; Ortiz, Maria Leticia Arena



Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our manuscript shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects. It contains at least 181 substances,\\u000a is a supersaturated solution of sugars, and contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements,\\u000a vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphones. This article reviews reports on the use of honey in the treatment of human disorders,\\u000a which are

Jose Miguel Alvarez-Suarez; Sara Tulipani; Stefania Romandini; Enrico Bertoli; Maurizio Battino



School Lunch Contribution to Nutritional Intake of Low Income West Virginia Sixth Graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe compliance of consumed school lunches to nutrient goals and the strengths and weaknesses of lunch contributions to total daily intakes of 6th graders from low income areas of West Virginia.The purpose of this study was to assess compliance of the consumed school lunch (SL) to nutrient goals and to identify SL contributions to the daily nutritional

W. L. Stuhldreher



The Contribution Made by School Milk to the Nutrition of Primary School Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Study discusses the assessment of the contribution of school milk to the nutrition of 396 Kent primary school children aged eight to eleven years, using information collected in a survey which included a weighed diet record, a socio-economic questionnaire, and a medical examination. [Available from Cambridge University Press, 32 East 57th Street,…

Cook, Judith; And Others



Specific Contribution of Methionine and Choline in Nutritional Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis  

PubMed Central

The pathogenesis and treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are not well established. Feeding a diet deficient in both methionine and choline (MCD) is one of the most common models of NASH, which is characterized by steatosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, hepatocellular injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis. However, the individual contribution of the lack of methionine and choline in liver steatosis, advanced pathology and impact on mitochondrial S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) and glutathione (GSH), known regulators of disease progression, has not been specifically addressed. Here, we examined the regulation of mitochondrial SAM and GSH and signs of disease in mice fed a MCD, methionine-deficient (MD), or choline-deficient (CD) diet. The MD diet reproduced most of the deleterious effects of MCD feeding, including weight loss, hepatocellular injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, whereas CD feeding was mainly responsible for steatosis, characterized by triglycerides and free fatty acids accumulation. These findings were preceded by MCD- or MD-mediated SAM and GSH depletion in mitochondria due to decreased mitochondrial membrane fluidity associated with a lower phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine ratio. MCD and MD but not CD feeding resulted in increased ceramide levels by acid sphingomyelinase. Moreover, GSH ethyl ester or SAM therapy restored mitochondrial GSH and ameliorated hepatocellular injury in mice fed a MCD or MD diet. Thus, the depletion of SAM and GSH in mitochondria is an early event in the MCD model of NASH, which is determined by the lack of methionine. Moreover, therapy using permeable GSH prodrugs may be of relevance in NASH.

Caballero, Francisco; Fernandez, Anna; Matias, Nuria; Martinez, Laura; Fucho, Raquel; Elena, Montserrat; Caballeria, Joan; Morales, Albert; Fernandez-Checa, Jose C.; Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen





... Carrie Gleeksman, MS, RD Clinical Dietician COPD: Lifestyle Management Nutrition Eating a balanced diet and maintaining a ... Up Mucus More Nutrition Information Back to Lifestyle Management Print Page Email Page Add Page I want ...



NSDL National Science Digital Library

3rd grade Health Education Look at these cool sites and try some of the games! Nutrition Games Food Pyramid Game For this website first click on \\"Take me to the flash version\\" and then you can explore! Nutrition Caf ...

Pearson, Ms.




NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.




NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.



Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java, Indonesia.  


Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ?7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density; i.e. 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ?7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted. PMID:23017314

Sekiyama, Makiko; Roosita, Katrin; Ohtsuka, Ryutaro




ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan



NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.



Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8?mg) for 27?days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P?vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.



The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker



The contribution of transgenic plants to better health through improved nutrition: opportunities and constraints.  


Malnutrition is a prevalent and entrenched global socioeconomic challenge that reflects the combined impact of poverty, poor access to food, inefficient food distribution infrastructure, and an over-reliance on subsistence mono-agriculture. The dependence on staple cereals lacking many essential nutrients means that malnutrition is endemic in developing countries. Most individuals lack diverse diets and are therefore exposed to nutrient deficiencies. Plant biotechnology could play a major role in combating malnutrition through the engineering of nutritionally enhanced crops. In this article, we discuss different approaches that can enhance the nutritional content of staple crops by genetic engineering (GE) as well as the functionality and safety assessments required before nutritionally enhanced GE crops can be deployed in the field. We also consider major constraints that hinder the adoption of GE technology at different levels and suggest policies that could be adopted to accelerate the deployment of nutritionally enhanced GE crops within a multicomponent strategy to combat malnutrition. PMID:22926437

Pérez-Massot, Eduard; Banakar, Raviraj; Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Zorrilla-López, Uxue; Sanahuja, Georgina; Arjó, Gemma; Miralpeix, Bruna; Vamvaka, Evangelia; Farré, Gemma; Rivera, Sol Maiam; Dashevskaya, Svetlana; Berman, Judit; Sabalza, Maite; Yuan, Dawei; Bai, Chao; Bassie, Ludovic; Twyman, Richard M; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Zhu, Changfu



Qualitative Investigation of Factors Contributing to Effective Nutrition Education for Navajo Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Obesity rates in American Indian and Alaskan Native children are a major health threat, yet effective ways to address this\\u000a remain elusive. Building on an earlier dietary assessment of Navajo Head Start families which indicated a gap in parental\\u000a nutrition awareness despite a strong program emphasis, the aim of this project was to identify culturally relevant nutrition\\u000a education strategies

Leslie Cunningham-Sabo; Mark Bauer; Shirley Pareo; Shirleen Phillips-Benally; Julia Roanhorse; Linda Garcia



Community nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific evidence has placed community nutrition among the front line strategies in health promotion. Traditional food habits have progressively changed in the last few decades. The combination of changes in food patterns and sedentary lifestyles have contributed to a significant increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Efforts in community nutrition should now focus on three key aspects: nutrition

J Aranceta



The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara



Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: Implications for primate evolution.  


Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. PMID:24742878

Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C



Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?  


Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples. PMID:24629978

Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R



Factors contributing to the development of hypophosphataemia when refeeding using parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To identify individual attributes or risk factors which predispose to the development of refeeding hypophosphataemia in patients\\u000a on parenteral nutrition (PN). Setting The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) a 530 bed, non-teaching Trust with a cancer centre, medical and surgical inpatients\\u000a and intensive care unit (ICU). Subjects were recruited prospectively from all adult inpatients referred for initiation of\\u000a PN.

Vanessa A. Marvin; David Brown; Jane Portlock; Callum Livingstone



Nutritional contribution of coffee, cacao and tea phenolics to human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  The intention of this short overview is to contribute to a better understanding of the physiological effects of the coffee,\\u000a cacao and tea phenolics to human health. The paper gives a short description of the principle phenolic compounds present in\\u000a each of the food stuffs, their intake, summarises the data available on their bioavailability and metabolism and gives finally\\u000a a

H. M. Rawel; S. E. Kulling



Contrasting causal pathways contribute to poorer health and nutrition outcomes in orphans in Zimbabwe.  


Orphaned children have been found to be at greater risk of poor health and malnutrition compared to non-orphans in sub-Saharan African countries. However, levels of disadvantage vary by location and little is known about the causal pathways that lead from orphanhood to poorer health and malnutrition. Aggregate data from recent Demographic and Health Surveys in 22 countries were used to compare overall levels of ill-health and malnutrition by orphan status. Data from the Manicaland Child Cohort Study in Zimbabwe - a closed cohort study with detailed longitudinal information on orphan's experience - were used to describe how patterns of ill-health and malnutrition alter over the child's life-course and to test causal pathways between orphanhood and ill-health and malnutrition, hypothesized in a previously published theoretical frame-work. Modest increases in ill-health and malnutrition were found in orphans in the Demographic and Health Surveys data, with maternal and double orphans being worst affected. Non-significant associations were found between orphanhood and ill-health in the Manicaland Child Cohort Study data, but no associations with malnutrition were found. None the less, smaller increases in body mass index with age were seen among orphans (ologit test for difference: adjusted odds ratio = 0.68; p = 0.07) and maternal orphans (ologit test for difference: adjusted odds ratio = 0.67; p = 0.03) than among non-orphans. Stigma and discrimination contributed to poor diet, malnutrition and ill-health in children whose mothers had died, while heightened poverty was a more important factor for paternal orphans. These results suggest social and psychological support for orphans and their families could be as important as material support in preventing malnutrition and ill-health. PMID:23730323

Owen Nee Watts, Helen; Nyamukapa, Constance; Beasley, Michael; Wambe, Mainford; Jukes, Matthew; Mason, Peter; Gregson, Simon



Base-cation deposition in Europe—part II. Acid neutralization capacity and contribution to forest nutrition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An assessment was made of the capacity of base cations to neutralize acid deposition and of the contribution of base cation deposition to forest nutrition in Europe. In large parts of southern Europe more than 50% of the potential acid deposition was found counteracted by deposition of non-sea salt Mg 2+ + Ca 2+ + K +. In central and northwestern Europe, base cation deposition usually amounted to less than 25% of the acid input. Smallest base cation deposition relative to potential acid deposition was found in southern Scandinavia, Denmark, northern Germany and The Netherlands. A similar spatial pattern was found for the neutralization of acid anions in precipitation. Whereas in Scandinavia weathering is the dominant supplier of base cation to forest soils, in eastern and southern Europe, forests mainly rely on atmospheric deposition for the supply of base cations. Using error propagation, the random and systematic error in acid neutralization capacity for an average grid cell of 10 × 20 km was estimated to equal 45-55% and 50-55%, respectively.

Draaijers, G. P. J.; Van Leeuwen, E. P.; De Jong, P. G. H.; Erisman, J. W.


[Nutritional care in public hospitals of four Brazilian states: contributions of health evaluation to health surveillance services].  


Considering the importance of nutritional care for the quality of care provided to hospitalized patients, the study aims to assess health care in eight public hospitals that have received support from QualiSUS in four Brazilian states. There were semi-structured interviews with nutritionists, direct observation and review of 219 records of patients admitted to the medical clinics. The findings suggest weaknesses in the hospital nutritional care, poor integration between the production of food and nutritional care in the surveyed hospitals, in addition to structural deficiencies. We highlight problems related to the nutritional care process, including its documentation. In 93% of the records there were no records on the nutritional status on admission, or nutritional assessment of patients in nutritional therapy. It was observed that the assessment made by the health surveillance in routine inspections, focusing on the verification of compliance and structural aspects, does not include the detection of a possible nutritional risk for the patient. We suggest the inclusion of other criteria and strategies for surveillance, among them a review of open medical records. PMID:21120329

De Seta, Marismary Horsth; O'Dwyer, Gisele; Henriques, Patrícia; de Sales, Gizene Luciana Pereira



Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited.



How can agricultural interventions contribute in improving nutrition health and achieving the MDGs in least-developed countries?  


There are strong conceptual linkages between agricultural development and nutrition improvements which may be categorized into three main pathways: the development, own-production and market pathways. Evidence on the efficacy of these pathways is mixed with some strong, some negative and some weak impacts. These findings reflect both the importance of agriculture for nutrition and the conditionality of that importance on contextual factors. They are also the result of insufficient high-quality empirical research investigating these linkages. The most effective 'pathways' and interventions linking agricultural change to improved nutritional outcomes change with economic growth and development, with declining importance of the development and own-production pathways and increasing importance of the market pathway. Substantial challenges in operationalizing agricultural-nutrition linkages need to be overcome to better exploit potential opportunities. PMID:24504210

Dorward, Andrew



Contribution of highly industrially processed foods to the nutrient intakes and patterns of middle-aged populations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:To describe the contribution of highly processed foods to total diet, nutrient intakes and patterns among 27 redefined centres in the 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Methods:Single 24-hour dietary recalls were collected from 36 034 individuals (aged 35–74 years) using a standardized computerized interview programme (EPIC-SOFT). Centre-specific mean food intakes (g\\/day) were computed

N Slimani; G Deharveng; D A T Southgate; C Biessy; V Chajès; M M E van Bakel; M C Boutron-Ruault; A McTaggart; S Grioni; J Verkaik-Kloosterman; I Huybrechts; P Amiano; M Jenab; J Vignat; K Bouckaert; C Casagrande; P Ferrari; P Zourna; A Trichopoulou; E Wirfält; G Johansson; S Rohrmann; A-K Illner; A Barricarte; L Rodríguez; M Touvier; M Niravong; A Mulligan; F Crowe; M C Ocké; Y T van der Schouw; B Bendinelli; C Lauria; M Brustad; A Hjartåker; A Tjønneland; A M Jensen; E Riboli; S Bingham



Contributions to the psychology of nutrition. II. The sucking reaction as a determiner of food and drug habits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Freudian view of infantile sucking is abandoned and the nutritional value of this reaction is stressed. The element of buccal play and manipulation is probably a factor underlying certain food and mild drug habits. In Hull's study of tobacco smoking it appears that the chief source of pleasure is the holding of the pipe in the mouth and filling

J. L. Mursell



Contribution of nutritional deficit to the pathogenesis of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome in critical illness: a rabbit model study.  


Both starvation and critical illness are hallmarked by changes in circulating thyroid hormone parameters with typically low T(3) concentrations in the absence of elevated TSH. This constellation is labeled nonthyroidal illness (NTI). Because critical illness is often accompanied by anorexia and a failing gastrointestinal tract, the NTI of critical illness may be confounded by nutrient deficiency. In an experimental study performed in a rabbit model, we investigated the impact of nutritional deficit on the NTI of sustained critical illness. Critically ill rabbits were randomly allocated to parenteral nutrition (moderate dose 270 kcal/d) initiated on the day after injury and continued until d 7 of illness or to infusing a similar volume of dextrose 1.4% (14 kcal/d). With early parenteral nutrition during illness, the decrease in serum T(3) observed with fasting was reversed, whereas the fall in T(4) was not significantly affected. The rise in T(3) with parenteral nutrition paralleled an increase of liver and kidney type-1 and a decrease of liver and kidney type-3 deiodinase activity and an increase in circulating and central leptin. Nuclear staining of constitutive androstane receptor and its downstream expression of sulfotransferases were reduced in fasting ill animals. TRH expression in the hypothalamus was not different in fasted and fed ill rabbits, although circulating TSH levels were higher with feeding. In conclusion, in this rabbit model of sustained critical illness, reduced circulating T(3), but not T(4), levels could be prevented by parenteral nutrition, which may be mediated by leptin and its actions on tissue deiodinase activity. PMID:22166982

Mebis, Liese; Eerdekens, An; Güiza, Fabian; Princen, Leslie; Derde, Sarah; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies



Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure.  


White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96?h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96?h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment. PMID:24967441

Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C; Velarde-Montes, Germán J; Voltolina, Domenico; García-de la Parra, Luz M; Soto-Jiménez, Martín F; Frías-Espericueta, Martín G



Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure  

PubMed Central

White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96?h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12) of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96?h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

Bautista-Covarrubias, Juan C.; Velarde-Montes, German J.; Garcia-de la Parra, Luz M.; Soto-Jimenez, Martin F.; Frias-Espericueta, Martin G.



Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.  


Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince. PMID:18298747

Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K



Litopenaeus vannamei NF-?B is required for WSSV replication.  


Many viruses can hijack the host cell NF-?B as part of their life cycle, diverting NF-?B immune regulatory functions to favor their replications. There were several reports on the functions of Litopenaeus vannamei NF-?B (LvNF-?B) in White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) replication in vitro. Here, we studied the relationship between LvNF-?B family protein Dorsal (LvDorsal) and Relish (LvRelish) with WSSV replication in vivo. The expressions of LvDorsal and LvRelish were significantly upregulated by WSSV challenge. Virus loads and expression of viral envelope protein VP28 in LvDorsal or LvRelish silencing shrimps were significantly lower than the control shrimps injected with EGFP-dsRNA or PBS after challenge with 1×10(5) copies WSSV/shrimp. In addition to the LvDorsal activation of WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter that we have reported, LvRelish can also activate WSV069 (ie1) and WSV303 promoter by dual luciferase reporter assays through screening 40 WSSV gene promoters that have putative multiple NF-?B binding sites. The promoter activity of the WSV069 (ie1) by LvDorsal activation was significantly higher than that by LvRelish activation. WSSV replication in LvDorsal, LvRelish or WSV303 silencing shrimps were significantly inhibited. These results indicate that the L. vannamei NF-?B family proteins LvDorsal and LvRelish expressions are significantly activated by WSSV challenge and WSSV replication partially relied on the activations of LvDorsal and LvRelish in vivo. PMID:24607287

Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Yong-Gui; Wang, Pei-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Peng; Li, Chao-zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Fan, Wen-Zhou; Yan, Hui; Weng, Shao-Ping; FrancisChan, Siuming; He, Jian-Guo



Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (?·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = ?{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its physiological changes, further contributing to the improvement of capture and rearing technique.

Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.



Haemophilus responses to nutritional immunity: epigenetic and morphological contribution to biofilm architecture, invasion, persistence and disease severity.  


In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. PMID:24130500

Szelestey, Blake R; Heimlich, Derek R; Raffel, Forrest K; Justice, Sheryl S; Mason, Kevin M



Broadening psychology's contribution to addressing issues of HIV/AIDS, poverty and nutrition: structural issues as constraints and opportunities.  


HIV/AIDS, more than any other public health problem, challenges dominant models of the role of psychology in health promotion and prevention. This paper focuses on poverty and resulting food insecurity as a structural risk factor for HIV infection. The paper considers the role of health psychology in global health concerns and argues that, while individual-based interventions are important, health psychology needs to shift to playing a proper role in broader level initiatives. Health psychology, in thinking about global health concerns such as HIV, needs to view an understanding of health, education and nutrition delivery programmes in low resourced contexts as at the core of the discipline. PMID:20631038

Tomlinson, Mark; Rohleder, Poul; Swartz, Leslie; Drimie, Scott; Kagee, Ashraf



Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.  


Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W; Bearden, Daniel W



Root-associated bacteria contribute to mineral weathering and to mineral nutrition in trees: a budgeting analysis.  


The principal nutrient source for forest trees derives from the weathering of soil minerals which results from water circulation and from plant and microbial activity. The main objectives of this work were to quantify the respective effects of plant- and root-associated bacteria on mineral weathering and their consequences on tree seedling growth and nutrition. That is why we carried out two column experiments with a quartz-biotite substrate. The columns were planted with or without pine seedlings and inoculated or not with three ectomycorrhizosphere bacterial strains to quantify biotite weathering and pine growth and to determine how bacteria improve pine growth. We showed that the pine roots significantly increased biotite weathering by a factor of 1.3 for magnesium and 1.7 for potassium. We also demonstrated that the inoculation of Burkholderia glathei PML1(12) significantly increased biotite weathering by a factor of 1.4 for magnesium and 1.5 for potassium in comparison with the pine alone. In addition, we observed a significant positive effect of B. glathei PMB1(7) and PML1(12) on pine growth and on root morphology (number of lateral roots and root hairs). We demonstrated that PML1(12) improved pine growth when the seedlings were supplied with a nutrient solution which did not contain the nutrients present in the biotite. No improvement of pine growth was observed when the seedlings were supplied with all the nutrients necessary for pine growth. We therefore propose that the growth-promoting effect of B. glathei PML1(12) mainly resulted from the improved plant nutrition via increased mineral weathering. PMID:16461674

Calvaruso, Christophe; Turpault, Marie-Pierre; Frey-Klett, Pascale



[Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children who are overweight or obese compared to school children who are of normal weight in Cartago, Costa Rica].  


In order to assess the nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children, a sample of 80 Costa Rican elementary schoolchildren: 40 children who were overweight or obese (the case group) and 40 children with normal weight (the control group) were evaluated. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Food patterns were determined using a 3-day food diary. Snacks consumed throughout the day were classified and analyzed according to their place of preparation and location of consumption and to the time of the day in which they were consumed. The results of this study revealed that "afternoon snacks" and "snacks prepared and eaten at home" were the most frequently consumed snacks by both case and control groups. The girls in the case group had a significantly larger intake of energy and carbohydrates in their "afternoon snacks" and the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to girls in the control group. Boys in the case group showed a significantly greater consumption of saturated fat in the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to boys in the control group. It was concluded that the intake of "afternoon snacks" and of those "prepared and eaten at home" could be related with the incidence of overweight/obesity in the sample of study and therefore nutrition education aimed at parents and children is crucial and could play an important role in its prevention. PMID:24020253

Ibarra López, Marianela; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia



Contribution of mangrove detritus to juvenile prawn nutrition: a dual stable isotope study in a Malaysian mangrove forest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual stable C and N ratio analyses of primary producers and prawns have clarified the important role of mangrove detritus\\u000a as the primary food source of juvenile prawns inhabiting the upper estuaries of the Matang mangrove swamp in Malaysia. The\\u000a contribution of mangrove carbon to prawn tissues, as high as 84%, decreased in the offshore direction, as the contribution\\u000a by

V. C. Chong; C. B. Low; T. Ichikawa



Contribution to the improvement of a porridge made with fermented maize: effect of selected foods and lemon on energy density, pH, viscosity and nutritional quality.  


The objective of the present study was to use lemon and selected foods to improve the nutritional characteristics, quality and the nutrient content of a traditional complementary porridge made of lactic acid fermented yellow maize. Boiled egg yolk, roasted peanut paste, dry crayfish flour, roasted soybean flour and lemon juice were used as food additions. Amounts of food added were calculated on the basis of World Health Organization estimated energy needs from complementary foods of well-nourished children in developing countries, aged 9-11 months, at four servings per day and a low amount of breast milk energy. The pH and viscosity increased in porridges with food addition, but lemon juice contributed to lowering them. Energy and nutrient densities/100 g porridge improved with food addition regardless of the use of lemon juice. An increase in iron, zinc and calcium in vitro availability was observed (P < 0.05) with the addition of lemon juice. PMID:21366382

Ejigui, Jeanne; Desrosiers, Therese



A Comparative study on the nonspecific immunity of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study on the nonspecific immunity of Litopenaeus vannamei ever inhabiting freshwater and seawater was carried out at different molt stages by comparing their total hemocyte count (THC) and respiratory burst (RB) and activity of phenol oxidase (PO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and lysozyme (LY). Two-way ANOVA showed that salinity and molt stage independently affected THC and RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei significantly ( P < 0.05). The THC and RB and the activity of NOS gradually increased from the post-molt stages (A and B) to the pre-molt stages (D0-D3), which were common in shrimps inhabiting freshwater and seawater. The activity of PO peaked at the inter-molt stage (C), and touched the lowest at the post-molt stage in freshwater and pre-molt stage in seawater. The activity of LY was stable over the molt cycle. The RB and the activity of PO, NOS and LY of juvenile L. vannamei were significantly lower in freshwater than in seawater; whereas THC was significantly higher in freshwater than in seawater ( P < 0.05). It was concluded that the post-molt stage (especially stage A) was critical to shrimp culture, which should be intensively attended when L. vannamei was cultured in freshwater.

Jia, Xuying; Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin



Whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei, Boone, 1931) isotrypsins: Their genotype and modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on information about isotrypsins found by substrate–SDS-PAGE in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and their segregation, an explanation for the presence of three-trypsin phenotype was sought. Isotrypsins A, B, and C depend on two loci: locus ?, which is homozygous, yielding isoenzyme C, and locus ?, which is heterozygous, yielding isoenzymes A and B. Segregation in locus ? in

Juan Carlos Sainz; Fernando L. García-Carreño; Julio H. Córdova-Murueta; Pedro Cruz-Hernández




Microsoft Academic Search

Whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is traded as a frozen food. Changes in texture of thawed muscle are a negative economic factor. This study evaluated and compared two freezing methods, cryogenic and forced convection, and two thawing methods, at 4 and 25C by histological, textural and electrophoretical tests. Insignificant interaction was found between the two main effects for any of the




Metabolism and growth of juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei: effect of salinity and dietary carbohydrate levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to understand how carbohydrate (CBH) and protein metabolism are related in the penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. With this information, we obtained a comprehensive schedule of the protein–carbohydrate metabolism including enzymatic, energetic, and functional aspects. We used salinity to determine its role as a modulator of the protein–carbohydrate metabolism in shrimp. Two experiments were designed. The

Carlos Rosas; Gerard Cuzon; Gabriela Gaxiola; Yannick Le Priol; Cristina Pascual; Jordi Rossignyol; Fabian Contreras; Adolfo Sanchez; Alain Van Wormhoudt



Lysozyme gene expression by hemocytes of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after injection with Vibrio  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to quantify the gene expression of lysozyme, an important antibacterial protein produced by shrimp hemocytes, within tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in response to a pathogen challenge. We quantified lysozyme transcripts with a real-time PCR method and used these data, along with total hemocyte counts, to infer patterns of hemocyte trafficking during the immune

Erin J. Burge; Daniel J. Madigan; Louis E. Burnett; Karen G. Burnett



Maturation performance of Penaeus vannamei co-fed Artemia biomass preparations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few shrimp hatcheries successfully propagate captive broodstock on a commercial scale. Diets for acceptable maturation performance of Penaeus vannamei have typically relied on the inclusion of marine polychaetes (bloodworm) from Panama or Maine, USA, which are expensive and are of unpredictable supply. Studies were therefore undertaken at experimental and commercial scale to replace or supplement the polychaetes by frozen ongrown

E. Naessens; P. Lavens; L. Gomez; C. L. Browdy; K. McGovern-Hopkins; A. W. Spencer; D. Kawahigashi; P. Sorgeloos



Molecular Characterization of Arginine Kinase, an Allergen from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Consumption of seafood can produce allergic symptoms in susceptible individuals and crustacean allergies are the most frequently reported causes of allergic reactions. Methods: An allergen from the muscle of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was purified by ion exchange chromatography and identified by mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides and its specific enzymatic activity. Moreover, the corresponding full-length cDNA was

Karina D. García-Orozco; Emmanuel Aispuro-Hernández; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia; Ana María Calderón-de-la-Barca; Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo



Biochemical responses during starvation and subsequent recovery in postlarval Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931, were held individually in cages and exposed to two feeding regimes. One group was starved for 12 d and then fed during the following 12 d. A second group was fed throughout the 24 d study. Four individuals were sampled from each of the two groups on Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12,

K. C. Stuck; S. A. Watts; S. Y. Wang



Purification of Hemocyanin from White Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei Boone) by Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemocyanin (Hc) was isolated from white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei Boone) plasma by density gradient ultracentrifugation and immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Hc was contained in the subnatant high density fraction and was adsorbed by an iminodiacetic acid (Ni-IDA) column that bound Hc and apohemocyanin. Hc molecular weight was estimated by pore limiting electrophoresis as 400 kDa. It is composed of two

Ciria G. Figueroa-Soto; Ana Maria Calderón de la Barca; Luz Vazquez-Moreno; Inocencio Higuera-Ciapara; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia



Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain



Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens.

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.



IGF-I/PI3K/Akt and IGF-I/MAPK/ERK pathways in vivo in skeletal muscle are regulated by nutrition and contribute to somatic growth in the fine flounder.  


The insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key regulator of skeletal muscle growth in vertebrates, promoting mitogenic and anabolic effects through the activation of the MAPK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Nutrition also affects skeletal muscle growth, activating intracellular pathways and inducing protein synthesis and accretion. Thus, both hormonal and nutritional signaling regulate muscle mass. In this context, plasma IGF-I levels and the activation of both pathways in response to food were evaluated in the fine flounder using fasting and refeeding trials. The present study describes for the first time in a nonmammalian species that the MAPK/ERK and PI3K/Akt are activated by exogenous circulating IGF-I, as well as showing that the MAPK/ERK pathway activation is modulated by the nutritional status. Also, these results show that there is a time-dependent regulation of IGF-I plasma levels and its signaling pathways in muscle. Together, these results suggest that the nutritionally managed IGF-I could be regulating the activation of the MAPK/ERK and the PI3K/Akt signaling pathways differentially according to the nutritional status, triggering different effects in growth parameters and therefore contributing to somatic growth in fish. This study contributes to the understanding of the nutrient regulation of IGF-I and its signaling pathways in skeletal muscle growth in nonmammalian species, therefore providing insight concerning the events controlling somatic growth in vertebrates. PMID:21389330

Fuentes, Eduardo N; Björnsson, Björn Thrandur; Valdés, Juan Antonio; Einarsdottir, Ingibjörg Eir; Lorca, Belen; Alvarez, Marco; Molina, Alfredo



Maternal perceptions of factors contributing to severe under-nutrition among children in a rural African setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction In developing countries, severe undernutrition in early childhood is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, and 10–40% of hospital admissions. The current study aimed to elicit maternal perceptions of factors that contribute to severe undernutrition among children in a rural Kenyan community in order to identify appropriate and acceptable targeted interventions. Methods The study consisted of 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) of between eight and ten mothers each, in a rural coastal community in Kenya. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the FGD data. Results In all FGDs ‘financial constraints’ was the main reason given for severe undernutrition of children. The mothers reported the additional factors of inadequate food intake, ill health, inadequate care of children, heavy workload for mothers, inadequate control of family resources by women and a lack of resources for generating income for the family. The mothers also reported their local cultural belief that severe malnutrition was due to witchcraft and the violation of sexual taboos. Conclusions The mothers in the study community recognised multiple aetiologies for severe undernutrition. A multidisciplinary approach is needed address the range of issues raised and so combat severe undernutrition. Suggested interventions include poverty alleviation, medical education and psychosocial strategies. The content and approach of any program must address the need for variability, determined by individual and local needs, concerns, attitudes and beliefs.

Abubakar, A; Holding, P; Mwangome, M; Maitland, K



Apparent carbohydrate and lipid digestibility of feeds for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae), cultivated at different salinities.  


Whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially farmed species worldwide because of its fast growth, good survival rate at high farming densities, and osmoregulatory capacity, which makes it an excellent candidate for cultures at different salinities. The knowledge of shrimp nutritional requirements is critical in the formulation of diets to allow optimal growth at different environmental conditions and development stages. The effect of salinity on apparent digestibility of shrimp feed is not well known, and this information is required in shrimp diet formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of carbohydrates (ACD) and lipids (ALD) were determined for juvenile whiteleg shrimps under controlled culture conditions. We evaluated the apparent digestibility of six commercial (D1:37CP, D2:38CP, D3:39CP, D4:34CP, D5:35CP, and D6:37CP) and two experimental (E1:33CP and E2:33CP) diets for juvenile whiteleg shrimp cultivated at three salinities (5, 35 and 50 psu) in 60 L aquariums. ACD and ALD were determined in vivo using chromic oxide as an inert marker. Our results showed that ALD in most cases was over 80%, independent of salinity, except the E1:33CP diet which had 74.0% at 50 psu. Diet D3:39CP showed the highest ALD coefficient (90.1 and 90.6% at 5 and 35 psu, respectively). For ACD, differences were detected between commercial and experimental diets at every salinity level, although salinity effect on ACD was not significant. Diet D4:34CP had the highest coefficient (92.4%) at 5 psu, and E2:33CP at 35 and 50 psu (97.3 and 94.7%). This study demonstrated that there is no significant effect of saline variations on carbohydrate and lipid digestibility by juvenile whiteleg shrimp, under the experimental conditions. PMID:24027918

Gucic, Milena; Cortés-Jacinto, Edilmar; Civera-Cerecedo, Roberto; Ricque-Marie, Denis; Martínez-Córdova, Luis Rafael



Replacement of fish meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal (CEPM) and flashed dried poultry by-product meal (FD-PBM) was evaluated as replacements for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. Each meal was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial wt.±S.D., 0.37±0.015 g)

D. Allen Davis; C. R. Arnold



Growth response and fatty acid composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei fed different sources of dietary lipid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding various sources of dietary lipid on weight gain, feed conversion, survival and fatty acid composition of juvenile Penaeus vannamei. Seven semi-purified diets (35% protein and 3400 kcal of metabolizable energy kg?1) containing defatted, freeze-dried shrimp meal, 1.0% soybean lecithin and 0.5% cholesterol were supplemented with 6.5% of either stearic acid,

Chhorn Lim; Harry Ako; Christopher L. Brown; Kirk Hahn



Purification and characterization of an intracellular lipase from pleopods of whiteleg shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intracellular lipase present in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was detected in pleopods. The lipase from pleopods was purified and characterized by biochemical and kinetic parameters. Purified intracellular lipase has a molecular mass of 196kDa, the polypeptide is assembled by two monomers, 95.26 and 63.36kDa. The enzyme lacks glycosylation, and it has an isoelectric point of 5.0. The enzyme

Crisalejandra Rivera-Pérez; Fernando García-Carreño



Effect of fasting on digestive gland lipase transcripts expression in Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digestive and intracellular lipases were studied in the digestive gland of whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. A partial sequence of the intracellular lipase was obtained from the digestive gland cDNA. The digestive and intracellular lipase mRNAs were detected differentially in different body parts of shrimp; digestive lipase mRNA is exclusively found in the digestive gland, suggesting a function as a digestive

Crisalejandra Rivera-Pérez; Fernando García-Carreño


Does hyperthermia increase apoptosis in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected Litopenaeus vannamei?  


Apoptosis plays a critical role in development and maintenance of multicellular organisms. It has also been described as an anti-viral mechanism in both insects and vertebrates. In fact, to escape the immune system and to increase their spread, some viruses such as baculovirus produce anti-apoptotic molecules. Conversely, a recent report showing a positive correlation between the number of apoptotic cells and the severity of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Penaeus monodon suggested that apoptosis might be the cause of death in viral-infected shrimp. Searching for the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of hyperthermia for WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei (also called Penaeus vannamei) and considering that hyperthermia increases apoptosis in other experimental models, we investigated the presence of apoptosis by Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end label (TUNEL), from 4 of 168 h in 3 groups of 50 L. vannamei juveniles. Group 1 consisted of experimentally infected shrimp (intramuscular injection of 3 x 10(7) viral copies) kept at 25 degrees C, Group 2 of similarly infected shrimp kept at 32 degrees C and Group 3 of uninjected shrimp kept at 32 degrees C. Apoptosis was found only in WSSV-infected individuals. Shrimp at 25 degrees C were positive for apoptotic cells in 48 (16%) of their examined tissues or organs, compared to 62 (21%) for those at 32 degrees C. Moreover, shrimp at 32 degrees C also had a significantly higher overall mean apoptotic index (AI) than shrimp at 25 degrees C (p < 0.05). Comparison of mean AI at 72, 96 and 120 h post-infection showed that individuals at 32 degrees C presented a significantly higher values than those at 25 degrees C. These results suggested that hyperthermia might facilitate apoptosis in WSSV-infected L. vannamei and might be one of the mechanisms responsible for increased survival of infected shrimp maintained at 32 degrees C. PMID:12718474

Granja, Clarissa B; Aranguren, Luis Fernando; Vidal, Oscar M; Aragón, Lacides; Salazar, Marcela



The cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Molecular cloning and expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) is normally a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme in eukaryotic organisms; however, a cytoplasmic manganese SOD (cMnSOD) was found in crustaceans that use hemocyanin as oxygen carrier. The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a cMnSOD from Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. The coding sequence predicts a 287 residues protein with a unique 61 amino acids

Gracia A. Gómez-Anduro; Carolina-V. Barillas-Mury; Alma B. Peregrino-Uriarte; Lalita Gupta; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Jorge Hernández-López; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia



Localization and bacteriostasis of Vibrio introduced into the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although numerous mechanisms of immune defense have been described in crustaceans, the tissue distribution and fate of live bacteria introduced into the host remain unclear. In the present study, Litopenaeus vannamei were injected with a sub-lethal dose of kanamycin-resistant Vibrio campbellii expressing green fluorescent protein. Accumulation of intact bacteria was quantified by real-time PCR, while bacteriostasis was quantified as the

Joseph E. Burgents; Louis E. Burnett; Eric V. Stabb; Karen G. Burnett



Physiological and biochemical changes in shrimp larvae ( Penaeus vannamei) intoxicated with organochlorine pesticides  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp larvae (Penaeus vannamei) collected from an uncontaminated area were challenged with sublethal concentrations of organochlorine pesticides. The effects of treatment with lindane, lorsban, chlordane and DDT, were a 5, ?12, 13 and 21% increase in the larval respiratory rate, respectively. Glycogen synthesis decreased from the 0.471 ?g g?1 h?1 of the control, to 0.455, 0.415, 0.400 and 0.365 ?g

R. José G. Galindo; J. Alejandra Medina; L. Cecilio Villagrana



Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.  


Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao



Nutrition Frontiers

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.


Advantages of enteral nutrition over parenteral nutrition  

PubMed Central

It is a strong and commonly held belief among nutrition clinicians that enteral nutrition is preferable to parenteral nutrition. We provide a narrative review of more recent studies and technical reviews comparing enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition. Despite significant weaknesses in the existing data, current literature continues to support the use of enteral nutrition in patients requiring nutrition support, over parenteral nutrition.

Valcarcel, Monika; Guillaume, Alexandra



Characterization and molecular methods for detection of a novel spiroplasma pathogenic to Penaeus vannamei.  


Traditionally, Spiroplasma spp. have only been isolated from the surfaces of flowers and other plant parts, from the guts and hemolymph of various insects, and from vascular plant fluids (phloem sap) and insects that feed on these fluids. In this article, we report the first pathogenic spiroplasma to be discovered in shrimp and the results of its characterization through histological evaluation, in situ hybridization assays, transmission electron microscopy, 16S rRNA sequence homology, and injection infectivity studies. In addition, molecular methods are described that were developed for the detection of this microorganism, which was determined to be the causative disease agent in Colombian farm-raised Penaeus vannamei suffering from high mortalities. Using standard histological methods and in situ hybridization assays, it was confirmed that P. vannamei was infected with this pathogenic spiroplasma. Histological analysis revealed systemic inflammatory reactions in affected organs/tissues. In an attempt to identify the bacteria, frozen infected P. vannamei samples, from the initial epizootic, were used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene and develop molecular detection methods. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by PCR and then sequenced. The sequence data were analyzed using the GenBank BLAST search and the results revealed a 98% homology with Spiroplasma citri, a pathogen of citrus trees. The 16S rRNA sequence data were evaluated for development of unique PCR primers to the putative spiroplasma. Using PCR primers developed for the spiralin gene of Spiroplasma spp., a digoxigenin-labeled probe was developed and tested. This probe was species-specific, with no positive reactions or cross-reactivity occurring with other bacterial samples tested in this format. PMID:15672883

Nunan, Linda M; Pantoja, Carlos R; Salazar, Marcela; Aranguren, Fernando; Lightner, Donald V



Structure Elucidation and Anticancer Activity of 7-Oxostaurosporine Derivatives from the Brazilian Endemic Tunicate Eudistoma vannamei  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the identification of two new staurosporine derivatives, 2-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (1) and 3-hydroxy-7-oxostaurosporine (2), obtained from mid-polar fractions of an aqueous methanol extract of the tunicate Eudistoma vannamei, endemic to the northeast coast of Brazil. The mixture of 1 and 2 displayed IC50 values in the nM range and was up to 14 times more cytotoxic than staurosporine across a panel of tumor cell lines, as evaluated using the MTT assay.

Jimenez, Paula Christine; Wilke, Diego Veras; Ferreira, Elthon Gois; Takeara, Renata; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; da Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; da Cruz Lotufo, Tito Monteiro; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Costa-Lotufo, Leticia Veras



Northern Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.


Mission Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here are the links for you healthy resources! First: Watch the Nutrition Video by clicking on the Link Nutrition Video Second: Click on 10 Reasons... to read about eating healthy 10 Reasons... Third: Click on the other links to play fun games and do nutrition activities. Fabo s Train Adventure Focus on Food Fridge Game Pyramid Game Focus on Food ...




Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.


Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions.

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng



An energetic and conceptual model of the physiological role of dietary carbohydrates and salinity on Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are reporting results directed to explain the relation between carbohydrates (CHO), protein metabolism, and the energetic balance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. The interaction of dietary CHO and salinity was measured to try to understand the relation between osmotic control and metabolism, both from a biochemical and energetic point of view. Two experiments were done. In the first experiment, shrimp

Carlos Rosas; Gerard Cuzon; Gabriela Gaxiola; Cristina Pascual; Gabriel Taboada; Leticia Arena; Alain van Wormhoudt



Digestive lipase activity through development and after fasting and re-feeding in the whiteleg shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipase activity of the midgut gland during larval and postlarval stages of Penaeus vannamei was assayed to determine its capability to digest lipids from feed and involvement in digesting lipids from reserves during fasting conditions. Lipase activity was detected at all larval stages, increasing from nauplii to protozoea. Lipase isoenzymes at larval stages were evaluated by SDS-PAGE using 4-methylumbelliferone butyrate

Crisalejandra Rivera-Pérez; Fernando L. García-Carreño



Cathepsin B from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: cDNA sequence analysis, tissues-specific expression and biological activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cathepsin B is a cystein proteinase scarcely studied in crustaceans. Its function has not been clearly described in shrimp species belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata, which includes the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and other species from the Penaeidae family. Studies on vertebrates suggest that these lysosomal enzymes intracellularly hydrolize protein, as other cystein proteinases. However, the expression of the gene

A. Stephens; L. Rojo; S. Araujo-Bernal; F. Garcia-Carreño; A. Muhlia-Almazan


Rate of Ingestion and Proteolytic Activity in Digestive System of Juvenile White Shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, During Continual Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Juvenile white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, were studied using tray feeders in relation to food ingestion and enzymatic activity, with data taken every two hours for five days. The feed ingestion was calculated by subtracting the uningested and the leached material from the food provided. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in the ingestion rate were found during the experiment. The greatest

P. Hernandez-Cortes; W. Quadros-Seiffert; M. A. Navarrete del Toro; G. Portillo; G. Colado; F. L. Garcia-Carreño



Effect of short-term starvation on hepatopancreas and plasma energy reserves of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crustaceans are forced to fast during molting. Several physiological, metabolic and behavioral changes have been associated with starvation. Although some of these changes have been well studied, knowledge of the dynamics of fuel reserves during the molting process is limited. To understand the effects of short-term hunger stress on energy reserves, intermolt shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were starved up to five

Arturo Sánchez-Paz; Fernando García-Carreño; Jorge Hernández-López; Adriana Muhlia-Almazán; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia



Studies on the Toxicity of Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) Fed Diets Dosed with Aflatoxin B1 to Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the potential for transmission of aflatoxin B1 to humans through consumption of shrimp contaminated with this toxin. Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) were fed diets dosed with three levels of afaltoxin B1 (300, 400, and 900 ppb) in an 8 week indoor aquarium feeding trial. The shrimp were analyzed for residues of

S. Divakaran; Albert G. J. Tacon



45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions. (a) Each tribal...coordinated services systems supported under this part, while using nutrition services contributions only to expand services as...



45 CFR 1321.67 - Service contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...all contributions. (b) Each service provider shall use supportive services and nutrition services contributions to expand supportive services and nutrition services respectively. To that end, the State agency shall: (1) Permit...



Red meat in global nutrition.  


The influence of data and recommendations from developed countries on nutrition guidance has overshadowed recognition of the key micronutrients and protein contributed by red meat to the global food supply. Relative to the energy it contributes, the impact of red meat on the nutritional quality of the human diet via its contribution of protein and key micronutrients is under-appreciated. The current discussion will review red meat nutrient composition and global consumption rates and discuss the evidence underpinning current dietary recommendations. The beneficial role of red meat in reducing risk factors associated with noncommunicable disease in developed countries and improving the nutritional status of developing nations will also be reviewed. PMID:22658075

McNeill, Shalene; Van Elswyk, Mary E



The Plausibility of Maternal Nutritional Status Being a Contributing Factor to the Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: The Potential Influence of Zinc Status as an Example  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that human pregnancy outcome can be significantly compromised by suboptimal maternal nutritional status. Poor diet results in a maternal-fetal environment in which the teratogenicity of other insults such as alcohol might be amplified. As an example, there is evidence that zinc (Zn) can interact with maternal alcohol exposure to influence the risk for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Studies with experimental animals have shown that the teratogenicity of alcohol is increased under conditions of Zn deficiency, while its teratogenicity is lessened when animals are given Zn supplemented diets or Zn injections prior to the alcohol exposure. Alcohol can precipitate an acute phase response resulting in a subsequent increase in maternal liver metallothionein, which can sequester Zn and lead to decreased Zn transfer to the fetus. Importantly, the teratogenicity of acute alcohol exposure is reduced in metallothionein knockout mice, which can have improved Zn transfer to the conceptus relative to wild-type mice. Consistent with the above, Zn status has been reported to be low in alcoholic women at delivery. Preliminary data from two basic science and clinical nutritional studies that are ongoing as part of the international Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (CIFASD) support the potential role of Zn, among other nutritional factors, relative to risk for FASD. Importantly, the nutrient levels being examined in these studies are relevant to general clinical populations and represent suboptimal levels rather than severe deficiencies. These data suggest that moderate deficiencies in single nutrients can act as permissive factors for FASD, and that adequate nutritional status or intervention through supplementation may provide protection for some of the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure.

Keen, Carl L.; Uriu-Adams, Janet Y.; Skalny, Anatoly; Grabeklis, Andrei; Grabeklis, Sevil; Green, Kerri; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Wertelecki, W. W.; Chambers, Christina D.



Community Health and Nutrition Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

1053 Rapid improvements in health and nutrition in developing countries may be ascribed to specific, deliberate, health- and nutrition-related interventions and to changes in the underly- ing social, economic, and health environments. This chapter is concerned with the contribution of specific interventions, while recognizing that improved living standards in the long run provide the essential basis for improved health. Consideration

John B. Mason; David Sanders; Philip Musgrove; Rae Galloway



Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai



The cytochrome c oxidase and its mitochondrial function in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during hypoxia.  


Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), which is located in the inner membrane of mitochondria, is a key constituent of the electron transport chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is constantly exposed to hypoxic conditions, which affects both the central metabolism and the mitochondrial function. The purpose of this study was to isolate shrimp mitochondria, identify the COX complex and to evaluate the effect of hypoxia on the shrimp mitochondrial function and in the COX activity. A 190 kDa protein was identified as COX by immunodetection techniques. The effect of hypoxia was confirmed by an increase in the shrimp plasma L-lactate concentration. COX activity, mitochondrial oxygen uptake and protein content were reduced under hypoxic conditions, and gradually restored as hypoxia continued, this suggests an adaptive mitochondrial response and a highly effective COX enzyme. Both mitochondrial oxygen uptake and COX activity were completely inhibited by KCN and sodium azide, suggesting that COX is the unique oxidase in L. vannamei mitochondria. PMID:24338495

Jimenez-Gutierrez, L R; Uribe-Carvajal, S; Sanchez-Paz, A; Chimeo, C; Muhlia-Almazan, A



Vibrios Associated with Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae, Postlarvae, Broodstock, and Hatchery Probionts  

PubMed Central

Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages.

Vandenberghe, Johan; Verdonck, Linda; Robles-Arozarena, Rocio; Rivera, Gabriel; Bolland, Annick; Balladares, Marcos; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Calderon, Jorge; Sorgeloos, Patrick; Swings, Jean



Vibrios associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae, postlarvae, broodstock, and hatchery probionts.  


Several bacteriological surveys were performed from 1994 to 1996 at different Litopenaeus vannamei hatcheries (in Ecuador) and shrimp farms (in Mexico). Samples were taken from routine productions of healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae, postlarvae, and their culture environment and from healthy and diseased juveniles and broodstock. In Ecuador, the dominant bacterial flora associated with shrimp larvae showing symptoms of zoea 2 syndrome, mysis mold syndrome, and bolitas syndrome has been determined. Strains were characterized by Biolog metabolic fingerprinting and identified by comparison to a database of 850 Vibrio type and reference strains. A selection of strains was further genotypically fine typed by AFLP. Vibrio alginolyticus is predominantly present in all larval stages and is associated with healthy nauplius and zoea stages. AFLP genetic fingerprinting shows high genetic heterogeneity among V. alginolyticus strains, and the results suggest that putative probiotic and pathogenic strains each have specific genotypes. V. alginolyticus was found to be associated with larvae with the zoea 2 syndrome and the mysis mold syndrome, while different Vibrio species (V. alginolyticus and V. harveyi) are associated with the bolitas syndrome. V. harveyi is associated with diseased postlarvae, juveniles, and broodstock. The identities of the strains identified as V. harveyi by the Biolog system could not be unambiguously confirmed by AFLP genomic fingerprinting. Vibrio strain STD3-988 and one unidentified strain (STD3-959) are suspected pathogens of only juvenile and adult stages. V. parahaemolyticus, Photobacterium damselae, and V. mimicus are associated with juvenile and adult stages. PMID:10347048

Vandenberghe, J; Verdonck, L; Robles-Arozarena, R; Rivera, G; Bolland, A; Balladares, M; Gomez-Gil, B; Calderon, J; Sorgeloos, P; Swings, J



Culturable fungal diversity of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei boone from breeding farms in brazil  

PubMed Central

Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the most common shrimp species cultivated in the northeast of Brazil, is very susceptible to microbial diseases, and this consequently affects productivity. There are reports of bacteria, viruses and protozoa in these shrimp, but not fungi. This study aims to isolate and identify fungi present in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and in their nursery waters, at two breeding farms in Brazil. The pathogenic potential of the isolates was assessed through the qualitative detection of proteases and aflatoxin B production. The 146 isolated fungi comprised 46 species. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Furarium were the three most relevant genera and Aspergillus flavus was the predominant species with a total of 33 isolates. Most of the isolated species are known as potentially pathogenic to humans and other animals. Eighteen isolates of A. flavus and two of A. parasiticus were able to produce aflatoxin B and 33 out of the 46 species produced protease, indicating that these fungi may also become pathogenic to shrimp and their consumers.

Cruz da Silva, Lidiane Roberta; Camilo de Souza, Odacy; dos Santos Fernandes, Maria Jose; Massa Lima, Debora Maria; Rodrigues Coelho, Rosalie Reed; Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria



Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.



Nutrition Labeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nutrition labeling regulations differ in countries around the world. The focus of this chapter is on nutrition labeling regulations in the USA, as specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). A major reason for analyzing the chemical components of foods in the USA is nutrition labeling regulations. Nutrition label information is not only legally required in many countries, but also is of increasing importance to consumers as they focus more on health and wellness.

Metzger, Lloyd E.


Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer


Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Included in this booklet are nutrition learning activities intended to help elementary school students acquire knowledge that will enable them to select diets that meet their bodies' needs, both now and in the future. The learning activities correspond to specific nutrition education objectives and are presented separately for students in the…

Christy, Kathy J.; Dawes, Marge


Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.



An Integrin from Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Mediated Microbial Agglutination and Cell Proliferation  

PubMed Central

Background Integrins are a family of adhesion receptors which regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, leukocyte migration, and complement receptor-dependent phagocytosis. In invertebrates, as a cell adhesion receptor, ? integrins play an important role for the balanced activation of immune defense responses especially during the encounter of infections. The present study attempts to characterize the immune functions of shrimp integrin (LvIntegrin) to have better understanding on the immune system and its regulation mechanisms in shrimps. Methodology A shrimp integrin was identified from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (designated as LvIntegrin). Its full-length cDNA was of 2621 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2439 bp encoding a polypeptide of 812 amino acids. The mRNA expression of LvIntegrin was significantly up-regulated at 3, 6 and 12 h after Listonella anguillarum challenge. The cDNA fragment encoding ? integrin domains (?A and hybrid domain) of LvIntegrin was recombined and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3)-pLysS. The recombinant protein (rLvIntegrin) could significantly agglutinate the tested microbe including E. coli JM109, L. anguillarum, Micrococcus luteus and Candida dattiladattila in the presence of divalent cations. Moreover, when NIH3T3 cells were cultured with rLvIntegrin, the proliferation rate increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusions LvIntegrin, a shrimp ? integrin was identified from L. vannamei, shared several highly conserved features. LvIntegrin exhibited broad-spectrum agglutination activity towards both bacteria and fungi and could improve the proliferation of NIH3T3 cells, indicating that LvIntegrin is involved in the immune response against microbe challenge and regulation of cell proliferation as a cell adhesion receptor in shrimp.

Zhang, Ying; Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Wu, Ning; Zhou, Zhi; Song, Linsheng



Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg7-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species.

Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L.; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H.; Malecha, Spencer R.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun



Cloned cDNA and Antibody for an Ovarian Cortical Granule Polypeptide of the Shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cloned cDNA was generated to a transcript for a major ovarian polypeptide (200 kDa) of the South American white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei. The cloned cDNA hybridized to a single transcript in ovaries but not to RNA from the hepatopancreas or muscle. For immu nodetection and quantitation, a monospecific polyclonal antibody was raised against the cDNA translation prod uct expressed



Effects of constant Ca 2+ concentration in salinity fluctuations on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 50-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of constant Ca2+ concentration in salinity fluctuations on growth and energy budget of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. The salinity and Ca2+ concentration of control group S0 were kept 30‰ and 385 mg l?1, respectively throughout the experiment while the ranges of salinity fluctuations of the treatment groups S5 and S5C, S10\\u000a and S10C, S15

Chunqiang HouFang; Fang Wang; Shuanglin Dong; Yujie Zhu; Ting Yu


Identifications of SUMO1 cDNA and Its Expression Patterns in Pacific White Shrimp Litopeanaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMO) work in a similar way as ubiquitin to alter the bio- logical properties of a target protein by conjugation. A shrimp SUMO cDNA named LvSUMO-1 was identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. LvSUMO-1 cDNA contains a coding se- quence of 282 nucleotides with untranslated regions of 37 bp at 5'-end and 347 bp at 3'-end, respectively. The deduced

Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Harry Ako; Jinzeng Yang


Molecular characterization and expression analysis of elongation factors 1A and 2 from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elongation factors (EF) are abundant cell proteins that play important roles in the metabolism of all multicellular organisms.\\u000a Here we describe a functional analysis of elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1A) and elongation factor 2 (EF2), from the Pacific\\u000a white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNAs of genes corresponding to EF1A and EF2 were obtained that were 1547 and 2729 bp long, with open

Lei WangYuan; Yuan Liu; Wei-Na Wang; Wei-Jun Mai; Yu Xin; Jun Zhou; Wen-Yin He; An-Li Wang; Ru-Yong Sun



Superoxide dismutase activity in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei and Nodipecten subnodosus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effect of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima on juvenile American whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and giant lion-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated. Organisms were exposed to three densities (500, 2000, or 5000 cells mL?1), superoxide dismutase activity and soluble protein in the hepatopancreas and muscle were determined at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h after challenge. Shrimp exposed at 5000 cells mL?1

Angel I. Campa-Córdova; Erick J. Núñez-Vázquez; Antonio Luna-González; María J. Romero-Geraldo; Felipe Ascencio



Identification and Function of Leucine-Rich Repeat Flightless-I-Interacting Protein 2 (LRRFIP2) in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2) is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G) were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.

Zhang, Shuang; Yan, Hui; Li, Chao-Zheng; Chen, Yi-Hong; Yuan, Feng-hua; Chen, Yong-gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo



Nutritional hormesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Hormesis, the biological and toxicological concept that small quantities have opposite effects from large quantities, is reviewed with emphasis on its relevance to nutrition.Results:Hormetic and other dose–response relationships are categorized, depicted, and discussed. Evidence for nutritional hormesis is presented for essential vitamin and mineral nutrients, dietary restriction, alcohol (ethanol), natural dietary and some synthetic pesticides, some herbicides, and acrylamide. Some

D P Hayes



Parenteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parenteral nutrition becomes necessary when the gastrointestinal tract has insufficient function as to afford sufficient fluid,\\u000a electrolyte and nutrient absorption. Indications for this therapy include prolonged postoperative ileus, prolonged intestinal\\u000a obstruction, short bowel syndrome, various malabsorptive disorders, proximal enteric fistulas for which an enteral feeding\\u000a tube cannot be placed distal to, severe acute pancreatitis and severe mucositis\\/esophagitis. Parenteral nutrition, although

Christian S. Jackson; Alan L. Buchman


Space Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

Smith, Scott M.



Contribution of particle-size-fractionated airborne lead to blood lead during the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2008.  


The objective of this work is to examine associations between blood lead (PbB) and air lead (PbA) in particulate matter measured at different size cuts by use of PbB concentrations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and PbA concentrations from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for 1999-2008. Three size fractions of particle-bound PbA (TSP, PM10, and PM2.5) data with different averaging times (current and past 90-day average) were utilized. A multilevel linear mixed effect model was used to characterize the PbB-PbA relationship. At 0.15 ?g/m(3), a unit decrease in PbA in PM10 was significantly associated with a decrease in PbB of 0.3-2.2 ?g/dL across age groups and averaging times. For PbA in PM2.5 and TSP, slopes were generally positive but not significant. PbB levels were more sensitive to the change in PbA concentrations for children (1-5 and 6-11 years) and older adults (? 60 years) than teenagers (12-19 years) and adults (20-59 years). For the years following the phase-out of Pb in gasoline and a resulting upward shift in the PbA particle size distribution, PbA in PM10 was a statistically significant predictor of PbB. The results also suggest that age could affect the PbB-PbA association, with children having higher sensitivity than adults. PMID:24345211

Meng, Qingyu; Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Davis, J Allen; Cohen, Jonathan; Svendsgaard, David; Brown, James S; Tuttle, Lauren; Hubbard, Heidi; Rice, Joann; Vinikoor-Imler, Lisa; Sacks, Jason D; Kirrane, Ellen; Kotchmar, Dennis; Hines, Erin; Ross, Mary



How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label  


... Retail Establishments How to Understand and Use the Nutrition Facts Label NOTE: FDA is proposing to update ... choices that contribute to a healthy diet. The Nutrition Facts Label - An Overview: The information in the ...


Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.  


There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

Wahlqvist, M L



Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer;Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD



Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (P< 0,05). Water quality during the culture period in all treatments were still in tolerance range of white leg shrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge technology using nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae can improve productivity of white shrimp by increasing the biomass and maintaining a stable water quality especially ammonium concentration.

Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah



Nutritional Knowledge of UK Coaches  

PubMed Central

Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice.

Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny



Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.  


Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny



Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.  


Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H



[Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].  


The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species. PMID:17944366

Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun



Nitrite toxicity of Litopenaeus vannamei in water containing low concentrations of sea salt or mixed salts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The uptake, depuration and toxicity of environmental nitrite was characterized in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed in water containing low concentrations of artificial sea salt or mixed salts. In 2 g/L artificial sea salts, nitrite was concentrated in the hemolymph in a dose-dependent and rapid manner (steady-state in about 2 d). When exposed to nitrite in 2 g/L artificial sea salts for 4 d and then moved to a similar environment without added nitrite, complete depuration occurred within a day. Increasing salinity up to 10 g/L decreased uptake of environmental nitrite. Nitrite uptake in environments containing 2 g/L mixed salts (combination of sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium chlorides) was similar to or lower than rates in 2 g/L artificial sea salt. Toxicity was inversely related to total dissolved salt and chloride concentrations and was highest in 2 g/L artificial sea salt (96-h medial lethal concentration = 8.4 mg/L nitrite-N). Animals that molted during the experiments did not appear to be more susceptible to nitrite than animals that did not molt. The shallow slope of the curve describing the relationship between toxicity and salinity suggests that management of nitrite toxicity in low-salinity shrimp ponds by addition of more salts may not be practical. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2004.

Sowers, A.; Young, S. P.; Isely, J. J.; Browdy, C. L.; Tomasso, Jr. , J. R.



Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil  

PubMed Central

Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14–0.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, Andre Felipe das Merces; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes



Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

SciTech Connect

The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of ({sup 3}H)ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. ({sup 3}H)ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages.

Chan, S.M.



Melanosis and quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin during iced storage.  


Melanosis, microbiological, chemical, and physical changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with catechin were monitored during iced storage of 10 days. Whole shrimp treated with catechin solution (0.05 or 0.1%) had retarded growth of psychrophilic bacteria and spoilage microorganisms including H(2)S-producing bacteria and enterobacteriaceae throughout storage in comparison with the control and those treated with 1.25% sodium metabisilfite (SMS) (P < 0.05). The lower increases in pH and total volatile base (TVB) content were obtained in the shrimp treated with catechin solution at both levels, compared with those of other samples (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation, loss in freshness and melanosis were lowered by catechin treatment. In general, the efficacy of catechin in lowering melanosis and quality losses increased with increasing levels used. Additionally, catechin (0.01, 0.05, and 0.1% (w/v)) showed inhibitory activity toward polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose-dependent manner. Therefore, catechin can be used as a promising melanosis inhibitor as well as an antimicrobial and an antioxidant in ice-stored shrimp. PMID:19309075

Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat



Transcriptome analysis of gills from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei infected with White Spot Syndrome Virus.  


We report the analysis of 872 cDNA clones from a WSSV-infected white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei gill cDNA library. Comparison against the GenBank protein and nucleotide sequences identified 87% (E < or = 10(-2)) as previously known genes, while 13% are novel sequences. The 601 ESTs (87%) represent transcripts of 276 genes. These genes were categorized into 12 groups according to their functions. The more abundant categories were (1) ribosomal proteins (21%), (2) WSSV transcripts and sequences without homology to proteins deposited in the non-redundant database (15%), (3) hypothetical proteins (12%) which include genes never described in shrimp and (4) metabolism related proteins (9%). We also found genes involved in stress and immune response; and only one involved in ion transport. Full-length sequences of keratinocyte associated protein 2 (KCP2), selenoprotein M (SelM), chicadae, prohibitin and oncoprotein nm23 are reported. Their mRNAs steady state levels in addition to ferritin, changed at different times post-WSSV infection as estimated by RT-PCR. These results suggest that WSSV alters gene expression in gills and has led to the identification of novel white shrimp specific genes. PMID:17337210

Clavero-Salas, Alejandra; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Gollas-Galván, Teresa; Hernández-López, Jorge; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma Beatriz; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria



Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  


Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection. PMID:24486504

Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie



White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.  


White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:24607653

Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie



Identification of ecdysteroid signaling late-response genes from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  


Ecdysteroids initiate signaling along multiple pathways that regulate various aspects of development, maturation, and reproduction in arthropods. This study was carried out to seek the late target genes of ecdysteroid signaling from different tissues of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. In the present study, eight isoforms of ecdysteroid receptor (EcR), two isoforms of retinoic acid X receptor (RXR), and one homolog of E75 were characterized from L. vannamei. The overall protein sequences and specific functional sites of EcR, RXR and E75 among crustacean species were found highly conserved. Tissue-specific, development stage-specific, and molt stage-specific expression patterns of LvEcR, LvRXR, and LvE75 were detected by qPCR. Double stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of any one of the three genes LvEcR, LvRXR and LvE75 caused specific expression changes of the other two, and resulted in corresponding expression changes of two molting related genes Cathepsin-L (LvCHSL) and Hemocyanin (LvHCyn) in the hepatopancreas, two chitin metabolism related genes chitin synthase (LvChS) and chitinase isoenzyme (LvChi2) in the epidermis, and two muscle growth related genes LvActin and myosin heavy chain (LvMHC) in the muscle. In correspondence, after in vivo injections of 20 hydroxyecdysone, specific expression changes of LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvEcR, LvRXR, LvE75, LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle were also observed, respectively. Results in our study indicate multiple functions of ecdysteroids signaling in L. vannamei and the function may be time- and space-specific; ecdysteroids may act through different pathways via its functional receptor heterodimer EcR-RXR and the early responsive gene E75 to perform specific regulation roles on the target genes in different shrimp tissues; LvCHSL and LvHCyn in the hepatopancreas, LvChS and LvChi2 in the epidermis, and LvActin and LvMHC in the muscle are potential targets for ecdysteroid control. This is the first report on nuclear receptors in the economically important shrimp L. vannamei. PMID:24556071

Qian, Zhaoying; He, Shulin; Liu, Tao; Liu, Yongjie; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Wang, Xianzong; Mi, Xiao; Wang, Ping; Liu, Xiaolin



The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women.

Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas



Nutrition Explorations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This new site is compliments of the National Dairy Council and provides resources to help educators teach children about nutritious foods and a healthy diet. The site is made up of four principle sections. The first, Teacher Central, contains monthly updated ideas and activities for teaching nutrition, as well as annotated links and suggested books. The second section, the School Cafe, is designed for school foodservice professionals and includes promotion ideas, nutrition facts, and links to related resources. The third portion of the site, The Family Table, offers advice, activities, and tips for parents who want to help their children develop healthy eating habits. The final part of the site is aimed at kids themselves and offers games, quizzes, recipes, and more sites to explore. While a bit thin on content and probably dairy-centric, the site as a whole does offer some useful tools for educators and parents who want to instill healthy eating habits in children.


Clinical effect of cidofovir and a diet supplemented with Spirulina platensis in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infected specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral product cidofovir and a diet supplemented with Spirulina platensis were tested for their efficacy to prevent or delay\\/reduce mortality due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in specific pathogen free (SPF) shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. Cidofovir was injected intramuscularly at 200 mg\\/kg shrimp mean body weight (MBW) at the moment of WSSV challenge. Spirulina was supplemented in

M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; L. Audoorn; J. Neyts; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck



Supplementation of potassium, magnesium and sodium chloride in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, reared in low salinity waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Litopenaeus vannamei in inland low salinity waters is currently being practiced in various countries around the world. These environments are often deficient in key ions essential for normal physiological function, including potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg2+). Farmers have sometimes been able to counteract ionic deficiencies in the water profile by adding mineral salts containing sources of K+




Effects of dietary protein on the activity and mRNA level of trypsin in the midgut gland of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein food modulates the activity of proteases of the midgut gland of Penaeus vannamei. Shrimp fed with food containing 15, 30 and 50% protein exhibited differences in trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and trypsin mRNA levels. Shrimp fed with 30% protein showed higher trypsin and chymotrypsin activities than those fed 15 or 50% protein. An additional paralogue trypsin was observed with

Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Fernando L. Garcia-Carreno; J. Arturo


Polyculture of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, giant oyster, Crassostrea gigas and black clam, Chione fluctifraga in ponds in Sonora, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of a polyculture of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, giant oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and black clam, Chione fluctifraga in earthen ponds, and its effect on water quality and production parameters, was assessed in a nine-months experimental study, conducted in Sonora Northwestern Mexico. Shrimp was stocked for two crops and mollusks for a single crop during the study. Two

Luis R. Martinez-Cordova; Marcel Martinez-Porchas



Molecular cloning of hemocyanin cDNA from Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea, Decapoda): structure, evolution and physiological aspects 1 EBI sequence accession number: X82502. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hemocyanin is present as 2 subunits in the hemolymph of Penaeus vannamei. Isolated from a hepatopancreas cDNA library of this penaeid shrimp, the cDNA chain (2095 bp) corresponds to a full length hemocyanin messenger as determined by Northern hybridization, with a short 5? untranslated region (17 bp), an open reading frame (1989 bp counting initiation and termination codons) coding for

Daniel Sellos; Soazig Lemoine; Alain Van Wormhoudt



Nutritional Epidemiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional epidemiology has developed from an interest in the concept that aspects of diet may influence the occurrence of\\u000a human diseases. In epidemiology, disease occurrence is measured and related to different characteristics of individuals or\\u000a their environments. Exposures, or what an individual comes in contact with, may be related to disease risk. The exposure can\\u000a be a habit such as

Carol J. Boushey


Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.



Effects of Betaine Supplementation to Feeds of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Reared at Extreme Salinities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shrimp production worldwide has increased dramatically, and optimal sites are no longer abundant. New farms are being constructed in areas where water salinity and ion composition are suboptimal. Aquaculturists and feed suppliers are attempting to alleviate ion nonequilibriums through nutrition. One nutritive supplement that has been marketed is the amino acid betaine. The present work evaluated the effects of betaine

I. P. Saoud; D. A. Davis



A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with "Bacterial White Tail Disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp  

PubMed Central

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue



Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang




EPA Science Inventory

The Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System (PNSS) is a program based surveillance system developed in order to assist health professionals in achieving of the goals of identifying and reducing pregnancy-related health risks that contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes. Its purp...


Nutrition and oral mucosal diseases.  


Oral manifestations of nutritional deficiencies can affect the mucous membranes, teeth, periodontal tissue, salivary glands, and perioral skin. This contribution reviews how the water-soluble vitamins (B(2), B(3), B(6), B(12), C, and folic acid), fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, and E), and minerals (calcium, fluoride, iron, and zinc) can affect the oral mucosa. PMID:20620760

Thomas, Danielle Marie; Mirowski, Ginat W



Molecular cloning, characterization and recombinant expression of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  


Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) plays an important role in crustacean. In the present study, a full-length cDNA of CHH was cloned from the eyestalk of Litopenaeus vannamei by RACE approach for the first time. The full-length cDNA of LvCHH was 846 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 65 bp, a 3' UTR of 436 bp with a canonical polyadenylation signal-sequence AATAA and a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 345 bp. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 114 amino acids including a 24 amino acid signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass of the mature protein (74 amino acids) was 8.76 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.78. The sequence of LvCHH was submitted in NCBI GenBank under the accession number HM748790.2. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LvCHH was clustered with CHH of other crustaceans. Tissue distribution analysis revealed that the expression of LvCHH mRNA was observed in all tissues but gill, and was highest in heart. Specific primers containing Xho I and BamH I restriction sites respectively, were designed based on the obtained ORF sequence of LvCHH gene and the cloning sites of expression vector pET-32a (+). The recombinant plasmid LvCHH-pET32a, was used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). LvCHH was successfully expressed by means of SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. We detected gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity after rLvCHH protein injection and found that All the experimental group Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity presented peak change among 0-6h, and the peaks of all treated groups occurred in 1 h. 20 and 30 ?g/shrimp(-1) groups showed significant increase (P<0.05) in 1h post-injection. L. vannamei were exposed for 96h to hypo- and hyper-salinity challenge. Hypo-salinity caused a significant rise (P<0.05) in the mRNA expression of CHH and gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity at 12h and 24h respectively, then the CHH mRNA expression declining by 24h, and returned to control group level by 48 h, and the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity tended to be stable after 72 h, and higher than that of control. The hyper-salinity challenge had the same trend at mRNA expression with the hypo-salinity group. The Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity had no significant change under the low salinity challenge. All these results indicate that LvCHH is an important hormone involved in the osmosis responses of swimming shrimps, and can provide further information of crustacean osmoregulation physiological mechanism. PMID:23954713

Liu, Maoqi; Pan, Luqing; Li, Li; Zheng, Debin



Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).  


Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced. PMID:15080336

Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W



Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003-2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234  

PubMed Central

Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet.

Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.



Introducing Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant increase in nutrition knowledge followed a short-term nutrition education series among junior high school students. Nutrition education should be instituted in early childhood rather than be delayed until adolescence. (JN)

Mangham, Donna Burnett; Vickery, Connie E.



Nutrition and Diet  


... A-Wish Perspectives Newsletter Translated brochures Relevant Links Nutrition and Diet Nutritional deficiencies are common in thalassemia, ... gamma tocopherol, plasma ascorbate, and serum folate. (See nutrition table below.) Recommendations for dietary supplementation should be ...


Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this


Nutrition Knowledge, Attitude, Dietary Behavior, and Commitment to Nutrition Education of Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators, defined as those individuals with baccalaureate level training who teach nutrition, were surveyed. Results suggest close interrelationships among nutrition knowledge, food/nutrition attitude, dietary behavior, and commitment to nutrition education. (SK)

Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shear, Twyla



[Parenteral nutrition strategies].  


Parenteral nutrition is a fundamental part of any therapeutic concept in critically ill patients. Just recently some international prospective randomized controlled trials were investigating the correct indication, optimal timing and dosage of parenteral nutrition regimens. Despite a controversial discussion newer strategies recommend the parenteral nutrition as a very important supplemental component to an early enteral nutrition therapy. PMID:24568856

Adolph, Michael



LabNotes - Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An introduction to the concepts of nutrition for middle and high school students. This is a lively, well-illustrated 16-page primer on nutrition and food science. It also includes a discussion of the changing dietary habits of Americans and the role of animals in nutrition research, as well as a full bibliography and links to other nutrition fact sites.

Dr. Leslie Nader (MSMR)



Acute toxicity of arsenic under different temperatures and salinity conditions on the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  


The aim of this study was to determine acute toxicity in the post larvae of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after 96 h of exposure to dissolved arsenic under three different temperatures and salinity conditions. Recent reports have shown an increase in the presence of this metalloid in coastal waters, estuaries, and lagoons along the Mexican coast. The white shrimp stands out for its adaptability to temperature and salinity changes and for being the main product for many commercial fisheries; it has the highest volume of oceanic capture and production in Mexican shrimp farms. Lethal concentrations (LC50-96 h) were obtained at nine different combinations (3?×?3 combinations in total) of temperature (20, 25, and 30 °C) and salinity (17, 25, and 33) showing mean LC50-96 h values (±standard error) of 9.13?±?0.76, 9.17?±?0.56, and 6.23?±?0.57 mgAs?L(-1)(at 20 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); 12.29?±?2.09, 8.70?±?0.82, and 8.03?±?0.59 mgAs?L(-1) (at 25 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity); and 7.84?±?1.30, 8.49?±?1.40, and 7.54?±?0.51 mgAs?L(-1) (at 30 °C and 17, 25, and 33 salinity), respectively. No significant differences were observed for the optimal temperature and isosmotic point of maintenance (25 °C-S 25) for the species, with respect to the other experimental conditions tested, except for at 20 °C-S 33, which was the most toxic. Toxicity under 20 °C-S 33 conditions was also higher than 25 °C-S 17 and 20 °C (S 17 or 25). The least toxic condition was 25 °C-S 17. All this suggests that the toxic effect of arsenic is not affected by temperature changes; it depends on the osmoregulatory pattern developed by the shrimp, either hyperosmotic at low salinity or hiposmotic at high salinity, as observed at least on the extreme salinity conditions here tested (17 and 33). However, further studies testing salinities near the isosmotic point (between 20 and 30 salinities) are needed to clarify these mechanisms. PMID:23471636

Valentino-Álvarez, Jesús Alberto; Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura



Quantitative genetics of taura syndrome resistance in pacific white shrimp (penaeus vannamei): a cure model approach  

PubMed Central

Background In aquaculture breeding, resistance against infectious diseases is commonly assessed as time until death under exposure to a pathogen. For some diseases, a fraction of the individuals may appear as "cured" (non-susceptible), and the resulting survival time may thus be a result of two confounded underlying traits, i.e., endurance (individual hazard) and susceptibility (whether at risk or not), which may be accounted for by fitting a cure survival model. We applied a cure model to survival data of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) challenged with the Taura syndrome virus, which is one of the major pathogens of Panaeid shrimp species. Methods In total, 15,261 individuals of 513 full-sib families from three generations were challenge-tested in 21 separate tests (tanks). All challenge-tests were run until mortality naturally ceased. Time-until-event data were analyzed with a mixed cure survival model using Gibbs sampling, treating susceptibility and endurance as separate genetic traits. Results Overall mortality at the end of test was 28%, while 38% of the population was considered susceptible to the disease. The estimated underlying heritability was high for susceptibility (0.41 ± 0.07), but low for endurance (0.07 ± 0.03). Furthermore, endurance and susceptibility were distinct genetic traits (rg = 0.22 ± 0.25). Estimated breeding values for endurance and susceptibility were only moderately correlated (0.50), while estimated breeding values from classical models for analysis of challenge-test survival (ignoring the cured fraction) were closely correlated with estimated breeding values for susceptibility, but less correlated with estimated breeding values for endurance. Conclusions For Taura syndrome resistance, endurance and susceptibility are apparently distinct genetic traits. However, genetic evaluation of susceptibility based on the cure model showed clear associations with standard genetic evaluations that ignore the cure fraction for these data. Using the current testing design, genetic variation in observed survival time and absolute survival at the end of test were most likely dominated by genetic variation in susceptibility. If the aim is to reduce susceptibility, earlier termination of the challenge-test or back-truncation of the follow-up period should be avoided, as this may shift focus of selection towards endurance rather than susceptibility.



A new anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) gene with its SNP polymorphisms related to WSSV-resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei.  


Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) of crustacean play an important role against bacteria or virus infection. In this study, the cDNA sequence and genomic sequence of one new isoform of ALF designated as nLvALF1 were reported. The open reading frame (ORF) of nLvALF1 consisted of 369 bp encoding 123 amino acids and the genomic structure of nLvALF1 comprised four introns and three exons. The predicted pI of the deduced protein was 8.82 and the molecular weight (MW) was 13.72 KDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of nLvALF1 contained a typical functional domain of ALF: LPS-binding domain. Phylogenetic analysis showed that nLvALF1 had the closest relationship with FcALF1 from Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The nLvALF1 was specifically expressed in lymphoid organ (Oka) of shrimp. Its transcriptional level was significantly up-regulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, suggesting that nLvALF1 might participate in defense against WSSV in Litopenaeus vannamei. In order to search potential genetic markers associated with WSSV-resistance, we scanned the polymorphisms of the genomic fragment with 397 bp where the LPS-binding domain encoding sequence located and 18 SNPs were found. The distribution frequency of these SNPs was analyzed in WSSV susceptible shrimp and resistant shrimp separately. Significant differences existed in allelic frequencies at loci g.1361-T > C, g.1370-T > C, g.1419-T > A between the WSSV-resistant group and the WSSV-susceptible/susceptible group (P < 0.05). The specific haplotype CT consisted of g.1415-C > A and g.1419-T > A was associated with susceptibility to WSSV (P < 0.05). These findings provide theoretical support for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of L. vannamei. PMID:24769128

Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai



Protection from yellow head virus (YHV) infection in Penaeus vannamei pre-infected with Taura syndrome virus (TSV).  


Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei that were pre-exposed to Taura syndrome virus (TSV) and then challenged with yellow head virus (YHV) acquired partial protection from yellow head disease (YHD). Experimental infections were carried out using specific-pathogen-free (SPF) shrimp which were first exposed per os to TSV; at 27, 37 and 47 d post infection they were then challenged by injection with 1 × 104 copies of YHV per shrimp (designated the TSV-YHV group). Shrimp not infected with TSV were injected with YHV as a positive control. Survival analyses comparing the TSV-YHV and YHV (positive control) groups were conducted, and significant survival rates were found for all the time groups (p < 0.001). A higher final survival was found in the TSV-YHV group (mean 55%) than in the positive control (0%) (p < 0.05). Duplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR was used to quantify both TSV and YHV. Lower YHV copy numbers were found in the TSV-YHV group than in the positive control in pleopods (3.52 × 109 vs. 1.88 × 1010 copies µg RNA-1) (p < 0.001) and lymphoid organ (LO) samples (3.52 × 109 vs. 1.88 × 1010 copies µg RNA-1) (p < 0.01). In situ hybridization assays were conducted, and differences in the distribution of the 2 viruses in the target tissues were found. The foci of LO were infected with TSV but were not infected with YHV. This study suggests that a viral interference effect exists between TSV and YHV, which could, in part, explain the absence of YHD in the Americas, where P. vannamei are often raised in farms where TSV is present. PMID:22535868

Aranguren, Luis Fernando; Tang, Kathy F J; Lightner, Donald V



Expression of HSP60 and HSP70 in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei in response to bacterial challenge.  


In the present study, cDNA encoding a heat shock protein 60 (LvHSP60) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei was cloned using a combination of homology and rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) methods. The full length of the LvHSP60 cDNA was found to be 2379bp, with a 1737bp open reading frame. The translated amino acid sequence consisted of 579 residues with a calculated molecular mass of 60.8kD and an isoelectronic point (pI) of 5.97. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence showed that it has high identity (85-89%) with HSP60/chaperonins from insects and mammals. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were carried out to investigate the expression patterns and distribution profiles of LvHSP60 before and after stimulation with the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus. LvHSP60 mRNA was found to be both constitutive and inducible, and was highly expressed in haemocytes and almost all tissues examined, including muscle, stomach, heart, hepatopancreas and gill tissue, but it was less strongly expressed in the intestine. The expression analysis revealed that LvHSP60 was significantly up-regulated in the gills, hepatopancreas and haemocytes after bacterial challenge. Transcription of LvHSP70 was also induced in haemocytes and the hepatopancreas after different bacteria injection. Subsequent flow cytometry analysis showed that the concentration of Ca(2+) ions increased significantly within bacteria-challenged haemocytes by 1.5h after injection. The results indicate that LvHSP60 and LvHSP70 may play important roles in mediating the immune responses of L. vannamei to bacterial challenge, and that the Ca(2+) signalling transduction pathway may be involved in the initiation of the shrimp's immune responses in early stages of infection. PMID:20043915

Zhou, Jun; Wang, Wei-Na; He, Wen-Yin; Zheng, Yin; Wang, Lei; Xin, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Wang, An-Li



Effects of the water extract of Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC on physiological and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus infection in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  


Gynura bicolor (Roxb. & Willd.) DC is widely distributed in certain areas of Asia and is very popular in vegetarian cuisine in Taiwan. To investigate the regulatory roles of G. bicolor in various functions in crustaceans, we examined innate non-specific immune responses (including total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase activity (PO), respiratory bursts (RBs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity), physiological responses (including haemolymph glucose, lactate, and lipids), and gene expressions (including prophenoloxidase (proPO), lipopolysaccharide- and b-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), and peroxinectin (PE) mRNA transcripts) to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) that were individually injected with the water extract from G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1). Results indicated that PO, RBs, SOD activity, proPO, LGBP, and PE mRNA transcripts of shrimps receiving the water extract of G. bicolor at 2, 4, and 8 ?g g(-1) significantly increased after challenge with V. alginolyticus for 96 h. However, no significant difference in the THC was seen at any dose. L. vannamei injected with the water extract of G. bicolor at all doses respectively maintained lower glucose, lactate, and lipid levels in response to V. alginolyticus challenge at 12-36, 24-36, and 24-48 h. Survival rates at 24-72 h of L. vannamei that received G. bicolor at any dose was significantly higher than those of shrimp that received saline. It was concluded that the water extract of G. bicolor can maintain physiological homeostasis and enhance immunity against V. alginolyticus infection in L. vannamei. PMID:23603309

Hsieh, Shu-Ling; Wu, Chih-Chung; Liu, Chun-Hung; Lian, Juang-Lin



Activating Transcription Factor 4 and X Box Binding Protein 1 of Litopenaeus vannamei Transcriptional Regulated White Spot Syndrome Virus Genes Wsv023 and Wsv083  

PubMed Central

In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the signaling pathway termed unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. To investigate the role of UPR in Litopenaeus vannamei immunity, the activating transcription factor 4 (designated as LvATF4) which belonged to a branch of the UPR, the [protein kinase RNA (PKR)-like ER kinase, (PERK)]-[eukaryotic initiation factor 2 subunit alpha (eIF2?)] pathway, was identified and characterized. The full-length cDNA of LvATF4 was 1972 bp long, with an open reading frame of 1299 bp long that encoded a 432 amino acid protein. LvATF4 was highly expressed in gills, intestines and stomach. For the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge, LvATF4 was upregulated in the gills after 3 hpi and increased by 1.9-fold (96 hpi) compared to the mock-treated group. The LvATF4 knock-down by RNA interference resulted in a lower cumulative mortality of L. vannamei under WSSV infection. Reporter gene assays show that LvATF4 could upregulate the expression of the WSSV gene wsv023 based on the activating transcription factor/cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate response element (ATF/CRE). Another transcription factor of L. vannamei, X box binding protein 1 (designated as LvXBP1), has a significant function in [inositol-requiring enzyme-1(IRE1) – (XBP1)] pathway. This transcription factor upregulated the expression of the WSSV gene wsv083 based on the UPR element (UPRE). These results suggest that in L. vannamei UPR signaling pathway transcription factors are important for WSSV and might facilitate WSSV infection.

Li, Xiao-Yun; Pang, Li-Ran; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Chen, Yi-Hong; He, Jian-Guo



RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene ( LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3× control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5

KC Han-Ching Wang; Chun-Wei Tseng; Han-You Lin; I-Tung Chen; Ya-Hui Chen; Yi-Min Chen; Tzong-Yueh Chen; Huey-Lang Yang



Trophic Transfer of Lead Through a Model Marine Four-Level Food Chain: Tetraselmis suecica , Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei , and Haemulon scudderi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain:\\u000a Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) ? Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) ? Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) ? Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences\\u000a in Pb

M. F. Soto-Jiménez; C. Arellano-Fiore; R. Rocha-Velarde; M. E. Jara-Marini; J. Ruelas-Inzunza; F. Páez-Osuna



Starvation and diet composition affect mRNA levels of the high density-lipoprotein-? glucan binding protein in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high density lipoprotein-beta glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) is synthesized in the hepatopancreas of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and secreted to the hemolymph. Recently, we reported the HDL-BGBP full length cDNA sequence and found that the predicted polypeptide is larger than the mature protein and also, that it contains a long 5?- and 3?-UTRs that may be involved in

Adriana Muhlia-Almazán; Arturo Sánchez-Paz; Fernando García-Carreño; Alma Beatriz Peregrino-Uriarte; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia



Lack of evidence for Litopenaeus vannamei Toll receptor (lToll) involvement in activation of sequence-independent antiviral immunity in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of non-specific dsRNA initiates a broad-spectrum innate antiviral immune response in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, however, the receptor involved in recognition of this by-product of viral infections remains unknown. In vertebrates, dsRNA sensing is mediated by a class of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and results in activation of the interferon system. Because a TLR (lToll) was recently characterized

Yannick Labreuche; Nuala A. O’Leary; Enrique de la Vega; Artur Veloso; Paul S. Gross; Robert W. Chapman; Craig L. Browdy; Gregory W. Warr



Evidence of pre-zygotic barriers in attempts to cross-breed Penaeus ( Litopenaeus) vannamei (Boone) and P. ( Litopenaeus) stylirostris (Stimpson) by means of artificial insemination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of cross-breeding of Pacific white shrimp, P. (Litopenaeus) vannamei (PV) and blue shrimp, P. (Litopenaeus) stylirostris (PS), by means of artificial insemination, was evaluated. Intra-specific (pure species) crosses were used as control treatments: 1) ?PV×?PV and 2) ?PS×?PS. Reciprocal, inter-specific (hybrid) crosses 3) ?PV×?PS and 4) ?PS×?PV, were performed employing a variety of artificial insemination techniques. Twelve intra-specific

Martin Perez-Velazquez; Mayra L. González-Félix; Manuel Zúñiga-Panduro; Ramón H. Barraza-Guardado



History of nutrition in space flight: overview.  


Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements. PMID:12361770

Lane, Helen W; Feeback, Daniel L



History of nutrition in space flight: overview  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Major accomplishments in nutritional sciences for support of human space travel have occurred over the past 40 y. This article reviews these accomplishments, beginning with the early Gemini program and continuing through the impressive results from the first space station Skylab program that focused on life sciences research, the Russian contributions through the Mir space station, the US Shuttle life sciences research, and the emerging International Space Station missions. Nutrition is affected by environmental conditions such as radiation, temperature, and atmospheric pressures, and these are reviewed. Nutrition with respect to space flight is closely interconnected with other life sciences research disciplines including the study of hematology, immunology, as well as neurosensory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, circadian rhythms, and musculoskeletal physiology. These relationships are reviewed in reference to the overall history of nutritional science in human space flight. Cumulative nutritional research over the past four decades has resulted in the current nutritional requirements for astronauts. Space-flight nutritional recommendations are presented along with the critical path road map that outlines the research needed for future development of nutritional requirements.

Lane, Helen W.; Feeback, Daniel L.



Eat to live, not live to eat ? ? This contribution was intended for the July\\/August special issue, Views from the Mountaintop: Looking Back, Projecting Forward, as part of the ?Nutrition, Life Cycle, and Lifestyle? section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most of the prevailing chronic diseases in the world have an important nutritional component by directly causing a specific disease, enhancing the risk through phenomena of promotion, exerting a beneficial effect in decreasing risk, or preventing the disease. International studies in geographic pathology have shown that a given disease may have vastly different incidence and mortality as a function of

John H Weisburger



pH-stat method to predict protein digestibility in white shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In aquaculture, feeding trials are the most dependable method of measuring nutritive value of feeds. However, these methods are time consuming, expensive, and the results may be affected by environmental factors. In vitro methods to evaluate protein digestibility are rapid and allow close observation of how far bonds are cleaved using only small amounts of raw materials. We developed a

Josafat Marina Ezquerra; Fernando L. García-Carreño; Roberto Civera; Norman F. Haard



[Hypertension and nutrition. Position paper of the Austrian Nutrition Society].  


Arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of overall mortality and is responsible for a high proportion of deaths due to stroke as well as coronary heart disease. It is defined as a pathological elevation of blood pressure which leads to damage of the cardiovascular system. Cut-off values for hypertension are defined as blood pressure levels higher than 140/90 mmHg (systolic/diastolic). In the pathogenesis of hypertension genetic factors, age and sex play a role, as well as body weight and lifestyle factors, such as nutrition and physical exercise. Lifestyle optimization reduces the risk of developing hypertension and contributes to the treatment in patients with established hypertension. Nutritional factors associated with hypertension are discussed in this article and recommendations regarding diet are made based on the literature. The nutritional factors with the highest impact on blood pressure are reduction of salt intake, a diet rich in potassium, weight management, the DASH (dietary approach to stop hypertension) diet and moderation of alcohol consumption. Salt restriction is essential in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Based on the literature, in this article recommendations for nutrition and hypertension are given. PMID:22588364

Dorner, T E; Genser, D; Krejs, G; Slany, J; Watschinger, B; Ekmekcioglu, C; Rieder, A



Creative Ways to Teach Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents activities, materials, and instructions for three classroom games developed in University of Illinois nutrition education workshops on new ways to teach nutrition: Vit-A-Vend, Nutrition Basketball, and Nutrition Baseball. (MF)

Spitze, Hazel Taylor; And Others



Nutrition for Older Men  


... a Registered Dietitian Home > Public Your Food and Nutrition Source It's About Eating Right In This Section ... essential information for people diagnosed with Celiac disease. Nutrition for Older Men What is the best line ...


Nutrition Training Opportunities

Exceptional opportunities exist for support of training in nutrition, both pre- and postdoctoral, through programs at the National Institutes of Health. However the number of actual awards is small in comparison to the needs and importance of nutrition in health.


What Is Enteral Nutrition?  


... is a Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is Enteral Nutrition All people need food to live. ... person can begin to eat normally again. How Is Tube Feeding Supplied? Tube feeding can be given ...


Nutrition in space  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The authors review studies conducted to define nutritional requirements for astronauts during space flight and to assess nutrition before, during, and after space flight. Topics include space food systems, research and limitations on spacecraft, physiological adaptation to weightlessness, energy requirements, dietary intake during space flight, bone demineralization, gastrointestinal function, blood volume, and nutrition requirements for space flight. Benefits of space-related nutrition research are highlighted.

Smith, S. M.; Davis-Street, J.; Rice, B. L.; Lane, H. W.



Our Nutrition Education Opportunities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition educators must find ways to get sound nutrition information to the public through means such as: nutrition education for physicians, the nation's formal education system, public media and work with social and civic groups, and emphasis on world population planning and control of food production and waste. (MS)

McAfee, Donald C.



Nutrition and school achievement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investments in education have traditionally ignored the productive role of nutrition. This study of the relationships between nutritional status and learning among urban and rural Filipino children shows the possible complementarity of nutrition with other social investments aimed at improving school achievement. A traditional production function of learning approach is used to show the significant association between school achievement and

Barry M. Popkin; Marisol Lim-Ybanez



Nutrition for Sport Success.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guidebook presents basic facts about nutrition, focusing upon the nutritional needs of athletes. Information is given on: (1) the importance of water, salt and other electrolytes, and treating and preventing heat disorders; (2) nutrition for training and performance, the best diet, caloric and energy requirements for various and specific…

Nutrition Foundation, Inc., Washington, DC.


Successful Nutrition Screening Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Initial nutrition screening can be a labor intensive activity that is a key to the entire nutrition care process. A flow chart of a nutrition screening protocol for a tertiary care hospital revealed a need for improved timeliness and efficiency. The original screening protocol relied on medical record review and patient interviews to obtain screen data. Patient interviews were frequently

P. Fraker; J. Christy-Given



Much Ado About Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A school nurse describes her participation in a new school-wide study of nutrition. Purposely choosing to work with young children (kindergarten and first grade) she held discussions on the nutritional need of babies and pets, planned and evaluated menus with the children, and played a nutrition game wherein children played the part of different…

Deringer, Shirley K.



Nutritional Status Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

Smith, Scott M.



The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and this could be exacerbated by the possibility of horizontal transmission revealed by laboratory challenge tests. Thus, it is recommended that the PCR and in situ hybridization methods developed herein be used to identify the natural reservoir species so they can be eliminated from the shrimp rearing system.



Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian



Identification of a C-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  


C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a CTL from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL3) was identified. LvCTL3 contains a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp CTLs and has a mutated 'EPD' motif in Ca(2+)-binding site 2. LvCTL3 mRNA can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of LvCTL3 in gills was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting activation responses of LvCTL3 to bacterial, virus and immune stimulant challenges. The 5'flanking regulatory region of LvCTL3 was cloned and we identified a NF-?B binding motif in the LvCTL3 promoter region. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that over-expression of L. vannamei dorsal can dramatically up regulate the promoter activity of LvCTL3, suggesting that LvCTL3 expression could be regulated through NF-?B signaling pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on signaling pathway involve in shrimp CTLs expression. The recombinant LvCTL3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified LvCTL3 can agglutinate Gram-negative microbe Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in the presence of calcium ions, but cannot agglutinate Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae. The agglutination activity of LvCTL3 was abolished when Ca(2+) was chelated with EDTA, suggesting the function of LvCTL3 is Ca(2+)-dependent. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant LvCTL3 protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. parahemolyticus and WSSV infection, indicating LvCTL3 might play significant roles in shrimp innate immunity defense against bacterial and viral infection. PMID:24792214

Li, Ming; Li, Chaozheng; Ma, Chunxia; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Xiaohan; Zeng, Digang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng



Nutritional aspect of tryptophan metabolism.  


Mammals, including humans, can synthesize the vitamin nicotinamide from tryptophan in the liver. The resultant nicotinamide is distributed to non-hepatic tissues. We have studied the effects of changes in tryptophan-nicotinamide metabolism on niacin nutritional status. The liver plays a critical role in nicotinamide supply. Animal studies showed that the tryptophan-nicotinamide pathway is affected by physiological conditions, the presence of disease, nutrients, hormones, and chemicals. Human studies have shown that 1 mg of nicotinamide is produced from 67 mg of tryptophan intake, and that the conversion ratio of tryptophan to nicotinamide is enhanced from mid to late pregnancy. These findings have contributed to the determination of dietary reference intakes for niacin recommended in the Dietary Reference Intakes for Japanese 2010. Our findings suggest that the conversion of nicotinamide from tryptophan is important in maintaining niacin nutrition. PMID:23922498

Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Shibata, Katsumi



Proceedings from the 2013 canadian nutrition society conference on advances in dietary fats and nutrition.  


The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health. PMID:24749841

Holub, Bruce; Mutch, David M; Pierce, Grant N; Rodriguez-Leyva, Delfin; Aliani, Michel; Innis, Sheila; Yan, William; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Ma, David W L



Results of nutritional screening in institutionalized elderly in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietetics contributes to life-long, sustainable health and optimal life quality of people. The knowledge of the nutritional state can be informative and normative in order to optimize personal care. The aims of this study were to summarize the relevant legislative considerations of nourishing the elderly in different long-term residential social institutions and to screen the nutritional state of those living

Zsuzsanna Lelovics; Réka Kegyes Bozó; Kinga Lampek; Mária Figler



Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others


A personal view of nutrition in Spain.  


This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain. PMID:24679010

Zamora, Salvador



Nutrition in the adolescent.  


This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

Wahl, R



Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of arginine kinase from the white Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  


Crystals of an unligated monomeric arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) were successfully obtained using the microbatch method. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.25?Å resolution are reported. Data were collected at 100?K on NSLS beamline X6A. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 56.5, b = 70.2, c = 81.7?Å. One monomer per asymmetric unit was found, with a Matthews coefficient (V(M)) of 2.05?Å(3)?Da(-1) and 40% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvAK as the search model. Refinement was performed with PHENIX, with final R(work) and R(free) values of 0.15 and 0.19, respectively. Biological analysis of the structure is currently in progress. PMID:22750864

Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Isac-Martinez, Felipe; Brieba, Luis G; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique



Superoxide dismutase activity in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei and Nodipecten subnodosus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima.  


The toxic effect of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima on juvenile American whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and giant lion-paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated. Organisms were exposed to three densities (500, 2000, or 5000 cells mL(-1)), superoxide dismutase activity and soluble protein in the hepatopancreas and muscle were determined at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h after challenge. Shrimp exposed at 5000 cells mL(-1) significantly increased SOD activity in the hepatopancreas at 1 h post-challenge, whereas enzymatic activity in muscle significantly increased at 24 h at all densities. Scallops exposed to 500 and 2000 cells mL(-1) showed significant SOD activity increase in hepatopancreas at 24 and 12 h, respectively. Mortality at 48 h was 100% in scallops exposed to 5000 cells mL(-1). Shrimp showed higher levels of SOD activity than scallops. Soluble protein content in the shrimp hepatopancreas was significantly higher at densities of 500 and 2000 cells mL(-1) at 6 and 1 h, respectively. Soluble protein content in the scallop hepatopancreas was higher than control values at 1 h after challenge. In this study, 500 cells mL(-1) was enough to trigger SOD activity in two benthic species exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate P. lima. PMID:18786656

Campa-Córdova, Angel I; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; Luna-González, Antonio; Romero-Geraldo, María J; Ascencio, Felipe



Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) ?-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) ?-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA ?-subunit and V-ATPase ?-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA ?-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA ?-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA ?-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun



Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.  


Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (p<0.05). The increases in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and p-anisidine value (AV) of lipids were noticeable when autolysis time increased (p<0.05). However, no changes in free fatty acid (FFA) content were observed within the first 60 min of autolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (p<0.05). No differences in fatty acid profiles of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas without and with 60 min prior autolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. PMID:23107697

Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat



Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  


Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties. PMID:21917644

Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W



Evaluation of the productive and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei infected with WSSV and fed diets enriched with Dunaliella sp.  


An experimental investigation was performed to evaluate the productive and physiological responses of Litopenaeus vannamei that were infected with WSSV and fed diets enriched with Dunaliella sp., which had a high ?-carotene content induced by nitrogen reduction in the culture medium. A basal diet containing 35% crude protein and experimental diets T1 and T2, which included 1% and 2% microalgae meal, respectively, were evaluated. Positive (infected juveniles) and negative (non-infected) controls were also evaluated. Survival was significantly higher (80%) in the two treatment groups compared to the positive control group (56%). In the negative control group, survival was 100%. Some variation was recorded for hemolymph metabolites among treatments and at distinct times post-infection; although the tendencies were not clear, some metabolites (glucose and triglycerides) appeared to decrease on the last days of the trial, probably due to their use as energy for the shrimp to thrive despite the infection. The results of the study suggest a positive effect of the dietary inclusion of Dunaliella meal on shrimp survival and an unclear effect on hemolymph metabolites. PMID:24424376

Medina-Félix, Diana; López-Elías, José A; Martínez-Córdova, Luis R; López-Torres, Marco A; Hernández-López, Jorge; Rivas-Vega, Martha E; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando



Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdominal muscle cDNA library. The LvDBP23 cDNA contains 639 nucleotides of protein-coding sequence with deduced 212 amino acids of predicted molecular mass 23.32 kDa with glycine-rich domain at amino acid position 94–130. The mRNA sequence is successfully used for producing LvDBP23 recombinant protein in sf9 insect cell expression system. The expression of LvDBP23 mRNA is presented in abdominal muscle and swimming leg muscle, as well as other tissues including intestine, lymphoid and gill. The mRNA expression has the highest level in abdominal muscle in all tested tissues. LVDBP23 transcript during the molt cycle is highly expressed in the intermolt stage. In vitro nucleic acid-binding assays reveal that LvDBP23 protein can bind to both ssDNA and dsDNA, indicating its possible role of regulation of gene transcription. Conclusions/Significance We are the first to report a DNA-binding protein identified from the abdominal muscle tissue of marine shrimp L. Vannamei. Its high-level specific expression during the intermot stage suggests its role in the regulation of muscle buildup during the growth phase of shrimp molt cycle.

Laoong-u-thai, Yanisa; Zhao, Baoping; Phongdara, Amornrat; Yang, Jinzeng



Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

Olson, Christine; And Others


Inhibition of Taura syndrome virus replication in Litopenaeus vannamei through silencing the LvRab7 gene using double-stranded RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taura syndrome virus (TSV) is a major cause of high mortality in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus\\u000a vannamei, Lv). Previously, silencing of Penaeus monodon Rab7 (PmRab7) by injecting double-stranded RNA corresponding to PmRab7 (dsRNA-PmRab7) prevented white spot syndrome virus\\u000a or yellow head virus infection. Rab7 is proposed to be involved in intracellular trafficking of the viruses. This study aimed\\u000a to investigate

Chalermporn Ongvarrasopone; Pipop Saejia; Mayuree Chanasakulniyom; Sakol Panyim



Nutrition and oral health.  


The link between nutrition and oral health can be overt (vitamin B deficiency) or subtle (exacerbation of already existing periodontal disease). Medical, social, and clinical examinations can be useful tools for uncovering those patients at risk for nutrition deficiencies and can be used to guide these patients to healthy eating. Along with routine home care instruction, the practicing dentist and hygienist can provide a service for patients through nutrition counseling and by pointing out reputable sources of nutrient supplements. PMID:12024745

Dorsky, R



Nutrition News Focus  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Written by David M. Klurfeld, Professor and Chairman of the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at Wayne State University in Detroit, this free, daily newsletter offers concise nutrition tips and analyses of breaking nutrition news. Nutrition News Focus aims at delivering information that ordinary people can use and understand, with a minimum of jargon and no tolerance for "mumbo-jumbo." Users can subscribe to the newsletter at the site. Subscribers receive one short mailing per day, with the topic briefly described and followed by analysis. Old newsletters are added to the archive two weeks after publication, and users can browse the archive by issue date or topic.


Making a nutritional assessment.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards.

Pencharz, P. B.



Nutritional support in home care.  


Nutritional support was among the first of the high-tech therapies to make the transition from hospital to home. Growth in high-tech home care accelerated in the mid-1980s, following establishment of the prospective payment system. Rapid growth in home care continues amid acquisitions and mergers of home care companies. The HPN and HEN populations have both enlarged and evolved with time, and the current populations mirror changes in health care demographics--showing the largest increases in services to the elderly. Changes have occurred in the types of venous and enteral access devices, infusion systems, parenteral and enteral products, and infusion schedules used by HPN and HEN patients. As therapies have caused less disruption in patients' lifestyles and as services have become more widely available, adaptation to HPN and HEN has become somewhat less difficult. However, patients still report concerns over finances, respite services, and symptoms management. Nurses have a primary role in the preparation of patients for home nutritional support and in the provision of home care services. Nursing research can illuminate the unique contribution of nurses to safe, cost effective, and high quality home nutritional support. PMID:2498854

Orr, M E



Nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease.  


Nutritional support, whether enteral or parenteral, is an important part of the treatment of IBD. Inadequate oral intake, malabsorption, and increased gastrointestinal losses all contribute to malnutrition. Weight loss, cachexia, abnormal body composition, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common. Acute repletion of body weight and correction of specific nutrient deficiencies improve the patients' sense of well-being and decrease morbidity, especially in the perioperative period. If a short period of bowel rest (10 to 14 days) is part of the medical therapy of acute exacerbations of IBD, TPN should be administered to prevent further nutritional deficiencies. Chronic undernutrition, and growth failure in children, usually are best treated by intensive enteral supplementation. Prolonged bowel rest and TPN (4 to 6 weeks) have not been shown to improve outcome but may be appropriate in carefully selected patients. Long-term home TPN may be necessary for patients who have short gut syndrome. The mainstay of treatment for IBD is medical therapy including corticosteroids. Timely and appropriate surgery is equally important and should not be considered a last resort. Careful nutritional management is essential but is adjunctive rather than primary therapy. PMID:2509355

Perkal, M F; Seashore, J H



Nutrition Facts: Reading the Label  


... of information on their labels or packaging about nutrition and food safety. Product dates. You might see ... the first ingredient listed than any other ingredient. Nutrition Facts Label. At the top of the Nutrition ...


What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?  


... a Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...


Nutrition After a Whipple Procedure  


Nutrition Following Pancreatic Surgery Pancreatic cancer patients who undergo surgery for pancreatic cancer often have many questions and concerns about post-operative nutritional care. Most importantly, ...


Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

Goldsmith, Robert H.


You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb



Nutrition for winter sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable

Nanna L. Meyer; Melinda M. Manore; Christine Helle



Nutrition and sports performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The awareness of nutrition playing an important role in sports performance. Many factors can impact the performance of a sports person during competition which may be related to different domains. The most commonly encountered nutritional related problem among sports person is their failure to consume sufficient total of food energy. Food is composed of six basic substance: carbohydrates, proteins, fats,

S Manikandan; D Selvam



Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

Thompson, Tommy



Physician nutrition education.  


Nutrition education for physicians in the United States is limited in scope, quality, and duration due to a variety of factors. As new data and quality improvement initiatives highlight the importance of nutrition and a generation of nutrition experts retire, there is a need for new physician educators and leaders in clinical nutrition. Traditional nutrition fellowships and increased didactic lecture time in school and postgraduate training are not feasible strategies to develop the next generation of physician nutrition specialists in the current environment. One strategy is the development of short immersion courses for advanced trainees and junior attendings. The most promising courses include a combination of close mentorship and adult learning techniques such as lectures, clinical experiences, literature review, curricular development, research and writing, multidisciplinary interactions, and extensive group discussion. These courses also allow the opportunity for advanced discourse, development of long-term collaborative relationships, and continued longitudinal career development for alumni after the course ends. Despite these curricular developments, ultimately the field of nutrition will not mature until the American Board of Medical Specialties recognizes nutrition medicine with specialty board certification. PMID:24690613

Kiraly, Laszlo N; McClave, Stephen A; Neel, Dustin; Evans, David C; Martindale, Robert G; Hurt, Ryan T



Nutrition and Athletics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.


Nutrition. Teacher Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet contains an instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a competency-based course on nutrition for practical nursing. The course consists of two units of instruction that cover applying principles of basic nutrition and diet therapy. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: objective…

Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.


Parents and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Parents and the extended family are the most influential factors in the child's lifelong eating habits, general health and development, and brain power. Convincing parents of diet components that insure adequate nutrition is of prime importance; if the home does not support the content of the school's nutritional curriculum, the child may feel…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher


Crop Physiology and Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the context of physiology and nutrition, many of the treatments which affect crop yields do so by influencing either the total photosynthesis per unit area of land or the partition of assimilates within the plant or both. Examples are given to illustrate the inter-relationships of nutrition, crop physiology, leaf growth and yields in cereals, grasses, potatoes and sugar beet

J. D. Ivins



Heredity and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on the relationship between heredity and nutrition in laboratory animals, particularly rats, points to a similar relationship between human heredity and nutritional requirements. Suggests an experiment which science honor students can undertake to investigate the relationship between strain differences in rats and the utilization of…

Marshall, Mary W.



Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others


Nutrition Learning Packages.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book presents nine packages of learning materials for trainers to use in teaching community health workers to carry out the nutrition element of their jobs. Lessons are intended to help health workers acquire skill in presenting to communities the principles and practice of good nutrition. Responding to the most common causes of poor…

World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).


Vegetarian Nutrition online  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many consumers have questions about vegetarian nutrition. In order to meet their needs, it is important to know which topics are of particular interest. Subscribers to commercial online computer services represent one group of consumers. Interest in various topics related to vegetarian nutrition among users of two commercial online services (America Online and CompuServe) was examined retrospectively by collecting information

E. Larson; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman



Nutritional Concerns of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition has played a critical role throughout the history of exploration, and space exploration is no exception. While a one- to two-week flight aboard the Space Shuttle might be analogous to a camping trip, adequate nutrition is absolutely critical while spending several months on the International Space Station (Figure 1) or several years on a mission to another planet. To ensure adequate nutrition, space nutrition specialists must know how much of the individual nutrients astronauts need, and these nutrients must be available in the spaceflight food system. To complicate matters, these spaceflight nutritional requirements are influenced by many of the physiological changes that occur during spaceflight. In this chapter, we describe some of these changes, their impact on crew health, and ways NASA is investigating how to minimize these changes. We also review the space food systems, issues involved in setting up a cafeteria in a weightless environment, and information about dietary intake of nutrients during space missions

Smith, Scott M.; Rice, Barbara L.



The peroxinectin of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is synthesised in the semi-granular and granular cells, and its transcription is up-regulated with Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  


Peroxinectin mRNA expression in the different types of haemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied by in situ hybridisation using digoxigenin-UTP-labelled riboprobes and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Granular cells (GC) and a mixture of semi-granular cells (SGC) and hyaline cells (HC) were separated by 70% Percoll gradient centrifugation. Peroxinectin was synthesised in both GC and the mixture of SGC-HC. An in situ hybridisation assay indicated that peroxinectin mRNA expression occurred in GC and SGC, but not in HC. Peroxinectin transcript up-regulated significantly, whereas haemocyte count decreased significantly at 6, 12 and 24 h post Vibrio alginolyticus-injection with slower restoration as compared to that of saline-injected shrimp. The RT-PCR assay indicated that peroxinectin exists extensively in several species of decapod crustaceans including L. vannamei, freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, common caridina Caridina pseudodenticulata, stone crab Thalamita crenata and mud crab Scylla serrata suggesting that this protein plays an important role in defence against pathogens. PMID:15683919

Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Chen, Jiann-Chu



Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.  


Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia



Characterization of Four Novel Caspases from Litopenaeus vannamei (Lvcaspase2-5) and Their Role in WSSV Infection through dsRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogenesis, and caspases are central players in apoptosis. Here, we cloned four novel caspases (Lvcaspase2-5) from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and investigated their potential roles in WSSV replication using dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. Lvcaspase2-5 have the typical domain structure of caspase family proteins, with the conserved consensus motifs p20 and p10. Lvcaspase2 and Lvcaspase5 were highly expressed in muscle, while Lvcaspase3 was highly expressed in hemocytes and Lvcaspase4 was mainly expressed in intestine. Lvcaspase2-5 could also be upregulated by WSSV infection, and they showed different patterns in various tissues. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Lvcaspase2-5 showed different cellular localizations. Using dsRNA-medicated gene silencing, the expression of Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3, and Lvcaspase5 were effectively knocked down. In Lvcaspase2-, Lvcaspase3- or Lvcaspase5-silenced L. vannamei, expression of WSSV VP28 gene was significantly enhanced, suggesting protective roles for Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3 and Lvcaspase5 in the host defense against WSSV infection.

Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo



Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains  

PubMed Central

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia



Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge  

PubMed Central

Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education.

Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra



Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): compositions and deterioration as affected by iced storage.  


Lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) stored in ice for up to 6 days were extracted and characterised. The extraction yields of lipids from hepatopancreas (10.65-12.64%) were higher than those from cephalothorax (2.59-2.88%). However, no changes in the extraction yield were observed during the storage (p>0.05). The carotenoid contents of lipids from cephalothorax and hepatopancreas slightly increased within the first 2 and 4 days of iced storage (p<0.05), respectively, but decreased thereafter (p<0.05). With increasing storage time, a progressive formation of hydroperoxide was found as evidenced by the increase in the absorbance band at 3600-3200 cm(-1) in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and increased peroxide values (PVs) (p<0.05). The increases in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), p-anisidine value (AnV) and free fatty acid (FFA) content of lipids were noticeable when iced storage time increased (p<0.05). Those changes indicated that lipid oxidation and hydrolysis occurred in both samples. Phospholipids (PL) were the major components in lipids from cephalothorax (82.51% of total lipids). Nevertheless, lipids from hepatopancreas contained triglyceride (TG) and PL as the dominant components (45.35% and 38.03% of total lipids, respectively). A decrease in the TG content with a concomitant increase in free fatty acid was observed at the end of storage (day 6) (p<0.05). Decreases in unsaturated fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) were noticeable at day 6 of storage (p<0.05). Thus, the extended storage time resulted in the enhanced deterioration of extracted lipids. PMID:23442657

Takeungwongtrakul, Sirima; Benjakul, Soottawat; H-kittikun, Aran



National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.


National Nutrition Policy: National Nutrition Policy Experiences. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains the following comprehensive articles which were judged to be useful to the immediate needs of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs: "Nutrition and Development: The View of the Planner," A. Berg and R. Muscat; "Criteria for Success in Applied Nutrition Programs," B. Bertlyn; "The Neglect of Nutrition and…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.


[Nutritional ecology: chances of public health services to shape procedures].  


Nutrition ecology is the science that studies the impacts of human nutrition on the environment, on human health and on social systems. Environmental impacts are usually the result of intensive food production, food transport and food packaging; they include soil contamination and erosion, energy consumption, air contamination and waste disposal. Health impacts of contemporary western eating behavior concern nutrition-related diseases (diabetes, hypertension, gout, overweight etc) and their psychological and social consequences; nutrition ecology aims at a balanced diet and suitable eating behavior to reduce the risks of chronic disease. The social impacts of nutrition concern the effects of feed trade on poor working conditions and poverty, especially in developing countries. The strategies of nutrition ecology agree in many points with those of the agenda 21 and of Consumer Protection. As nutrition-related diseases are increasing further, the public health services in Germany discover nutrition as an important topic in health promotion and prevention. They will contribute remarkably to a sustainable development if they include the strategies of nutrition ecology in their projects. PMID:12649791

Schwenk, M; Hauber-Schwenk, G



Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.


Nutrition and the heart.  


Nutritional deficiencies (e.g., carnitine in dogs, taurine in cats) resulting in cardiomyopathy, and nutritional excesses (e.g., calories leading to obesity, sodium leading to hypertension) have emerged as important considerations in cardiology. These dietary factors may become particularly exaggerated in altered physiological and/or pathological states (e.g., pregnancy, old age, primary cardiovascular disease). Unfortunately, we do not have complete information on requirements for essential nutrients, nor do we know the precise role nutrition may play in the production of so-called old-age diseases or on the interactions among other organ systems (e.g., kidney, liver) and the heart. PMID:2658289

Hamlin, R L; Buffington, C A



WSAVA Nutritional Assessment Guidelines.  


Careful assessment of nutritional needs of dogs and cats must be taken into consideration in order to maintain optimum health, be part of a treatment regimen for a diseased state, or to maximize the quality of life in all animals. Therefore, the goal of these WSAVA Guidelines is that a nutritional assessment and specific nutritional recommendation be made on every patient on every visit. This will become known as the 5th Vital Assessment (5VA), following the four vital assessments of temperature, pulse, respiration, and pain that are already addressed on each patient interaction. PMID:23705173

Freeman, Lisa; Becvarova, Iveta; Cave, Nick; MacKay, Clayton; Nguyen, Patrick; Rama, Betina; Takashima, Gregg; Tiffin, Ross; van Beukelen, Peter; Yathiraj, S



Nutrition in Severe Dementia  

PubMed Central

An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy.

Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek



Nutrition, infection, and periodontal disease.  


Even though nutrition is not recognized as a risk factor for periodontal diseases, nutrition is acknowledged to have a significant impact on optimal functioning of the immune response. Dental professionals need to routinely assess nutritional status and provide basic nutrition counseling to their patients to ensure optimal functioning of the immune system in combating infection and to promote optimal periodontal health. PMID:12699235

Boyd, Linda D; Madden, Theresa E



Nutrition for Children with Cancer  


... saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS » Nutrition for Children with Cancer Download Printable Version [PDF] » Nutrition is an important ... Why good nutrition is important Benefits of good nutrition What children with cancer need: Nutrients How your child can take in ...


Genetic Variability Assessed by Microsatellites in a Breeding Program of Pacific White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in a shrimp-breeding program was monitored for 2 generations by microsatellite DNA markers ( Pvan1578 and Pvan1815) to establish levels of variation and proceed with a selection program. An increase in the number and frequencies of some alleles in both microsatellite loci from G 0 to G 2 was induced by foreign sire contributions. Most common alleles and

Pedro Cruz; Ana M. Ibarra; Humberto Mejia-Ruiz; Patrick M. Gaffney; Ricardo Pérez-Enríquez



Molecular Nutrition Research--The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science  

PubMed Central

In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases.

Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, J?rgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.



Nutrition and athletic performance  


... Jr, Miller MD, eds. DeLee and Drez's Orthopaedic Sports Medicine. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2009:chap ... Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance. Journal of the American ...


FAO: Food and Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

During the past few decades, there has been an increased concern over food safety and quality and human nutrition across the globe. A number of large international organizations have begun to bring their expertise and knowledge to the Web, and this site, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is a good resource of information on these (and other) topics. The site includes a section on human nutrition, where visitors can view detailed country-level nutrition reports and national reports and strategies to combat the ever-growing problem of nutritional deficiencies. The food safety-and-quality area contains information about the capacity-building of food control systems and programs at the national and local level, along with scientific assessments of food safety. The site also contains a link to a very helpful portal that deals with international issues surrounding food safety, animal and plant health.


Team Nutrition: Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.



Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

Smith, Scott M.



Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science



Nutrition advice in pregnancy.  


Being overweight or obese in pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of poor pregnancy outcomes and long-term ill health for both mother and infant. Midwives, obstetricians and healthcare support workers providing care in pregnancy are ideally placed to provide women with nutritional advice and to facilitate the acquisition of a healthy diet. This survey was undertaken to assess the provision of training in nutrition for providers of maternity care at the Bradford Women's and Newborn unit, to evaluate what nutrition information is given and to find out if care providers were satisfied with the knowledge they had. All relevant staff were approached and asked to complete a questionnaire developed by members of the unit's research team. Findings from this survey highlight the wide range of nutrition information provided by care providers at the unit. Education and training needs are being addressed by managers and a dedicated service is being developed for obese women. PMID:24358595

Farrar, Diane; Butterfield, Gillian; Palethorpe, Rebeca; Jones, Vicky; Syson, Jenny



Nutrition and Development Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a need to integrate nutrition and development education when dealing with developing countries to get at the root of hunger and malnutrition. The combination will provide greater possibility of success. (JOW)

Peters, Joan Allen



Nutrition in multiple sclerosis.  


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disease that causes neurological disability in young adults. Etiology of the disease is still unknown, but it has an immune-mediated basis and occurs in genetically susceptible individuals. Nutritional status and dietary habits in MS patients have not been extensively studied or reported, however individual findings suggest that many patients suffer from various forms of malnutrition. In patients with MS, malnutrition has been associated with impairment of the immune system; it affects mental function, respiratory muscle strength and increases a risk of specific nutrient deficiencies. These findings emphasize the need for nutritional support in MS patients. On the other hand, several nutritional compounds have been investigated as a possible treatment in MS, mostly polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D, however their role in the treatment is yet to be confirmed. The aim of this review is to present data on the role of nutritional assessment and treatment in patients with MS. PMID:20444538

Habek, Mario; Hojsak, Iva; Brinar, Vesna V



ADHD and nutritional supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many children with attention-deficit\\/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) use nutritional therapies (supplements and elimination\\u000a diets) as a treatment strategy. This article reviews the use of supplements in ADHD. Several nutrients have known roles in\\u000a the support of brain function. Nutrient sufficiency during brain development is critical. Because 1) data indicate that many\\u000a American schoolchildren do not meet nutritional recommendations, 2) the prefrontal

Marianne M. Glanzman



[Nutrition and andrological problems].  


Andrologic problems were considered as nutrition is concerned: vitamin and oligo-element deficiencies, metabolic alterations, and toxic intake. Ethanol role was examined and discussed for its relevance in psychological and organic impairment due to both chronic abuse and acute intake, mainly for its role on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Rational nutrition is a clue in sexual disturbance prevention, correction and integrated care. PMID:1838822

Calcamuggi, G; Marcarino, C; Emanuelli, G



[Nutrition in intensive care].  


Nutrition is a supportive therapy in critically ill patients. The caloric need of a patient is not static and may change during the clinical course. Early enteral nutrition helps preventing an energy deficit of the patient leading to an increased rate of secondary infections and prolonged length of stay. By using protocols early enteral nutrition may be improved with benefit for the critically ill. Patients should not receive hypercaloric nutrition. Supplemental parenteral nutrition should be used to minimize the gap between energy needs and enteral supplied calories. Nutrition should be supplied according to metabolic and enteral tolerance. A strict glucose control is not recommended to all patients any more. Hyperglycemia may be part of the adaptive response to stress, infection, and trauma. It is important to avoid hypoglycaemia and increased variability in glucose concentrations. To this end, structured local protocols with instructions for sampling density, glucose and insulin administration, avoidance and treatment of hypoglycaemia should be installed. There are contradictory data on the use of probiotics in critically ill patients. Among patients with severe acute pancreatitis, more patients died after having received probiotics. The use of probiotics should be evaluated in controlled trials. Adherence to guidelines may be improved, and their appliance should be followed by constant training and evaluation processes. PMID:21611924

Mayer, K; Weigand, M A; Seeger, W



Phylogenesis and nutrition.  


The evolution of man is connected with a life-style of hunting and gathering, and with the development and use of tools. The success of tools promoted the evolution of brain, thinking and skills. The food sources--animal and plant--remained the same during the whole of evolution. But the proportions of foods, preferences, preparations and the attainability changed. Evolution was a process continuously based on omnivorous nutrition. Compared to modern nutrition, paleolithic nutrition is richer in animal protein, vitamins, calcium, potassium and fibre, and poorer in fat and sodium. Saccharose, lactose and alcohol play no roles. The quality of the fat is marked by a high proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This shift from a paleolithic diet to a modern diet caused nutritional risks, partly responsible for the dramatic increase in modern chronic diseases of heart, circulation and so on. Man's metabolism works in a stable genetic frame, derived during phylogenesis. We have to adapt our nutritional behaviour to its tolerances or we may succumb to disease and premature death. While our paleolithic metabolism is overdone with modern nutrition, our psychological heritages press in the direction of overdoing. PMID:2697806

Haenel, H



Characterization of the putative farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (LvFAMeT) cDNA from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Evidence for its role in molting.  


Methyl farnesoate (MF) is the crustacean homolog of the insect juvenile hormone and is believed to regulate growth and reproduction in crustaceans. Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase (FAMeT) catalyzes the conversion of farnesoic acid (FA) to MF. Here we report the cloning and characterization of two forms of FAMeTs (i.e. LvFAMeT-S and LvFAMeT-L) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. LvFAMeT transcript has a wide tissue distribution pattern in L. vannamei and is also expressed in nauplius, zoea, mysis, post-larval stages and adults. Unlike FAMeTs reported in other decapods, transcripts of two different sizes were detected in L. vannamei. We postulate that the wide distribution of LvFAMeT expression may be related to its role in growth and regulation of molting. To study the functions of LvFAMeT in molting, the RNA interference (RNAi) technique was used. Injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) for LvFAMeT knocked down the expression of LvFAMeT in shrimp for at least 3 days and the shrimp did not advance to the final stage of molt cycle. Furthermore, the expression of the molt-related genes encoding cathepsin-L and the hemocyanin gene was disturbed. Subsequently, 100% mortality of the shrimp was observed in the LvFAMeT dsRNA-injected shrimp. In contrast, control shrimp completed their molt and proceeded to the next molt cycle. We postulate that, as an important enzyme for the conversion of FA to MF, RNAi injection knocked down the expression of LvFAMeT which could potentially result in a decrease in the production of MF and subsequently, could affect the molting process. The newly identified LvFAMeT may be involved in the control of molting in shrimp. The results of this study demonstrate the potential use of the RNA interference technique to study other putative genes identified in crustaceans. PMID:18226425

Hui, Jerome Ho Lam; Tobe, Stephen S; Chan, Siu-Ming



Nutritional requirements for detoxication of environmental chemicals.  


The biological defence systems against oxygen radical toxicity and chemical toxicity, and their component enzymes, are described, and the nutritional requirements for biological defence against chemical and oxygen toxicity, including calories, protein, lipids and lipotropes, vitamins and minerals, are reviewed in the context of their contribution to the mechanisms of detoxication. Modulation of the cytochromes P-450, and hence toxicity, by dietary components are considered; the P450I family, induced by food pyrolysis mutagens, and the P450IIE family, induced by alcohol and fasting, contribute substantially to chemical toxicity and carcinogenicity. It is concluded that: (i) the detoxication system of terrestrial fauna has evolved over greater than 300 million years to protect animals from dietary plant toxins; (ii) protection against chemical and oxygen toxicity requires all categories of nutrients; and (iii) the rôle of food and nutrition in detoxication is essential to survival. PMID:1778274

Parke, D V



Genetic diversity within and between broodstocks of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) (Decapoda, Penaeidae) and its implication for the gene pool conservation.  


Genetic variation within and between fifteen closed broodstock lines of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, reared at different hatcheries in the Brazilian coast, was assessed by RAPD analysis. Fifty two polymorphic loci were identified when a set of five decamer primers was used in PCR. The genetic diversity analysis within lines evidenced genetic variation loss probably related to bottleneck effects and inbreeding. In addition, the genetic divergence values between the different samples appear to reflect the initial founder composition of such stocks, in some cases, sharing a common origin, suggesting a putative importance of interbreeding for the establishment of genetic improvement programs for these broodstocks. The genetic variation monitoring appears to be helpful to the gene pool conservation of this aquaculture species, mainly if considered its exotic status in Brazil and the current impossibility of new introduction of wild individuals. PMID:18278363

Freitas, P D; Calgaro, M R; Galetti Jr, P M



Nutritional management of cystic fibrosis.  

PubMed Central

Nutritional support is an integral part of the management of cystic fibrosis patients. It is arguably best provided by a qualified dietitian and nutritional care sister working in conjunction with the rest of the cystic fibrosis team. The patient's nutritional needs should be assessed, regularly reviewed, and nutritional treatment tailored to meet the changing clinical and psychosocial needs of the patient. Nutritional intervention is not without complications, and in particular attention to normal feeding behaviour and vigilance when instituting supplementary nutrition may prevent many feeding difficulties.

MacDonald, A



Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan



Molecular characterization, immune responsive expression and functional analysis of QM, a putative tumor suppressor gene from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  


The QM, firstly identified as a putative tumor suppressor gene from human, has been confirmed to possess varieties of functions in a range of organisms. In the present study, the cDNA that encodes a 220-amino-acid QM protein with calculated molecular mass of 25.5 kDa and isoelectric point of 10.07 was characterized from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of LvQM revealed that it contained a series of conserved functional motifs. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results showed that the transcript of LvQM was extensively distributed in the tissues under investigation and most highly expressed in gill. After challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, the LvQM transcripts were significantly increased (P < 0.05) both in hepatopancreas and hemocytes in the early experimental phase. When LvQM was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), the transcript of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the phenoloxidase activity (PO) in shrimp hemolymph were dramatically decreased, while the mortality was significantly increased. Furthermore, the recombinant LvQM protein (rLvQM) was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3)-pLysS. Injecting the purified rLvQM mixed with V. anguillarum markedly increased the clearance rate of bacteria and PO activity in the shrimp hemolymph. Hence, we conclude that LvQM was involved in the host defense of L. vannamei, probably as a positive regulator to phenoloxidase activity. PMID:24444825

Liu, Yongjie; Qian, Zhaoying; Qu, Rongfeng; Wang, Xianzong; He, Shulin; Hou, Fujun; Liu, Qiao; Mi, Xiao; Liu, Xiaolin



Metabolic enzyme activities, metabolism-related genes expression and bioaccumulation in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.  


The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3?g/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring. PMID:24636950

Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin



Identification and functional studies of Akirin, a potential positive nuclear factor of NF-?B signaling pathways in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  


As conserved nuclear factors, Akirins play critical roles in regulating antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) transcription downstream of NF-?B dependent signaling pathways in insects and mammals. However, no any functional studies was reported in penaeid shrimp. The identification and functional analysis of Akirin in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei were made in this research. The 833 nucleotides cDNA of Litopenaeus vannamei Akirin (LvAkirin) was obtained with an open reading frame of 639 bp, which encodes a putative protein of 212 amino acids. The molecular weight of LvAkirin is about 23.7 kDa with theoretical pI of 9.05. Two predicted nuclear localization signals (NLSs) were found and amino acid sequence alignments showed that Akirins are highly conserved between insects and mammals. The constitutive expression of LvAkirin mRNA was confirmed in all the examined tissues and high level appeared in testis followed by hemocytes and gill. LvAkirin mRNA was strongly induced in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection. Silencing LvAkirin by dsRNA significantly reduced the expression of NF-?B dependent anti-lipopolysaccharide factor, crustin and penaeidin3a as well as transcription factors, Dorsal and Relish post Vibrio anguillarum (V. anguillarum) and Micrococcus lysodeikticus (M. lysodeikticus) challenge. Antibacterial activities of shrimp plasma was analyzed and high cumulative mortality was found in LvAkirin-silenced shrimps post bacteria challenge. Hence, we proposed LvAkirin might function as a positive nuclear factor of NF-?B dependent signaling pathways in shrimp innate immunity. PMID:23962743

Hou, Fujun; Wang, Xianzong; Qian, Zhaoying; Liu, Qiao; Liu, Yongjie; He, Shulin; Mi, Xiao; Bai, Cheng; Sun, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaolin



Dietary administration of a Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract enhances the immune response and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  


The haemogram, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, lysozyme activity, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue (HPT) were examined after the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei had been fed diets containing the hot-water extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-35 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with the amount of extract and time, but slightly decreased after 35 days. RBs, SOD activity, and GPx activity reached the highest levels after 14 days, whereas PO and lysozyme activities reached the highest levels after 28 days. In a separate experiment, white shrimp L. vannamei, which had been fed diets containing the extract for 14 days, were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 2 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1) and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) at 1 × 10(3) copies shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. The survival rate of shrimp fed the extract-containing diets was significantly higher than that of shrimp fed the control diet at 72-144 h post-challenge. We concluded that dietary administration of the G. tenuistipitata extract at ?1.0 g kg(-1) could enhance the innate immunity within 14 days as evidenced by the increases in immune parameters and mitotic index of HPT in shrimp and their enhanced resistance against V. alginolyticus and WSSV infections. Shrimp fed the extract-containing diets showed a higher and continuous increase in the humoral response indicating its persistent role in innate immunity. PMID:21820059

Sirirustananun, Nuttarin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Li-Li; Sim, Su Sing; Chiew, Siau Li



ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...


WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study: Child Intervention. Special Nutrition Programs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this evaluation of the WIC Nutrition Education Demonstration Study was assessing the viability and effectiveness of a nutrition education intervention for preschool WIC participants. The findings summarized above indicate that preschool n...

B. Randall K. Sprague D. B. Connell J. Golay



Nutrition knowledge among Navy recruits.  


The Navy wants to incorporate nutrition education programs into basic training to teach Navy personnel fundamental principles of good nutrition. This study was undertaken to: determine deficits in recruits' nutrition knowledge, identify recruits with above-average need for nutrition education, and compare recruits' nutrition knowledge with that of typical U.S. school students. Demographic information and responses to a shortened version (36 items) of the National Dairy Council's Nutrition Achievement Test 4, developed for junior and senior high school students, were obtained from 205 male recruits. Although nutrition knowledge among Navy recruits was relatively comparable with that of U.S. school students, findings indicated that nutrition education is indeed needed. Only 2% of recruits answered 90% of the questions correctly. Forty percent answered half or more of the nutrition questions incorrectly. Questions answered incorrectly by more than 50% of recruits involved: (a) how one assesses nutrient needs and whether those needs are being met, (b) the four major food groups and recommended servings, and (c) effects of alcohol and drugs on nutritional status. Recruits who received higher grades in high school, got into less trouble in high school, were older, and were Caucasian had higher nutrition knowledge. Detailed information regarding nutrition misconceptions should help the Navy develop focused nutrition education materials. PMID:2809040

Conway, T L; Hervig, L K; Vickers, R R



Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Brewer's Yeast and GroBiotic®-A on Growth, Immune Responses, and Low-Salinity Tolerance of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Cultured in Recirculating Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two separate trials were conducted in clean recirculating systems at salinities of 32.9 (optimal) and 2 ppt (low-salinity challenge) to evaluate brewer's yeast and GroBiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotic, as dietary supplements for growth and health management of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The growth-promoting influences of brewer's yeast or GroBiotic®-A previously observed with fish were not demonstrated in these trials

Peng Li; Xiaoxue Wang; Shivananda Murthy; Delbert M. Gatlin III; Frank L. Castille; Addison L. Lawrence



White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei that had received the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis showed earlier recovery in immunity and up-regulation of gene expressions after pH stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been immersed in seawater (35‰, pH 8.2) containing the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 0 (control), 200, 400, and 600 mg L?1 for 3 h, were transferred to seawater at pH 6.8, and the immune parameters and transcripts of the lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), and integrin ? (IB) were examined 6–96 h post-transfer. Shrimp

Yong-Chin Lin; Carina Miranda Tayag; Chien-Lun Huang; Wen-Ching Tsui; Jiann-Chu Chen



Catalytic subunits atp? and atp? from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei F O F 1 ATP-synthase complex: cDNA sequences, phylogenies, and mRNA quantification during hypoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mitochondrial FOF1 ATP-synthase\\/ATPase complex, subunits ? and ? are part of the extrinsic portion that catalyses ATP synthesis. Since there\\u000a are no reports about genes and proteins from these subunits in crustaceans, we analyzed the cDNA sequences of both subunits\\u000a in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and their phylogenetic relationships. We also investigated the effect of hypoxia on

Oliviert Martinez-Cruz; Fernando Garcia-Carreño; Arlett Robles-Romo; Alejandro Varela-Romero; Adriana Muhlia-Almazan



Nuclear and mitochondrial subunits from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei F 0 F 1 ATP-synthase complex: cDNA sequence, molecular modeling, and mRNA quantification of atp9 and atp6  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied for the first time the ATP-synthase complex from shrimp as a model to understand the basis of crustacean bioenergetics\\u000a since they are exposed to endogenous processes as molting that demand high amount of energy. We analyzed the cDNA sequence\\u000a of two subunits of the Fo sector from mitochondrial ATP-synthase in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The nucleus encoded

Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Oliviert Martinez-Cruz; Fernando Garcia-Carreño; Rodrigo Arreola; Rogerio Sotelo-Mundo; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia



What Is a Nutrition Support Professional?  


... Nutrition Support Professional Press Room What Is a Nutrition Support Professional Nutrition support professionals (NSP) are dietitians, ... network with others in the field. Roles of Nutrition Support Professionals Multiple healthcare practitioners are involved the ...


Nutrition in calcium nephrolithiasis  

PubMed Central

Idiopathic calcium nephrolithiasis is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis due to genetic and environmental factors. The importance of social and health effects of nephrolithiasis is further highlighted by the strong tendency to relapse of the disease. Long-term prospective studies show a peak of disease recurrence within 2–3 years since onset, 40-50% of patients have a recurrence after 5 years and more than 50-60% after 10 years. International nutritional studies demonstrated that nutritional habits are relevant in therapy and prevention approaches of nephrolithiasis. Water, right intake of calcium, low intake of sodium, high levels of urinary citrate are certainly important for the primary and secondary prevention of nephrolithiasis. In this review is discussed how the correction of nutritional mistakes can reduce the incidence of recurrent nephrolithiasis.



Nutrition Session Summary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition deficiencies affect multiple systems including muscle, bone, cardiovascular, renal, and gastrointestinal. Humans require many nutrients, ranging from the macronutrients (water, protein, energy sources) to micronutrients (minerals, vitamins). The ability to withstand shortfalls in intake of individual nutrients ranges from one or two days (e.g., water) to weeks (energy, protein, potassium) and months (some vitamins, minerals). In addition to putting humans at risk for nutrition deficiencies, space flight may also change the absorption, hence the pharmacodynamics, of several important medications. Papers given in this session dealt with all of these nutritional and pharmacological factors related to space flight: (1) Protein metabolism and muscle formation. (2) Pharmacodynamics. (3) Calcium metabolism and bone formation/resorption. and (4) Fluid and electrolytes.

Lane, Helen; Stein, T. P.



Nutrition in conflict situations.  


High prevalence of malnutrition is often linked to conflict situations. Conflicts affect local livelihoods, impair productive activities and limit access to safe foods and basic services. Strategies to protect and promote nutrition of affected households and communities must be based on an understanding of this impact. While nutrition rehabilitation and food aid are clearly essential to preserve lives in the short run, they cannot provide lasting solutions. Impaired nutritional status ultimately reflects livelihood degradation but anthropometric indicators cannot be used to target timely interventions. They should be combined with simple indicators of food consumption which react more quickly to both crisis and relief/rehabilitation interventions. Local institutions should be encouraged to share information and build causality models of malnutrition for the main vulnerable livelihood groups as a basis for an integrated response. A communication component will systematically be needed to allow people to make informed decisions in a context with which they are often not familiar. PMID:16923242

Egal, Florence



Good Nutrition Promotes Health: Guide for Parent Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to guide users of the nutrition education project produced by Padres Hispanos en Accion por Una Sana Generacion (Hispanic Parents in Action for a Healthy Generation). The project provides nutrition education materials to trainers who provide nutrition counseling to parents of Head Start children. The project has two…

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC. Head Start Bureau.


Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…

Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.


Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others


Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances



The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.



Nutrition Education for Native Americans: A Guide for Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for professionals working with food assistance and other programs with a nutrition component, this guide is intended to aid in understanding the cultural characteristics and basic health and diet-related problems of Native Americans and to promote more effective nutrition counseling and community nutrition education. The background section…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.


Nutritional Implications in Wound Healing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Changes that take place in the nutritional requirements of persons under stress are discussed, metabolic alterations triggered by wounding are described, and practical approaches to the nutritional management of the wounded or injured patient are suggeste...

J. M. Navia L. Menaker



Food Stamp Nutrition Education Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this study is to provide the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) with descriptive information about how States have elected to provide nutrition education and information to food stamp recipients and eligibles. The specific objectives of the s...

J. Anliker L. Bell C. Miller M. Harkins V. Gabor L. Bartlett



Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  


... Google+ You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to the Media Press Room Home > Media In This Section Quicklinks ... PhD, RD Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ...


Nutritional Quality of Irradiated Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The review presents representative data on the nutritional quality of irradiated foods and brings into focus some of the possible problem areas. Radappertization at low temperatures greatly improves the nutritional quality in regard to the micronutrients ...

J. Scott N. Raica W. Nielsen



Parenteral nutrition: Revisited  

PubMed Central

The prevalence of malnutrition among critically ill patients, especially those with a protracted clinical course, has remained largely unchanged over the last two decades. The metabolic response to stress, injury, surgery, or inflammation cannot be accurately predicted and these metabolic alterations may change during the course of illness. Both underfeeding and overfeeding are common in intensive care units (ICU), resulting in large energy and other nutritional imbalances. Systematic research and clinical trials on various aspects of nutritional support in the ICU are limited and make it challenging to compile evidence-based practice guidelines.

Chowdary, Koneru Veera Raghava; Reddy, Pothula Narasimha



Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.


Nutritional management of osteoarthritis.  


There is growing evidence of the role that nutrition can play in the management of veterinary patients with osteoarthritis. Current evidence supports nutritional management of body weight and dietary fortification with the long-chain omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Additional studies suggest that supplements and diet additives such as glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate, antioxidants, and green-lipped mussel may also have some benefit in managing osteoarthritis. Additional research evaluating pets with naturally occurring disease, using validated owner questionnaires and objective measurements, is needed. PMID:22581724

Perea, Sally



Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon



State of nutrition support teams.  


The incidence of malnutrition in hospitalized patients is relatively high (up to 55%) despite breakthroughs in nutrition support therapies. These patients have increased morbidity and mortality, extended hospital stays, and care that is associated with higher costs. These patients are often poorly managed due to inadequate nutrition assessment and poor medical knowledge and practice in the field of nutrition. Nutrition support teams (NSTs) are interdisciplinary support teams with specialty training in nutrition that are often comprised of physicians, dietitians, nurses, and pharmacists. Their role includes nutrition assessment, determination of nutrition needs, recommendations for appropriate nutrition therapy, and management of nutrition support therapy. Studies have demonstrated significant improvements in patient nutrition status and improved clinical outcomes as well as reductions in costs when patients were appropriately managed by a multispecialty NST vs individual caregivers. Despite this, there has been steady decline in the number of formal NST in recent years (65% of hospitals in 1995 to 42% in 2008) as hospitals and other healthcare organizations look for ways to cut costs. Given the importance of nutrition status on clinical outcomes and overall healthcare costs, a number of institutions have introduced and sustained strong nutrition training and support programs and teams, demonstrating both clinical and economic benefit. The benefits of NST, training and implementation strategies, and tips for justifying these clinically and economically beneficial groups to healthcare organizations and governing bodies are discussed in this review. PMID:24170578

DeLegge, Mark Henry; Kelley, Andrea True



Nutrition in palliative care.  


Nutrition in palliative care and at the end of life should be one of the goals for improving quality of life. It is important to address issues of food and feeding at this time to assist in the management of troublesome symptoms as well as to enhance the remaining life. While this paper focuses upon the nutritional aspects of cancer in palliative care, the sentiments are applicable to other serious chronic illnesses such as advanced cardiac failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and dementia. Cancer and its treatments exert a major impact upon physical and psychological reserves and at the end of life problems with appetite and the ability to eat and drink compound such impact. The aims of nutritional care minimize food-related discomfort and maximize food enjoyment. Identification of any nutritional problems can facilitate the employment of strategies which need to be discussed with the patient and their families and reviewed regularly as conditions change. Ethical questions will be raised concerning the provision of food and fluids to a person nearing the end of their life. Nurses need to acknowledge that food has greater significance than the provision of nutrients. PMID:19966682

Acreman, Sue



Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis. The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary

Maurice Laville; Denis Fouque



Nutrition and Athletic Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a



Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)



Evergreen Action Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evergreen Action is a nutrition education program for seniors living in the community. Based in a seniors recreation center, this pilot program uses a community organization approach for program planning. This article describes the steps used for designing and managing the program development. Preliminary results demonstrate benefits of this approach. After 18 months of the program, participation rates and satisfaction

Margaret R. Hedley; Heather H. Keller; Patricia D. Vanderkooy; Sharon I. Kirkpatrick



Calcium Nutrition in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development and special dietary habits. Calcium needs are elevated as a result of the intensive bone and muscular development and thus adequate calcium intake during growth is extremely important to reach the optimum peak bone mass and to protect against osteoporosis in the adult

Marta Mesías; Isabel Seiquer; M. Pilar Navarro



Nutrition and colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between nutrition and colorectal cancer is reviewed. Colon cancer varies approximately 20-fold internationally. Although there is clear evidence of genetic predisposition to colon cancer, much of this variation appears to be related to differences in dietary habits. At present, the data suggest that vegetables are associated with lower risk, and that fiber alone does not

John D. Potter



Nutrition and pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human pregnancy imposes remarkably small demands on a mother's nutrition because the fetus grows so slowly. The extra nutrient needs can be obtained from a healthy balanced diet consumed in a very slight excess (only about 10–15% extra). The old saying of ‘eating for two’ is far from accurate. The following summarizes the key elements of dietary advice for pregnant

Andrew Prentice



Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson



Mathematics Through Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A unit on nutrition, with charts that tell why one eats as well as what one should eat. Each class of food has a definite function; over fifty nutrients are needed for good health and they have been divided into six categories. The math is developed through math computation, concepts, and problem solving.

Bryant, Joyce



Teaching Nutrition with Films.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Pretests and posttests were administered to students to determine if the "Mulligan Stew" film series on nutrition was effective with grades 2-3 as well as grades 4-6 from a rural population. A significant increase in knowledge was found in all grades, and the knowledge was retained for six months. (CT)

Williams, Virginia H.; And Others



[Nutrition and bronchopulmonary dysplasia].  


Bronchopulmonary dysplasia remains a frequent complication of extreme prematurity. In preterm neonates catch-up and pulmonary alveolar growth occur during the first two years of life. However 10 to 25% of preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia are under-nourished after two years of age, and 30 to 60% of them also suffer from persistent airway obstruction, hyperinflation and bronchial hyperreactivity. Recommendations on nutritional requirements in this population are not yet clearly defined, but an adequate nutritional status in prenatal and early postnatal period can have long-term consequences on brain and lung development. There are a few randomised trial of nutrition for preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia after discharge. Caloric and protein requirements in this population are probably higher than in full-term infants. Moreover there are potential benefits in using specific nutrients: supplementation with long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids could decrease lung inflammation injuries, glutamine is the main source of energy of pneumocyte, vitamin A is essential for lung development, inositol is necessary for surfactant synthesis, vitamin E and selenium have anti-oxidant effects. Controlled nutritional trial are needed with a long term follow-up in late childhood in order to test their effects on growth and pulmonary status. PMID:15049287

Bott, L; Béghin, L; Pierrat, V; Thumerelle, C; Gottrand, F



Nutritional iron deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming monotonous plant-based diets. The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the developing world has substantial health and

Michael B Zimmermann; Richard F Hurrell



Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole



Skylab nutritional studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately seventy different food items was analyzed for digestible and non-digestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crew members adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished in flight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

Smith, M. C. Jr; Rambaut, P. C.; Stadler, C. R.



Skylab nutritional studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise nutritional specifications arising from both physiological and experimental requirements necessitated a comprehensive study of the chemical composition of the Skylab food supply. Each of the approximately 70 different food items was analyzed for digestible and nondigestible carbohydrate, and for protein, amino acids, fat, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals. Menus were formulated to provide at least the National Research Council's Recommended Dietary Allowance of all essential nutrients and, in addition, to provide constant daily intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and protein. In general, the crewmembers adhered to their programmed menus. The ability to swallow and digest food was unaffected by prolonged weightlessness. Taste acuity also appeared to be undiminished inflight. The bone and muscle changes which occurred in previous flights were more pronounced in Skylab. It is concluded that these changes did not develop as a result of nutritional deficit. If such changes are nutritionally related, they point to the existence of nutritional requirements in weightlessness which differ quantitatively from those observed on earth.

Rambaut, P. C.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Stadler, C. R.



Nutrition Issues for Space Exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first twelve International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott; Zwart, Sara R.



Nutrition issues for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.



Nutrition and sustainability: an emerging food policy discourse.  


It is well known that food has a considerable environmental impact. Less attention has been given to mapping and analysing the emergence of policy responses. This paper contributes to that process. It summarises emerging policy development on nutrition and sustainability, and explores difficulties in their integration. The paper describes some policy thinking at national, European and international levels of governance. It points to the existence of particular policy hotspots such as meat and dairy, sustainable diets and waste. Understanding the environmental impact of food systems challenges nutrition science to draw upon traditions of thinking which have recently been fragmented. These perspectives (life sciences, social and environmental) are all required if policy engagement and clarification is to occur. Sustainability issues offer opportunities for nutrition science and scientists to play a more central role in the policy analysis of future food systems. The task of revising current nutrition policy advice to become sustainable diet advice needs to begin at national and international levels. PMID:23217475

Lang, Tim; Barling, David



Selection of nutrition support regimens.  


The selection of a nutrition support regimen should be the product of a logical, stepwise process. After an appropriate candidate is selected, the integrity and function of the gastrointestinal tract must be assessed to determine if nutrients can be administered enterally or must be given by vein. The anticipated length of therapy will help determine the type of feeding access. Long-term nutrition support requires permanent access, such as a percutaneously or surgically placed feeding tube for enteral nutrition or a tunnelled catheter or implanted port for parenteral nutrition. Formula selection for enteral nutrition, providing adequate liver and renal function, depends largely on the patient's ability to assimilate intact nutrients. The primary decision in parenteral formula selection is whether to provide the macronutrients as a mixed fuel system. The ultimate goal of nutrition support is to make a smooth transition to oral feedings while maintaining adequate nutritional intake. PMID:1289694

DeChicco, R S; Matarese, L E



Vitamin D nutrition in pregnancy: current opinion  

PubMed Central

There is increasing interest in vitamin D nutrition during pregnancy because of widespread reports of a high prevalence of low vitamin D status in pregnant women. While vitamin D is important for calcium and phosphorus homeostasis and for bone health, it also plays important roles in many other physiologic functions in the body. Consistent with the expanded role of vitamin D, recent observational studies have demonstrated that low vitamin D status in pregnancy is associated with multiple potential adverse maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes and contributes to low vitamin D status in infants at birth. Therefore, an overview of the current understanding of vitamin D nutrition in pregnancy and a review of the results of studies to optimize vitamin D status during pregnancy and in the offspring is of public health importance and timely.

Dawodu, Adekunle; Akinbi, Henry



Models linking nutritional deficiencies to maternal and child mental health.  


The primary goal of this article was to illustrate how nutritional deficiencies can translate into adult or child mental health problems. Whereas brain development and function play an essential role in the etiology and maintenance of mental health problems, what is required are models that go beyond nutrition-brain relations and integrate the contributions of nutritionally related contextual and behavioral characteristics. Four such models are presented. The multiple risks model derives from evidence showing covariance between nutritional deficiencies and other life stressors. Given that poorly nourished adults may be less able to actively cope with stressors, nutritional deficiencies may accentuate the negative impact of stress exposure on mental health. The cross-generational model is based on evidence showing less adequate patterns of mother-child interactions when mothers are poorly nourished. Impairments in mother-child interactions increase the likelihood of child mental health problems and the risk of subsequent child nutritional deficiencies. The attachment model derives from evidence showing that poorly nourished infants may be less likely to elicit the types of maternal child-rearing patterns that translate into secure infant-mother attachments. Insecure attachments in infancy are associated with an increased risk of both short-term and long-term child mental health problems. The temperament model is based on evidence documenting that certain patterns of infant temperament are related to an increased risk of later behavioral problems. Infant nutritional deficiencies can influence the development of temperament, and certain temperament patterns can contribute to an increased risk of infant nutritional deficiencies. PMID:19176736

Wachs, Theodore D



Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

Mukudi, E.



It's Time to Include Nutrition Education in the Secondary Physical Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although the primary focus of physical educators is to increase students' physical activity levels and their knowledge about the importance of movement, they also have the opportunity to affect students' overall wellness by teaching nutrition and how healthy eating contributes to overall health and weight management. Nutrition concepts…

Bertelsen, Susan L.; Thompson, Ben



Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.  


While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A



Foundations of Nutrition Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

Mckay, Diane



USDA: Food & Nutrition Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.


NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) is designed to serve as a portal to resources and information on nutrition, healthy eating, and food safety available across government Websites. These resources are organized by category on the main page, including food facts, food safety, lifecycle issues, research, and health management, among others. Each of these is further divided by topic pages which offer links to related resources, some of which are annotated. While the organization of these varied sources of government information on one site is appreciated, does have a few minor drawbacks. The site's method of displaying links is more visually appealing than a standard metapage site listing, but it slows down the site unnecessarily. Some direct links are provided to selected reports and publications, but the press releases section just sends users to the appropriate pages at various agencies. Finally, the keyword search engine indexes all of FirstGov, producing a majority of irrelevant returns.


Evolution of tree nutrition.  


Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell



Nutrition in systemic sclerosis.  


Systemic sclerosis is a connective tissue disease characterized by inflammation and fibrosis of multiple organs (skin, gastrointestinal tract, lung, kidney and heart). After the skin, the organ most affected with a frequency of 75 to 90%, the gastrointestinal tract is more often involved. Gastrointestinal tract involvement is manifested by the appearance of oropharyngeal dysphagia, esophageal dysphagia, gastroesophageal reflux, gastroparesis, pseudo-obstruction, bacterial overgrowth and intestinal malabsorption, constipation, diarrhea and/or fecal incontinence. These effects influence food intake and intestinal absorption leading to the gradual emergence of nutritional deficiencies. About 30% of patients with systemic sclerosis are at risk of malnutrition. In 5-10%, gastrointestinal disorders are the leading cause of death. Therapeutic strategies currently available are limited and aimed at reducing clinical symptoms. The multidisciplinary management of these patients, including nutritional intervention, helps improve gastrointestinal symptoms, and avoid malnutrition, morbidity and improve quality of life. PMID:22197834

Recasens, M A Asunción; Puig, Celia; Ortiz-Santamaria, Vera



Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children.\\u000a Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological\\u000a impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight\\u000a loss industry

Joan M. Eckerson


Nutrition for adventure racing.  


Adventure racing requires competitors to perform various disciplines ranging from, but not limited to, mountain biking, running, kayaking, climbing, mountaineering, flat- and white-water boating and orienteering over a rugged, often remote and wilderness terrain. Races can vary from 6 hours to expedition-length events that can last up to 10-consecutive days or more. The purpose of this article is to provide evidence-based nutritional recommendations for adventure racing competitors. Energy expenditures of 365-750?kcal/hour have been reported with total energy expenditures of 18?000-80?000?kcal required to complete adventure races, and large negative energy balances during competitions have been reported. Nutrition, therefore, plays a major role in the successful completion of such ultra-endurance events. Conducting research in these events is challenging and the limited studies investigating dietary surveys and nutritional status of adventure racers indicate that competitors do not meet nutrition recommendations for ultra-endurance exercise. Carbohydrate intakes of 7-12?g/kg are needed during periods of prolonged training to meet requirements and replenish glycogen stores. Protein intakes of 1.4-1.7?g/kg are recommended to build and repair tissue. Adequate replacement of fluid and electrolytes are crucial, particularly during extreme temperatures; however, sweat rates can vary greatly between competitors. There is considerable evidence to support the use of sports drinks, gels and bars, as they are a convenient and portable source of carbohydrate that can be consumed during exercise, in training and in competition. Similarly, protein and amino acid supplements can be useful to help meet periods of increased protein requirements. Caffeine can be used as an ergogenic aid to help competitors stay awake during prolonged periods, enhance glycogen resynthesis and enhance endurance performance. PMID:23006142

Ranchordas, Mayur K



Nutrition and cancer.  


There is increasing epidemiological evidence that nutrition plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of several types of human cancers. There is considerable epidemiological evidence showing that alcoholism in part because of associated nutritional deficiencies, significantly increases the risk of smokers for cancer of the alimentary tract. There is also some suggestion that nutritional deficiencies may relate to cancers of the stomach, cervix, and thyroid. Of particular importance, and based on relatively new concepts, are data indicating that overnutrition significantly affects the development of certain cancers, including cancers of the colon and pancreas, kidney, breast, ovary endometrium, and prostate. Except for cancer of the endometrium, and kidney cancer in women, there is no significant relationship to obesity. Rather, the evidence suggests both epidemiologically and experimentally that the etiological factors relate to a high intake of fats and possibly other variables associated with high fat intake. While we are investigating the mechanistic nature of the epidemiological and experimental observations, the question that needs to be asked is whether it is not prudent for us to associate ourselves with the recommendation of our colleagues in the cardiovascular disease field who call on both individuals and the food industry to practice a "Prudent Diet," i.e., one that is lower in total calories, total fat, saturated fats and cholesterol than is the present American diet. PMID:770204

Wynder, E L



Nutritional iron deficiency.  


Iron deficiency is one of the leading risk factors for disability and death worldwide, affecting an estimated 2 billion people. Nutritional iron deficiency arises when physiological requirements cannot be met by iron absorption from diet. Dietary iron bioavailability is low in populations consuming monotonous plant-based diets. The high prevalence of iron deficiency in the developing world has substantial health and economic costs, including poor pregnancy outcome, impaired school performance, and decreased productivity. Recent studies have reported how the body regulates iron absorption and metabolism in response to changing iron status by upregulation or downregulation of key intestinal and hepatic proteins. Targeted iron supplementation, iron fortification of foods, or both, can control iron deficiency in populations. Although technical challenges limit the amount of bioavailable iron compounds that can be used in food fortification, studies show that iron fortification can be an effective strategy against nutritional iron deficiency. Specific laboratory measures of iron status should be used to assess the need for fortification and to monitor these interventions. Selective plant breeding and genetic engineering are promising new approaches to improve dietary iron nutritional quality. PMID:17693180

Zimmermann, Michael B; Hurrell, Richard F



Using the Nutrition Facts Label: A How-To Guide for Older Adults  


... Nutrition Can Help You Avoid or Manage These Common Diseases: • certain cancers • high blood pressure • type 2 diabetes • ... blood - which in turn can contribute to heart disease. Common Sources : meat, poultry, fish, butter, ice cream, cheese, ...


Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies  

PubMed Central

The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in ‘omics’ technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the “Nutritional Phenotype database” (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different—omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed—omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and—omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure.

Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O.; Drevon, Christian A.; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C.; Muller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T.



Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing



Enteral Access and Enteral Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition is the route of choice in patients with a functioning gastrointestinal tract. Early enteral nutrition has\\u000a been shown to improve outcomes in a variety of critically ill patient populations. Enteral nutritional support is indicated\\u000a for patients with poor volitional intake, neurological impairment, oropharyngeal dysfunction, short gut syndrome, and major\\u000a trauma or burns. A~number of enteral access options are

Christopher R. Lynch; John C. Fang; Stephen A. McClave


[Nutritional analysis of dietary patterns in students of primary education with normal nutritional status].  


Objective: To perform a nutritional assessment of the dietary model in a group of primary school students (9-12 years) with a normal nutritional status. Material and methods: Recording of food consumption of two consecutive school days in a sample of 353 primary school students (188 boys and 165 girls) with normal nutritional situation. The intake of energy, macronutrients, minerals, and vitamins was calculated and compared with the recommended intakes. Results: The mean value of daily caloric intake was 2,066.9 kcal. Grains (33%), dairy products (19%) and meats (17%) represented 70% of the total caloric intake. Proteins contributed with 20.3% of the caloric intake, sugars 48.8%, lipids 30.9%, and saturated fats 12.6%. Cholesterol intake was excessive and 2/3 of the caloric intake was of animal origin. The mean intake of calcium, iodine and A, D and E vitamins were lower than de recommended dietary intakes. Conclusions: The dietary model of the primary school students with normal nutritional status varies from the Mediterranean prototype, with an excessive intake of meats, limited intake of grains and dairy products, and deficient intake of vegetables, fruits, legumes, and fishes. This leads to an increase in the intake of proteins and fats from animals with a detriment of complex carbohydrates and a deficient intake of calcium, iodine, and vitamins A, D y E. PMID:24972468

Durá-Gúrpide, Beatriz; Durá-Travé, Teodoro



How can clinicians approach nutrition?  


A clinician reflects on how nutrition and exercise assessments are integral to the care of patients with diabetes and, more broadly, how these assessments can increase understanding of the patient. Nutrition, metabolic control, self-esteem, and self-care are often intertwined. Using a team approach and acknowledging patient effort and attitude change can help patients modify lifestyle patterns, although the road to change may be slow. Exercise counseling should be part of nutrition recommendations. Poor nutritional habits represent a major challenge to improving health status and will require the coordinated efforts of health care providers and other stakeholders in society. PMID:11326802

Teutsch, C



Nutritional support of reptile patients.  


Providing nutritional support to reptile patients is a challenging and often misunderstood task. Ill reptiles are frequently anorexic and can benefit greatly from appropriate nutrition delivered via a variety of assist-feeding techniques. Neonatal reptiles can also be very challenging patients because many fail to thrive without significant efforts to establish normal feeding behaviors. This article presents ideas supporting the benefit of timely nutritional support as well as specific recommendations for implementation of assist feeding. Also discussed are a few nutritional issues that affect captive reptile species. PMID:24767745

De Voe, Ryan S



Nutritional support for neonatal foals.  


In recent years, equine neonatal medicine has made significant advances. The importance of nutritional support for the sick neonatal foal has been recognized, and methods of providing that sup-port have been developed. Today, the clinician has many options when designing a nutritional plan for the neonatal foal. When the foal's gut permits, enteral diets are an inexpensive source of nutrients. Under conditions where the gut requires rest, methods for delivering nutrients by the parenteral route have also been developed. In this article, the nutrition of the normal and sick foal is described. Guidelines for designing a nutritional plan are also reviewed. PMID:16051059

Buechner-Maxwell, Virginia A



Metabolic changes after polytrauma: an imperative for early nutritional support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major trauma induces marked metabolic changes which contribute to the systemic immune suppression in severely injured patients and increase the risk of infection and posttraumatic organ failure. The hypercatabolic state of polytrauma patients must be recognized early and treated by an appropriate nutritional management in order to avoid late complications. Clinical studies in recent years have supported the concept of

Erik Hasenboehler; Allison Williams; Iris Leinhase; Steven J Morgan; Wade R Smith; Ernest E Moore; Philip F Stahel



The Diabetic Pregnancy, Macrosomia, and Perinatal Nutritional Programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health and diseases are generally perceived to be caused genetically. It is meanwhile accepted, however, that alterations in the intrauterine and early postnatal nutritional, metabolic, and hormonal environment may also predispose to disorders and diseases throughout later life. Studies in the offspring of diabetic mothers (ODM) have decisively contributed to this perception and our understanding of causal mechanisms. It has

A. Plagemann; T. Harder; J. Dudenhausen



Towards a National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Government.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts testifying at the National Nutrition Policy study hearings on June 19-21, 1974 in Washington, at the invitation of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, recommended several steps which the committee staff feel merit a prompt Congressional response. This report prepared by staff incorporates those recommendations,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.


Nutrition economics - characterising the economic and health impact of nutrition  

PubMed Central

There is a new merging of health economics and nutrition disciplines to assess the impact of diet on health and disease prevention and to characterise the health and economic aspects of specific changes in nutritional behaviour and nutrition recommendations. A rationale exists for developing the field of nutrition economics which could offer a better understanding of both nutrition, in the context of having a significant influence on health outcomes, and economics, in order to estimate the absolute and relative monetary impact of health measures. For this purpose, an expert meeting assessed questions aimed at clarifying the scope and identifying the key issues that should be taken into consideration in developing nutrition economics as a discipline that could potentially address important questions. We propose a first multidisciplinary outline for understanding the principles and particular characteristics of this emerging field. We summarise here the concepts and the observations of workshop participants and propose a basic setting for nutrition economics and health outcomes research as a novel discipline to support nutrition, health economics and health policy development in an evidence and health-benefit-based manner.

Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I.; Dapoigny, M.; Dubois, D.; van Ganse, E.; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, I.; Hutton, J.; Jones, P.; Mittendorf, T.; Poley, M. J.; Salminen, S.; Nuijten, M. J. C.



Diets of the Elderly, Nutrition Labeling and Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition labeling regulations introduce United States-Recommended Daily Allowances (RDAs) or higher values than current NRC-RDAs for elderly people. Since few elderly diets met the lower recommendations ways to use the new nutrition information are suggested. (Author/RH)

Pao, Eleanor M.; Hill, Mary M.



7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contacts that ensure adequate nutrition education in accordance with...agencies or clinics can share nutrition educational materials with...Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C...activities in carrying out their nutrition education...



45 CFR 1328.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1328.15 Section 1328...OLDER HAWAIIAN NATIVES § 1328.15 Nutrition services. (a) In addition to providing nutrition services to older Hawaiian Natives,...



7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL...



45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section 1308...SERVICES FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards § 1308.20 Nutrition services. (a) The disabilities...



7 CFR 246.11 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Nutrition education. 246.11 Section 246...of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SPECIAL SUPPLEMENTAL...



NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.


NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.


NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 17-21, 2008 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.


NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of


NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of


The changing nutrition scenario  

PubMed Central

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large.

Gopalan, C.



Metabolic programming: Role of nutrition in the immediate postnatal life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Although genes and dietary habits are generally implicated in the aetiology of the prevailing obesity epidemic, the steep\\u000a increase in the incidence of obesity within a relatively short span of time suggests that other contributing factors may be\\u000a at play. The role of nutritional experience during the very early periods of life is increasingly being recognized as contributing\\u000a to growth

M. S. Patel; M. Srinivasan; S. G. Laychock



Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.  


The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura



Spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the midgut of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic circulation in Crustacea.  


The effect of dietary protein concentration on the spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic enzyme circulation in this species. Samples recovered from the midgut gland tissues, stomach contents, three different portions of the midgut and feces were used for quantitative and qualitative analyses of the composition and distribution of the digestive proteinases. Animals were divided into three different groups: (1) animals (controls) fed with a commercial 35% protein diet, (2) animals fed with a commercial diet supplemented with ovalbumin to a final protein concentration of 60%; (3) animals fed with an 80% protein diet. Quantitative determinations using different substrates and zymograms showed that increasing protein concentration in the diet alters the distribution of proteinases along the digestive tract. Composition of proteinases in the midgut gland, stomach contents, midgut sections and feces were similar, but not identical. Chymotrypsin and trypsin paralogues were identified in all enzyme sources in a concentration gradient along the midgut in the control shrimp, the expected distribution supporting the existence of a recycling mechanism. The occurrence of a peritrophic membrane in other Decapoda suggests that endo-ectoperitrophic circulation of digestive enzymes and nutrients may also occur in other crustaceans and also extends beyond the Insecta. PMID:24813823

Alexandre, Daniel; Ozório, Renata A; Derner, Roberto B; Fracalossi, Débora M; Oliveira, Gabriel B; Samuels, Richard I; Terra, Walter R; Silva, Carlos P



Combined use of DGT and transplanted shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to assess the bioavailable metals of complex contamination: implications for implementing bioavailability-based water quality criteria.  


The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) were field deployed alongside the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at seven sites with different levels of contamination to assess the potentially bioavailable and toxic fraction of metal contaminants. After 7 days of exposure, several antioxidant biomarkers were quantified in hepatopancreas of exposed shrimps, and tissue levels as well as the total, dissolved, and DGT-labile concentrations of metal contaminants were determined in the pooled site samples. The results showed that the caged shrimps had high tissue contaminant concentrations and significantly inhibited antioxidant responses at the more contaminated sites. DGT-labile metal concentrations provided better spatial resolution of differences in metal contamination when compared with traditional bottle sampling and transplanted shrimp. The total, dissolved, and DGT-labile metal fractions were used to evaluate the potential bioavailability of metal contaminants, comparing with metal accumulation and further linking to antioxidant biomarker responses in tissues of exposed shrimps. Regression analysis showed the significant correlations between DGT-Cu concentrations and tissue-Cu and activities of some biomarker responses in the shrimp hepatopancreas. This indicated that DGT-labile Cu concentrations provided the better prediction of produced biological effects and of the bioavailability than the total or dissolved concentrations. The study supports the use of methods combining transplanted organisms and passive sampling for assessing the chemical and ecotoxicological status of aqueous environments and demonstrates the capability of the DGT technique as a powerful tool for measuring the bioavailability-based water quality in variable coastal environments. PMID:24337999

Wang, Zaosheng; Zhao, Peihong; Yan, Changzhou; Chris, Vulpe D; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao



Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  


Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan



Protein hydrolysate of salted duck egg white as a substitute of phosphate and its effect on quality of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  


Protein hydrolysate from salted egg white (PHSEW) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) (3%, 6%, and 9%) was produced using pepsin. Disappearance of proteins with molecular weight (MW) of 108 and 85 kDa with the concomitant formation of proteins with MW of 23, 20, 13, and 5 kDa was observed in PHSEW. The use of PHSEW for quality improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Shrimp soaked in 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphates (0.625% sodium acid pyrophosphate [SAPP] and 1.875% tetrasodium pyrophosphate [TSPP]) had the highest cooking yield with the lowest cooking loss (P < 0.05), compared with shrimps with other treatments. Nevertheless, no difference in weight gain was obtained in comparison with those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate (P > 0.05). Cooked shrimp treated with 4% NaCl containing 7% PHSEW and 2.5% mixed phosphate or those treated with 4% NaCl containing 3.5% mixed phosphate had the higher score of appearance, texture, and overall likeness but less shear force, in comparison with the control (no treatment) (P < 0.05). Microstructure study revealed that muscle fibers of cooked shrimp from both treatments had the swollen fibrils and gaps, while the control had the swollen compact structure. Therefore, use of PHSEW could reduce phosphate residue in shrimps without an adverse effect on sensory properties. PMID:19799680

Kaewmanee, Thammarat; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop



Experimental evidence of metabolic disturbance in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei induced by the Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV).  


The Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV) is a single-stranded DNA virus that infects several penaeid shrimp species, provoking economic losses in farmed shrimp populations estimated at several million of dollars. Furthermore, IHHNV has historically been considered an important threat for wild shrimp populations, but its real measurable impact remains unknown. Currently no treatments are available against IHHNV, and research to develop potential antiviral strategies depends on a detailed understanding of the viral life cycle. However, the exact pathophysiological events underlying the development of metabolic changes in IHHNV-infected shrimp are still unknown. Thus, the biochemical changes caused by the IHHNV infection in plasma and hepatopancreas of the economically important shrimp species Penaeus vannamei were evaluated. Glucose, lactate, total protein, glycogen, triacylglycerides, cholesterol, and total lipids were measured in healthy and IHHNV-infected shrimp. Significant changes were observed in energy substrates (glucose, lactate, triacylglycerides and cholesterol), in plasma and hepatopancreas. These changes may indicate a temporal sequestration of the host-cell metabolic pathways by the virus to maximize its replication and propagation. PMID:22727717

Galván-Alvarez, Diego; Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Hernández-López, Jorge; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo



Nutrition and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objectives: You will assess your own nutrition and health. You will also convert units in a recipe. You will need a computer with internet access and a printer to print off your personal eating plan. You will also need a paper and pen to record information. Materials Needed: computer with internet access printer paper and pen to record information Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI). Calculate Your Body Mass Index What\\'s your body mass index? Assess an Adult\\'s Health with a given scenario. Calculator For BMI Describe the adult\\'s health status and suggested ...

Neves, Ms. P.



Nutrition 3: Got Broccoli?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson encapsulates what students have learned about nutrients, their different forms, and their importance for particular tasks in the body. It works in conjunction with Why We Need Food and Good Food, Good Health, which are Science NetLinks lessons on the digestive system and how vitamins and minerals help the body function, respectively. In this lesson, students are asked to look critically at the advertising claims of foods they eat, recognizing those that ascribe unrealistic, emotional, or psychological benefits to foods, rather than nutritional benefits.

Science Netlinks;



Nutrition Navigator: A Rating Guide to Nutrition Websites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Navigator, published by the Tufts University School of Nutrition Science and Policy, is a database of evaluated and categorized nutrition-related web sites. Each site indexed by the Nutrition Navigator has been carefully evaluated by a nutritionist and rated numerically in various categories. The site reviews contain brief descriptions, an indication of the intended audience, and other information. These evaluations are searchable, but the search results are not returned in order of the numeric evaluation. The evaluations are, however, organized for browsing by interest category (Educator, Parent, Health Professional, etc.), and are arranged in order of numeric evaluation. The detailed, useful reviews outweigh any inconvenience experienced due to the limitations of this search engine. Although there are relatively few items in the database at present, as it grows it should become a highly valued nutrition metasite.



Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women  


... More Information for Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are ...



EPA Science Inventory

The China Health and Nutrition Survey is designed to examine the effects of health, nutrition, and family planning policies and programs as they have been implemented by national and local governments. It is designed to examine how both the social and economic transformation of C...


Complications of total parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continued technological improvements in the quality of nutritional formulations and techniques for parenteral administration have resulted in a major improvement in patient care. The ability to provide all necessary nutrients by intravenous infusion, so-called total parenteral nutrition (TPN), has sustained life and growth in patients who otherwise would have died. Most adult patients who derive benefit from this procedure are

James P Knochel



Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen



Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

Petrov, Max



Current knowledge about sports nutrition.  


The scientific literature contains an abundance of information on the nutritional demands of athletes. However, designing the most suitable sports diet is very difficult.The principal aim of this article is to summarize knowledge about sports nutrition, especially the intake of macronutrients and dietary supplements. PMID:23390456

Pramuková, B; Szabadosová, V; Soltésová, A



Nutrition and Food: Curriculum Guidelines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The curriculum guide is designed to serve as a resource for local teachers and community members to design their own special curriculum around the unique nutritional needs of individuals and families making up the population. The guide is organized around six major topics: the individual's involvement in nutrition and food, factors involved in…

Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix. Div. of Vocational Education.


Nutrition Programs for Preschool Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A comprehensive overview and analysis of the nutrition status of young children in Third World Countries, problems in and barriers to improving the health and nutrition of these children, and suggested programs and future directions for this area of concern. (DM)

Jelliffe, D. B.; Jelliffe, E. F. P.



The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.



Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation’s children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen

Marilyn Briggs; Sheila Fleischhacker; Constance G. Mueller



Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.


Nutrition is Important  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

State core objective: Health Standard 6 Objective 2. Students will learn the basic nutrient groups and be able to identify the functions of those nutrients. There is an interactive food pyramid for you to explore and several games that will help you learn how each nutrient is used in our bodies! Learning about nutrition is fun and useful! When you have learned all about the nutrient groups you will create your own food pyramid with your favorite foods and how they help your body. There are five basic food groups: Grains, vegetables, fruits, meat, and dairy. These groups are organized into a pyramid, showing about how much of each you should eat each day. There is also a small section for sugars and fats. This pyramid will let you explore what ...




Nutritional studies in Croatia--a century of research.  


This paper is dedicated to the pioneers of nutritional research in Croatia: to Professor Edvin Ferber, Professor Hubert Maver and Professor Ratko Buzina, to whom we owe exceptional contribution in the development of science of nutrition, as well as for many scientific publications from the fifties to the eighties in the 20th century, leaving us great information about nutritional state in Croatian population. The paper brings a review of nuitritional research in Croatia with an emphasis on history of research and papers published in Collegium Antropologicum. Since first publications on the subject, a number of institutions and scholars participated in numerous research projects which resulted in a vast number of published papers, depicting a multidisciplinary approach to the subject. In addition, the results of 44 analyses that have been a part of doctoral (18) and master's research (26) are discussed. PMID:17058542

Missoni, Sasa



Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

Dufour, P. A.



Nutrition and growth in children with chronic kidney disease.  


Poor growth in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a marker of disease severity and of quality of care. Causes are multifactorial, and include malnutrition, cachexia, hematological factors, endocrine problems and metabolic abnormalities. In this Review, we focus on the impact of inadequate nutrition on growth disturbances in children with CKD, and discuss all aspects of the epidemiology, causes and potential treatments. Regional variations in resources may be a factor that contributes to the observed differences. Successful nutritional management requires a multidisciplinary team that includes not only doctors but also skilled nurses and dieticians. Extremes of body mass index, representing undernutrition and overnutrition, are associated with poor outcomes and should be avoided when designing therapeutic strategies for optimizing nutrition and growth in children with CKD. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of cachexia and wasting in patients with CKD could lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21947116

Rees, Lesley; Mak, Robert H



Nutrition and ageing.  


The reviewed literature indicates that, even in industrialised countries, the nutrition of mature and aged subjects is often inadequate (because of deficiency or excess), which may lead to premature or pathological senescence. Recent nutritional research on ageing laboratory animals shows that dietary restriction may be the most effective procedure to achieve a long and disease-free life span, probably owing to a better protection against mitochondria-linked oxygen stress. Likewise, the experimental and clinical work from many laboratories, including our own, indicates that age-dependent changes in the cardiovascular and immune systems are linked to oxygen stress and that an adequate intake of dietary antioxidants may protect those systems against chronic degenerative syndromes in the physiopathology of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role. The extant data indicate that the antioxidant vitamins C and E are centrally involved in defending the above two systems against ROS attack. Moreover, recent research suggests that the glutathione-related thiolic antioxidants, thiazolidine carboxylic acid (thioproline) and N-acetylcysteine, as well as the phenolic liposoluble 'co-antioxidants' of Curcuma longa, may have a significant protective effect against age-related atherogenesis and immune dysfunction. Key messages from this paper are the following. (1) It is generally accepted that oxygen free radicals released in metabolic reactions play a key role in the physiopathology of 'normal ageing' and of many age-related degenerative diseases. (2) Consumption of adequate levels of antioxidants in the diet is essential in order to preserve health in old age. (3) A certain degree of protection against atherogenesis and immune dysfunction may be achieved by preventing vitamin E deficiency and an excessive oxidation of the glutathione-supported thiol pool. PMID:11918486

Miquel, J



Nutrition systems for pressure suits.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.



Access Routes for Nutritional Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enteral nutrition (EN) and total\\u000a parenteral nutrition (TPN) may provide life-sustaining therapy for\\u000a surgical patients. The duration of nutritional therapy (enteral or\\u000a parenteral) implies distinct access routes. We review the main aspects\\u000a related to access routes for nutrient delivery. The enteral route,\\u000a whenever feasible, is preferred. For EN lasting less than 6 weeks,\\u000a nasoenteric tubes are the route of choice.



Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.


Nutrition students enhance school health education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of the Nutrition Education Students and Teachers (NEST) project was to develop a model of collaboration between University of Delaware dietetics students and elementary teachers to promote nutrition education in the classroom. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Junior and senior level students in a nutrition education course developed nutrition lessons with input from the school teachers on using age-

Nancy Cotugna; Connie E. Vickery



Nutrition Education and Gerontology Services Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Nutrition and Gerontology Services Project attempted to affect basal nutrition knowledge and address dietary changes for 478 California senior citizens who were live-in residents in homes for the aged. Two instruments were employed to measure study variables. Knowledge of nutrition was measured by the Nutritional Learning Scale, an orally…

Meckler, Terry Anne; Vogler, James D.


Nutritional Management of Cholestatic Syndromes in Childhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholestatic liver disease causes severe risk of malnutrition which includes protein-energy malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies. The nutritional status can be assessed based on anthropometric measurements, which can be misleading because of ascitis and peripheral edema. Biochemical determinations of lipid-soluble vitamin status are important to evaluate requirements. Based on nutritional status assessment, nutritional therapy should be planned according to a

Piotr Socha



Use of Nutrition Screening to Develop and Target Nutrition Education Interventions for Nevada's Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Screening Initiative tools and approaches were utilized to enhance the nutritional health of Nevada's elderly through nutrition screening, education and counseling. Participants (n = 2037) were recruited primarily from senior nutrition programs, including congregate meal sites and home health care programs. Each was screened using the “DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist.” The intensity of the intervention was then

Jamie A. Benedict; David Wilson; Gwenn Snow; Peggy Nipp; Valentina Remig; Mary Spoon; Carolyn Leontos; Marsha Read



Use of the Nutrition Screening Initiative to Target and Guide Nutrition Education Efforts in Nevada  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) is to identify individuals who are at high risk of poor nutritional status - for whom more in-depth assessment\\/intervention is indicated. Implementation of the NSI in Nevada included screening elderly who participate in Senior Nutrition Programs and providing nutrition education to elderly who were at risk for poor nutritional status. Participants of

J. Benedict; D. Wilson; G. Snow; P. Tyler; V. Remig; M. Dodds; C. Leontos; M. Read



The Influence of Nutrition Education on the Food Consumption and Nutrition Attitude of Schoolchildren in Slovenia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Slovenia, nutrition education is included in the compulsory education curriculum of the nine-year elementary school. The aim of nutrition education is for schoolchildren to acquire knowledge on nutrition to help them form healthy nutritional habits. This research aims at establishing whether the formal nutrition education carried out at schools…

Kostanjevec, Stojan; Jerman, Janez; Koch, Verena



A nutrition support team quality assurance plan.  


The Nutrition Support Team at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center is responsible for the development of guidelines related to the provision of both total parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition support. A Quality Assurance plan which was approved by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of HealthCare Organizations was implemented by the Nutrition Support Team. This plan addresses: nutritional assessment and consultation, indications for enteral and parenteral nutrition support, provision of optimal nutrition support including attainment of nutritional goals, and the prevention, detection, and management of complications. The indicators and criteria for each aspect of care are described. This program has provided documentation of the activities of the Nutrition Support Team as well as data defining the patient population requiring specialized nutrition support, and has helped identify areas where improvement is required. PMID:1775109

Powers, T; Deckard, M; Stark, N; Cowan, G S



Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.  


It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. PMID:23522578

Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M



RNAi knock-down of the Litopenaeus vannamei Toll gene (LvToll) significantly increases mortality and reduces bacterial clearance after challenge with Vibrio harveyi.  


In this study, we used real-time PCR to simultaneously monitor the responses of 12 key genes of the shrimp innate immune system in Litopenaeus vannamei after challenge with Vibrio harveyi. In the proPO activating system, we found that proPO was up-regulated (3.3x control at 36hpi). The hemolymph clotting genes transglutaminase (TGase) and clotting protein were also up-regulated, as were 5 genes in the antimicrobial peptide system (ALF, Crustin, Lyz, PEN2 and PEN4), with only PEN3 showing no significant changes. In the antioxidant defense system, SOD was slightly elevated while GPx was substantially down-regulated. In the pattern recognition receptor system, at 24hpi, the Toll gene (LvToll) showed the highest relative increase in expression level of all the investigated genes (15x greater than the sterile seawater control). In the second part of this study, when LvToll was knocked down by RNAi silencing, there was no effect on either survival rates or bacterial number in unchallenged shrimp. There was also no difference in mortality rates between control shrimp and LvToll-silenced shrimp when these two groups were challenged with a viral pathogen (white spot syndrome virus; WSSV). However, when LvToll-silenced shrimp were challenged by V. harveyi, there was a significant increase in mortality and bacterial CFU counts. We note that the increase in bacterial CFU count occurred even though treatment with EGFP dsRNA had the opposite effect of reducing the CFU counts. We conclude that LvToll is an important factor in the shrimp innate immune response to acute V. harveyi infection, but not to WSSV. PMID:19698743

Han-Ching Wang, Kc; Tseng, Chun-Wei; Lin, Han-You; Chen, I-Tung; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Yang, Huey-Lang



Trophic transfer of lead through a model marine four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica, Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei, and Haemulon scudderi.  


The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain: Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) ? Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) ? Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) ? Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences in Pb concentrations were found between exposed organisms of the different trophic levels and the control. Particularly, Pb concentrations in fish of the simulated trophic chain were two-to three times higher in the exposed specimens than in the control. Levels of Pb in phytoplankton showed a substantial increase with respect to the solution (level I), with bioconcentration factors averaging from 930 to 3630. In contrast, a strong decrease in Pb concentration from phytoplankton to zooplankton (level II) and from zooplankton to shrimp tissues (level III) was evidenced by bioaccumulation factors <1. Despite the decrease in the assimilation efficiency of metal transfer observed in these two predators, Pb concentration in the grunt fish (level IV) was higher than in the shrimp (level III) (bioaccumulation factor >1.0). Some of the added Pb is transferred from the phytoplankton along the food chain, thus producing a net accumulation of Pb mainly in fish and, to a lesser extent, in shrimp tissues. Because Pb is one of the most pervasive contaminants in coastal ecosystems, its transference by way of diet and potential net accumulation in higher predators is of ecologic importance for marine life. In addition, because shrimp and adult Haemulon scudderi are commercially important resources, this issue is of particular relevance to the safety of marine products. PMID:21082317

Soto-Jiménez, M F; Arellano-Fiore, C; Rocha-Velarde, R; Jara-Marini, M E; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Páez-Osuna, F



Identification and cloning of the antioxidant enzyme, glutathione peroxidase, of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and its expression following Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  


cDNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) mRNA of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the GPx sequence of Homo sapiens (NM002083), Mus musculus (NM008160), Arabidopsis thaliana (U94495), Bos taurus (NM174770), and Capsicum chinense (AJ973135). The 727-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 567 bp, a 101-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 59-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (189 aa) was 19.25 kDa long with an estimated pI of 8.39. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, TGA, and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(153). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp GPx is more closely related to GPx1 and GPx2 than to GPx3 and GPx4 of various animals. The GPx cDNA was synthesized in haemocytes, gills, the hepatopancreas, intestines, and muscles. The respiratory bursts of shrimp increased significantly after a Vibrio alginolyticus injection in order to kill the pathogen, and then induced increases in the activities of SOD and GPx to protect cells against damage from oxidation. However, GPx activity increased as a result of upregulated expression of GPx mRNA which was induced by the increase in H(2)O(2). PMID:17208011

Liu, Chun-Hung; Tseng, Mei-Chen; Cheng, Winton



Expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic studies of different redox states of the active site of thioredoxin 1 from the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Thioredoxin (Trx) is a 12?kDa cellular redox protein that belongs to a family of small redox proteins which undergo reversible oxidation to produce a cystine disulfide bond through the transfer of reducing equivalents from the catalytic site cysteine residues (Cys32 and Cys35) to a disulfide substrate. In this study, crystals of thioredoxin 1 from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvTrx) were successfully obtained. One data set was collected from each of four crystals at 100?K and the three-dimensional structures of the catalytic cysteines in different redox states were determined: reduced and oxidized forms at 2.00?Å resolution using data collected at a synchrotron-radiation source and two partially reduced structures at 1.54 and 1.88?Å resolution using data collected using an in-house source. All of the crystals belonged to space group P3212, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.5?(4), b = 57.5?(4), c = 118.1?(8)?Å. The asymmetric unit contains two subunits of LvTrx, with a Matthews coefficient (V M) of 2.31?Å3?Da?1 and a solvent content of 46%. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using the crystallographic model of Trx from Drosophila melanogaster as a template. In the present work, LvTrx was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized. Structural analysis of the different redox states at the Trx active site highlights its reactivity and corroborates the existence of a dimer in the crystal. In the crystallographic structures the dimer is stabilized by several interactions, including a disulfide bridge between Cys73 of each LvTrx monomer, a hydrogen bond between the side chain of Asp60 of each monomer and several hydrophobic interactions, with a noncrystallographic twofold axis.

Campos-Acevedo, Adam A.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique



Effects of endosulfan exposure and Taura Syndrome Virus infection on the survival and molting of the marine penaeid shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  


Molting in crustaceans is an important endocrine-controlled biological process that plays a critical role in growth and reproduction. Many factors can affect this physiological cycle in crustaceans including environmental stressors and disease agents. For example the pathology of Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) of shrimp is closely related to molting cycle. Similarly, endosulfan, a commonly used pesticide is a potential endocrine disruptor. This study explores interrelationships between pesticide exposure, virus infection and their interactions with physiology and susceptibility of the shrimp. Litopenaeus vannamei (Pacific white shrimp) were challenged with increasing doses of endosulfan and TSV (TSV-C, a Belize reference strain) to determine the respective median lethal concentrations (LC(50)s). The 96-h endosulfan LC(50) was 5.32 ?g L(-1), while the 7-d TSV LC(50) was 54.74 mg L(-1). Subsequently, based on their respective LC(50) values, a 20-d interaction experiment with sublethal concentrations of endosulfan (2 ?g L(-1)) and TSV (30 mg L(-1)) confirmed a significant interaction (p<0.05, ?(2)=5.29), and thereby the susceptibility of the shrimp. Concurrently, molt-stage of animals, both at the time of exposure and death, was compared with mortality. For animals challenged with TSV, no strong correlation between molt-stage and mortality was observed (p>0.05). For animals exposed to endosulfan, animals in the postmolt stage were shown to be more susceptible to acute toxicity (p<0.05). For animals exposed to both TSV and endosulfan, interference of endosulfan-associated stress lead to increasingly higher susceptibility at postmolt (p<0.05) during the acute phase of the TSV disease cycle. PMID:22119282

Tumburu, Laxminath; Shepard, Eleanor F; Strand, Allan E; Browdy, Craig L



An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.  


The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp. PMID:21802517

Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu



Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies  

PubMed Central

Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health.

Kalnins, Daina; Wilschanski, Michael



Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies.  


Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health. PMID:22787388

Kalnins, Daina; Wilschanski, Michael



Nutrition Assessment of College Wrestlers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Diet recall, a food record, a written test, interviews, questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were used to examine the nutrition and weight control practices and knowledge of 42 wrestlers from two college teams. Results are analyzed. (Author/MT)

Steen, Suzanne Nelson; McKinney, Shortie



Selected Articles on Nutrition Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The cobalt content of most customary food products; The content of copper in food products, canned food and cooked food; Distribution of microelements in vegetable products of nutritive importance; Mineral composition of certain types of fish an...



Nutrition, growth and clinical outcomes.  


Recommendations about the nutritional management of preterm infants, especially of extremely low gestational age (or extremely low birth weight) neonates, have been published by a number of pediatric and nutritional organizations. The objectives of these recommendations are to provide nutrients to approximate the rate of growth and composition of weight gain for a normal fetus of the same postmenstrual age, to maintain normal concentrations of blood and tissue nutrients, and to achieve a satisfactory functional development. Achieving these goals requires an understanding of the intrauterine growth rate to be targeted and of the nutrient requirements of preterm infants. Birth weight-based intrauterine curves should be used to monitor postnatal growth of preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units. Although primarily provided by observational studies or historic control studies, data demonstrate that growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes correlate with nutritional intake. The implementation of standardized feeding guidelines reduces nutritional practice variation and facilitates postnatal growth and improved clinical outcomes. PMID:24751619

Ehrenkranz, Richard A



Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities NIH Research Training & Research Career Development Research and training opportunities at NIH, range from summer programs for high school students through employment


The evolution of nutrition research.  


"The doctor of the future will no longer treat the human frame with drugs, but will rather cure and prevent disease with nutrition". Thomas Edison's contemplation may come to fruition if the nutritional revolution continues in its current course. Two realizations have propelled the world into a new age of personalized nutrition: (i) food can provide benefits beyond its intrinsic nutrient content, and (ii) we are not all created equal in our ability to realize to these benefits. Nutrigenomics is concerned with delineating genomic propensities to respond to various nutritional stimuli and the resulting impact on individual health. This review will examine the current technologies utilized by nutrigeneticists, the available literature regarding nutrient-gene interactions, and the translation of this new awareness into public health. PMID:23627837

Isaak, Cara K; Siow, Yaw L



Module 11 – Withdrawing Nutrition, Hydration

Module eleven of the EPEC-O Self-Study Original Version discusses the general aspects of withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining therapies, and presents a specific application to artificial nutrition and hydration.


Nutrition Policy and the Elderly.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brief, historical review serves to demonstrate that federal food, nutrition, and agricultural support activities were developed by specific agencies in response to particular needs or problems at different times for highly diverse political constitue...

M. Nestle P. R. Lee J. Fullarton



Nutritive Value of Indian Foods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief outline of general principles and considerations that govern the planning of satisfactory diets is given in this book. In the section dealing with dietary principles, information is given on the importance of the various nutritional constituents t...

C. Gopalan B. V. Rama Sastri S. C. Balasubramanian



Nutrition and dietary supplements.  


Quality and number of subjects in blinded controlled clinical trials about the nutrition and dietary supplements discussed here is variable. Glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate have sufficient controlled trials to warrant their use in osteoarthritis, having less side effects than currently used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and are the only treatment shown to prevent progression of the disease. Dietary supplements of ephedrine plus caffeine for weight loss (weight loss being the current first line recommendation of physicians for osteoporosis) show some promise, but are not sufficient in number of study subjects. Phenylpropanolamine is proven successful in weight loss. Both ephedrine and phenylpropanolamine have resulted in deaths and hence are worrisome [table: see text] as an over-the-counter dietary supplement. Other commonly used weight loss supplements like Cola acuminata, dwarf elder, Yohimbine, and Garcinia camborgia are either lacking controlled clinical trials, or in the case of the last two supplements, have clinical trials showing lack of effectiveness (although Garcinia has been successful in trials as part of a mixture with other substances, it is unclear if it was a necessary part of the mixture). Safety of these weight loss supplements is unknown. Chromium as a body building supplement for athletes appears to have no efficacy. Creatine may help more in weight lifting than sprinting, but insufficient study subjects and safety information make more studies necessary. Carbohydrate loading is used commonly before endurance competitions, but may be underused as it may be beneficial for other sport performances. Supplements for muscle injury or cramps have had too few studies to determine efficacy. Although proper rehydration with fluids and electrolytes is necessary, a paucity of actual studies to maximize prophylactic treatment for exercise induced cramping still exists. Nutritional supplements for cardiovascular disorders are generally geared to prevention. The United States Department of Agriculture has good recommendations to prevent atherosclerosis; a stricter version by Ornish was shown to reverse coronary heart disease, and the low meat, high fruit, and vegetable DASH diet has been found to decrease hypertension. The epidemiologic studies of hyperhomocysteinemia are impressive enough to give folic acid (or vitamin B6 or B12) supplements to those with elevated homocysteine levels and test patients who have a history of atherosclerotic disease, but no controlled clinical trials have been completed. Soluble fiber has several positive studies in reduction of cholesterol levels and generally is accepted. The data on vitamin E are the most confusing. This vitamin was not helpful in cerebrovascular prevention in China and not helpful at relatively small doses (50 mg) in the United States or Finland against major coronary events. Levels of 400 mg appeared to decrease cardiovascular disease in the United States in studies based on reports by patients and in one large clinical trial. Vitamin E also was successful in prevention of restenosis after PTCA in one clinical trial. Both of these clinical trials need to be repeated in other developed country populations. Some nutritional and dietary supplements are justifiably useful at this point in time. Several meet the criteria of a late Phase 3 FDA clinical trial (where it would be released for public use), but many dietary supplements have insufficient numbers of studies. Some deaths also have occurred with some supplements. If these supplements were required to undergo clinical trials necessary for a new drug by the FDA, they would not be released yet to the public. Several nontoxic supplements appear promising, though need further study. Because they have essentially no toxicity (such as folic acid with B12, soluble fiber, and vitamin E) and may have efficacy, some of these supplementations may be useful now, without randomized clinical trials. PMID:10516985

Fillmore, C M; Bartoli, L; Bach, R; Park, Y



The role of parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with acute leukemia who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are susceptible to malnutrition caused\\u000a by several factors including intensive cytotoxic therapy. This paper discusses the significance of malnutrition in these patients\\u000a and provides an overview of nutrition therapy by the oral, enteral, and parenteral routes. The goal is to investigate whether\\u000a the use of parenteral nutrition (PN) produces

Nicole B. Jacobson; Neha Parekh; Matt Kalaycio



Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen


Nutritional issues in treating phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A phenylalanine (Phe)-restricted diet is the mainstay of phenylketonuria (PKU) treatment, and, in recent years, the nutritional\\u000a management of PKU has become more complex in order to optimize patients’ growth, development and diet compliance. Dietary\\u000a restriction of Phe creates a diet similar to a vegan diet, and many of the nutritional concerns and questions applicable to\\u000a vegans who wish to

François Feillet; Carlo Agostoni



Cardiogenic shock and nutrition: safe?  


Cardiogenic shock is a common diagnosis in patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), and is characterized by a decreased cardiac output in the presence of adequate intravascular volume associated with an inadequate tissue perfusion including a physiological reduction in the splanchnic territory. It may occur in isolation as a reflection of cardiac pathology, or it may be part of a shock syndrome involving other pathogenic mechanisms. As the use of enteral nutrition (EN) is associated with an increase in mesenteric arterial output, EN could be deleterious by overwhelming the mechanisms of mesenteric adaptation. Accordingly, EN has been suspected to increase the risk of mesenteric ischaemia, bacterial translocation and sepsis in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. International guidelines recommend a cautious use of EN within 72 h following cardiogenic shock. Recent evidence indicates that mesenteric arterial output may decrease during parenteral nutrition administration, suggesting that parenteral nutrition could have a protective effect on splanchnic organs in ICU patients with cardiogenic shock. Contrary to former beliefs, several meta-analyses have shown that parenteral nutrition is not associated with increased mortality. Exclusive EN is associated with negative energy balance and the combination of EN with supplemental parenteral nutrition during the first days following ICU admission has been proposed to prevent negative energy balance. Such a nutritional strategy could also be beneficial for the mesenteric circulation in cardiogenic shock, and consequently may improve the clinical outcome of patients with cardiogenic shock. Clinical trials are warranted to verify these hypotheses. PMID:21086113

Thibault, Ronan; Pichard, Claude; Wernerman, Jan; Bendjelid, Karim



Sarcopenia and nutrition.  


Preserving or restoring adequate nutritional status is a key factor to delay the onset of chronic diseases and to accelerate recovery from acute illnesses. In particular, consistent and robust data show the loss of muscle mass, that is, sarcopenia, is clinically relevant since it is closely related to increased morbidity and mortality in healthy individuals and patients. Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. International study groups have recently proposed separate definitions and diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia. Unfortunately, the rate of agreement in assessing the prevalence of sarcopenia is just fair, which highlights the need for a common effort to harmonize definitions and diagnostic criteria. Sarcopenia should be distinct from myopenia, which is the disease-associated loss of muscle mass, although in clinical practice it may be impossible to separate them (i.e., in old cancer patients). The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. Consequently, its treatment should target the different factors involved, including quantitatively and qualitatively inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity. PMID:24484940

Laviano, Alessandro; Gori, Chiara; Rianda, Serena



[Nutrition and fertility].  


There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional habits may have a significant effect on both male and female fertility. Maintenance of normal body mass may be effective in the prevention of infertility resulting from ovulatory disorders. Underweight and, to a larger degree, overweight and/or obesity, are related to the enhanced risk of infertility. Insulin resistance is an important pathogenic mechanism that may impair ovulation. Adequate intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, derived mainly from vegetable fats, as well as avoidance of trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids which are present in industrially produced cakes and sweets, crisps, fast-foods, powdered soups and hard margarines, may be effective in the prevention of infertility in females. Choice of plant rather than animal sources of proteins, decrease in glycemic load of the diet, use of dietary supplements containing iron and folic acid, could also be beneficial. Avoidance of vitamin B12 deficiency and its supplementation seem to be important in the prevention of early miscarriages. Sufficient intake of antioxidants also promotes female reproductive functions. Free radical processes play an important role in the development of male factor infertility. It was shown that proper intake or supplementation with antioxidants may be effective in its prevention and treatment. Such nutrients as zinc, selenium and folic acid act beneficially on sperm quality. A well-balanced diet seems to play an important role in the prevention of infertility in both sexes. PMID:22516697

Szostak-W?gierek, Dorota



HIV and nutrition.  


Nutrition plays a big part in enabling patients to properly take medication, manage side effects, and maintain adequate nourishment. Recommendations for light snacks are included, as are remedies for unpleasant tastes caused by some medications. Weight gain is an issue for all AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy. Nutritionists advise that to manage increasing weight, patients should cut fat and calories, but not eliminate the good fats, such as monounsaturated fats and Omega 3 polyunsaturated fat. Because AIDS-related illnesses can cause loss of lean body mass and wasting, people with AIDS need to consume more protein. It is also important to maintain calcium in the diet for bone health, blood clotting, nerve transmission, and regulating heartbeat. Carbohydrates round out the healthy diet by lowering cholesterol, lowering glucose absorption, alleviating constipation, and facilitating movement through the bowel. Aside from a well balanced diet, it is important to prepare food safely and to know the source of any drinking water. A guide to kitchen safety is described. Suggestions for handling side effects of medication are given. PMID:11365811

Tinnerello, D



Nutrition and breast cancer.  


Breast cancer incidence is rising worldwide with an increase in aggressive neoplasias in young women. Suspected factors responsible for the global increase include lifestyle changes, notably diet. Currently accepted risk factors directly linked to diet are greater body weight and alcohol consumption. Weight gain in adulthood is associated with increased risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women, suggesting that weight gain before and around menopausal age may be determinant for breast cancer development among postmenopausal women. Numerous studies also show an impact of specific diets and nutrients - fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins B, D, carotenoids, phytoestrogens, fiber - on breast cancer risk, and evidence supports a mechanistic basis for an influence of specific nutrients. However, these studies are plagued with conflicting results. In this review, a new examination of the relationship between nutrition and breast cancer is proposed in light of recent epidemiological studies. Successful development of breast cancer prevention strategies will require identification of biological markers of dietary exposure, and to coordinate worldwide research to discern the effects of diet. PMID:24215727

Chajès, Véronique; Romieu, Isabelle



Perioperative nutrition support in cancer patients.  


Malnutrition and weight loss negatively affect outcomes in surgical cancer patients. Decades of research have sought to identify the most appropriate use of nutrition support in these patients. National and international guidelines help to direct clinicians' use of nutrition support in surgical patients, but a number of specific issues concerning the use of nutrition support continue to evolve. This review focuses on 5 key issues related to perioperative nutrition support in cancer patients: (1) Which perioperative cancer patients should receive nutrition support? (2) How can the nutrition status and requirements of these patients be optimally assessed? (3) What is the optimal route of administration (parenteral nutrition vs enteral nutrition) and composition of nutrition support in this setting? (4) When should feedings be initiated? (5) What is the role of glycemic control in these patients? PMID:22875752

Huhmann, Maureen B; August, David A



Nutrition and physical activity in health promotion and disease prevention: potential role for the dental profession.  


Nutrition contributes to many of the leading causes of death in the United States, yet less than one-third of dental students feel competent to discuss the relationship of nutrition and systemic disease with their patients. The American Dental Association policy statements acknowledge a need for health professionals and organizations to provide continuing education to professionals and counseling to patients to combat the growing problems of overweight and obesity. Dentists can play a major role in educating patients to adopt a healthier lifestyle, including nutrition and physical activity recommendations. An understanding of the complexity of behavior change may enhance the dentist's ability to assist their patients in making desired changes. PMID:23017551

Akabas, Sharon R; Chouinard, Joanne D; Bernstein, Bonnie R



Nutrition and health of aquaculture fish.  


Under intensive culture conditions, fish are subject to increased stress owing to environmental (water quality and hypoxia) and health conditions (parasites and infectious diseases). All these factors have negative impacts on fish well-being and overall performance, with consequent economic losses. Though good management practices contribute to reduce stressor effects, stress susceptibility is always high under crowded conditions. Adequate nutrition is essential to avoid deficiency signs, maintain adequate animal performance and sustain normal health. Further, it is becoming evident that diets overfortified with specific nutrients [amino acids, essential fatty acids (FAs), vitamins or minerals] at levels above requirement may improve health condition and disease resistance. Diet supplements are also being evaluated for their antioxidant potential, as fish are potentially at risk of peroxidative attack because of the large quantities of highly unsaturated FAs in both fish tissues and diets. Functional constituents other than essential nutrients (such as probiotics, prebiotics and immunostimulants) are also currently being considered in fish nutrition aiming to improve fish growth and/or feed efficiency, health status, stress tolerance and resistance to diseases. Such products are becoming more and more important for reducing antibiotic utilization in aquafarms, as these have environmental impacts, may accumulate in animal tissues and increase bacterial resistance. This study reviews knowledge of the effect of diet nutrients on health, welfare and improvement of disease resistance in fish. PMID:22233511

Oliva-Teles, A



Nutritional analysis of a fiesta on Guam  

PubMed Central

Fiestas in Guam are celebrated year round, but documentation of the preparation and nutritional components of foods served at a traditional fiesta on Guam is limited. Food preparation was observed during a fiesta celebrated in the village of Sinajana, Guam. A food scale was used to weigh the ingredients of food dishes. Nutritional analysis software was used to determine the nutrient content of each food dish served. Of the thirty-four dishes that were prepared and served, 32 dishes were analyzed. These dishes comprised 609,210 kcal, 38,761 g protein, 42,883 g carbohydrates, 30,260 g total fat, 10,019 g saturated fat, and 1890 g dietary fiber. More than 95% of the food prepared was potentially consumed. Of the food potentially consumed, 24% of the energy was from protein, 29% of the energy was from carbohydrates, 45% of the energy was from total fat, and 15% of the energy was from saturated fat. Of the top 10 foods contributing the most energy, 8 were totche (fish and meat) dishes. The nutrient availability for fiesta-goers was estimated. The assessment of fiesta nutrient intake is recommended for future research.

Paulino, Yvette C.; Leon Guerrero, Rachael T.; Aguon, Charissa M.



Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng space flight. This is critical due to the red blood cell changes which occur, and the increase in iron storage that has been observed after space flight. The Iron Absorption and Metabolism experiment is currently planned for long-term flights on the International Space Station.

Smith, Scott M.



Nutritional and Endocrine-Metabolic Aberrations in Women with Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) in weight-stable, nonathletic women has long been thought to be psy- chogenic in origin. This study was designed to gain insight into the possibility that nutritional deficits and compensatory endocrine-met- abolic adaptations contribute to the development and maintenance of FHA of the psychogenic type. Nutritional intake, insulin sensitivity, and 24-h dynamics of insulin\\/glucose,




Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Studies of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis have been completed since the early human space flight programs, with comprehensive research completed on the Spacelab Life Sciences missions SLS-1 and SLS-2 flights, and more recently on the Mir 18 mission. This work documented the known shifts in fluids, the decrease in total blood volume, and indications of reduced thirst. Data from these flights was used to evaluate the nutritional needs for water, sodium, and potassium. Interpretations of the data are confounded by the inadequate energy intakes routinely observed during space flight. This in turn results in reduced fluid intake, as food provides approximately 70% water intake. Subsequently, body weight, lean body mass, total body water, and total body potassium may decrease. Given these issues, there is evidence to support a minimum required water intake of 2 L per day. Data from previous Shuttle flights indicated that water intake is 2285 +/- 715 ml/day (mean +/- SD, n=26). There are no indications that sodium intake or homeostasis is compromised during space flight. The normal or low aldosterone and urinary sodium levels suggest adequate sodium intake (4047 +/- 902 mg/day, n=26). Because excessive sodium intake is associated with hypercalciuria, the recommended maximum amount of sodium intake during flight is 3500 mg/day (i.e., similar to the Recommended Dietary Allowance, RDA). Potassium metabolism appears to be more complex. Data indicate loss of body potassium related to muscle atrophy and low dietary intake (2407 +/- 548 mg/day, n=26). Although possibly related to measurement error, the elevations in blood potassium suggest alterations in potassium homeostasis. The space RDA for minimum potassium intake is 3500 mg/day. With the documented inadequate intakes, efforts are being made to increase dietary consumption of potassium.

Lane, Helen W.; Smith, Scott M.; Leach, Carolyn S.; Rice, Barbara L.



[Prevalence of nutritional inadequacy among Portuguese children].  


Obesity is one of the most serious health problems in children, and it's frequently related to low activity levels and inadequate nutrition. To evaluate the prevalence of nutritional inadequacy a total of 4845 children (2445 girls and 2400 boys) aged 7-9 years old, were observed. Height and weight were measured according to international standards, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Overweight and obesity, using age- and sex-specific BMI cut-off points as defined by the International Obesity Taskforce, were used. Children's dietary intake was measured using a 24-h dietary recall by trained researchers. To evaluate nutritional inadequacy, Food and Nutrition Board Dietary Reference Intakes and World Health Organization (WHO) recommended intake goals were used. The prevalence of overweight/obesity in this sample was 30.8% and the proportion of children with an intake below the Estimated Average Intake/Adequate Intake was very low (= 10%) for the following nutrients: vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, and PP; and for magnesium, zinc, iodine, phosphorous, selenium, and iron. High prevalences of inadequacy were found for folate (60.5% in girls and 54.6% in boys), vitamin E (63.9% in girls and 59.5% in boys), calcium (45% in girls and 40.7% in boys), molybdenum (89.7% in girls and 87.4% in boys, and fibre (87.8% in girls and 86.7% in boys). Regarding the macronutrients, 65.9% and 78.8% of the individuals were above WHO recommended intake values for protein and total fats, respectively; 22% didn't ingest lower than WHO carbohydrates intake recommendation. We've also found that 81.4% and 97.3% of the individuals were above WHO recommendations for saturated fatty acids and total sugars, respectively. Regarding cholesterol intake, 53% of the individuals ingested more than the recommended by WHO. In conclusion, the prevalence of inadequate intakes of calcium, vitamin E, folate, molybdenum and fibre was unacceptably high, while and the contribution of total fat, saturated fat and sugars were far above the recommended by WHO. This could be associated to major chronic diseases, such as coronary heart diseases, in later life. PMID:20654253

Valente, Hugo; Padez, Cristina; Mourão, Isabel; Rosado, Vítor; Moreira, Pedro



Value of cane trash in nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of trash containing 0.3 to 0.5% N in the N nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) was investigated in pot- and field experiments using15N-labelled trash. The data obtained from the pot study with 2 silty-clay loams (a Humic Nitosol and a Humic Acrisol) showed\\u000a that surface-applied trash (10 tonnes\\/ha), although ground to pass a 1-mm sieve, contributed less

K. F. NG Kee Kwong; J. Deville; P. C. Cavalot; V. Riviere



Celss nutrition system utilizing snails  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the 40th IAF Congress in Malaga, a nutrition system for a lunar base CELSS was presented. A lunar base with a total of eight crew members was envisaged. In this paper, four species of plants—rice, soybean, lettuce and strawberry—were introduced to the system. These plants were sufficient to satisfy fundamental nutritional needs of the crew members. The supply of nutrition from plants and the human nutritional requirements could almost be balanced. Our study revealed that the necessary plant cultivation area per crew member would be nearly 40 m 3 in the lunar base. The sources of nutrition considered in the study were energy, sugar, fat, amino acids, inorganic salt and vitamins; however, calcium, vitamin B 2, vitamin A and sodium were found to be lacking. Therefore, a subsystem to supply these elements is of considerable value. In this paper, we report on a study for breeding snails and utilizing meat as food. Nutrients supplied from snails are shown to compensate for the abovementioned lacking elements. We evaluate the snail breeder and the associated food supply system as a subsystem of closed ecological life support system.

Midorikawa, Y.; Fujii, T.; Ohira, A.; Nitta, K.


Nutrition education and leadership for improved clinical outcomes: training and supporting junior doctors to run 'Nutrition Awareness Weeks' in three NHS hospitals across England  

PubMed Central

Background One in four adults are estimated to be at medium to high risk of malnutrition when screened using the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’ upon admission to hospital in the United Kingdom. The Need for Nutrition Education/Education Programme (NNEdPro) Group was developed to address this issue and the Nutrition Education and Leadership for Improved Clinical Outcomes (NELICO) is a project within this group. The objective of NELICO was to assess whether an intensive training intervention combining clinical and public health nutrition, organisational management and leadership strategies, could equip junior doctors to contribute to improvement in nutrition awareness among healthcare professionals in the National Health Service in England. Methods Three junior doctors were self-selected from the NNEdPro Group original training. Each junior doctor recruited three additional team members to attend an intensive training weekend incorporating nutrition, change management and leadership. This equipped them to run nutrition awareness weeks in their respective hospitals. Knowledge, attitudes and practices were evaluated at baseline as well as one and four months post-training as a quality assurance measure. The number and type of educational events held, pre-awareness week Online Hospital Survey results, attendance and qualitative feedback from training sessions, effectiveness of dissemination methods such as awareness stalls, Hospital Nutrition Attitude Survey results and overall feedback were also used to determine impact. Results When the weighted average score for knowledge, attitudes and practices at baseline was compared with four months post-intervention scores, there was a significant increase in the overall score (p?=?0.03). All three hospital teams conducted an effective nutrition awareness week, as determined by qualitative data collected from interviews and feedback from educational sessions. Conclusion The NELICO project and its resulting nutrition awareness weeks were considered innovative in terms of concept and content. It was considered useful, both for the junior doctors who showed improvement in their nutrition knowledge and reported enthusiasm and for the hospital setting, increasing awareness of clinical and public health nutrition among healthcare professionals. The NELICO project is one innovative method to promote nutrition awareness in tomorrow’s doctors and shows they have the enthusiasm and drive to be nutrition champions.



Nutritional programming for the elderly.  


It is impossible to talk about nutrition and the elderly without reviewing related factors such as program funding levels, income and purchasing power, education, medical implications, and resulting social costs.Although we have witnessed a tremendous increase in federal appropriations for Title VII programs, many senior citizens have not and will not benefit from nutrition programs. As the ratio of elderly citizens to total population increases, we may expect: (1) an increase in program budgets with a concomitant decrease in the proportion of senior citizens served; and (2) a regressed government attitude toward income-related support programs, causing decreased purchasing power, ineffective nutrition programs, and little relative improvement in the health of our elderly population. PMID:702569

Myers, T W



Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.


Nutritional controls of food reward.  


The propensity to select and consume palatable nutrients is strongly influenced by the rewarding effects of food. Neural processes integrating reward, emotional states and decision-making can supersede satiety signals to promote excessive caloric intake and weight gain. While nutritional habits are influenced by reward-based neural mechanisms, nutrition and its impact on energy metabolism, in turn, plays an important role in the control of food reward. Feeding modulates the release of metabolic hormones that have an important influence on central controls of appetite. Nutrients themselves are also an essential source of energy fuel, while serving as key metabolites and acting as signalling molecules in the neural pathways that control feeding and food reward. Along these lines, this review discusses the impact of nutritionally regulated hormones and select macronutrients on the behavioural and neural processes underlying the rewarding effects of food. PMID:24070891

Fernandes, Maria F; Sharma, Sandeep; Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Auguste, Stephanie; Fulton, Stephanie



[Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae)].  


Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA) profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19 g), using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean paste, sorghum meal, and wheat meal. The experiment consisted of a single-factor, completely randomized design with three replicates per treatment. Samples of ingredients, diets and feces were analyzed for nitrogen and amino acids. For amino acid assay, we used reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. To avoid partial loss of methionine and cystine, samples of ingredients, diets, and feces were oxidized with performic acid to methionine sulfone and cysteic acid prior to acid hydrolysis. The apparent dry matter and protein digestive utilization coefficients varied from 68% to 109% and from 70% to 103%, respectively. Apparent digestibility of protein for casein, soy paste, wheat meal and wheat gluten were very high (over 90%), corn gluten and poultry byproducts meal showed high protein digestibility (over 80%), but porcine byproducts meal and sorghum meal had low digestibility (76% and 70%, respectively). There was a reasonable, but not total, correspondence between apparent protein digestibility and average essential amino acid digestibility coefficients, except for arginine in corn gluten, phenylalanine and leucine in sorghum meal, phenylalanine in soy paste and lysine in wheat meal and poultry by-product meal. The most digestible feed ingredients for whiteleg shrimp were: wheat gluten, wheat meal and soy paste; poultry byproduct meal and corn gluten were less digestible and the lowest digestibility occurred in porcine byproduct meal and sorghum meal. Feedstuffs exhibited great variability in dry matter, protein and amino acid digestive utilization coefficients, which should be considered when formulating shrimp feeds. PMID:21250486

Terrazas, Martín; Civera, Roberto; Ibarra, Lilia; Goytortúa, Ernesto



Improving Nutrition and Health through Non-timber Forest Products in Ghana  

PubMed Central

Nutrition and health are fundamental pillars of human development across the entire life-span. The potential role of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) in improving nutrition and health and reduction of poverty has been recognized in recent years. NTFPs continue to be an important source of household food security, nutrition, and health. Despite their significant contribution to food security, nutrition, and sustainable livelihoods, these tend to be overlooked by policy-makers. NTFPs have not been accorded adequate attention in development planning and in nutrition-improvement programmes in Ghana. Using exploratory and participatory research methods, this study identified the potentials of NTFPs in improving nutrition and food security in the country. Data collected from the survey were analyzed using the SPSS software (version 16.0). Pearson's correlation (p<0.05) showed that a significant association exists between NTFPs and household food security, nutrition, and income among the populations of Bibiani-Bekwai and Sefwi Wiawso districts in the western region of Ghana. NTFPs contributed significantly to nutrition and health of the poor in the two districts, especially during the lean seasons. The results of the survey also indicated that 90% of the sampled population used plant medicine to cure various ailments, including malaria, typhoid, fever, diarrhoea, arthritis, rheumatism, and snake-bite. However, a number of factors, including policy vacuum, increased overharvesting of NTFPs, destruction of natural habitats, bushfires, poor farming practices, population growth, and market demand, are hindering the use and development of NTFPs in Ghana. The study also provides relevant information that policy-makers and development actors require for improving nutrition and health in Ghana.

Boon, Emmanuel



Preterm nutrition and the brain.  


The brain is the most highly metabolic organ in the preterm neonate and consumes the greatest amount of nutrient resources for its function and growth. As preterm infants survive at greater rates, neurodevelopment has become the primary morbidity outcome of interest. While many factors influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants, nutrition is of particular importance because the healthcare team has a great deal of control over its provision. Studies over the past 30 years have emphasized the negative neurodevelopmental consequences of poor nutrition and growth in the preterm infant. While all nutrients are important for brain development, certain ones including glucose, protein, fats (including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids), iron, zinc, copper, iodine, folate and choline have particularly large roles in the preterm infant. They affect major brain processes such as neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, myelination and synaptogenesis, all of which are proceeding at a rapid pace between 22 and 42 weeks' post-conception. At the macronutrient level, weight gain, linear growth (independent of weight gain) and head circumference growth are markers of nutritional status. Each has been associated with long-term neurodevelopment. The relationship of micronutrients to neurodevelopment in preterm infants is understudied in spite of the large effect these nutrients have in other young populations. Nutrients do not function alone to stimulate brain development, but rather in concert with growth factors, which in turn are dependent on adequate nutrient status (e.g. protein, zinc) as well as on physiologic status. Non-nutritional factors such as infection, corticosteroids, and inflammation alter how nutrients are accreted and distributed, and also suppress growth factor synthesis. Thus, nutritional strategies to optimize brain growth and development include assessment of status at birth, aggressive provision of nutrients that are critical in this time period, control of non-nutritional factors that impede brain growth and repletion of nutrient deficits. PMID:24751630

Ramel, Sara E; Georgieff, Michael K



October 23, 2006: Stars In Nutrition & Cancer

Nutritional and Molecular Biomarkers in Diet and Cancer Epidemiology Star Speaker Sheila Bingham, PhD Director, Medical Research Council Centre for Nutrition in Cancer Prevention and Survival Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care University of Cambridge Head,


Nutritional Preparation of Athletes: What Makes Sense?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)

McCutcheon, Malcolm L.



Nutrition Education in the Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The involvement of seven elementary teachers in a summer nutrition workshop expanded into a complete nutrition education program on nutrients, caloric balance, junk foods, food selection, preparation, and storage. (MB)

Eisenhauer, John E.; Bell, Paul E.



Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike


Priorities in Dealing with Nutrition Problems in Indonesia. Cornell International Nutrition Monograph Series, Number 1 (1974).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the literature dealing with past and present food and nutrition problems in Indonesia reveals that the problems remain serious. The major nutrition problems are: (1) Protein-Calorie Malnutrition; (2) Vitamin A Deficiency; (3) Nutritional Anemia; and (4) Goitre. These nutrition problems afflict people of all ages, males and females.…



Nutrition Education in the Classroom: Project SNACK (Sharing Nutritional Awareness through Curriculum for Kids, K-6).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded under the Nutrition Education and Training Program, Michigan's Project SNACK (Sharing Nutritional Awareness through Curriculum for Kids, K-6) is an adaptable model of nutrition education that focuses on staff development (trainer of trainers) involving the infusion of nutrition education into the regular classroom curriculum. During the…

Javid, Sue


Aging in Community Nutrition, Diet Therapy, and Nutrition and Aging Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…

O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela



Trends in Nutritional Risks and Effect of Nutrition Education Among Low-Income Elderly in Maine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Maine Nutrition for Seniors Program collected and analyzed nutritional risk surveillance, dietary intake and food behavior data for older adults receiving nutrition education in congregate meals, home delivered meals and other community settings. Surveillance data (n = 4138) showed home delivered meals recipients were at higher nutritional risk than were congregate meal participants. Pre- and post-education 24-hour recalls (n

Kay Dutram; Richard A. Cook; John Bagnulo; Wanda L. Lincoln



National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and the Consumer--II. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is organized in four parts. Part One is a "State on the Needs for Nutrition Education" submitted by the Board of Directors, Society for Nutrition Education in connection with The Panel on Consumer Programs and Public Education, The National Nutrition Policy Study, to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part Two…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.


Maternal nutritional knowledge and the nutritional status of preschool children in a Nairobi slum.  


Most nutrition education programmes in Kenya operate on the premise that nutritional knowledge can have an impact on children's nutritional status. It has, however, been argued that nutritional knowledge among low income groups is unlikely to have an impact, hence, the need to establish whether there is a relationship between nutritional status and maternal nutritional knowledge. In a cross-sectional survey carried out in a Nairobi slum (Kibera), nutritional status of 363 children aged six to 24 months was measured and nutritional knowledge of their mothers assessed. Makina village was randomly selected as the study site and all consenting households were involved in the study. The study established that most mothers (97.5%) have access to nutrition education. Prevalence of stunting (86.2%) and underweight (58.4%) was high but that of wasting (1.9%) was low. There was no significant relationship between the nutritional status of children and overall nutritional knowledge. Unexpectedly, a negative relationship was found between nutritional status and mothers' ability to recognise clinical signs of malnutrition, knowledge in the weaning process and dietary management during sickness. Knowledge on frequency of feeding was, however, positively related to nutritional states. In conclusion, nutritional knowledge alone is inadequate in ensuring young children's nutrition security and, hence, for nutrition education programmes to have a positive impact, facilitational strategies must be incorporated. PMID:8918000

Waihenya, E W; Kogi-Makau, W; Muita, J W



Food Practices and Nutrition Knowledge after Graduation from the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) is a federally funded nutrition program designed to educate low-income families about key areas of nutrition and food safety. This study examined the benefits gained and maintained by participants in EFNEP in food practices, nutrition knowledge, nutrient intake, and other areas. A prospective, within-subject design was used to examine a randomly selected

Catherine Greenwell Arnold; Jeffery Sobal



Targeted metabolomics profiles are strongly correlated with nutritional patterns in women.  


Nutrition plays an important role in human metabolism and health. Metabolomics is a promising tool for clinical, genetic and nutritional studies. A key question is to what extent metabolomic profiles reflect nutritional patterns in an epidemiological setting. We assessed the relationship between metabolomic profiles and nutritional intake in women from a large cross-sectional community study. Food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) were applied to 1,003 women from the TwinsUK cohort with targeted metabolomic analyses of serum samples using the Biocrates Absolute-IDQ™ Kit p150 (163 metabolites). We analyzed seven nutritional parameters: coffee intake, garlic intake and nutritional scores derived from the FFQs summarizing fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol intake, meat intake, hypo-caloric dieting and a "traditional English" diet. We studied the correlation between metabolite levels and dietary intake patterns in the larger population and identified for each trait between 14 and 20 independent monozygotic twins pairs discordant for nutritional intake and replicated results in this set. Results from both analyses were then meta-analyzed. For the metabolites associated with nutritional patterns, we calculated heritability using structural equation modelling. 42 metabolite nutrient intake associations were statistically significant in the discovery samples (Bonferroni P < 4 × 10(-5)) and 11 metabolite nutrient intake associations remained significant after validation. We found the strongest associations for fruit and vegetables intake and a glycerophospholipid (Phosphatidylcholine diacyl C38:6, P = 1.39 × 10(-9)) and a sphingolipid (Sphingomyeline C26:1, P = 6.95 × 10(-13)). We also found significant associations for coffee (confirming a previous association with C10 reported in an independent study), garlic intake and hypo-caloric dieting. Using the twin study design we find that two thirds the metabolites associated with nutritional patterns have a significant genetic contribution, and the remaining third are solely environmentally determined. Our data confirm the value of metabolomic studies for nutritional epidemiologic research. PMID:23543136

Menni, Cristina; Zhai, Guangju; Macgregor, Alexander; Prehn, Cornelia; Römisch-Margl, Werner; Suhre, Karsten; Adamski, Jerzy; Cassidy, Aedin; Illig, Thomas; Spector, Tim D; Valdes, Ana M



Position of the American Dietetic Association: local support for nutrition integrity in schools.  


It is the position of The American Dietetic Association that the school and community have a shared responsibility to provide all students with access to high-quality foods and nutrition services as an integral part of the total education program. Educational goals, including the nutrition goals of the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program, should be supported and extended through school district policies that create an overall school environment with learning experiences that enable students to develop lifelong, healthful eating habits. Local school policy, developed through a collaborative process that responds to community needs and priorities, should include the integration of the school nutrition program with education. Nutrition integrity policy provides a framework for the integration and coordination of all aspects of the school nutrition program. Nutrition integrity is defined as "a guaranteed level of performance that ensures that all foods available and consumed by children in schools are consistent with the Recommended Dietary Allowances and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and contribute to the development of lifelong, healthy eating habits." Achieving nutrition integrity means taking a comprehensive approach to program planning, management, operations, and integration of nutrition into the total education program of the school. The community is a valuable resource for this effort. Collaboration between key school- and community-based constituents, including children and other stakeholders, will result in the most effective and relevant plans for local school nutrition programs. However, competing and profit-making food and beverage sales may create a conflicting environment and can contradict lessons taught in health and nutrition education. This position provides direction for the dietetics profession for addressing this issue along with providing a suggested action plan for local schools and their communities. PMID:10646016



Food-pharma convergence in medical nutrition- best of both worlds?  


At present, industries within the health and life science sector are moving towards one another resulting in new industries such as the medical nutrition industry. Medical nutrition products are specific nutritional compositions for intervention in disease progression and symptom alleviation. Industry convergence, described as the blurring of boundaries between industries, plays a crucial role in the shaping of new markets and industries. Assuming that the medical nutrition industry has emerged from the convergence between the food and pharma industries, it is crucial to research how and which distinct industry domains have contributed to establish this relatively new industry. The first two stages of industry convergence (knowledge diffusion and consolidation) are measured by means of patent analysis. First, the extent of knowledge diffusion within the medical nutrition industry is graphed in a patent citation interrelations network. Subsequently the consolidation based on technological convergence is determined by means of patent co-classification. Furthermore, the medical nutrition core domain and technology interrelations are measured by means of a cross impact analysis. This study proves that the medical nutrition industry is a result of food and pharma convergence. It is therefore crucial for medical nutrition companies to effectively monitor technological developments within as well as across industry boundaries. This study further reveals that although the medical nutrition industry's core technology domain is food, technological development is mainly driven by pharmaceutical/pharmacological technologies Additionally, the results indicate that the industry has surpassed the knowledge diffusion stage of convergence, and is currently in the consolidation phase of industry convergence. Nevertheless, while the medical nutrition can be classified as an industry in an advanced phase of convergence, one cannot predict that the pharma and food industry segments will completely converge or whether the medical industry will become an individual successful industry. PMID:24358214

Weenen, Tamar C; Ramezanpour, Bahar; Pronker, Esther S; Commandeur, Harry; Claassen, Eric



Nutrition: Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow. New Horizons in Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This instructional handbook is one of a series of ten packets designed to form a comprehensive course in nutrition for secondary students. This unit considers the fact that eating habits developed early in life have a lifetime effect on health. Special emphasis is placed on the effect of these early habits on pregnancy, adolescence, infancy and…

Arnold, Justine; Grogan, Jane, Ed.


Nutritional phenotype databases and integrated nutrition: from molecules to populations.  


In recent years, there has been a great expansion in the nature of new technologies for the study of all biologic subjects at the molecular and genomic level and these have been applied to the field of human nutrition. The latter has traditionally relied on a mix of epidemiologic studies to generate hypotheses, dietary intervention studies to test these hypotheses, and a variety of experimental approaches to understand the underlying explanatory mechanisms. Both the novel and traditional approaches have begun to carve out separate identities vís-a-vís their own journals, their own international societies, and their own national and international symposia. The present review draws on the advent of large national nutritional phenotype databases and related technological developments to argue the case that there needs to be far more integration of molecular and public health nutrition. This is required to address new joint approaches to such areas as the measurement of food intake, biomarker discovery, and the genetic determinants of nutrient-sensitive genotypes and other areas such as personalized nutrition and the use of new technologies with mass application, such as in dried blood spots to replace venipuncture or portable electronic devices to monitor food intake and phenotype. Future development requires the full integration of these 2 disciplines, which will provide a challenge to both funding agencies and to university training of nutritionists. PMID:24829488

Gibney, Michael J; McNulty, Breige A; Ryan, Miriam F; Walsh, Marianne C



Nutrition: Intradialytic oral nutrition--the ultimate conviction.  


Protein-energy wasting occurs frequently during maintenance dialysis. Known aetiologies include a loss of nutrients during the haemodialysis procedure and anorexia. Providing energy and protein during dialysis improves metabolism; however, the benefits of long-term support are debated. Weiner and colleagues report convincing data with an intradialytic oral nutritional intervention using protein supplements. PMID:24247283

Koppe, Laetitia; Fouque, Denis



Space Nutrition: Effects on Bone and Potential Nutrition Countermeasures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and , if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first eight International Space Station (ISS) missions. Bone loss during space flight remains one of the most critical challenges to astronaut health on space exploration missions. An increase in bone resorption of ISS crew members after flight was indicated by several markers. Vitamin D status also remains a challenge for long-duration space travelers, who lack ultraviolet light exposure in the shielded craft. Many nutrients affect bone, including calcium, protein, fatty acids, sodium, and others. Data supporting their potential as countermeasures for space flight, as published in many papers, will be reviewed in this presentation. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health. Please note, this abstract is not required for the meeting. A presentation on the topics described above will be given. This abstract is for travel documentation only.

Smith, Scott M.



Nutrition Labeling Using a Computer Program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1990 Nutrition Labeling and Education Act mandated nutritional labeling of most foods. As a result, a large portion of food analysis is performed for nutritional labeling purposes. A food labeling guide and links to the complete nutritional labeling regulations are available online at˜dms/flg-toc.html. However, interpretation of these regulations and the appropriate usage of rounding rules, available nutrient content claims, reference amounts, and serving size can be difficult.

Metzger, Lloyd E.


Nutrition Science and the Winter Olympics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science is a powerful asset for athletes who want to use nutrition to their advantage. Whether an Olympic medal is won by tenths of a second in a ski race, decimal points in a figure skating competition, or goals in an ice hockey game, an athlete's nutritional status makes a critical difference in reaching peak performance.This course explores the science of sports nutrition and shows how to apply nutrition principles to benefit an athlete's training and performance.


Effects of parasitism on aphid nutritional and protective symbioses.  


Insects often carry heritable symbionts that negotiate interactions with food plants or natural enemies. All pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, require infection with the nutritional symbiont Buchnera, and many are also infected with Hamiltonella, which protects against the parasitoid Aphidius ervi. Hamiltonella-based protection requires bacteriophages called APSEs with protection levels varying by strain and associated APSE. Endoparasitoids, including A. ervi, may benefit from protecting the nutritional symbiosis and suppressing the protective one, while the aphid and its heritable symbionts have aligned interests when attacked by the wasp. We investigated the effects of parasitism on the abundance of aphid nutritional and protective symbionts. First, we determined strength of protection associated with multiple symbiont strains and aphid genotypes as these likely impact symbiont responses. Unexpectedly, some A. pisum genotypes cured of facultative symbionts were resistant to parasitism and resistant aphid lines carried Hamiltonella strains that conferred no additional protection. Susceptible aphid clones carried protective strains. qPCR estimates show that parasitism significantly influenced both Buchnera and Hamiltonella titres, with multiple factors contributing to variation. In susceptible lines, parasitism led to increases in Buchnera near the time of larval wasp emergence consistent with parasite manipulation, but effects were variable in resistant lines. Parasitism also resulted in increases in APSE and subsequent decreases in Hamiltonella, and we discuss how this response may relate to the protective phenotype. In summary, we show that parasitism alters the within-host ecology of both nutritional and protective symbioses with effects likely significant for all players in this antagonistic interaction. PMID:24152321

Martinez, Adam J; Weldon, Stephanie R; Oliver, Kerry M



Nutritional deficiencies after gastric bypass surgery.  


Nutritional deficiencies are unrecognized in approximately 50% of patients who undergo gastric bypass surgery. The authors present some of the more common nutritional deficiencies and related complications that can occur in this patient population. Greater awareness of the potential effects of nutritional deficiency after gastric bypass surgery may help physicians better recognize and manage these challenging conditions. PMID:19948694

John, Seeniann; Hoegerl, Carl



Teaching Nutrition in the Elementary School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This teaching manual is divided into three sections: (1) basic information on nutrition for teachers, (2) activities for learning about nutrition, suitable for first through third grades and fourth through sixth, and (3) sources of teaching aids and information on nutrition. Subjects include the four food groups, nutrients and principal food…

Banks, Mary Alice; Dunham, Margaret A.


Teaching Nutrition in the Medical School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The importance of the teaching of nutrition to medical students is discussed. Outlines of medical school curriculum at Mt. Siani School of Medicine are presented. Includes positive and negative factors related to acceptance of nutrition in the Mt. Sinai curriculum and course syllabi of medicine and nutrition programs. (LK)

Christakis, George J.



Nutrition Students Enhance School Health Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of the Nutrition Education Students and Teachers (NEST) project was to develop a model of collaboration between University of Delaware dietetics students and elementary teachers to promote nutrition education in the classroom. Design/methodology/approach: Junior and senior level students in a nutrition education course…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.



Clinical validation of a nutritional risk index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the clinical validity of a nutritional risk index (NRI). Subjects were 377 male veterans, aged 55+, attending general medicine and geriatric outpatient clinics. Data were collected by personal interviews, anthropometric measurements, laboratory assay of nutritional parameters, three-day food records, and medical record reviews. Although the results showed that the NRI correlated significantly with only two nutritional measures

John M. Prendergast; Rodney M. Coe; M. Noel Chavez; James C. Romeis; Douglas K. Miller; Fredric D. Wolinsky



An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Design: Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity. Results and conclusions: The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change

Hossein Ghassemi; Gail Harrison; Kazem Mohammad



Children's Nutrition: Good Habits for Life  

Microsoft Academic Search

Good nutrition is essential in promoting a healthy lifestyle and in preventing illnesses. Nutrition affects people of all ages, but it is fundamental to begin proper nutrition habits early in childhood to gain long-term benefits and practices. It is believed that food practices and behaviors are learned within the first few years of life, therefore it is imperative to implement

Lauren M. Oates



Dimensions of Nutrition Knowledge among Preadolescent Girls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines the underlying dimensionality of a nutrition knowledge test for preadolescent girls. In contrast to the manner in which nutrition knowledge has previously been measured in research, analysis of the results indicates that their nutrition knowledge is multidimensional. The dimensions include "differentiated eating" and "vitamin importance."…

Moxley, Robert L.; Wimberley, Ronald C.



Children's Nutrition and Learning. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This digest reviews research on the link between children's nutrition and their ability to learn from the prenatal through school years. It also discusses the importance of nutrition education for children. The need for adequate nutrition during pregnancy and the preschool years is highlighted by research that indicates that low birthweight…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.


Teaching Young Children about Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Chicago elementary school has been integrating health and nutrition concepts into its curriculum for several years. Teachers in early childhood classes have developed creative, hands-on units (such as preparing and devouring apple concoctions) and field trips to the grocery store. Lessons are often reinforced with free information resources,…

Jungers, Sue



Nutritional risk in the community  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term malnutrition means inadequate nutrition and can refer to a deficiency or ex- cess of macronutrients and\\/or micronutrients. Malnutrition is difficult to recognize, and its diagno- sis depends on the methods used, the normal values assumed, the race of the patient, and the time period we want to analyze. Few data are available regarding malnutrition prevalence in the com-



Nutrition and Schools Knowledge Summary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review examined 117 research articles using a policy framework generated in previous research. Findings include: students are experiencing both food insecurity and an "epidemic of obesity"; policymakers remain focused on achievement; provinces address nutrition in isolation; poverty is a significant contributor; restriction of food is not an…

Laitsch, Daniel A.



Nutrition Improvement through Mixed Gardening.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This manual is designed to provide trainers with suggested guidelines on the presentation of a nutrition-oriented household food production training program. The purpose of the manual is to describe and discuss simple, low-cost, local resources that may b...

P. Sommers



Nutrition Promotion for Mature Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peer education model, which enables trained learners to instruct their peers, was tested in a case study involving senior citizens in a nutrition education program. The case study approach, using action research, was chosen because the project involved the description and analysis of a unique group of 32 mature adults. Topics selected for presentation in the three two-hour sessions

Beverly D. Lynde