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1

The contribution of flocculated material to shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) nutrition in a high-intensity, zero-exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp ponds contain a high density of flocculated particles, rich in bacteria and phytoplankton, compared with flow-through systems. The flocculated particles provide a potential food source for shrimp. Short-term tank experiments were conducted to determine the retention of nitrogen (N) from natural biota, dominated by flocculated particles, in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) at a high-intensity, zero-exchange shrimp farm

Michele A Burford; Peter J Thompson; Robins P McIntosh; Robert H Bauman; Doug C Pearson

2004-01-01

2

Nutritional Contribution of Phytoplankton to the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

E-print Network

to 5 farmed fish outputs (fish-in to fish-out ratio) of 0.70. Moreover, coupled with the current estimated use of 5 to 7 MMT of trash fish as a direct food source for farmed fish, it is estimated that the aquaculture sector consumed the equivalent...

Sanchez Corrales, Dagoberto Raul

2012-07-16

3

Nutrition ecology: the contribution of vegetarian diets.  

PubMed

Nutrition ecology is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline that encompasses the entire nutrition system, with special consideration of the effects of nutrition on health, the environment, society, and the economy. Nutrition ecology involves all components of the food chain, including production, harvesting, preservation, storage, transport, processing, packaging, trade, distribution, preparation, composition, and consumption of food, as well as disposal of waste materials. Nutrition ecology has numerous origins, some of which go back to antiquity. The introduction of industrialized agriculture and mass animal production gave rise to various negative influences on the environment and health. Food quality is determined in part by the quality of the environment. The environment, in turn, is influenced by food consumption habits. Research shows that vegetarian diets are well suited to protect the environment, to reduce pollution, and to minimize global climate changes. To maximize the ecologic and health benefits of vegetarian diets, food should be regionally produced, seasonally consumed, and organically grown. Vegetarian diets built on these conditions are scientifically based, socially acceptable, economically feasible, culturally desired, sufficiently practicable, and quite sustainable. PMID:12936962

Leitzmann, Claus

2003-09-01

4

The nutritional contribution to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  

PubMed

Evidence that changes in feeding style alter the membrane fatty acid composition of ruminant tissue is presented here by comparing zoo giraffe with the same species from their natural habitat. The membrane changes seen are similar to those used experimentally to make animals susceptible to basic brain protein and encephalomalacia. Similar membrane responses have been noted in cattle. Use of animal protein and increased nitrogen in cattle feeds would lead to a relative deficiency of essential fatty acids in the cell membranes and hence reduced membrane stability. By analogy with crazy chick disease (nutritional encephalomalacia) and experimental encephalomyelitis in rats, the possibility that the changes in animals feeds would have depleted cattle tissue membranes and made them susceptible to BSE is discussed. The assumption being made is that the principle of a requirement of essential fatty acids for neural integrity and immune system function would apply to cattle as well as to other species. PMID:2038456

Crawford, M A; Budowski, P; Drury, P; Ghebremeskel, K; Harbige, L; Leighfield, M; Phylactos, A; Williams, G

1991-01-01

5

Contribution of honey in nutrition and human health: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our manuscript shows that honey has a variety of positive nutritional and health effects. It contains at least 181 substances,\\u000a is a supersaturated solution of sugars, and contains small amounts of proteins, enzymes, amino acids, minerals, trace elements,\\u000a vitamins, aroma compounds and polyphones. This article reviews reports on the use of honey in the treatment of human disorders,\\u000a which are

Jose Miguel Alvarez-Suarez; Sara Tulipani; Stefania Romandini; Enrico Bertoli; Maurizio Battino

2010-01-01

6

Mutualistic ants contribute to tank-bromeliad nutrition  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Epiphytism imposes physiological constraints resulting from the lack of access to the nutrient sources available to ground-rooted plants. A conspicuous adaptation in response to that lack is the phytotelm (plant-held waters) of tank-bromeliad species that are often nutrient-rich. Associations with terrestrial invertebrates also result in higher plant nutrient acquisition. Assuming that tank-bromeliads rely on reservoir-assisted nutrition, it was hypothesized that the dual association with mutualistic ants and the phytotelm food web provides greater nutritional benefits to the plant compared with those bromeliads involved in only one of these two associations. Methods Quantitative (water volume, amount of fine particulate organic matter, predator/prey ratio, algal density) and qualitative variables (ant-association and photosynthetic pathways) were compared for eight tank- and one tankless-bromeliad morphospecies from French Guiana. An analysis was also made of which of these variables affect nitrogen acquisition (leaf N and ?15N). Key Results All variables were significantly different between tank-bromeliad species. Leaf N concentrations and leaf ?15N were both positively correlated with the presence of mutualistic ants. The amount of fine particulate organic matter and predator/prey ratio had a positive and negative effect on leaf ?15N, respectively. Water volume was positively correlated with leaf N concentration whereas algal density was negatively correlated. Finally, the photosynthetic pathway (C3 vs. CAM) was positively correlated with leaf N concentration with a slightly higher N concentration for C3-Tillandsioideae compared with CAM-Bromelioideae. Conclusions The study suggests that some of the differences in N nutrition between bromeliad species can be explained by the presence of mutualistic ants. From a nutritional standpoint, it is more advantageous for a bromeliad to use myrmecotrophy via its roots than to use carnivory via its tank. The results highlight a gap in our knowledge of the reciprocal interactions between bromeliads and the various trophic levels (from bacteria to large metazoan predators) that intervene in reservoir-assisted nutrition. PMID:23864002

Leroy, Celine; Carrias, Jean-Francois; Corbara, Bruno; Pelozuelo, Laurent; Dezerald, Olivier; Brouard, Olivier; Dejean, Alain; Cereghino, Regis

2013-01-01

7

School Lunch Contribution to Nutritional Intake of Low Income West Virginia Sixth Graders  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe compliance of consumed school lunches to nutrient goals and the strengths and weaknesses of lunch contributions to total daily intakes of 6th graders from low income areas of West Virginia.The purpose of this study was to assess compliance of the consumed school lunch (SL) to nutrient goals and to identify SL contributions to the daily nutritional

W. L. Stuhldreher

1996-01-01

8

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Library Home > Understanding Breast Cancer > Beyond the Basics > Quality-of-Life Issues > Nutrition Terms Used On This Page Understanding ... Basics Beyond the Basics Symptoms and Side Effects Quality-of-Life Issues Fitness and Exercise Nutrition Financial Concerns Planning ...

9

Nutrition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a collection of viewgraphs on the Johnson Space Center's work on nutrition for long duration space missions. Nutritional requirements are affected by isolation, workloads, and cold as well as the psychological needs, metabolism, and fluid balance of an individual.

Lane, Helen W.

1990-01-01

10

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Here we will be discussing different nutritional topics my pyramid my calorie counter calorie king health finder healthy people National Institutes of Health: Health Information diabetes nutrition live strong teen health facts tone teen kidshealth beauty campaign Center For Change Eating Disorders ...

Huish, Mrs.

2009-11-02

11

Nutrition.  

PubMed

Nutrition appeared somewhat late on the scene in the I.B.P. projects in the U.K., but eventually it occupied an integral part of many of the H.A. (human adaptability) investigations. The nutritional data obtained in the studies of isolated and nearisolated communities in Tristan da Cunha and in New Guinea provided information of wide nutritional significance. There were also detailed and extensive studies in Israel which, similarly to those in New Guinea, attempted to relate nutritional factors to enviroment, working conditions, and physical fitness. Some extraordinarily low energy intakes found in Ethiopians have induced much speculation on the extent which man can adequately adapt to restricted food supplies. Interesting nutritional observations, of general importance, have also arisen from results obtained on such disparate groups as Glasgow adolescents, Tanzanian and Sudanese students, children in Malawi and vegans in the U.K. PMID:8801

Durnin, J V

1976-07-01

12

Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... Elementary Middle High Percentage of Schools in Which Teachers Taught * Nutrition and Dietary Behavior Topics as Part of Required Instruction, by School Level Topic Elementary Middle High Dietary Guidelines for Americans NA 67.0 73.7 Food guidance using MyPyramid 76.9 76.1 77.7 ...

13

Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An elementary level nutrition unit provides teachers with student background information, suggested activities, and student worksheets. Part 1 focuses on the relationship of food to growth, health, and energy. In part 2, students learn about the four main food groups. Part 3 deals with nutrients and provides information about carbohydrates, fats,…

Saur, Susan

14

Nutrition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Do you know what food belongs in which food group? Which foods will give you the most energy? Which foods will drag your body? Lets learn together about which foods will make you physically fit. Which foods are good for you and which food group do they belong in? Monster nutrition This food game will teach which food belongs in which group. You will also get a bonus question when your monster eats a food. Answer the bonus question right and your ...

Moffat, Mrs.

2010-12-13

15

RNA-Seq reveals the dynamic and diverse features of digestive enzymes during early development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with high commercial value, has a typical metamorphosis pattern by going through embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae during early development. Its diets change continually in this period, and a high mortality of larvae also occurs in this period. Since there is a close relationship between diets and digestive enzymes, a comprehensive investigation about the types and expression patterns of all digestive enzyme genes during early development of L. vannamei is of considerable significance for shrimp diets and larvae culture. Using RNA-Seq data, the types and expression characteristics of the digestive enzyme genes were analyzed during five different development stages (embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae) in L. vannamei. Among the obtained 66,815 unigenes, 296 were annotated as 16 different digestive enzymes including five types of carbohydrase, seven types of peptidase and four types of lipase. Such a diverse suite of enzymes illustrated the capacity of L. vannamei to exploit varied diets to fit their nutritional requirements. The analysis of their dynamic expression patterns during development also indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation to adapt to the diet transition. Our study revealed the diverse and dynamic features of digestive enzymes during early development of L. vannamei. These results would provide support to better understand the physiological changes during diet transition. PMID:25090194

Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-09-01

16

Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%), V. mimicus (16.7%), V. parahaemolyticus (10%), V. vulnificus (6.7%), and V. alginolyticus (1.7%). Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp. PMID:22619583

Banerjee, Sanjoy; Ooi, Mei Chen; Shariff, Mohamed; Khatoon, Helena

2012-01-01

17

The contribution of wild plants to human nutrition in the Ferlo (Northern Senegal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One aspect of agroforestry is the integration of indigenous species into appropriate land use systems. Some local trees and shrubs are particularly appreciated because of their value in human nutrition.

Barbara Becker

1983-01-01

18

Qualitative Investigation of Factors Contributing to Effective Nutrition Education for Navajo Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Obesity rates in American Indian and Alaskan Native children are a major health threat, yet effective ways to address this\\u000a remain elusive. Building on an earlier dietary assessment of Navajo Head Start families which indicated a gap in parental\\u000a nutrition awareness despite a strong program emphasis, the aim of this project was to identify culturally relevant nutrition\\u000a education strategies

Leslie Cunningham-Sabo; Mark Bauer; Shirley Pareo; Shirleen Phillips-Benally; Julia Roanhorse; Linda Garcia

2008-01-01

19

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

1994-01-01

20

Nutritional contributions of insects to primate diets: implications for primate evolution.  

PubMed

Insects and other invertebrates form a portion of many living and extinct primate diets. We review the nutritional profiles of insects in comparison with other dietary items, and discuss insect nutrients in relation to the nutritional needs of living primates. We find that insects are incorporated into some primate diets as staple foods whereby they are the majority of food intake. They can also be incorporated as complements to other foods in the diet, providing protein in a diet otherwise dominated by gums and/or fruits, or be incorporated as supplements to likely provide an essential nutrient that is not available in the typical diet. During times when they are very abundant, such as in insect outbreaks, insects can serve as replacements to the usual foods eaten by primates. Nutritionally, insects are high in protein and fat compared with typical dietary items like fruit and vegetation. However, insects are small in size and for larger primates (>1 kg) it is usually nutritionally profitable only to consume insects when they are available in large quantities. In small quantities, they may serve to provide important vitamins and fatty acids typically unavailable in primate diets. In a brief analysis, we found that soft-bodied insects are higher in fat though similar in chitin and protein than hard-bodied insects. In the fossil record, primates can be defined as soft- or hard-bodied insect feeders based on dental morphology. The differences in the nutritional composition of insects may have implications for understanding early primate evolution and ecology. PMID:24742878

Rothman, Jessica M; Raubenheimer, David; Bryer, Margaret A H; Takahashi, Maressa; Gilbert, Christopher C

2014-06-01

21

Factors contributing to the development of hypophosphataemia when refeeding using parenteral nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To identify individual attributes or risk factors which predispose to the development of refeeding hypophosphataemia in patients\\u000a on parenteral nutrition (PN). Setting The Royal Surrey County Hospital (RSCH) a 530 bed, non-teaching Trust with a cancer centre, medical and surgical inpatients\\u000a and intensive care unit (ICU). Subjects were recruited prospectively from all adult inpatients referred for initiation of\\u000a PN.

Vanessa A. Marvin; David Brown; Jane Portlock; Callum Livingstone

2008-01-01

22

Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?  

PubMed

Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples. PMID:24629978

Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2014-08-01

23

Animal nutrition and lipids in animal products and their contribution to human intake and health.  

PubMed

Few EU countries meet targets for saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake. Dairy products usually represent the single largest source of SFA, yet evidence indicates that milk has cardioprotective properties. Options for replacing some of the SFA in milk fat with cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) through alteration of the cow's diet are examined. Also, few people achieve minimum recommended intakes (~450-500 mg/d) of the long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Enrichment of EPA+DHA in poultry meat via bird nutrition is described and how this would impact on habitual intake is discussed. PMID:22253968

Givens, Ian

2009-01-01

24

Issues in the timing of integrated early interventions: contributions from nutrition, neuroscience, and psychological research.  

PubMed

A central issue when designing multidimensional biological and psychosocial interventions for children who are exposed to multiple developmental risks is identification of the age period(s) in which such interventions will have the strongest and longest lasting effects (sensitive periods). In this paper, we review nutritional, neuroscientific, and psychological evidence on this issue. Nutritional evidence is used to identify nutrient-sensitive periods of age-linked dimensions of brain development, with specific reference to iron deficiency. Neuroscience evidence is used to assess the importance of timing of exposures to environmental stressors for maintaining neural, neuroendocrine, and immune systems integrity. Psychological evidence illustrates the sensitivity of cognitive and social-emotional development to contextual risk and protective influences encountered at different ages. Evidence reviewed documents that the early years of life are a sensitive period when biological or psychosocial interventions or exposure to risk or protective contextual influences can produce unique long-term influences upon human brain, neuroendocrine, and cognitive or psychosocial development. However, the evidence does not identify the early years as the sole sensitive time period within which to have a significant influence upon development. Choice of age(s) to initiate interventions should be based on what outcomes are targeted and what interventions are used. PMID:24354763

Wachs, Theodore D; Georgieff, Michael; Cusick, Sarah; McEwen, Bruce S

2014-01-01

25

Socioeconomic determinants of health. The contribution of nutrition to inequalities in health.  

PubMed Central

Social class differences in health are seen at all ages, with lower socioeconomic groups having greater incidence of premature and low birthweight babies, heart disease, stroke, and some cancers in adults. Risk factors including lack of breast feeding, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, and poor diet are clustered in the lower socioeconomic groups. The diet of the lower socioeconomic groups provides cheap energy from foods such as meat products, full cream milk, fats, sugars, preserves, potatoes, and cereals but has little intake of vegetables, fruit, and wholewheat bread. This type of diet is lower in essential nutrients such as calcium, iron, magnesium, folate, and vitamin C than that of the higher socioeconomic groups. New nutritional knowledge on the protective role of antioxidants and other dietary factors suggests that there is scope for enormous health gain if a diet rich in vegetables, fruit, unrefined cereal, fish, and small quantities of quality vegetable oils could be more accessible to poor people. PMID:9183207

James, W. P.; Nelson, M.; Ralph, A.; Leather, S.

1997-01-01

26

Major multinational food and beverage companies and informal sector contributions to global food consumption: implications for nutrition policy  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, 10 major multinational food and beverage companies have worked together within the International Food and Beverage Alliance (IFBA) to increase their commitments to public health. Current IFBA commitments include initiatives to improve the nutrition quality of products and how these products are advertised to children. The impact and magnitude of IFBA member contributions to the total market share of packaged foods and beverages consumed remain incompletely understood, however. Methods In order to evaluate this impact, we examined packaged food and soft drink company shares provided by Euromonitor, an international independent market analysis company. Packaged foods include baby food, bakery, canned/preserved food, chilled/processed food, confectionery, dairy, dried processed food, frozen processed food, ice cream, meal replacement, noodles, oils and fats, pasta, ready meals, sauces, dressings and condiments, snack bars, soup, spreads, and sweet and savoury snacks. Soft drinks include carbonates, packaged fruit/vegetable juice, bottled water, functional drinks, concentrates, ready-to-drink tea, ready-to-drink coffee and Asian specialty drinks. We calculated the market shares for IFBA companies, globally and within nine countries--the US, China, India, Egypt, South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, Turkey and the UK. Results Worldwide, the top ten packaged food companies account for 15.2% of sales, with each individual company contributing less than 3.3%. The top ten soft drink companies account for 52.3% of sales worldwide; Coca-Cola and PepsiCo lead with 25.9% and 11.5% of sales, respectively. Conclusions Although the top ten soft drink companies account for half of global sales, the top ten packaged food companies account for only a small proportion of market share with most individual companies contributing less than 3.3% each. Major multinational companies need to be joined by the myriad of small- and medium-sized enterprises in developing and implementing programs to improve the health of the public, globally. Without full participation of these companies, the impact of commitments made by IFBA members and other major multinational food and beverage companies will remain limited. PMID:21806827

2011-01-01

27

A descriptive review of the factors contributing to nutritional compromise in patients with head and neck cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Malnutrition has been known to be associated with adverse outcomes in cancer patients. Patients who have been and\\/or are being\\u000a treated for head and neck cancer have a compromised nutritional status. Nutritional deficits have a significant impact on\\u000a mortality, morbidity, and quality of life.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  The wasting in cancer cachexia involves loss of muscle and fat and reflects a catabolic metabolism

Martin R. Chasen; Ravi Bhargava

2009-01-01

28

Contribution of nutritional deficit to the pathogenesis of the nonthyroidal illness syndrome in critical illness: a rabbit model study.  

PubMed

Both starvation and critical illness are hallmarked by changes in circulating thyroid hormone parameters with typically low T(3) concentrations in the absence of elevated TSH. This constellation is labeled nonthyroidal illness (NTI). Because critical illness is often accompanied by anorexia and a failing gastrointestinal tract, the NTI of critical illness may be confounded by nutrient deficiency. In an experimental study performed in a rabbit model, we investigated the impact of nutritional deficit on the NTI of sustained critical illness. Critically ill rabbits were randomly allocated to parenteral nutrition (moderate dose 270 kcal/d) initiated on the day after injury and continued until d 7 of illness or to infusing a similar volume of dextrose 1.4% (14 kcal/d). With early parenteral nutrition during illness, the decrease in serum T(3) observed with fasting was reversed, whereas the fall in T(4) was not significantly affected. The rise in T(3) with parenteral nutrition paralleled an increase of liver and kidney type-1 and a decrease of liver and kidney type-3 deiodinase activity and an increase in circulating and central leptin. Nuclear staining of constitutive androstane receptor and its downstream expression of sulfotransferases were reduced in fasting ill animals. TRH expression in the hypothalamus was not different in fasted and fed ill rabbits, although circulating TSH levels were higher with feeding. In conclusion, in this rabbit model of sustained critical illness, reduced circulating T(3), but not T(4), levels could be prevented by parenteral nutrition, which may be mediated by leptin and its actions on tissue deiodinase activity. PMID:22166982

Mebis, Liese; Eerdekens, An; Güiza, Fabian; Princen, Leslie; Derde, Sarah; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

2012-02-01

29

Economic potential of intensive culture of Penaeus vannamei in Mexico  

E-print Network

ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF INTENSIVE CULTURE OF PEVAEUS VANNAMEI IN MEXICO A PROFESSIONAL PAPER by JOSE BERNARDO DE LA MORA PEREZ-ARCE Submitted to the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF AGRICULTURE December 1991 Fisheries Science Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Sciences ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF INTENSIVE CULTURE OF PENAEUS VANNAAIEI IN MEXICO A Professional Paper by JOSE BERNARDO DE LA MORA...

De La Mora Perez-Arce, Jose Bernardo

2012-06-07

30

Suitability studies of inland well waters for Litopenaeus vannamei culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inland farming of penaeid shrimp in low-salinity waters is now de facto in many regions of the world, yet there is little information pertaining to the suitability of waters with various ionic compositions for shrimp culture. In the present study, short-term (48 h) survival of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae (PL), and long-term (4 weeks) growth and survival

Imad P. Saoud; D. Allen Davis; David B. Rouse

2003-01-01

31

Characterization of a rediscovered haplosporidian parasite from cultured Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Mortalities of Penaeus vannamei, cultured in ponds in Belize, Central America, began during the last part of the grow-out cycle during the cold weather months from September 2004 through February 2005. Tissue squashes of infected hepatopancreata and histological examination of infected shrimp revealed that the mortalities might have been caused by an endoparasite. To confirm the diagnosis, DNA was extracted from ethanol preserved hepatopancreata and the small-subunit rRNA gene was sequenced. The 1838 bp sequence was novel and phylogenetic analysis placed the P. vannamei parasite within the phylum Haplosporidia as a sister taxon to a clade that includes Bonamia and Minchinia species. In situ hybridization was performed using anti-sense DNA probes that were designed to hybridize specifically with the parasite's nucleic acid. This organism presents similar characteristics to those of a haplosporidian that infected cultured P. vannamei imported from Nicaragua into Cuba, as described by Dyková et al. (1988; Fish Dis 11:15-22). PMID:17425265

Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Pantoja, Carlos R; Stokes, Nancy A; Reece, Kimberly S

2007-02-01

32

Contributions to the botany and nutritional value of some wild amaranthus species (Amaranthaceae) of Nuevo leon, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds and plants of Amaranthus have been a source of food for many cultures in the world. Some species can be found as weeds\\u000a or growing wild under severe climatic and soil conditions, but their potential as food sources has not been studied. The objective\\u000a of this work was to study the nutritional quality of four wild species ofAmaranthus,A. retroflexus

Pedro Wesche-Ebeling; Ratikanta Maiti; Graciela García-Díaz; Diana I. González; Fernando Sosa-Alvarado

1995-01-01

33

Transcriptome Analysis of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Hepatopancreas in Response to Taura Syndrome Virus (TSV) Experimental Infection  

PubMed Central

Background The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is a worldwide cultured crustacean species with important commercial value. Over the last two decades, Taura syndrome virus (TSV) has seriously threatened the shrimp aquaculture industry in the Western Hemisphere. To better understand the interaction between shrimp immune and TSV, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei challenged with TSV, using the 454 pyrosequencing (Roche) technology. Methodology/Principal Findings We obtained 126919 and 102181 high-quality reads from TSV-infected and non-infected (control) L. vannamei cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 15004 unigenes, with an average length of 507 bp. Based on BLASTX search (E-value <10?5) against NR, Swissprot, GO, COG and KEGG databases, 10425 unigenes (69.50% of all unigenes) were annotated with gene descriptions, gene ontology terms, or metabolic pathways. In addition, we identified 770 microsatellites and designed 497 sets of primers. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1311 genes differentially expressed in the infected shrimp compared to the controls, including 559 up- and 752 down- regulated genes. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are involved in various animal immune functions, such as antiviral, antimicrobial, proteases, protease inhibitors, signal transduction, transcriptional control, cell death and cell adhesion. Conclusions/Significance This study provides valuable information on shrimp gene activities against TSV infection. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in shrimp immunity, and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large amount of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in shrimp. PMID:23469011

Zeng, Digang; Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Peng, Min; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui; Chen, Xiaohan

2013-01-01

34

Haemophilus Responses to Nutritional Immunity: Epigenetic and Morphological Contribution to Biofilm Architecture, Invasion, Persistence and Disease Severity  

PubMed Central

In an effort to suppress microbial outgrowth, the host sequesters essential nutrients in a process termed nutritional immunity. However, inflammatory responses to bacterial insult can restore nutritional resources. Given that nutrient availability modulates virulence factor production and biofilm formation by other bacterial species, we hypothesized that fluctuations in heme-iron availability, particularly at privileged sites, would similarly influence Haemophilus biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Thus, we cultured Haemophilus through sequential heme-iron deplete and heme-iron replete media to determine the effect of transient depletion of internal stores of heme-iron on multiple pathogenic phenotypes. We observed that prior heme-iron restriction potentiates biofilm changes for at least 72 hours that include increased peak height and architectural complexity as compared to biofilms initiated from heme-iron replete bacteria, suggesting a mechanism for epigenetic responses that participate in the changes observed. Additionally, in a co-infection model for human otitis media, heme-iron restricted Haemophilus, although accounting for only 10% of the inoculum (90% heme-iron replete), represented up to 99% of the organisms recovered at 4 days. These data indicate that fluctuations in heme-iron availability promote a survival advantage during disease. Filamentation mediated by a SulA-related ortholog was required for optimal biofilm peak height and persistence during experimental otitis media. Moreover, severity of disease in response to heme-iron restricted Haemophilus was reduced as evidenced by lack of mucosal destruction, decreased erythema, hemorrhagic foci and vasodilatation. Transient restriction of heme-iron also promoted productive invasion events leading to the development of intracellular bacterial communities. Taken together, these data suggest that nutritional immunity, may, in fact, foster long-term phenotypic changes that better equip bacteria for survival at infectious sites. PMID:24130500

Szelestey, Blake R.; Heimlich, Derek R.; Raffel, Forrest K.; Justice, Sheryl S.; Mason, Kevin M.

2013-01-01

35

Isolation and characterization of two actins of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two actin genes named actinT1 and actinT2 were isolated and sequenced from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, by screening from a shrimp eyestalk cDNA library. L. vannamei\\u000a actinT1 cDNA has a 1,128-bp open reading frame encoding for 376 amino acids while L. vannamei\\u000a actinT2 cDNA has a 1,131-bp open reading frame coding for 377 amino acids. Alignment of the

Piera S. Sun; Marcus Soderlund; Nel C. Venzon Jr; Dailin Ye; Yuanan Lu

2007-01-01

36

[Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children who are overweight or obese compared to school children who are of normal weight in Cartago, Costa Rica].  

PubMed

In order to assess the nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children, a sample of 80 Costa Rican elementary schoolchildren: 40 children who were overweight or obese (the case group) and 40 children with normal weight (the control group) were evaluated. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Food patterns were determined using a 3-day food diary. Snacks consumed throughout the day were classified and analyzed according to their place of preparation and location of consumption and to the time of the day in which they were consumed. The results of this study revealed that "afternoon snacks" and "snacks prepared and eaten at home" were the most frequently consumed snacks by both case and control groups. The girls in the case group had a significantly larger intake of energy and carbohydrates in their "afternoon snacks" and the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to girls in the control group. Boys in the case group showed a significantly greater consumption of saturated fat in the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to boys in the control group. It was concluded that the intake of "afternoon snacks" and of those "prepared and eaten at home" could be related with the incidence of overweight/obesity in the sample of study and therefore nutrition education aimed at parents and children is crucial and could play an important role in its prevention. PMID:24020253

Ibarra López, Marianela; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

2012-12-01

37

Maternal perceptions of factors contributing to severe under-nutrition among children in a rural African setting  

PubMed Central

Introduction In developing countries, severe undernutrition in early childhood is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, and 10–40% of hospital admissions. The current study aimed to elicit maternal perceptions of factors that contribute to severe undernutrition among children in a rural Kenyan community in order to identify appropriate and acceptable targeted interventions. Methods The study consisted of 10 focus group discussions (FGDs) of between eight and ten mothers each, in a rural coastal community in Kenya. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the FGD data. Results In all FGDs ‘financial constraints’ was the main reason given for severe undernutrition of children. The mothers reported the additional factors of inadequate food intake, ill health, inadequate care of children, heavy workload for mothers, inadequate control of family resources by women and a lack of resources for generating income for the family. The mothers also reported their local cultural belief that severe malnutrition was due to witchcraft and the violation of sexual taboos. Conclusions The mothers in the study community recognised multiple aetiologies for severe undernutrition. A multidisciplinary approach is needed address the range of issues raised and so combat severe undernutrition. Suggested interventions include poverty alleviation, medical education and psychosocial strategies. The content and approach of any program must address the need for variability, determined by individual and local needs, concerns, attitudes and beliefs. PMID:21323398

Abubakar, A; Holding, P; Mwangome, M; Maitland, K

2013-01-01

38

Pyrokinin neuropeptides in a crustacean. Isolation and identification in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Identification of substances able to elicit physiological or behavioural processes that are related to reproduction would greatly contribute to the domestication of commercially important crustaceans that do not reproduce easily in captivity. Crustaceans are thought to release urine signals used for chemical communication involved in courtship behaviour. In contrast to insects, very little is known about the endocrinological processes underlying this phenomenon. Therefore, an extract of 3500 central nervous systems of female white shrimp Penaeus vannamei was screened for myotropic activity in order to purify pyrokinin-like peptides that belong to the pyrokinin/PBAN neuropeptide family. Members of this family regulate reproductive processes in insects, including pheromone biosynthesis. Purification of these pyrokinins was achieved by a combination of reversed-phase and normal-phase chromatography. Subsequent characterization by mass spectrometry, Edman degradation and peptide synthesis resulted in the elucidation of two novel peptides. Pev-PK 1 has the primary sequence DFAFSPRL-NH(2) and a second peptide (Pev-PK 2) is characterized as the nonapeptide ADFAFNPRL-NH(2). Pev-PK 1 contains the typical FXPRL-NH(2) (X = G, S, T or V) C-terminal sequence that characterizes members of the versatile pyrokinin/PBAN family. Pev-PK 2 displays an Asn residue at the variable X position of the core pyrokinin sequence. These crustacean pyrokinins are the first to be found in a noninsect. The synthetic peptides display myotropic activity on the Leucophaea maderae as well as on the Astacus leptodactylus hindgut. PMID:11121115

Torfs, P; Nieto, J; Cerstiaens, A; Boon, D; Baggerman, G; Poulos, C; Waelkens, E; Derua, R; Calderón, J; De Loof, A; Schoofs, L

2001-01-01

39

Effect of dissolved oxygen on swimming ability and physiological response to swimming fatigue of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The swimming endurance of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, 87.66 mm ± 0.25 mm, 7.73 g ± 0.06 g) was examined at various concentrations of dissolved oxygen (DO, 1.9, 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1) in a swimming channel against one of the five flow velocities (v 1, v 2, v 3, v 4 and v 5). Metabolite contents in the plasma, hepatopancreas and pleopods muscle of the shrimp were quantified before and after swimming fatigue. The results revealed that the swimming speed and DO concentration were significant factors that affected the swimming endurance of L. vannamei. The relationship between swimming endurance and swimming speed at various DO concentrations can be described by the power model (?·t b = a). The relationship between DO concentration (mg L-1) and the swimming ability index (SAI), defined as SAI = ?{0/9000} vdt(cm), can be described as SAI = 27.947 DO0.137 (R 2 = 0.9312). The level of DO concentration directly affected the physiology of shrimp, and exposure to low concentrations of DO led to the increases in lactate and energetic substrate content in the shrimp. In responding to the low DO concentration at 1.9 mg L-1 and the swimming stress, L. vannamei exhibited a mix of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to satisfy the energetic demand, mainly characterized by the utilization of total protein and glycogen and the production of lactate and glucose. Fatigue from swimming led to severe loss of plasma triglyceride at v 1, v 2, and v 3 with 1.9 mg L-1 DO, and at v 1 with 3.8, 6.8 and 13.6 mg L-1 DO, whereas the plasma glucose content increased significantly at v 3, v 4 and v 5 with 3.8 and 6.8 mg L-1 DO, and at v 5 with 13.6 mg L-1 DO. The plasma total protein and hepatopancreas glycogen were highly depleted in shrimp by swimming fatigue at various DO concentrations, whereas the plasma lactate accumulated at high levels after swimming fatigue at different velocities. These results were of particular value to understanding the locomotory ability of whiteleg shrimp and its physiological changes, further contributing to the improvement of capture and rearing technique.

Duan, Yan; Zhang, Xiumei; Liu, Xuxu; Thakur, Dhanrajsingh N.

2013-11-01

40

Nutrition and Multifetal Pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely because of assisted reproduction, the rate of multifetal pregnancy is rising rapidly in the United States. Accordingly, dietitians are increasingly being called upon to provide nutrition services for these high-risk pregnancies. This article gives an overview of the incidence of and risks associated with multifetal pregnancy and reviews studies that contribute to our knowledge of nutrition and multifetal pregnancy.

JUDITH E BROWN; MARCIA CARLSON

2000-01-01

41

Estimating the relative contribution of parasitic infections and nutrition for anaemia among school-aged children in Kenya: a subnational geostatistical analysis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To quantify geographical variation in the relative contribution of parasitic infections, socioeconomic factors and malnutrition in the aetiology of anaemia among schoolchildren across Kenya, thereby providing a rational basis for the targeting of an integrated school health package. Design Nationally representative cross-sectional survey data were collected using standard protocols. For all included children, data were recorded on haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and common parasitic infections (Plasmodium falciparum, hookworm and schistosomes) and socioeconomic indicators. Ecological proxies of malnutrition and food security were generated using Demographic and Health Survey and UN Food and Agriculture Organization food security data, respectively. Spatially explicit, multilevel models were used to quantify impact upon child Hb concentration. Setting Randomly selected schools in ecologically diverse settings across Kenya. Main outcome measures Mean Hb concentration adjusted for infection, nutritional and socioeconomic risk factors; associated risk ratios and adjusted Population Attributable Fractions (PAFs) for anaemia, by region. Results Data were available for 16?941 children in 167 schools; mean Hb was 122.1?g/l and 35.3% of children were anaemic. In multivariate analysis, mean Hb was significantly lower in boys and younger children. Severe malnutrition and interactions between P falciparum and hookworm infections were significantly associated with lower Hb, with greater impacts seen for coinfected children. The contribution of risk factors to anaemia risk varied by province: in 14-year-old girls, PAFs ranged between 0% and 27.6% for P falciparum, 0% and 29% for hookworm and 0% and 18.4% for severe malnutrition. Conclusions The observed geographical heterogeneity in the burden of anaemia attributable to different aetiological factors has important implications for the rational targeting of antianaemia interventions that can be included in an integrated school health programme. PMID:23435794

Pullan, Rachel L; Gitonga, Carol; Mwandawiro, Charles; Snow, Robert William; Brooker, Simon J

2013-01-01

42

Microbiological Investigation of Persistent Mortalities in Litopenaeus vannamei Grown in Low Saline Waters in India.  

PubMed

Abstract Microbial diseases are a serious hindrance to successful shrimp aquaculture. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is an exotic species recently introduced in India to supplement the failing aquaculture of the Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon due to viral diseases. However, after a brief initial success, the aquaculture of L. vannamei is also experiencing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In this study, we conducted a microbiological investigation into the problem of persistent mortalities in selected L. vannamei farms on the southeastern coast of India. The infected shrimps were positive for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by a nested PCR, though no visible white spots were present on the animals. The shrimps were heavily colonized by Vibrio parahemolyticus, which were isolated from the hepatopancreas, gills, and the body surface. The pond water, despite being low saline groundwater, harbored large numbers of V. parahemolyticus and other Vibrio species, and V. parahemolyticus isolated from L. vannamei were resistant to ?-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins. Our results strongly suggest that the persistent mortalities of L. vannamei were due to a co-infection by V. parahemolyticus and WSSV. Received December 16, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014. PMID:25229486

Sanathkumar, Hirekudel; Ravi, Charan; Padinhatupurayil, Suresh Babu; Mol, Mini; Prasad, Jilagam Krishna; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

2014-09-01

43

Comparison of the respiratory metabolism of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in seawater and freshwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Litopenaeus vannamei, a euryhaline species, can be cultured at a wide range of salinities. The emergence of freshwater pond-culture of L. vannamei is an important prelude to the continued development of shrimp culture in China. In this study, we compared the respiratory metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei cultured in freshwater and saltwater by measuring their oxygen consumption rate (OCR), ammonium-type nitrogen excretion rate (AER) and pyruvate kinase (PK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities at different molting stages in order to physiecologically characterize juvenile L. vannamei under freshwater conditions. The results showed that OCR was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater at all stages of molting cycle. However, variation of OCR among molting stages in saltwater was similar with that in freshwater, and the highest OCR was observed at post-molting stage. At all stages of molting cycle, AER was significantly higher in freshwater than in saltwater, and the highest was observed at post-molting stage. The activity of PK was significantly higher in saltwater than in freshwater. Conversely, the activity of LDH was higher in freshwater than in saltwater in general. Significant variation of PK and LDH activities in molting cycle was observed in saltwater and freshwater. The results indicated that aerobic metabolism of juvenile L. vannamei was more active in saltwater than in freshwater; while its protein metabolism was more active in freshwater than in saltwater.

Ding, Sen; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Li, Ying

2013-11-01

44

Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics  

PubMed Central

Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

2013-01-01

45

Identification and functional characterization of heat shock transcription factor1 in Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Heat shock transcription factors belong to the heat shock factor (HSF) protein family, which are involved in heat shock protein (HSP) gene regulation. They are critical for cell survival upon exposure to harmful conditions. In this study, we identified and characterized a HSF1 (LvHSF1) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, with a full-length cDNA of 2841 bp and an open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 632 amino acids. Through multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, it was revealed that LvHSF1 was closed to insect HSF family, which contained a highly conserved DNA-binding domain, oligomerization domains with HR-A/B, and a nuclear localization signal. Tissues distribution showed that LvHSF1 was widely expressed in all tissues tested. And it was upregulated in hemocytes and gills after Vibrio alginolyticus or Staphylococcus aureus infection. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that LvHSF1 activated the promoters of L. vannamei HSP70 (LvHSP70) and L. vannamei Cactus (LvCactus), while inhibited the expressions of Drosophila antimicrobial peptide (AMP) Atta, Mtk, and L. vannamei AMP PEN4 through NF-?B signal transduction pathway modification. Knocked-down expression of LvHSF1 by dsRNA resulted in downregulations of LvHSP70 and LvCactus, as well as cumulative mortality decreasing under V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection in L. vannamei. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that LvHSF1 is involved in LvHSP70 regulation, therefore plays a great role in stress resistance. And it also takes part in LvCactus/LvDorsal feedback regulatory pathway modification of L. vannamei, which is in favor of V. alginolyticus or S. aureus infection. PMID:24508618

Yan, Hui; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Xiao-Yun; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Qiu, Wei; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

2014-03-01

46

[What is the role of nutrition in ulcerative colitis? A contribution to the current status of diet therapy in treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].  

PubMed

Nutritional therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) is controversial. Studies are usually designed to investigate total parenteral (TPN) or total enteral nutrition (TEN), and before these can be compared it is necessary to differentiate between the different therapeutic aims. The aims of artificial nutritional support in patients with UC are the readjustment of the nutritional status, possible remission of disease activity, and decrease in the incidence of surgical intervention or postoperative complication. Owing to the heterogeneity of the results published so far, it is still difficult to compare studies. Nevertheless, they indicate that the extent and severity of the colitis and the patient selection are of paramount importance in the implementation of nutritional therapy. Positive effects of TPN reported from non-controlled studies were not confirmed by controlled trials. Moreover, TPN was no more effective than an oral diet. Regarding remission rates or operative interventions needed, TPN had more side effects than and no defined advantages over TEN. TEN seems to be useful for certain patients. In some patients with UC, it seems to be accompanied by fewer postoperative complications. However, a definitive conclusion on the effects of TEN or TPN is not yet possible. In this context, certain fatty acids may have an important role in the treatment of UC. In prospective, randomized and controlled studies omega-3 fatty acids were found to be therapeutically useful. A reduction of the steroid doses needed is particularly important. Another therapeutic approach in distal UC is seen in the rectal administration of short chain fatty acids. PMID:7707850

Bartels, M; Nagel, E; Pichlmayr, R

1995-01-01

47

Glutamate dehydrogenase and Na+-K+ ATPase expression and growth response of Litopenaeus vannamei to different salinities and dietary protein levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Improvement in the osmoregulation capacity via nutritional supplies is vitally important in shrimp aquaculture. The effects of dietary protein levels on the osmoregulation capacity of the Pacific white shrimp ( L. vannamei) were investigated. This involved an examination of growth performance, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and Na+-K+ ATPase mRNA expression,, and GDH activity in muscles and gills. Three experimental diets were formulated, containing 25%, 40%, and 50% dietary protein, and fed to the shrimp at a salinity of 25. After 20 days, no significant difference was observed in weight gain, though GDH and Na+-K+ ATPase gene expression and GDH activity increased with higher dietary protein levels. Subsequently, shrimp fed diets with 25% and 50% dietary protein were transferred into tanks with salinities of 38 and 5, respectively, and sampled at weeks 1 and 2. Shrimp fed with 40% protein at 25 in salinity (optimal conditions) were used as a control. Regardless of the salinities, shrimp fed with 50% dietary protein had significantly higher growth performance than other diets; no significant differences were found in comparison with the control. Shrimp fed with 25% dietary protein and maintained at salinities of 38 and 5 had significantly lower weight gain values after 2 weeks. Ambient salinity change also stimulated the hepatosomatic index, which increased in the first week and then recovered to a relatively normal level, as in the control, after 2 weeks. These findings indicate that in white shrimp, the specific protein nutrient and energy demands related to ambient salinity change are associated with protein metabolism. Increased dietary protein level could improve the osmoregulation capacity of L. vannamei with more energy resources allocated to GDH activity and expression.

Li, Erchao; Arena, Leticia; Lizama, Gabriel; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Cuzon, Gerard; Rosas, Carlos; Chen, Liqiao; van Wormhoudt, Alain

2011-03-01

48

ISOLAMENTO E IDENTIFICAÇÃO DE BACTÉRIAS CANDIDATAS A PROBIÓTICOS EM CAMARÕES DA ESPÉCIE LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO O objetivo desse trabalho foi isolar e identificar bactérias candidatas a probióticos do trato intestinal de camarões da espécie Litopenaeus vannamei, em diferentes fases de desenvolvimento. Foram utilizados camarões nas fases de recria e inicial (pós-larva) e de crescimento (juvenil), os quais eram adaptados à água doce da Fazenda BAHIA PESCA, especializada em aqüicultura, localizada no município de Santo

M. M. COSTA

49

Mercury content of shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) reared in a wastewater-seawater aquacultural system  

SciTech Connect

Penaeus vannamei were reared in two ponds, one receiving 10% wastewater in seawater and no feed, and the other receiving only seawater and a prepared commercial feed. The pond receiving the wastewater had significantly more mercury in the sediment, yet shrimp in this pond did not accumulate significant amounts of the mercury in their edible tissue.

Landau, M.; Pierce, R.

1986-10-01

50

An Experimental Trial of Oxytetracycline as a Therapy for Black Spermatophore Disease in Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficacy of oxytetracycline was assessed as a potential therapy for male reproductive tract syndrome in a population of 160 previously affected, pond-reared, adult Penaeus vannamei. All animals were individually tagged, and the severity of disease was assessed grossly 2 weeks before, during, and 4 weeks after feed medicated with oxytetracycline hydrochloride was administered. Bacterial cultures indicated that more Vibrio

William H. Carr; James A. Brock; James S. Swingle

1995-01-01

51

Biochemical responses during starvation and subsequent recovery in postlarval Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Postlarval shrimp, Penaeus vannamei Boone, 1931, were held individually in cages and exposed to two feeding regimes. One group was starved for 12 d and then fed during the following 12 d. A second group was fed throughout the 24 d study. Four individuals were sampled from each of the two groups on Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12,

K. C. Stuck; S. A. Watts; S. Y. Wang

1996-01-01

52

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

E-print Network

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA...

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Ryan, Doan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudino-Pinera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Jason A., Sawyer; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-07-28

53

Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium and zinc in the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

The white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a globally important cultured prawn species, is an ideal animal for studying the impairment caused by the effects of heavy metals that are often detected in coastal areas. In this study, L. vannamei was exposed to different concentrations of cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) for up to 28 d. Histopathological alterations in the hepatopancreas were observed in L. vannamei after long-term exposure to Cd and Zn. Hepatopancreatic injury was further confirmed by the inductions of two biochemical markers, hemolymphatic glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT). It was notable that L. vannamei was able to repair its hepatopancreas from the damage caused by Zn, which was evidenced by the results of the histopathological observations, determinations of tissue metal concentrations, and examination of GOT and GPT levels. PMID:18809198

Wu, Jui-Pin; Chen, Hon-Cheng; Huang, Da-Ji

2008-10-01

54

SNP Discovery in the Transcriptome of White Pacific Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by Next Generation Sequencing  

PubMed Central

The application of next generation sequencing technology has greatly facilitated high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping in genetic research. In the present study, SNPs were discovered based on two transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) generated from Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000. One transcriptome of L. vannamei was obtained through sequencing on the RNA from larvae at mysis stage and its reference sequence was de novo assembled. The data from another transcriptome were downloaded from NCBI and the reads of the two transcriptomes were mapped separately to the assembled reference by BWA. SNP calling was performed using SAMtools. A total of 58,717 and 36,277 SNPs with high quality were predicted from the two transcriptomes, respectively. SNP calling was also performed using the reads of two transcriptomes together, and a total of 96,040 SNPs with high quality were predicted. Among these 96,040 SNPs, 5,242 and 29,129 were predicted as non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs respectively. Characterization analysis of the predicted SNPs in L. vannamei showed that the estimated SNP frequency was 0.21% (one SNP per 476 bp) and the estimated ratio for transition to transversion was 2.0. Fifty SNPs were randomly selected for validation by Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification and 76% of SNPs were confirmed, which indicated that the SNPs predicted in this study were reliable. These SNPs will be very useful for genetic study in L. vannamei, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies. PMID:24498047

Yu, Yang; Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

55

SNP discovery in the transcriptome of white Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by next generation sequencing.  

PubMed

The application of next generation sequencing technology has greatly facilitated high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery and genotyping in genetic research. In the present study, SNPs were discovered based on two transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei) generated from Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000. One transcriptome of L. vannamei was obtained through sequencing on the RNA from larvae at mysis stage and its reference sequence was de novo assembled. The data from another transcriptome were downloaded from NCBI and the reads of the two transcriptomes were mapped separately to the assembled reference by BWA. SNP calling was performed using SAMtools. A total of 58,717 and 36,277 SNPs with high quality were predicted from the two transcriptomes, respectively. SNP calling was also performed using the reads of two transcriptomes together, and a total of 96,040 SNPs with high quality were predicted. Among these 96,040 SNPs, 5,242 and 29,129 were predicted as non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs respectively. Characterization analysis of the predicted SNPs in L. vannamei showed that the estimated SNP frequency was 0.21% (one SNP per 476 bp) and the estimated ratio for transition to transversion was 2.0. Fifty SNPs were randomly selected for validation by Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification and 76% of SNPs were confirmed, which indicated that the SNPs predicted in this study were reliable. These SNPs will be very useful for genetic study in L. vannamei, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies. PMID:24498047

Yu, Yang; Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Liu, Chengzhang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-01-01

56

Cystic fibrosis: managing nutrition.  

PubMed

A crucial part of the management of patients with cystic fibrosis is ensuring that dietary requirements are met, and therefore weight gain and growth are achieved. The author outlines the nutritional problems faced by this client group and suggests how they may be overcome. She argues that optimum nutrition contributes not only to an improved standard of health, but also to the overall quality of life of patients with cystic fibrosis. PMID:1467229

Duncan-Skingle, F

57

Enhanced Cellular Immunity in Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) after 'Vaccination'  

PubMed Central

It has long been viewed that invertebrates rely exclusively upon a wide variety of innate mechanisms for protection from disease and parasite invasion and lack any specific acquired immune mechanisms comparable to those of vertebrates. Recent findings, however, suggest certain invertebrates may be able to mount some form of specific immunity, termed ‘specific immune priming’, although the mechanism of this is not fully understood (see Textbox S1). In our initial experiments, either formalin-inactivated Vibrio harveyi or sterile saline were injected into the main body cavity (haemocoel) of juvenile shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Haemocytes (blood cells) from V. harveyi-injected shrimp were collected 7 days later and incubated with a 1?1 mix of V. harveyi and an unrelated Gram positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Haemocytes from ‘vaccinated’ shrimp showed elevated levels of phagocytosis of V. harveyi, but not B. subtilis, compared with those from saline-injected (non-immunised) animals. The increased phagocytic activity was characterised by a significant increase in the percentage of phagocytic cells. When shrimp were injected with B. subtilis rather than vibrio, there was no significant increase in the phagocytic activity of haemocytes from these animals in comparison to the non-immunised (saline injected) controls. Whole haemolymph (blood) from either ‘immunised’ or non-immunised’ shrimp was shown to display innate humoral antibacterial activity against V. harveyi that was absent against B. subtilis. However, there was no difference in the potency of antibacterial activity between V. harveyi-injected shrimp and control (saline injected) animals showing that ‘vaccination’ has no effect on this component of the shrimp's immune system. These results imply that the cellular immune system of shrimp, particularly phagocytosis, is capable of a degree of specificity and shows the phenomenon of ‘immune priming’ reported by other workers. However, in agreement with other studies, this phenomenon is not universal to all potential pathogens. PMID:21698190

Roberts, Emily C.; Shields, Robin J.; Wardle, Robin; Rowley, Andrew F.

2011-01-01

58

Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Eating, or nutrition, environments are believed to contribute to obesity and chronic diseases. There is a need for valid, reliable measures of nutrition environments. This article reports on the development and evaluation of measures of nutrition environments in retail food stores. Methods: The Nutrition Environment Measures Study developed observational measures of the nutrition environment within retail food stores (NEMS-S)

Karen Glanz; James F. Sallis; Brian E. Saelens; Lawrence D. Frank

2007-01-01

59

Nutrition Frontiers  

Cancer.gov

The Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention at NCI issues a quarterly electronic newsletter, Nutrition Frontiers, that highlights emerging evidence linking diet to cancer prevention and showcases recent findings about who will likely benefit most from dietary change.

60

Nutrition Expert  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Nutrition Expert is a group of Registered dietitians providing nutrition information to the web community online. Topics include weight loss, cholesterol, sports nutrition, and diabetes, and additional directories are under construction. They also offer a for-fee telephone consulting service which lets you pay by check over the phone.

61

Identification of Bacterial Community Composition in Freshwater Aquaculture System Farming of Litopenaeus vannamei Reveals Distinct Temperature-Driven Patterns  

PubMed Central

Change in temperature is often a major environmental factor in triggering waterborne disease outbreaks. Previous research has revealed temporal and spatial patterns of bacterial population in several aquatic ecosystems. To date, very little information is available on aquaculture environment. Here, we assessed environmental temperature effects on bacterial community composition in freshwater aquaculture system farming of Litopenaeus vannamei (FASFL). Water samples were collected over a one-year period, and aquatic bacteria were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. Resulting DGGE fingerprints revealed a specific and dynamic bacterial population structure with considerable variation over the seasonal change, suggesting that environmental temperature was a key driver of bacterial population in the FASFL. Pyrosequencing data further demonstrated substantial difference in bacterial community composition between the water at higher (WHT) and at lower (WLT) temperatures in the FASFL. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the highest abundant phyla in the FASFL, however, a large number of unclassified bacteria contributed the most to the observed variation in phylogenetic diversity. The WHT harbored remarkably higher diversity and richness in bacterial composition at genus and species levels when compared to the WLT. Some potential pathogenenic species were identified in both WHT and WLT, providing data in support of aquatic animal health management in the aquaculture industry. PMID:25105725

Tang, Yuyi; Tao, Peiying; Tan, Jianguo; Mu, Haizhen; Peng, Li; Yang, Dandan; Tong, Shilu; Chen, Lanming

2014-01-01

62

Molecular cloning and characterization of a threonine/serine protein kinase lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway is involved in various cellular functions, including anti-apoptosis, protein synthesis, glucose metabolism and cell cycling. However, the role of the PI3K-AKT pathway in crustaceans remains unclear. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the AKT gene lvakt from Litopenaeus vannamei. The 511-residue LVAKT was highly conserved; contained a PH domain, a catalytic domain and a hydrophobic domain; and was highly expressed in the heart and gills of L. vannamei. We found, using Real-Time Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) analysis, that lvakt was up-regulated during early white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Moreover, the PI3K-specific inhibitor, LY294002, reduced viral gene transcription, implying that the PI3K-AKT pathway might be hijacked by WSSV. Our results therefore suggest that LVAKT may play an important role in the shrimp immune response against WSSV.

Ruan, Lingwei; Liu, Rongdiao; Xu, Xun; Shi, Hong

2014-07-01

63

Response of Penaeus vannamei to dietary protein level, protein source and polyculture  

E-print Network

(Colvin, 1976), P. 7~64' 9 (N , 1964; 1 , 1979), p. set'f 4 tt d 7 et 1. , 1979; F i, 1991), p. ~st 1( st is od P. vannamei (Fenucci, 1981), Palaemon serratus and Pa d 1 ~it os (F t d 9 Oe tt, 1971; F st 1972) and Procambrus clarkii (Nose, 1964). All... (Colvin, 1976), P. 7~64' 9 (N , 1964; 1 , 1979), p. set'f 4 tt d 7 et 1. , 1979; F i, 1991), p. ~st 1( st is od P. vannamei (Fenucci, 1981), Palaemon serratus and Pa d 1 ~it os (F t d 9 Oe tt, 1971; F st 1972) and Procambrus clarkii (Nose, 1964). All...

Smith, Linda Louise

2012-06-07

64

Influence of hydrological parameters on growth of Penaeus vannamei Boone in earthen ponds  

E-print Network

Committee: Dr. Robert W. Brick Because growth and survival of shrimp are influenced by many environmental factors, determination of the basic environmental re- quirements for optimal growth and survival is an essential part of efficient pond management.... This study was designed to increase ef- ficiency of pond management by developing a mathematical expression to predict shrimp growth as a function of selected environmental factors. Postlarval Penaeus vannamei were reared in six 0. 2 ha earthen ponds...

Wendorf, Shad Byron

2012-06-07

65

The cytosolic manganese superoxide dismutase from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: Molecular cloning and expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manganese containing superoxide dismutase (SOD) is normally a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme in eukaryotic organisms; however, a cytoplasmic manganese SOD (cMnSOD) was found in crustaceans that use hemocyanin as oxygen carrier. The complete cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of a cMnSOD from Litopenaeus vannamei were determined. The coding sequence predicts a 287 residues protein with a unique 61 amino acids

Gracia A. Gómez-Anduro; Carolina-V. Barillas-Mury; Alma B. Peregrino-Uriarte; Lalita Gupta; Teresa Gollas-Galván; Jorge Hernández-López; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

2006-01-01

66

Replacement of fish meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal (CEPM) and flashed dried poultry by-product meal (FD-PBM) was evaluated as replacements for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. Each meal was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial wt.±S.D., 0.37±0.015 g)

D. Allen Davis; C. R. Arnold

2000-01-01

67

Nutrition Education for Social Change: Critical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

A paucity of research making use of theories that examine the social world as the source of nutritional problems suggests a need to examine alternate theories for nutrition education. This viewpoint builds an argument for the potential contributions of critical social science to nutrition education research and practice. A review of the assumptions of critical social science follows a critique

Kim D. Travers

1997-01-01

68

Transcriptome Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei in Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most extensively farmed crustacean species in the world. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the major pathogens in the cultured shrimp. However, the molecular mechanisms of the host-virus interaction remain largely unknown. In this study, the impact of WSSV infection on host gene expression in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei was investigated through the use of 454 pyrosequencing-based RNA-Seq of cDNA libraries developed from WSSV-challenged shrimp or normal controls. By comparing the two cDNA libraries, we show that 767 host genes are significantly up-regulated and 729 genes are significantly down-regulated by WSSV infection. KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that the distribution of gene pathways between the up- and down-regulated genes is quite different. Among the differentially expressed genes, several are found to be involved in various processes of animal defense against pathogens such as apoptosis, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, Wnt signaling and antigen processing and presentation pathways. The present study provides valuable information on differential expression of L. vannamei genes following WSSV infection and improves our current understanding of this host-virus interaction. In addition, the large number of transcripts obtained in this study provides a strong basis for future genomic research on shrimp. PMID:23991181

Chen, Xiuli; Xie, Daxiang; Zhao, Yongzhen; Yang, Chunling; Li, Yongmei; Ma, Ning; Li, Ming; Yang, Qiong; Liao, Zhenping; Wang, Hui

2013-01-01

69

Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess.  

PubMed

Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess states result from inadvertent or intentional excessive intake. Cutaneous manifestations of nutritional imbalance can herald other systemic manifestations. This contribution discusses nutritional deficiency and excess syndromes with cutaneous manifestations of particular interest to clinical dermatologists. PMID:21034991

Jen, Melinda; Yan, Albert C

2010-01-01

70

Identification of a Proteus penneri isolate as the causal agent of red body disease of the cultured white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and its control with Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus.  

PubMed

Bacteriosis has become a major economic problem in the farming of the Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei. However, no definitive data are available about Proteus penneri infection in cultured P. vannamei and its control. In this study, a virulent strain NC was isolated from diseased P. vannamei suffering from red body disease and identified as a P. penneri isolate through phylogenetic analysis and ATB 32GN system. A phylogenetic constructed tree using the neighbour-joining method identified the NC isolate as a P. penneri strain. In addition, Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus conferred significant protection against P. penneri: it exhibited significant bacteriolytic effects on the pathogenic P. penneri, had a wide prey range towards Proteus pathogens, and displayed a good protective efficacy on experimental P. penneri infection in P. vannamei. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of farmed P. vannamei infected with P. penneri and its control with B. bacteriovorus. PMID:24271474

Cao, Haipeng; He, Shan; Lu, Liqun; Yang, Xianle; Chen, Baiyao

2014-02-01

71

Nutrition and Claw Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health and function of the bovine claw is dependent upon sound nutrition and feeding practices. In this context, the avoidance of rumen acidosis, which is considered to be the predominant predisposing cause of laminitis, is believed to be of paramount importance. Acidosis in its acute form is a life threatening disease. In its subclinical form, acidosis contributes to decreased

Jan K. Shearer

72

Nutritional Challenges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this nutrition activity (page 26 of PDF), learners consider the nutritional needs of people with specific dietary requirements, such as athletes, persons with diabetes and vegetarians, and create a full-day menu for these individuals. This activity may be used as an assessment for any unit on nutrition. This guide includes background information, setup and management tips, extensions, information about eating in space and handouts.

Moreno, Nancy P.; Clayton, Sonia R.; Cutler, Paula H.; Young, Martha S.; Tharp, Barbara Z.

2009-01-01

73

Nutrition--sense and nonsense.  

PubMed

Most physicians know far more about nutrition than they are given credit for. We know there is no such thing as a nutritionally perfect food. We know that variety in foods consumed is the key to good nutrition. We know that good nutrition is an important part of convalescence. We know that obesity in the presence of other risk factors is an added hazard. We know that fortified convenience foods contribute to good health and make life easier for those who prepare meals. We know that the woods are full of food faddists, nutritional charlatans, and peddlers of nutritional nostrums, whose scare tactics and sensationalism often sway the uninformed. Where many of us err is simply in not thinking about nutrition, in not asking our patients about what they eat, and in not counseling them on better nutrition. Thus, I urge you to think nutrition when you think about the health of your patients and yourself, to utilize the services of dietitians and nutritionists, and to speak out clearly and forcefully, but without malice, to combat nutritional and other health nonsense. PMID:7352117

Stare, F J

1980-02-01

74

Incorporating nutritional considerations when addressing food insecurity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Addressing the challenges of global food security will benefit from the simultaneous incorporation of nutritional priorities\\u000a that contribute to the good health of populations. Inclusion of nutritional considerations, when increasing availability and\\u000a access to food, broadens the scope and objectives of agriculture and food production and thus contributes to an integrated\\u000a concept of food and nutrition security. The poor quality

Prakash Shetty

2009-01-01

75

Molecular cloning and characterisation of prophenoloxidase from haemocytes of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

cDNA encoding prophenoloxidase (proPO) of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA using oligonucleotide primers based on the proPO sequence of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, green tiger shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus (accession no.: AF521949) and kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (accession no.: AB0733223). proPO of L. vannamei was constitutively expressed. The 2471-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2058 bp, a 96-bp 5'-untranslated region, and a 317-bp 3'-untranslated region containing the poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence (686 amino acids) was 78.1 kDa with an estimated pI of 6.02. It contained putative copper binding sites, a complement-like motif (GCGWPQHM), a proteolytic activation site, and a conserved C-terminal region common to all known proPOs. However, no signal peptide sequence was detected in white shrimp proPO. Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that white shrimp proPO is more closely related to the proPO of another penaeid than to that of a freshwater crayfish. White shrimp proPO mRNA was synthesized in haemocytes and not in the hepatopancreas or muscle. The activation responses of the proPO of the white shrimp to an exogenous protease (trypsin), a detergent (sodium dodecyl sulphate), and algal and microbial cell wall components (laminarin, sodium alginate, zymosan, and lipopolysaccharide), and its susceptibility to protease inhibitors in vitro resemble the proPO activation system of other crustaceans. These facts suggest that the proPO system in haemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei serves an important function in non-self recognition and host immune reactions. PMID:15683918

Lai, Ching-Yi; Cheng, Winton; Kuo, Ching-Ming

2005-05-01

76

Horizontally transferred genes in the genome of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Background In recent years, as the development of next-generation sequencing technology, a growing number of genes have been reported as being horizontally transferred from prokaryotes to eukaryotes, most of them involving arthropods. As a member of the phylum Arthropoda, the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei has to adapt to the complex water environments with various symbiotic or parasitic microorganisms, which provide a platform for horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Results In this study, we analyzed the genome-wide HGT events in L. vannamei. Through homology search and phylogenetic analysis, followed by experimental PCR confirmation, 14 genes with HGT event were identified: 12 of them were transferred from bacteria and two from fungi. Structure analysis of these genes showed that the introns of the two fungi-originated genes were substituted by shrimp DNA fragment, two genes transferred from bacteria had shrimp specific introns inserted in them. Furthermore, around other three bacteria-originated genes, there were three large DNA segments inserted into the shrimp genome. One segment was a transposon that fully transferred, and the other two segments contained only coding regions of bacteria. Functional prediction of these 14 genes showed that 6 of them might be related to energy metabolism, and 4 others related to defense of the organism. Conclusions HGT events from bacteria or fungi were happened in the genome of L. vannamei, and these horizontally transferred genes can be transcribed in shrimp. This is the first time to report the existence of horizontally transferred genes in shrimp. Importantly, most of these genes are exposed to a negative selection pressure and appeared to be functional. PMID:23914989

2013-01-01

77

Sequencing and De Novo Analysis of the Hemocytes Transcriptome in Litopenaeus vannamei Response to White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection  

PubMed Central

Background White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a causative pathogen found in most shrimp farming areas of the world and causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture. The mechanism underlying the molecular pathogenesis of the highly virulent WSSV remains unknown. To better understand the virus-host interactions at the molecular level, the transcriptome profiles in hemocytes of unchallenged and WSSV-challenged shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were compared using a short-read deep sequencing method (Illumina). Results RNA-seq analysis generated more than 25.81 million clean pair end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 52,073 unigenes (mean size?=?520 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 23,568 (45.3%) genes were identified, among which 6,562 and 7,822 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology (GO) categories and clusters of orthologous groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database (KEGG) mapped 14,941 (63.4%) unigenes to 240 KEGG pathways. Among all the annotated unigenes, 1,179 were associated with immune-related genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) analysis revealed that the host transcriptome profile was slightly changed in the early infection (5 hours post injection) of the virus, while large transcriptional differences were identified in the late infection (48 hpi) of WSSV. The differentially expressed genes mainly involved in pattern recognition genes and some immune response factors. The results indicated that antiviral immune mechanisms were probably involved in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Conclusions This study provided a global survey of host gene activities against virus infection in a non-model organism, pacific white shrimp. Results can contribute to the in-depth study of candidate genes in white shrimp, and help to improve the current understanding of host-pathogen interactions. PMID:24204661

Xue, Shuxia; Liu, Yichen; Zhang, Yichen; Sun, Yan; Geng, Xuyun; Sun, Jinsheng

2013-01-01

78

Nutritional factors in carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

There have been varying estimates of the role of nutritional as opposed to other contributors to carcinogenesis. Several considerations probably account for the different estimates: (1) genetic overestimates because of foetal and early life rearing practices and the nutritional modulation of genetic expression (2) errors in food intake methodology (3) the limitations of nutrient carcinogenesis hypotheses, ie models which are too naive and do not allow for non-nutrients in food, food patterns and the overall package which is food culture (4) indirect pathways connecting nutrition and cancer such as that via immunosurveillance. Examples of cancers where rapid change in nutritional thinking is underway are breast, prostatic, colorectal and pancreatic. With breast cancer, weakly oestrogenic compounds from foods may be comparable to tamoxifen. Changing food culture away from that rich in phyto-oestrogens may increase the risk of prostatic cancer in men as well. Colorectal cancer incidence has continued at high rates in urbanized society despite an awareness of dietary contribution comparable to the knowledge of diet and coronary heart disease is the analysis sufficiently stratified for large bowel site or nutritionally sophisticated enough to allow for aggregate food pattern effects? Pancreatic cancer on the rise presents questions about unidentified changes continuing in the diets of industrialized societies, possibly from an early age, and even during infant feeding. Nutritional surveillance with mathematical modelling of food intake at a more sophisticated level will be required to understand present food-cancer relationships, and those which may emerge with newer food technologies, especially those related to designer foods. PMID:24352145

Wahlqvist, M L

1993-09-01

79

Dairy product intake in children and adolescents in developed countries: trends, nutritional contribution, and a review of association with health outcomes.  

PubMed

Despite its contribution to nutrient intake and status, consumption of milk and dairy products by children and adolescents in many countries has waned in recent decades, with a substantial proportion of youth failing to meet intake recommendations. Dairy products remain an important dietary source of multiple micronutrients, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, iodine, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin B12 , and riboflavin (vitamin B2 ). In addition, dairy products provide children with energy, high-quality protein, and essential and nonessential fatty acids. A review of evidence was conducted to evaluate associations between milk or dairy product intake and health outcomes in children and adolescents. Results suggest a neutral or inverse association between consumption of milk and dairy products in children and adolescents and indicators of adiposity, incidence of dental caries, and hypertension. Available data indicate that dairy products are important for linear growth and bone health during childhood. Additional research--in particular, controlled intervention trials and long-term prospective cohort studies--is warranted to better understand how dairy intake affects health outcomes in children and adolescents. PMID:24330063

Dror, Daphna K; Allen, Lindsay H

2014-02-01

80

White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. PMID:24111694

Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

2013-12-01

81

The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

2013-09-01

82

Transcriptomic and peptidomic analysis of protein hydrolysates from the white shrimp (L. vannamei).  

PubMed

An RNAseq approach associated to mass spectrometry was conducted to assess the composition, molecular mass distribution and primary sequence of hydrolytic peptides issued from hydrolysates of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) by-products. High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) analyses indicated that 69.2% of the 214-nm-absorbing components had apparent molecular masses below 1000Da, and 88.3% below 2000Da. OFFGEL-nLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF and nLC-ESI-MS/MS analyses led to the identification of 808 peptides based on the NCBI EST databank (161,397 entries) completed by the new L. vannamei databank (58,508 entries) that we created from the RNAs of tissues used for hydrolysate production. Whereas most of hydrolytic peptides have a MW below 2000Da, preliminary investigations of antimicrobial properties revealed three antibacterial fractions that demonstrate functional activities. The abundance of small peptides as well as the biological activities detected could imply very interesting applications for shrimp hydrolysate in the field of aquaculture feeding. PMID:24998765

Robert, Marie; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Fournier, Vincent; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Henry, Joël

2014-09-30

83

Responses of prophenoloxidase system and related defence parameters of Litopenaeus vannamei to low salinity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we investigated the effects of low salinity (26 and 21) on the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system and related defence parameters in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The results showed that low salinity induced a significant increase of dopamine (DA) concentration in haemolymph at 6 h of the experiment; on the other hand, total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC) and PO activity decreased over time to the lowest level at 24 h and remained low thereafter. Serine Protease (SP) and Proteinase Inhibitor (PI) activity in the two lower salinity treatments decreased to the lowest level at 12 and 24 h, respectively, and both recovered to the control level at 72 h. In contrast, ?2- macroglobulin (?2M) activity in the two lower salinity treatments peaked at 24 h and then decreased to the control level at 72 h. Therefore, it may be concluded that stress-induced DA plays an important temporary role in neurotransmission and causes immune response in L. vannamei in adapting to salinity changes.

Pan, Luqing; Xie, Peng; Hu, Fawen

2010-09-01

84

Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-10-01

85

Preparation of an novel botanic biopreservative and its efficacy in keeping quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A novel botanic biopreservative was successfully prepared by the combination of the bamboo leaves extracts and ebony extracts, designated as ebony-bamboo leaves complex extracts (EBLCE), whose antimicrobial activity was assessed according to an inhibition zone method against 10 common pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. It was found that EBLCE was more effective from all the chosen microorganisms, as compared by potassium sorbate. Due to its excellent antimicrobial activity, and some additional properties like edibility, safety and economy, EBLCE was selected for further study to evaluate the efficacy in prolonging shelf life and improving the quality of peeled Penaeus vannamei during storage at 4?°C, based on periodical microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis. As a result, EBLCE was observed to prevent spoilage of peeled P. vannamei efficiently as reflected by a distinct decrease in total viable count, pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, as well as a slower decline in the sensory evaluation scores. Therefore, a prolonged shelf life of 16 days was obtained for EBLCE pre-treated peeled shrimps with comparison of 6 days for the control group, demonstrating EBLCE as a promising alternative for preserving food. PMID:23463785

Chen, Jing; Deng, Shanggui; Li, Jianrong

2013-06-01

86

Medical Issues: Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

... support & care > living with sma > medical issues > nutrition Nutrition Good nutrition is essential to health and growth. ... must make decisions based on their own needs. Nutrition Considerations Since we are still waiting for clinical ...

87

Be A Nutritional Entrepreneur  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students research and define nutrition. Students choose a definition of nutrition or a nutritional theme around which they design a restaurant. This activity helps students answer the question "What is a nutritionally balanced meal? in the context of different cultures.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Elaine Kilmer N:Kilmer;Elaine ORG:John Burroughs School REV:2005-04-08 END:VCARD

1995-06-30

88

Nutrition and HIV.  

PubMed

Good nutrition is key to a healthy lifestyle, regardless of whether one is living with HIV/AIDS. Optimal nutrition can help boost immune function, maximize the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy, reduce the risk of chronic illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and contribute to a better overall quality of life. In the early years of the AIDS epidemic, many people with HIV were dealing with wasting and opportunistic infections (OIs) linked to unsafe food or water. While these problems are less common today in developed countries with widespread access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), many HIV positive people have traded these concerns for worries about body shape changes, elevated blood lipids, and other metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy. Fortunately, maintaining a healthy diet can help address these problems. As HIV positive people live longer thanks to effective treatment, good nutrition can also help prevent problems (such as bone loss) associated with normal aging. But there is no single, optimal eating regimen appropriate for every person living with HIV/AIDS. Instead, HIV positive people should adopt a sensible balanced diet and consult an experienced nutrition specialist for individualized recommendations. PMID:16610116

Highleyman, Liz

2006-01-01

89

The contribution of risk factors to the higher incidence of invasive and in situ breast cancers in women with higher levels of education in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition  

PubMed Central

This paper aims to investigate the role of known risk factors in explaining educational differences in breast cancer incidence. Analyses were based on the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, and included 242,095 women, 433 in situ and 4,469 invasive breast cancers. Reproductive history (age at first full term pregnancy and parity), exposure to endogenous and exogenous hormones, height, and health behaviours were accounted for in the analyses. Relative indices of inequality (RII) for education were estimated using Cox regression models. Higher invasive breast cancer risk was found among women with higher education (RII=1.22: 1.09,1.37). This association was not observed among nulliparous women (RII=1.13: 0.84,1.52). Inequalities in breast cancer incidence decreased substantially after adjusting for reproductive history (RII=1.11: 0.98,1.25), most of the association being explained by age at first full term pregnancy. Each other risk factor explained a small additional part of inequalities in breast cancer incidence. Height contributed most of these factors. When all known risk factors were adjusted for, no association remained between education and invasive breast cancer risk. Inequalities in incidence were more pronounced for in situ breast cancers and remained after adjustment for all known risk factors (RII=1.61: 1.07,2.41), especially among nulliparous women. PMID:21084553

Menvielle, Gwenn; Kunst, Anton E.; Van Gils, Carla H.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Boshuizen, Hendriek; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Hermann, Silke; Kaaks, Rudolf; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Palli, Domenico; Berrino, Franco; Mattiello, Amelia; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; May, Anne; Monninkhof, Evelyn; Braaten, Tonje; Lund, Eiliv; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Duell, Eric J.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Borgquist, Signe; Manjer, Jonas; Khaw, Kay Tee; Allen, Naomi E.; Reeves, Gillian K.; Chajes, Veronique; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Gallo, Valentina; Vineis, Paolo; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

2011-01-01

90

Noontime Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A preliminary report by the Department of Agriculture shows that school lunches are still fattier and saltier than they should be. Cites examples of how some nutrition-conscious school dietitians are improving school lunches. Lists statistics about the National School Lunch Program. (MLF)

Bushweller, Kevin

1993-01-01

91

Nutritional knowledge of UK coaches.  

PubMed

Athletes obtain nutritional information from their coaches, yet their competency in this area is lacking. Currently, no research exists in the UK which has a different coach education system to many other countries. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the sports nutrition knowledge of UK coaching certificate (UKCC) level 2 and 3, hockey and netball qualified coaches. All coaches (n = 163) completed a sports nutrition questionnaire to identify: (a) if they provided nutritional advice; (b) their level of sport nutrition knowledge; and (c) factors that may have contributed to their level of knowledge. Over half the coaches provided advice to their athletes (n = 93, 57.1%), even though they were not competent to do so. Coaches responded correctly to 60.3 ± 10.5% of all knowledge questions with no differences between those providing advice and those who did not (p > 0.05). Those coaches who had undertaken formal nutrition training achieved higher scores than those who had not (p < 0.05). In conclusion, UK sports coaches would benefit from continued professional development in sports nutrition to enhance their coaching practice. PMID:24727434

Cockburn, Emma; Fortune, Alistair; Briggs, Marc; Rumbold, Penny

2014-04-01

92

Nutrition and melanoma prevention.  

PubMed

Melanoma has continued to rise in incidence despite public efforts to promote sun protection behaviors. Because sunscreen use does not completely prevent skin cancer induced by ultraviolet radiation, additional chemopreventive methods for protecting against and reversing the effects of ultraviolet photodamage need evaluation. Recent years have brought increased interest in dietary factors, such as natural botanicals and vitamins, for the prevention of melanoma. This contribution provides a narrative review of the relevant, nutrition-related literature found by searching the keywords "melanoma chemoprevention," "nutrition and melanoma," "dietary botanicals and melanoma prevention," "green tea and melanoma," "vitamin D and melanoma," and "vitamin E and melanoma" in the PubMed database. Although randomized controlled trials of humans are lacking, basic science and epidemiologic studies show promising benefits of many natural products in chemoprevention for melanoma. Future studies, hopefully, will yield concrete answers and clarify the role of commonly available dietary nutrients in melanoma chemoprevention. PMID:21034988

Jensen, J Daniel; Wing, Gregory J; Dellavalle, Robert P

2010-01-01

93

The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

94

Contributions of Processed Foods to Dietary Intake in the US from 2003–2008: A Report of the Food and Nutrition Science Solutions Joint Task Force of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, American Society for Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and International Food Information Council1234  

PubMed Central

Processed foods are an integral part of American diets, but a comparison of the nutrient contribution of foods by level of processing with the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans regarding nutrients to encourage or to reduce has not been documented. The mean reported daily dietary intakes of these nutrients and other components were examined among 25,351 participants ?2 y of age in the 2003–2008 NHANES to determine the contribution of processed food to total intakes. Also examined was the percent contribution of each nutrient to the total reported daily nutrient intake for each of the 5 categories of food that were defined by the level of processing. All processing levels contributed to nutrient intakes, and none of the levels contributed solely to nutrients to be encouraged or solely to food components to be reduced. The processing level was a minor determinant of individual foods’ nutrient contribution to the diet and, therefore, should not be a primary factor when selecting a balanced diet. PMID:22990468

Eicher-Miller, Heather A.; Fulgoni, Victor L.; Keast, Debra R.

2012-01-01

95

Nutritional Biochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews some of the effects that space flight has on humans nutritional biochemistry. Particular attention is devoted to the study of protein breakdown, inflammation, hypercatabolism, omega 3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, urine, folate and nutrient stability of certain vitamins, the fluid shift and renal stone risk, acidosis, iron/hematology, and the effects on bone of dietary protein, potassium. inflammation, and omega-3 fatty acids

Smith, Scott M.

2010-01-01

96

Enteral nutrition.  

PubMed

Enteral nutrition (EN) is defined as the delivery of nutrients beyond the oesophagus via feeding tubes, and the oral intake of dietary foods for special medical purposes. It should be provided in patients with at least a partially functioning gut, whose energy and nutrient needs cannot be met by a regular food intake. Further indications are when the liquid diet is used as a treatment of the disease, and when a feeding time in the disabled child is excessively prolonged. Advantages of enteral intake over parenteral nutrition are well recognized, however there are clinical settings such as intensive care units where nutritional needs can often be met only by their combination despite the functioning gut. For the majority of paediatric patients on EN, age-adapted standard polymeric formula enriched with fibres is an appropriate choice. There is also a wide array of different disease-adapted enteral formulations that may be beneficial in certain clinical conditions, however for most of them, results of controlled studies are either missing or do not support the claims. For the delivery of EN, both the stomach and intermittent feeding mode are more physiological; continuous mode is reserved for patients with severely diseased gut, postpyloric feeding is indicated in patients with the high risk of tracheal aspiration, and feeding over gastrostomy is preferable if the anticipated duration of EN is exceeding 4-6 weeks. Although EN is a well-established and effective feeding method, it may be poorly tolerated and associated with numerous complications. To minimize the risks, development of procedural protocols with regular quality controls and audits, and monitoring by a dedicated nutrition support team are recommended. PMID:24029791

Kola?ek, Sanja

2013-01-01

97

Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

2008-05-01

98

Identification, Characterization, and Function Analysis of the Cactus Gene from Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. I?B is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-?B. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned I?B homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-?B family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-?B binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV. PMID:23185415

Zhang, Shuang; Lü, Ling; Chen, Yi-Hong; Chai, Jiaoting; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Yong-Gui; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

2012-01-01

99

A comparative study of intensive Litopenaeus vannamei culture on four bottom substrates without water change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of four bottom substrates, oyster shell powder (OP), sugarcane bagasse (SB), a mixture of OP and SB (OS) and fresh soil (FS), on the water quality and bacterial and zooplankton density of intensive shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) culture tanks without water change and the growth performance of cultured shrimp were compared in this study. At the end of a 110 days culturing trial, the total ammonium-N (TAN) of the water on SB and the nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N) on OS was significantly lower than that on the other substrates ( P<0.05), which coincided with the high density of ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the water on SB and OS, respectively. The concentration of chlorophyll a (Chl a) increased slowly on OP, SB and OS but remained low on FS. The density of total bacteria on OP, SB and OS was one order of magnitude higher than that on FS, and the density of zooplankton on SB and OS was significantly higher than that on FS or OP ( P<0.05). The improved water quality and increased density of bacteria and zooplankton on SB and OS may have had a synergistic effect on shrimp culture, improving its growth performance (high survival rate and yield and low feed conversion rate). SB and OS were more effective for improving the growth performance of intensively cultured L. vannamei without water change than OP and FS. To our knowledge, this study presents the first evidence regarding the effect of different bottom substrates on intensive shrimp culture.

Shan, Hongwei; Zhang, Li; Gao, Lei; Su, Yuepeng; Bao, Weiyang; Ma, Shen

2014-08-01

100

Accumulation and regulation effects from the metal mixture of Zn, Pb, and Cd in the tropical shrimp Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Environmental metal pollution is one of the major problems faced by humankind. This type of pollution affects aquatic systems (estuaries, coastal lagoons, etc.), which are very dynamic systems, therefore making the study of the effects on the organisms that inhabit them an essential issue. In this study, the capacity of metal regulation by decapod crustacean Penaeus vannamei juveniles was determined. The effects of zinc, lead, and cadmium were tested individually and as a metal mixture exposure to determine possible synergism. The results showed that juvenile shrimps were capable of regulating zinc and lead, whereas cadmium was accumulated without any excretion, at least within the concentrations studied. It was also proved that under the estuarine conditions tested here, P. vannamei juveniles showed capacity to act as a bioindicator for cadmium. PMID:22945625

Núñez-Nogueira, Gabriel; Fernández-Bringas, Laura; Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Gómez-Ponce, Alejandro; de León-Hill, Claudia Ponce; González-Farías, Fernando

2012-12-01

101

Molecular epidemiological investigation of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus and Taura syndrome virus in Penaeus Vannamei cultured in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) and Taura syndrome virus (TSV) are two important shrimp\\u000a viruses in cultured shrimp in America. These two viruses were transmitted to China at the beginning of the 21st century. In this study, 214 shrimp samples of Penaeus vannamei were collected from seven different areas of China and tested by PCR for IHHNV

Cong Zhang; Jun-fa Yuan; Zheng-li Shi

2007-01-01

102

A Novel C-Type Lectin from the Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Possesses Anti-White Spot Syndrome Virus Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-type lectins play key roles in pathogen recognition, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. Here, we report a new C-type lectin (C-type lectin 1) from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL1), which has activity against the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LvCTL1 is a 156-residue polypeptide containing a C-type carbohydrate recognition domain with an EPN (Glu99-Pro100-Asn101) motif that has a predicted ligand

Zhi-Ying Zhao; Zhi-Xin Yin; Xiao-Peng Xu; Shao-Ping Weng; Xia-Yu Rao; Zong-Xian Dai; Yong-Wen Luo; Gan Yang; Zong-Sheng Li; Hao-Ji Guan; Se-Dong Li; Siu-Ming Chan; Xiao-Qiang Yu; Jian-Guo He

2009-01-01

103

Combining in silico transcriptome mining and biological mass spectrometry for neuropeptide discovery in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is arguably the most important aquacultured crustacean, being the subject of a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. To extend our knowledge of peptidergic control in this species, we conducted an investigation combining transcriptomics and mass spectrometry to identify its neuropeptides. Specifically, in silico searches of the L. vannamei EST database were conducted to identify putative prepro-hormone-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides contained within the deduced precursors predicted via online software programs and homology to known isoforms. MALDI-FT mass spectrometry was used to screen tissue fragments and extracts via accurate mass measurements for the predicted peptides, as well as for known ones from other species. ESI-Q-TOF tandem mass spectrometry was used to de novo sequence peptides from tissue extracts. In total 120 peptides were characterized using this combined approach, including 5 identified both by transcriptomics and by mass spectrometry (e.g. pQTFQYSRGWTNamide, Arg7-corazonin, and pQDLDHVFLRFamide, a myosuppressin), 49 predicted via transcriptomics only (e.g. pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF and pQIRYHQCYFIPVSCF, two C-type allatostatins, and RYLPT, authentic proctolin), and 66 identified solely by mass spectrometry (e.g. the orcokinin NFDEIDRAGMGFA). While some of the characterized peptides were known L. vannamei isoforms (e.g. the pyrokinins DFAFSPRLamide and ADFAFNPRLamide), most were novel, either for this species (e.g. pEGFYSQRYamide, an RYamide) or in general (e.g. the tachykinin-related peptides APAGFLGMRamide, APSGFNGMRamide and APSGFLDMRamide). Collectively, our data not only expand greatly the number of known L. vannamei neuropeptides, but also provide a foundation for future investigations of the physiological roles played by them in this commercially important species. PMID:19852991

Ma, Mingming; Gard, Ashley L.; Xiang, Feng; Wang, Junhua; Davoodian, Naveed; Lenz, Petra H.; Malecha, Spencer R.; Christie, Andrew E.; Li, Lingjun

2009-01-01

104

RFLP analysis of the mtDNA control region in white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) populations from the eastern Pacific  

Microsoft Academic Search

White shrimp (Litopenaeus\\u000a vannamei) population genetic structure from the eastern Pacific was determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis\\u000a of the mitochondrial DNA control region. Four localities were surveyed with four endonucleases (Alu I, Taq I, Spe I, Ssp I) yielding 48 composite haplotypes. White shrimp showed high average within-locality haplotype (0.823) and nucleotide (5.41%)\\u000a diversities and also high average

R. Valles-Jimenez; P. M. Gaffney; R. Perez-Enriquez

2006-01-01

105

Pediatric Nutrition Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition services are important in the prevention of disabilities as well as in the treatment and\\/or habilitation of children with chronic illness. Level 1 nutrition care requires some basic knowledge of nutrition to screen for nutritional risk factors, knowledge of and access to referral systems for children identified to be at risk, and ability to use general nutrition education materials.

MARION TAYLOR BAER; ANNE BRADFORD HARRIS

1997-01-01

106

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Frontiers - Winter 2010 Winter 2010 Volume 1, Issue 1 Dear Colleague, Welcome to the first issue of Nutrition Frontiers, a quarterly newsletter from the Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG), Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI. In this

107

Evaluation of sublethal biomarkers in Litopenaeus vannamei on foodborne exposure to methyl parathion.  

PubMed

Sublethal effects of foodborne exposure to methyl parathion (0.62 and 1.31 microg methyl parathion*g(-1) dry weight of food) on juveniles of Litopenaeus vannamei using integrated biochemical (acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and ATPases) and physiological (feeding rate (FR), egestion rate (ER), and hepatosomatic index (HI)) biomarkers were evaluated. The HI was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments. The FR was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments while no significant differences were detected in the ER. AChE activity was significantly higher in controls than in pesticide treatments (control = 0.11 +/- 0.02; solvent control = 0.11 +/- 0.03; 0.62 = 0.07 +/- 0.01; 1.31 = 0.08 +/- 0.02 microM*min(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The total-ATPase activity was significantly lower in controls than in pesticide treatments (control=77.90+/-12.41; solvent control = 83.69 +/- 22.05; 0.62 = 110.03 +/- 22.17; 1.31 = 121.54 +/- 19.84 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The Mg(2+)-ATPase activity was significantly higher in treatments than in controls (control = 65.14+/-10.76; solvent control = 75.12 +/- 21.10; 0.62 = 100.53 +/- 20.97; 1.31 = 108.94 +/- 17.26 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). Finally, the results obtained for the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were significantly higher in control and in 1.31 than in solvent control and in 0.62 (control = 14.06+/-2.63; solvent control=7.30 +/- 4.13; 0.62 = 7.60 +/- 3.81; 1.31 = 13.42 +/- 2.88 microM P(i)*h(-1)*mgprotein(-1)). The results in this study showed that pulse exposures to methyl parathion via food could elicit measurable effects on the marine shrimp L. vannamei, indicating that foodborne exposure can be a reliable toxicological procedure and, if combined with pulse exposures, could also simulate more realistic exposure scenarios. PMID:15978292

Comoglio, L; Amin, O; Roque, A; Betancourt-Lozano, M; Anguas, D; Haro, B M

2005-09-01

108

Effect of feed levels and stocking density on growth and survival of Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris stocked in pond cages  

E-print Network

t ' th* species tested. Percent survival, final mean weight, growth coefficient and biomass change were determined during a four week period. Growth of individual P. vannamei decreased and biomass change increased when stocking density was increased.... P* 'tf ff t g th f f d P. ~tl' t '1 . g f d P. ~tl' o t ' h *d d'ff biomass change as density increased. P. vannamei and P. ~tl' * t i th t ' d f d ho *d 0 tt g o th th 0 those that were not fed. Although no significant growth differences...

Luszczynski, Jack Roman

2012-06-07

109

Nutrition in Gastrointestinal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gastrointestinal cancers can significantly impact nutrition status. Data indicate that the presence of malnutrition in cancer\\u000a patients negatively impacts response to treatment, quality of life and survival. The nutritional support of patients with\\u000a gastrointestinal cancer should be individualized and may be dependent upon anticancer treatment modality. Interventions with\\u000a parenteral nutrition, enteral nutrition and immunonutrition are indicated in certain situations. Nutritional

Maureen B. Huhmann; David A. August

110

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater. PMID:24658782

Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

2014-09-01

111

Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in natal, brazil  

PubMed Central

Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil) tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50%) presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90%) and amikacin (60%), while two strains (20%) displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14–0.29), indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain. PMID:24031779

de Melo, Ligia Maria Rodrigues; Almeida, Dulce; Hofer, Ernesto; dos Reis, Cristhiane Moura Falavina; Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Santos, Andre Felipe das Merces; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

2011-01-01

112

A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV ( P<0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-11-01

113

Purification and characterization of an intracellular lipase from pleopods of whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

An intracellular lipase present in the whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was detected in pleopods. The lipase from pleopods was purified and characterized by biochemical and kinetic parameters. Purified intracellular lipase has a molecular mass of 196kDa, the polypeptide is assembled by two monomers, 95.26 and 63.36kDa. The enzyme lacks glycosylation, and it has an isoelectric point of 5.0. The enzyme showed the highest activity at a temperature range of 30-40°C at pH 8.0-10.0. Activity was completely inhibited by tetrahydrolipstatin and diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate, suggesting that the intracellular lipase is a serine lipase. The lipase hydrolyzes short and long-chain triacylglycerides, as well as naphthol derivatives at comparable rates in contrast to other sources of lipases. Specific activity of 930U mg(-1) and 416.56U mg(-1) was measured using triolein and tristearin at pH 8.0 at 30°C as substrates, respectively. The lipase showed a K(M,app) of 41.03mM and k(cat)/K(M,app) ratio of 4.88 using MUF-butyrate as the substrate. The intracellular lipase described for shrimp has a potential role in hydrolysis of triacylglycerides stored as fat body, as has been shown in humans. PMID:20965269

Rivera-Pérez, Crisalejandra; del Toro, M de Los Ángeles Navarrete; García-Carreño, Fernando

2011-01-01

114

Genomic structure and transcriptional regulation of the penaeidin gene family from Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

Penaeidins are a family of shrimp antimicrobial peptides that have a unique molecular structure consisting of a highly conserved leader peptide followed by an N-terminal proline-rich domain and a C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. Three distinct classes of penaeidins, named PEN2, PEN3, and PEN4, are expressed in the hemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Multiple isoforms, generated by substitutions and deletions within the proline and cysteine-rich domains, have been reported at the mRNA level for all three classes of penaeidins suggesting that this is a highly diverse gene family; however, the genetic mechanisms by which sequence variability in the penaeidin gene family is generated are unknown. The present study examines the genomic sources for both class and isoform diversity in the penaeidin family. We show that each penaeidin class is encoded by a unique gene and that isoform diversity is generated by polymorphism within each penaeidin gene locus. Furthermore, the genomic regions upstream of each penaeidin gene were partially characterized and found to drive transcription. PMID:16488092

O'Leary, Nuala A; Gross, Paul S

2006-04-12

115

Arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei involved in white spot syndrome virus infection.  

PubMed

Virus-host interaction is important for virus infection. White spot syndrome virus VP14 contains transmembrane and signal peptides domain, which is considered to be important for virus infection. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP14 with host cell. A new shrimp protein (arginine kinase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvAK) is selected and its localization in shrimp cells is also confirmed. Cellular localization of LvAK protein in shrimp hemocytes showed that LvAK was primarily located at the periphery of hemocytes and was scarcely detectable in the nucleus. Tissue distribution indicated that arginine kinase gene was spread commonly in the tissues and was highly present in shrimp muscle tissue. The expression of LvAK mRNA in muscle was significantly up-regulated after WSSV stimulation. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LvAK interacted with VP14 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Injection of LvAK protein enhanced the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). These results showed that LvAK is involved in WSSV infection. Future research on this topic will help to reveal the molecular mechanism of WSSV infection. PMID:24486504

Ma, Fang-fang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guang-kuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-04-10

116

White spot syndrome virus VP12 interacts with adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus VP12 contains cell attachment motif RGD which is considered to be critical for host cell binding. Until now, the function of this protein remains undefined. In this study, we explored the interaction of VP12 with host cells. A new shrimp protein (adenine nucleotide translocase of Litopenaeus vannamei, LvANT) is selected by far-western overlay assay. Tissue distribution of adenine nucleotide translocase mRNA showed that it was commonly spread in all the tissues detected. Cellular localization of LvANT in shrimp hemocytes showed that it was primarily located in the cytoplasm of hemocytes and colocalized with mitochondria. ELISA and far-western blot assay confirmed that VP12 interacted with LvANT. In vivo neutralization assay showed that anti-LvANT antibody can significantly reduce the mortality of shrimp challenged by WSSV at 48h post-treatment. Our results collectively showed that VP12 is involved in host cell binding via interaction with adenine nucleotide translocase. PMID:24607653

Ma, Fang-fang; Chou, Zhi-guang; Liu, Qing-hui; Guan, Guangkuo; Li, Chen; Huang, Jie

2014-05-01

117

A new ALF from Litopenaeus vannamei and its SNPs related to WSSV resistance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) are basic components of the crustacean immune system that defend against a range of pathogens. The cDNA sequence of a new ALF, designated nLvALF2, with an open reading frame encoding 132 amino acids was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence contained the conserved functional domain of ALFs, the LPS binding domain (LBD). Its genomic sequence consisted of three exons and four introns. nLvALF2 was mainly expressed in the Oka organ and gills of shrimps. The transcriptional level of nLvALF2 increased significantly after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, suggesting its important roles in protecting shrimps from WSSV. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were found in the genomic sequence of nLvALF2, of which 38 were analyzed for associations with the susceptibility/resistance of shrimps to WSSV. The loci g.2422 A>G, g.2466 T>C, and g.2529 G>A were significantly associated with the resistance to WSSV (P <0.05). These SNP loci could be developed as markers for selection of WSSV-resistant varieties of Litopenaeus vannamei.

Liu, Jingwen; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

2014-08-01

118

“On A Nutrition Mission”: A Nutrition Musical for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-five percent of the young clients who are referred to the community dietitian at this regional medical center exceed the 100th percentile weight-for-height. Obesity and other poor nutritional habits contribute to the six leading causes of death and disability in our state as reported by our state dietetic association. Early prevention strategies will not only save our state and our

C. A. Hankins; P. P. Trimble

1995-01-01

119

Nutritional disorders in tropical neurology.  

PubMed

About three-fourths of the total world population live in the tropics but consume only 6% of worldwide food production and contribute 15% of the world's net revenue explaining the short life expectancy, high infantile mortality, and poor daily caloric intake; moreover, lack of clean drinking water and deficient sanitation promote water-borne infections, diarrhea, and risk of malabsorption that contribute to the prevalence of malnutrition in the tropics. One-third of the world's population consumes insufficient iodine increasing the risk for mental retardation and deafness due to maternal hypothyroidism. The main nutritional syndromes comprise protein-energy malnutrition (marasmus and kwashiorkor); nutritional neuropathies, myelopathies and neuromyelopathies, as well as specific deficiencies of vitamins and micronutrients including iodine, iron, zinc, and selenium. PMID:23829926

Román, Gustavo C

2013-01-01

120

Optimal Nutrition For HIV\\/AIDS Wellness  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: Participants will understand basic concepts of optimal nutrition for HIV\\/AIDS Wellness by identifying key foods and nutrients, along with lifestyle changes, that contribute to a strengthened immune system.HIV\\/AIDS Wellness is an interdisciplinary, integrated approach to long term survival, development and improved quality of life for people living with this disease. Optimal nutrition for HIV\\/AIDS Wellness includes foods and

J. Zimmerman

1997-01-01

121

Effect of various Na/K ratios in low-salinity well water on growth performance and physiological response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate the influence of sodium to potassium (Na/K) ratios on the growth performance and physiological response of the Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vananmei), various concentrations of KCl were added to low-salinity well water (salinity 4) in an 8-week culture trial. Six treatments with Na/K ratios of 60:1, 42:1, 33:1, 23:1, 17:1, and 14:1 were replicated in triplicate. The highest weight-gain rate (3 506±48)% and survival rate (89.38±0.88)% was observed in well water with Na/K ratios of 23:1 and 42:1, respectively, while the feed conversion ratio (1.02±0.01), oxygen consumption, and ammonia-N excretion rate was the lowest in the medium with a Na/K ratio of 23:1. Gill Na+-K+-ATPase activity, as an indicator of osmoregulation, peaked in the treatment where the Na/K ratio was 17:1. The total hemocyte count, respiratory burst, and immune-related enzyme activities (ALP, LSZ, PO, and SOD) of L. vananmei were affected significantly by Na/K ratios ( P<0.05). After challenged with Vibrio harveyi, the cumulative mortality of shrimp reared in a Na/K ratio of 23:1 (30±14.14)% was significantly lower than the control (75±7.07)%. In conclusion, the addition of K+ to low-salinity well water in L. vannamei cultures is feasible. Na/K ratios ranging from 23:1 to 33:1 might improve survival and growth. Immunity and disease resistance are also closely related to the Na/K ratio of the low-salinity well water. The findings may contribute to the development of more efficient K + remediation strategies for L. vananmei culture in low-salinity well water.

Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Beiping; Yang, Jinfang; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

2014-09-01

122

Effects of dietary protein on the activity and mRNA level of trypsin in the midgut gland of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein food modulates the activity of proteases of the midgut gland of Penaeus vannamei. Shrimp fed with food containing 15, 30 and 50% protein exhibited differences in trypsin and chymotrypsin activity and trypsin mRNA levels. Shrimp fed with 30% protein showed higher trypsin and chymotrypsin activities than those fed 15 or 50% protein. An additional paralogue trypsin was observed with

Adriana Muhlia-Almazan; Fernando L. Garcia-Carreno; J. Arturo

123

Oxidative stress, DNA damage and antioxidant enzyme gene expression in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when exposed to acute pH stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ROS production, the percentage of dead and damaged haemocytes, the DNA Olive Tail Moment (OTM) value and the gene expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and thioredoxin (TRx), were studied in the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, when exposed to acute pH stress. The increased ROS production in haemocytes and the increased OTM value

Wei-Na Wang; Jun Zhou; Peng Wang; Ting-Ting Tian; Ying Zheng; Yuan Liu; Wei-jun Mai; An-Li Wang

2009-01-01

124

Nutrition, cancer, and aging.  

PubMed

The parallel increase in cancer risk with advancing age is well recognized, and several pathophysiological mechanisms common to both conditions have been proposed to explain this interrelationship. The importance of nutrition, both in delaying the aging process and in protecting against cancer is also well recognized, and it is therefore of interest to compare the relative impact several of the more widely studied dietary manipulations may have on each of these conditions. For example, caloric restriction, which putatively reduce oxidative stress and effectively increases life span in animals also seems to reduce the incidence of many cancers, possibly due to diminished mitogenesis. Likewise, oxidative damage to DNA appears to be common to both processes but may be more important in the mitochondria with respect to aging and in the nucleus in relation to cancer. Inadequate dietary folate and impaired DNA methylation status are closely associated with increased cancer risk, and recently defective somatic cell methylation and accumulated genetic instability have been proposed as key mechanisms contributing to senescence. Several other well-established anticancer dietary strategies, which include increased fiber intake and the consumption of more fruits and vegetables, have not been studied extensively in relation to aging, although many of the phytochemicals considered important as chemopreventive agents for cancer may well contribute to delaying the aging process. Although not directly related to nutrition, but nevertheless highly relevant, is the question of physical activity, which has been strongly linked to a reduction in risk of some cancers. Although less is known with respect to exercise and biological markers of aging, physical activity does appear to retard the age-related decline in the muscle strength and in the bone density. PMID:9928445

Dreosti, I E

1998-11-20

125

-Supplementary Contributions --Supplementary Contributions -  

E-print Network

- strated during the workshop how the non-climatic residuals influence variance, trends and spatial patterns Contribution to Exchanges No. 26, March 2003 Holocene climate variability investigated using data,The Netherlands 2 Climate Research Unit, Univ. East Anglia Norwich, UK corresponding e-mail: t

Renssen, Hans

126

Food & Nutrition Resource Guide  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Food Safety Resources4-H Food & Nutrition Resource Guide Developed by: 4-H Food & Nutrition Issue Group Renee Sanders System, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the County Commissioners Courts of Texas Cooperating #12;Food

127

Nutrition Training Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Exceptional opportunities exist for support of training in nutrition, both pre- and postdoctoral, through programs at the National Institutes of Health. However the number of actual awards is small in comparison to the needs and importance of nutrition in health.

128

cDNA cloning, identification, tissue localisation, and transcription profile of a transglutaminase from white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection by Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminase (TG) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134); tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAL78166); and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AF336805). The 2638-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2172 bp, a 55-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 411-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (757 aa) was 84.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.2. The L. vannamei TG (abbreviated LvTG) contains a typical transglutaminase-like homologue, a putative integrin-binding motif (RGD), and four calcium-binding sites; a catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two subgroups, STGS1 and STGS2, and LvTG is more closely related to STGS1 than to STGS2. LvTG mRNA and TG activities were detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, with LvTG mainly being synthesised in haemocytes. However, the pattern of LvTG mRNA expression was not directly correlated with TG activity. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant decrease of TG activity at 3 h and a significant increase of LvTG mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease from 12 to 24 h, which indicated that cloned LvTG was involved in the immune response of shrimp. The results also imply that more than one type of TG may be involved in the defense response in L. vannamei. PMID:19782141

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Liu, Chun-Hung; Hung, Chia-Wen; Cheng, Winton

2009-12-01

129

Food for nutrition: mainstreaming nutrition in WFP.  

PubMed

Most preventable deaths among hungry people take place outside of emergency contexts. In countries not involved in conflicts or natural disasters malnutrition is directly implicated in the deaths of millions of children and mothers each year. Thus, WFP's great efforts focused on saving lives in emergencies should be mirrored by efforts aimed at tackling malnutrition, and hence saving lives, beyond emergencies as well. While food sufficiency is not the same as good nutrition, food is nevertheless an important part of the nutrition equation. New scientific evidence confirms that it is possible to have positive nutritional impacts with food aid. Consistent with Strategic Priority No. 3, WFP seeks to use food resources to achieve nutritional impacts in three complementary ways: a) enhancing the effectiveness and impact of targeted mother and child health and nutrition interventions (MCHN) that combine food and appropriate nonfood inputs; b) enhancing the nutritional value of WFP food (for instance, through micronutrient fortification); and c) enhancing the nutritional impact of other WFP (non-MCHN) interventions. These approaches represent a mainstreaming of nutrition across WFP's activities. Adoption of evidence-based programming, joint interventions with partners, and new project designs offer the promise of greater WFP effectiveness and impact in the coming years. PMID:16572719

2006-03-01

130

Seminar in Nutrition "Nutrition and Politics"  

E-print Network

subsequent indications of plagiarism will be handled as an academic integrity matter. SCHEDULE OF ACTIVITIES and politics: Part 2 Unit 3 Food aid: World Food Program, North Korea 2/13 Intersection of nutrition and politics: Part 3 Unit 4 Food assistance: SNAP, World Bank, Haiti 2/20 Intersection of nutrition

Chen, Kuang-Yu

131

A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.  

PubMed

Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

2012-01-01

132

Effects of rapid temperature changes on HK, PK and HSP70 of Litopenaeus vannamei in different seasons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK) and levels of HSP70 were measured to evaluate the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to rapid temperature changes under controlled laboratory conditions. Shrimps were subjected to a quick temperature change from 27°C to 17°C for the summer case (Cold temperature treatment), or from 17°C to 27°C for the winter case (Warm temperature treatment). After 0.5, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure time, shrimps were sampled and prepared for further analysis. The results showed that the effect of acute temperature changes on activities of HK was significant. Patterns of variations of the two glycolytic enzymes suggested that enzymes in the glycolysis cycle could adjust their activities to meet the acute temperature change. The HSP70 level increased in both cold and warm temperature treatments, suggesting that the rapid temperature changes activated the process of body’s self-protection. But the difference in expression peak of HSP70 might be related to the different body size and the higher thermal sensitivity to temperature increase than to temperature decrease of L. vannamei.

Guo, Biao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Chunqiang

2010-09-01

133

Effects of different enzymatic hydrolysis methods on the bioactivity of peptidoglycan in Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of different hydrolysis methods on peptidoglycan (PG) were assessed in terms of their impact on the innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litop enaeus vannamei. PG derived from Bifidobacterium thermophilum was prepared in the laboratory and processed with lysozyme and protease under varying conditions to produce several different PG preparations. A standard shrimp feed was mixed with 0.05% PG preparations to produce a number of experimental diets for shrimp. The composition, concentration, and molecular weight ranges of the soluble PG were analyzed. Serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity in the shrimp were determined on Days 6—31 of the experiment. The protective activity of the PG preparations was evaluated by exposing shrimp to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Data on the composition of the PG preparations indicated that preparations hydrolyzed with lysozyme for 72 h had more low-molecular-weight PG than those treated for 24 h, and hydrolysis by protease enhanced efficiency of hydrolysis compared to lysozyme. SDS-PAGE showed changes in the molecular weight of the soluble PG produced by the different hydrolysis methods. Measurements of serum phenoloxidase and acid phosphatase activity levels in the shrimp indicated that the PG preparations processed with enzymes were superior to the preparation which had not undergone hydrolysis in enhancing the activity of the two serum enzymes. In addition, the preparation containing more low-molecular-weight PG enhanced the resistance of the shrimp to WSSV, whereas no increased resistance was observed for preparations containing less low-molecular-weight PG. These findings suggest that the immunity-enhancing activity of PG is related to its molecular weight and that increasing the quantity of low-molecular-weight PG can fortify the effect of immunity enhancement.

Song, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yue; Wei, Song; Huang, Jie

2013-03-01

134

Aquimarina penaei sp. nov., isolated from intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

A novel bacterial strain designated P3-1(T) was isolated from the intestinal tract contents of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) in Zhangpu, Fujian province, China. The isolate was found to be Gram-negative, long rod shaped, oxidase- and catalase- positive. Growth was observed at 1-7 % sea salt (w/v, optimum, 3 %), at pH 7.0-9.0 (optimum, pH 7.0) and at 10-37 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The isolate was capable of hydrolysing gelatin, casein, starch and DNA but unable to degrade Tween 20, 40, 80 and cellulose. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain P3-1(T) belongs to the genus Aquimarina, with highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina gracilis PSC32(T) (96.2 %), followed by Aquimarina intermedia KMM 6258(T) (96.1 %), Aquimarina spongiae A6(T) (95.9 %) and Aquimarina muelleri KMM 6020(T) (95.8 %). The principal cellular fatty acids were identified as iso-C15:0, iso-C17:0 3OH, C16:1 ?7c/?6c, iso-C15:1 G, iso-C15:0 3OH, iso-C17:1 ?9c/C16:0 10-methyl and C16:0. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was determined to be 33.3 mol%. The respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-6 (100 %). The combined genotypic and phenotypic data show that strain P3-1(T) represents a novel species within the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina penaei sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain P3-1(T) (=MCCC 1A09871(T) = LMG 27943(T)). PMID:25253586

Li, Xiaoyi; Wang, Liping; Huang, Hui; Lai, Qiliang; Shao, Zongze

2014-12-01

135

Nutrition Source Book.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet presents a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition. It contains basic nutrition information along with suggestions for translating this information to fulfill the needs of families and individuals. Topics discussed are: (1) a nutrient approach to teaching nutrition; (2) functions of nutrients; (3) how food handling affects nutrient…

National Dairy Council, Rosemont, IL.

136

Aging and Nutrition Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

Bazzarre, Terry L.

1978-01-01

137

Nutrition and Young Children.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The special issue of the journal contains 12 articles on nutrition and young children. The following titles and authors are included: "Overview--Nutritional Needs of Young Children" (M. Scialabba); "Nurturance--Mutually Created--Mother and Child" (M. McFarland); "Feeding the Special Needs Child" (E. Croup); "Maternal and Neonatal Nutrition--Long…

Frank, Mary, Ed.; And Others

1978-01-01

138

Child Nutrition. Beginnings Workshop.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four workshops focus on nutrition for infants and children in child care settings. Articles are: (1) "Nutrition and Child Development: Global Perspectives" (Jacqueline Hayden); (2) "Working with Families around Nutritional Issues" (Wayne Eastman); (3) "Breastfeeding Promotion in Child Care" (Laura Dutil Aird); and (4) "Food as Shared…

Hayden, Jacqueline; Eastman, Wayne; Aird, Laura Dutil; McCrea, Nadine L.

2002-01-01

139

Nutritional training in gastroenterology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the clear importance of nutritional knowledge for health professionals, such education has long been notoriously patchy at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. Gastroenterologists in particular have a special responsibility to provide advice and expertise, not only in general nutrition but also in artificial nutrition support in the setting of extreme risk of malnutrition and intestinal failure. Recently, with the

Jacquelyn Anne Helen Harvey; Penny Jane Neild

2010-01-01

140

[Total Parenteral Nutrition and the Usefulness of CV Ports].  

PubMed

Management of nutrition in cancer patients plays an important role in supporting anti-cancer treatment. Parenteral nutrition is considered to assist with nutrition in cancer patients. Central venous catheters(CVC)are useful for intravenous infusion of not only nutrients with high osmotic pressure but also chemotherapeutic drugs and other substances. Central venous access through CV ports reduces patient's burden and complications, and it contributes to maintaining a patient's quality of life(QOL). PMID:25335701

Washizawa, Naohiro; Yajima, Satoshi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Koike, Junichi; Watanabe, Masashi; Kaneko, Hironori

2014-10-01

141

45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

2012-10-01

142

45 CFR 1326.9 - Contributions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.9 Contributions....

2013-10-01

143

Nutritional Status Assessment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutritional Status Assessment (Nutrition) is the most comprehensive inflight study done by NASA to date of human physiologic changes during long-duration space flight; this includes measures of bone metabolism, oxidative damage, nutritional assessments, and hormonal changes. This study will impact both the definition of nutritional requirements and development of food systems for future space exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. This experiment will also help to understand the impact of countermeasures (exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutritional status and nutrient requirements for astronauts.

Smith, Scott M.

2008-01-01

144

Modality-specific nutrition support in ESRD: weighing the evidence.  

PubMed

Protein-calorie malnutrition affects a large fraction of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and contributes significantly to the high rates of mortality and morbidity observed in this population. Observational studies of specific interventions, including intradialytic parenteral nutrition (IDPN), suggest that aggressive nutrition support may be of some benefit to some patients with ESRD. Due in part to lack of data derived from prospective, randomized clinical trials, and to the large expense associated with these therapies, Medicare and other payers have strongly discouraged the prescription of IDPN and other intermittent, dialysis-specific methods of nutrition support, such as intraperitoneal nutrition (IPN). The "burden of proof" has been placed on the dialysis community. In response, we must continue to emphasize the importance of securing nutritional health for all patients on or anticipating renal replacement therapy. Intradialytic parenteral nutrition should be reserved for patients who are taking in sufficient calories yet are unable to tolerate oral or enteral protein-rich foods or formulas designed to meet daily protein requirements (> or = 1.5 g/kg in some patients). Intradialytic parenteral nutrition should not be prescribed in place of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) if the latter is truly needed. Creative methods of nutrition support, including the use of dietary supplements at dialysis (intradialytic oral or enteral nutrition), should be explored. Prospective clinical trials investigating the effects of nutrition support on survival, hospitalization rates, health-related quality of life, and functional status, are urgently needed. PMID:9915290

Chertow, G M

1999-01-01

145

Holobiont nutrition  

PubMed Central

Intake of whole grains and other food products high in dietary fiber have long been linked to the prevention of chronic diseases associated with inflammation. A contribution of the gastrointestinal microbiota to these effects has been suggested, but little is known on how whole grains interact with gut bacteria. We have recently published the first human trial that made use of next-generation sequencing to determine the effect of whole grains (whole grain barley, brown rice or a mixture of the two) on fecal microbiota structure and tested for associations between the gut microbiota and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. Our study revealed that whole grains impacted gut microbial ecology by increasing microbial diversity and inducing compositional alterations, some of which are considered to have beneficial effects on the host. Interestingly, whole grains, and in particular the combination of whole grain barley and brown rice, caused a reduction in plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), which was linked to compositional features of the gut microbiota. Therefore, the study provided evidence that a short-term increased intake of whole grains led to compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in systemic inflammation. In this addendum, we summarize the findings of the study and provide a perspective on the importance of regarding humans as holobionts when considering the health effects of dietary strategies. PMID:23645316

Walter, Jens; Martinez, Ines; Rose, Devin J.

2013-01-01

146

Food and Nutrition Assistance Programs and Obesity: 1976-2002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Food Stamp Program and the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) address poor nutrition among low-income adults, infants, and children in the United States. Higher rates of obesity among the populations these programs serve have led to concern that the programs may, ironically, contribute to the problem. To analyze the relationships between program participation and

Michele Ver Ploeg; Lisa Mancino; Biing-Hwan Lin

2007-01-01

147

Child Nutrition Labeling for Meat and Poultry Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prepared for food manufacturers, this publication contains instructions for calculating the contribution that a meat or poultry product makes toward the meal pattern requirements of child nutrition programs. It also contains instructions on how to apply for and obtain the approval for a label containing a child nutrition statement. These…

Wade, Cheryl; And Others

148

Proceedings from the 2013 canadian nutrition society conference on advances in dietary fats and nutrition.  

PubMed

The science of lipid research continues to rapidly evolve and change. New knowledge enhances our understanding and perspectives on the role of lipids in health and nutrition. However, new knowledge also challenges currently held opinions. The following are the proceedings of the 2013 Canadian Nutrition Society Conference on the Advances in Dietary Fats and Nutrition. Content experts presented state-of-the-art information regarding our understanding of fish oil and plant-based n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutrigenomics, pediatrics, regulatory affairs, and trans fats. These important contributions aim to provide clarity on the latest advances and opinions regarding the role of different types of fats in health. PMID:24749841

Holub, Bruce; Mutch, David M; Pierce, Grant N; Rodriguez-Leyva, Delfin; Aliani, Michel; Innis, Sheila; Yan, William; Lamarche, Benoit; Couture, Patrick; Ma, David W L

2014-07-01

149

A personal view of nutrition in Spain.  

PubMed

This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain. PMID:24679010

Zamora, Salvador

2014-01-01

150

Identification and cloning of the second type transglutaminase from Litopenaeus vannamei, and its transcription following pathogen infection and in relation to the haemolymph coagulation.  

PubMed

Complementary (c)DNA encoding transglutaminaseII (TGII) messenger (m)RNA of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, was cloned from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) using oligonucleotide primers based on the TG sequence of the horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus (accession no.: BAA02134), tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (AAV49005; AAO33455), kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus (BAD36808) and Pacifastacus leniusculus (AAK69205) TG. The 2405-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 2292 bp, a 31-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and an 82-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (764 aa) was 85.9 kDa with an estimated pI of 5.32. The L. vannamei TGII (abbreviated LvTGII) contains a typical TG-like homologue, two putative integrin binding motif (RGD and KGD), and five calcium-binding sites; three catalytic triad is present as in arthropod TG. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis revealed that shrimp TG can be separated into two groups, STGI and STGII, and LvTGII is more closely related to STGII than to STGI. LvTGII mRNA was detected in all tested tissues of L. vannamei, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. The haemocytes of L. vannamei injected with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a significant increase of LvTGI and LvTGII mRNA expression at 6 h followed by a notable decrease at 24 h in LvTGI and a continually increase in LvTGII indicating a complementary effect, which implied that both LvTGs involved in the immune response of shrimp, and LvTGII was more important in the later defense response. The gene silencing of LvTGII in shrimp significantly decreased LvTGII expression and TG activity of haemocytes, and significantly increased clotting time of haemolymph, suggests that the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in haemolymph coagulation of L. vannamei. In conclusion, the cloned LvTGII is a clotting enzyme involved in coagulation of haemolymp and immune response of white shrimp, L. vannamei. PMID:24036331

Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Cheng, Winton

2013-11-01

151

Nutrition in the adolescent.  

PubMed

This article reviews the nutritional requirements of puberty and the clinical assessment of nutritional status, and discusses the nutritional risks imposed by vegetarian diets, pregnancy, and athletic involvement. Energy (calories) and protein are essential in pubertal development. Adolescent females require approximately 2200 calories/day, whereas male adolescents require 2500-3000 calories/day. Additional intake requirements include fat, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamins, and fiber. The clinical assessment of nutritional status begins with obtaining a good diet history of the patient and this could be offered by the body mass index. Nutritional deficiencies and poor eating habits established during adolescence can have long-term consequences, including delayed sexual maturation, loss of final adult height, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, and obesity. As for vegetarian adolescents, nutritional risks include lack of iodine, vitamin B12, vitamin D, and some essential fatty acids. In addition, substances in some grains reduce gut absorption, thus increasing mineral deficiencies. Pregnancy may also be a risk factor for poor nutrition during adolescence. A pregnant adolescent has different nutritional needs because she is still growing. Among adolescent athletes many are turning to nutritional supplements in an attempt to improve athletic performance. A balanced, varied diet provides adequate calories and nutrition to meet the needs of most adolescents. They also have greater water needs than do adult athletes. Details on adolescent health concerns are further discussed in this article. PMID:10036686

Wahl, R

1999-02-01

152

Assessing Nutrition Education Wants and Needs of Older Adults Through Focus Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five focus groups assessed the nutrition education wants and needs of 37 non-institutionalized older adults ages 60 and older. Discussions were tape-recorded, transcribed and coded to facilitate data analysis. Findings cited most frequently included; doctors were influential, nutrition contributed to good health, basic nutrition topics were wanted\\/ needed, written materials were used most often, demonstration and discussion methods were prevalently

Lynn Duerr

2003-01-01

153

Ovine prenatal growth, its mathematical description and the effects of maternal nutrition  

E-print Network

of maternal nutrition on foetal growth in early, middle and late pregnancy respectively, and the findingsOvine prenatal growth, its mathematical description and the effects of maternal nutrition J. J contributed to disagree- ment on whether maternal under-nutrition has different effects on different foetal

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

154

Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

Olson, Christine; And Others

155

Review article Relation between nutrition, performances  

E-print Network

is one way among others to better cope with the problem of the negative contribution of the dairy herd for half of the productive responses and could explain why the nutritive bal- ance was hardly affected levels according to laws of decreasing return that are given in the text. On the contrary, the relative N

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

156

Nutritionally related strategies for organic goat production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic goat production contributes to the alleviation of poverty of producers who rely on marginal land for their livelihoods, while meeting the increasing demand for organic products globally. Nutritional strategies that are naturally occurring, low cost and easy to apply can improve the productive performance of goats and render organic production profitable and successful. Adequate protein intake enhances immunity and

Christopher D. Lu

2011-01-01

157

The role of nucleotides in human nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary NT are reported to have significant effects upon lymphoid, intestinal and hepatic tissues, and lipid metabolism (Table 3). The mechanism remains unknown, and the nutritional role of NT remains controversial. However, maintenance of the endogenous NT supply via de novo synthesis and salvage is metabolically costly. Preformed NT supplied by the diet may contribute to tissue NT pools and

Jane D. Carver; W. Allan Walker

1995-01-01

158

Evaluation of the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) along the Persian Gulf coast.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards. PMID:25029962

Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi

2014-09-01

159

Novel transcriptome assembly and improved annotation of the whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a dominant crustacean in global seafood mariculture  

PubMed Central

We present a new transcriptome assembly of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the species most farmed for human consumption. Its functional annotation, a substantial improvement over previous ones, is provided freely. RNA-Seq with Illumina HiSeq technology was used to analyze samples extracted from shrimp abdominal muscle, hepatopancreas, gills and pleopods. We used the Trinity and Trinotate software suites for transcriptome assembly and annotation, respectively. The quality of this assembly and the affiliated targeted homology searches greatly enrich the curated transcripts currently available in public databases for this species. Comparison with the model arthropod Daphnia allows some insights into defining characteristics of decapod crustaceans. This large-scale gene discovery gives the broadest depth yet to the annotated transcriptome of this important species and should be of value to ongoing genomics and immunogenetic resistance studies in this shrimp of paramount global economic importance.

Ghaffari, Noushin; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Doan, Ryan; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Chen, Patricia L.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco, J. Salvador; Hong, Chris; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Blood, Philip D.; Sawyer, Jason E.; Johnson, Charles D.; Dindot, Scott V.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Criscitiello, Michael F.

2014-01-01

160

Nutritional Management of Diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical nutrition therapy (MNT) is a cornerstone of treatment for the estimated 20.8 million people with diabetes in the United\\u000a States. MNT is a more intensive and focused comprehensive nutrition therapy service that relies heavily on follow-up and provides\\u000a repeated reinforcement to help change behavior. The long-term goal of medical nutrition therapy in diabetes is to prevent\\u000a and\\/or delay diabetes

Norica Tomuta; Nichola Davis; Carmen Isasi; Vlad Tomuta; Judith Wylie-Rosett

161

Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P <0.05) and improved when dietary Lys and Arg levels were 2.11% ˜ 2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, respectively. Protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11% ˜2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, although the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

2013-07-01

162

Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.  

PubMed

The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin ? (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin ? (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin ?1, ?3, ?5, ?6, ?7, and ?8, and another L. vannamei integrin ? (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin ? dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin ? after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and ?-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), ?2-macroglobulin (?2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin ? plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. PMID:23376419

Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

2013-06-01

163

Nutrition and Diet  

MedlinePLUS

... dietary supplementation should be made as indicated by nutritional history, complications of the disease, and, in children, growth status. Typically multivitamin supplementation without iron is suggested (e. ...

164

Making a nutritional assessment.  

PubMed Central

The assessment of nutritional deficiencies depends on both clinical and laboratory diagnosis. The standard physical examination should be supplemented by nutritional anthropometry, consisting of accurate growth and skinfold measurements. A careful dietary history, preferably taken by a dietitian, is necessary to construct a record of past nutrient intake. Since biochemical abnormalities often appear before clinical signs of nutritional deficiency a battery of biochemical tests is sometimes needed. In unusual cases newer techniques of assessing body composition or immunologic or physiologic function may be required. In all cases the patient's physical state, nutritional intake and biochemical status must be related to age and sex standards. PMID:7139499

Pencharz, P. B.

1982-01-01

165

Mary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition  

E-print Network

of creating a facility dedicated to human nutrition experimentation using precisely controlled dietsMary EmilyMary EmilyMary Emily Clinical NutritionClinical NutritionClinical Nutrition Research Unit Our Facility The Mary Emily Clinical Nutrition Research Unit was developed in 1995 with the objective

Barthelat, Francois

166

Validation of a Commercial Insulated Isothermal PCR-based POCKIT Test for Rapid and Easy Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei  

PubMed Central

Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR), and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction). The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), monodon baculovirus (MBV), and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) positive samples. Accuracy analysis using700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61–95.56%) and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31–98.50%). Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei. PMID:24625894

Tsai, Yun-Long; Wang, Han-Ching; Lo, Chu-Fang; Tang-Nelson, Kathy; Lightner, Donald; Ou, Bor-Rung; Hour, Ai-Ling; Tsai, Chuan-Fu; Yen, Cheng-Chi; Chang, Hsiao-Fen Grace; Teng, Ping-Hua; Lee, Pei-Yu

2014-01-01

167

Sequence and Conservation of a rRNA and tRNAVal Mitochondrial Gene Fragment from Penaeus californiensis and Comparison with Penaeus vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Penaeus californiensis is an important species for shrimp fisheries in the Pacific Ocean and has recently been described as\\u000a a potential cultured species, mainly through the winter season in subtropical regions. A fragment of the mitochondrial 12S\\u000a rRNA–tRNAVal–16S rRNA genes from P. californiensis was sequenced and compared with the corresponding regions from Penaeus\\u000a vannamei and Penaeus stylirostris. Purified mitochondrial DNA

Luis Enrique Gutiérrez-Millán; Alma Beatriz Peregrino-Uriarte; Rogerio Sotelo-Mundo; Francisco Vargas-Albores; Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia

2002-01-01

168

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundLitopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsA novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from

Yanisa Laoong-u-thai; Baoping Zhao; Amornrat Phongdara; Jinzeng Yang

2011-01-01

169

Trophic Transfer of Lead Through a Model Marine Four-Level Food Chain: Tetraselmis suecica , Artemia franciscana, Litopenaeus vannamei , and Haemulon scudderi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this investigation was to assess the transfer of lead (Pb) along an experimental, four-level food chain:\\u000a Tetraselmis suecica (phytoplankton) ? Artemia franciscana (crustacean, brine shrimp) ? Litopenaeus vannamei (crustacean, white shrimp) ? Haemulon scudderi (fish, grunt). T. suecica was exposed to a sublethal dose of Pb in solution and then used as the base of a marine food chain. Significant differences\\u000a in Pb

M. F. Soto-Jiménez; C. Arellano-Fiore; R. Rocha-Velarde; M. E. Jara-Marini; J. Ruelas-Inzunza; F. Páez-Osuna

2011-01-01

170

Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal  

Microsoft Academic Search

This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture\\u000a of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid.\\u000a Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1–7).

Shuyan Chi; Beiping Tan; Kangsen Mai; Shixuan Zheng

2009-01-01

171

A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement\\u000a of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9%

Wei Zhu; Kangsen Mai; Baigang Zhang; Fuzhen Wang; Yu Yu

2004-01-01

172

Substitution of fish meal by co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal in practical diets for the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a co-extruded soybean poultry by-product meal with egg supplement was evaluated as a substitute for fish meal in a practical diet formulated to contain 32% crude protein and 8% lipid. The co-extruded product was substituted for menhaden fish meal on an iso-nitrogenous basis and offered to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight±standard deviation, 1.13±0.06 g) over a

Tzachi M. Samocha; D. Allen Davis; I. Patrick Saoud; Kevin DeBault

2004-01-01

173

Nutrition and Athletics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the Olympic Games in full force, much of the world's attention is centered on the feats of athleticism occurring in Greece. This Report's Topic in Depth takes a closer look at the link between nutrition and athletics. The first site (1), from University of Illinois Extension, presents a multi-chapter piece on sports and nutrition by Professors Robert J. Reber and Donald K. Layman. The site features four main sections dealing with a healthy diet, good pre-game meal choices, maintaining high energy levels, and staying hydrated. From the Nicholas Institute of Sports Medicine and Athletic Trauma, the second site (2) discusses carbohydrates, fluids, and general guidelines for a healthy diet. The third (3) site -- developed at Montana State University --presents a brief online course exploring the science of sports nutrition. The course draws inspiration from the 1998 Winter Olympics and contains sections on Muscle Contraction, Duration, Nutrition, Training, and more. The fourth site (4), from the Food and Nutrition Information Center, contains a collection of sports nutrition-related website links. From the Vegetarian Resource Group, the fifth site (5) contains an article on sports nutrition guidelines for vegetarians by Enette Larson, M.S., R.D.. The final (6) site -- hosted by the Federal Citizen Information Center -- presents a collection frequently asked questions (with answers) about sports nutrition from the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports.

174

Nutrition: An Interdisciplinary Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a pilot program in which the Dairy, Food and Nutrition Council of East Orange, New Jersey, introduced a new education series entitled "Food in Today's World." This approach outlined the role of the home economist as coordinator of a nutrition program in which educators from various disciplines participate. (CT)

Graef, Judy; Pettingell, Margaret S.

1981-01-01

175

You Score With Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

Dow, Ruth McNabb

1976-01-01

176

Day Care: Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

Foster, Florence P.; And Others

177

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studies by Tufts University's Center on Hunger and Poverty show conclusive links between nutrition and children's cognitive development. Cognitive defects can result from complex interactions between malnutrition and "environmental insults" that come from living in poverty. Poor nutrition has longterm consequences. Print and web resources are…

Black, Susan

2000-01-01

178

Continuity of Nutrition Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To describe a method to improve the continuity of nutrition care.As length of stay in the acute care setting decreases and care is shifted to the home, long term care and rehabilitation settings, it becomes imperative for dietitians to develop methods to improve the continuity of nutrition care. At a 747 acute care hospital, a system was developed

E. S. Loreck

1997-01-01

179

Nutrition: Too Many Gimmicks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that despite having access to vast nutritional knowledge, Americans today are more malnourished and obese than ever before. Concludes that eating normal, basic, ordinary foods in variety can supply all nutritional needs; gimmicks are not needed, and the search for the "quick-fix" must stop--it is not on any shelf. Includes the United States…

Thompson, Tommy

2002-01-01

180

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional deficiencies and imbalances can influence learning directly or indirectly. Fatigue, boredom and low motivation may be the result of poor nutrition. Some vision problems, it is known, are related to deficiencies in vitamin A. A number of studies indicate that protein-caloric malnutrition affects intellectual and psychomotor development.…

Goldsmith, Robert H.

181

Nutrition and Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The paper reviews literature on the relationship between food, nutrition, and learning with particular emphasis on impairments in cognitive development and learning which result from malnutrition. Considered are means of detecting malnutrition, allergy symptoms, and steps a teacher can take in educating students and families about nutrition. Among…

Boehnlein, Mary Maher; And Others

182

Nutrition Knowledge and Training Needs in the School Environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nutrition environment in schools can influence the risk for childhood overweight and obesity, which in turn can have life-long implications for risk of chronic disease. This dissertation aimed to examine the nutrition environment in primary public schools in California with regards to the amount of nutrition education provided in the classroom, the nutrition knowledge of teachers, and the training needs of school nutrition personnel. In order to determine nutrition knowledge of teachers, a valid and reliable questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge. The systematic process involved cognitive interviews, a mail-based pretest that utilized a random sample of addresses in California, and validity and reliability testing in a sample of university students. Results indicated that the questionnaire had adequate construct validity, internal consistency reliability, and test-retest reliability. Following the validation of the knowledge questionnaire, it was used in a study of public school teachers in California to determine the relationship between demographic and classroom characteristics and nutrition knowledge, in addition to barriers to nutrition education and resources used to plan nutrition lessons. Nutrition knowledge was not found to be associated with teaching nutrition in the classroom, however it was associated with gender, identifying as Hispanic or Latino, and grade level grouping taught. The most common barriers to nutrition education were time, and unrelated subject matter. The most commonly used resources to plan nutrition lessons were Dairy Council of California educational materials. The school nutrition program was the second area of the school nutrition environment to be examined, and the primary focus was to determine the perceived training needs of California school nutrition personnel. Respondents indicated a need for training in topics related to: program management; the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010; nutrition, health and wellness; planning, preparing, and serving meals; and communication and marketing. Those employed in residential child care institutions expressed a strong need for training specific to this type of program. Overall, the results of this dissertation contribute to the body of knowledge about nutrition in the school environment and raise interesting questions to be examined in future studies.

Jones, Anna Marie

183

Nutrition in medical education: reflections from an initiative at the University of Cambridge  

PubMed Central

Landmark reports have confirmed that it is within the core responsibilities of doctors to address nutrition in patient care. There are ongoing concerns that doctors receive insufficient nutrition education during medical training. This paper provides an overview of a medical nutrition education initiative at the University of Cambridge, School of Clinical Medicine, including 1) the approach to medical nutrition education, 2) evaluation of the medical nutrition education initiative, and 3) areas identified for future improvement. The initiative utilizes a vertical, spiral approach during the clinically focused years of the Cambridge undergraduate and graduate medical degrees. It is facilitated by the Nutrition Education Review Group, a group associated with the UK Need for Nutrition Education/Innovation Programme, and informed by the experiences of their previous nutrition education interventions. Three factors were identified as contributing to the success of the nutrition education initiative including the leadership and advocacy skills of the nutrition academic team, the variety of teaching modes, and the multidisciplinary approach to teaching. Opportunities for continuing improvement to the medical nutrition education initiative included a review of evaluation tools, inclusion of nutrition in assessment items, and further alignment of the Cambridge curriculum with the recommended UK medical nutrition education curriculum. This paper is intended to inform other institutions in ongoing efforts in medical nutrition education. PMID:24899813

Ball, Lauren; Crowley, Jennifer; Laur, Celia; Rajput-Ray, Minha; Gillam, Stephen; Ray, Sumantra

2014-01-01

184

Nutritional Standards for School Nutrition Programs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document identifies the federal nutrition standards required in order to claim cash reimbursement and donated United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) commodities for meals served through school lunch or school breakfast programs. Minimum serving requirements for school lunch and school breakfast patterns are detailed by age/grade…

New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Child Nutrition Programs.

185

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Special Groups. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The contents of this working paper comprise a series of journal articles focusing on nutrition and special groups. Papers relating to those on the aged are entitled: Nutrition and Health of Older People, and Nutrition for the Aged--A Summation. Those on the American Indian discuss nutrition intake and food patterns, contemporary dietary patterns,…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

186

Nutrition Science And Dietetics Department Of Nutrition Science And Dietetics  

E-print Network

is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology, physiology, chemistry, and the behavioral courses in chemistry and the biological sciences are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which

McConnell, Terry

187

HUMAN NUTRITION -FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition -Functional Foods  

E-print Network

HUMAN NUTRITION - FUNCTIONAL FOODS KNL030 Human Nutrition - Functional Foods Poäng: 5.0 Betygskala grupparbeten. Litteratur: Garrow, J.S.; James, W.P.T.: Human nutrition and dietetics, 9th ed, Churchill Livingstone eller Whitney, E.S., Rolfes, S.R.: Understanding nutrition, 8th ed, 1999, West Publishing Company

188

Canned and Frozen Vegetables: Getting the Most Nutrition for Your Money  

E-print Network

Peggy Van Laanen, Extension nutrition specialist, Mary Bielamowicz, Extension nutri- tion specialist, and Cheryl Supak, BLT program director, for their contributions to and review of this publication. References and Resources ... Peggy Van Laanen, Extension nutrition specialist, Mary Bielamowicz, Extension nutri- tion specialist, and Cheryl Supak, BLT program director, for their contributions to and review of this publication. References and Resources ...

Anding, Jenna

2000-05-05

189

[The national food and nutrition policy and its dialogue with the national food and nutrition security policy].  

PubMed

Food is one of the determinants and conditions of health and an inherent right of all people. The consequences of food and nutrition insecurity in the population, such as obesity, malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies, impact the health sector and have historically meant that it has assumed the responsibility for food and nutrition programs and policies in Brazil. However, ensuring food and nutrition security requires a combination of public policies, among which the National Food and Nutrition Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) plays a fundamental role. This paper seeks to contribute to the debate on intersectoriality and health promotion based on presenting the National Food and Nutrition Policy and discussing its role as interface between the SUS and the National Food and Nutrition Security Policy and System. This perspective strongly suggests the combination of efforts to promote health and food and nutrition security in order to optimize initiatives developed in different sectors and accompanied by different policy councils that are not interrelated, enabling enhanced government and civil society action on the determinants of health and nutrition. PMID:25351300

Alves, Kelly Poliany de Souza; Jaime, Patricia Constante

2014-11-01

190

Nutrition Surveillance. Annual Summary 1982.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report summarizes information, including selected indices of nutritional status, as reported from 28 states and the District of Columbia to the Nutritional Status Surveillance System. This system has two components, one addressing nutritional status among high-risk pediatric populations, and the other addressing nutritional status among…

Centers for Disease Control (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

191

Nutrition for Nurses: Nursing 245.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A description is presented of "Nutrition for Nurses," a prerequisite course for students anticipating entrance into the junior level of a state university registered nursing program. Introductory material highlights the course focus (i.e., the basics of good nutrition; nutrition through the life cycle; nursing process in nutritional care; and…

Palermo, Karen R.

192

Child nutrition and growth: butterfly effects?  

PubMed

The international symposium organised by the Danone Institute as a pre-congress satellite of the European Nutrition Societies Congress, in Paris, in July 2007, brought together experts of child nutrition and behaviour. These experts coming from several countries of Europe and North America shared their views on the impact of numerous factors affecting child eating and health in present-day developed societies. Topics included nutritional influences during foetal life, early life development of food likes and dislikes, neophobia, ability for energy regulation, impact of media and advertisement, etc. Most contributions addressed the obesity epidemics and the problems associated with body weight control. Other aspects of child health were also considered, for example the nutritional challenge of adequately feeding children with type 1 diabetes. The nine speakers were asked to underline practical strategies to improve nutrition in early life, so as to maximise health, growth and quality of life in today's environment. The present paper is a summary of the ideas expressed by the experts, highlighting agreements, convergences, and occasional disagreements between expert opinions. PMID:18257951

Bellisle, France

2008-02-01

193

Nutrition for Patients with Hepatic Failure NUTRITION ISSUES IN GASTROENTEROLOGY, SERIES #6  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malnutrition is prevalent in patients with hepatic failure; it is also an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality in these patients. Factors that contribute to malnutrition in patients with hepatic failure include altered metabolic rate, fat mal- absorption, early satiety and impaired gastric emptying, as well as frequent hospital- izations and overzealous diet therapy. Providing increased nutrition improves nitro-

Joseph Krenitsky

194

Molecular Nutrition Research--The Modern Way Of Performing Nutritional Science  

PubMed Central

In spite of amazing progress in food supply and nutritional science, and a striking increase in life expectancy of approximately 2.5 months per year in many countries during the previous 150 years, modern nutritional research has a great potential of still contributing to improved health for future generations, granted that the revolutions in molecular and systems technologies are applied to nutritional questions. Descriptive and mechanistic studies using state of the art epidemiology, food intake registration, genomics with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, advanced biostatistics, imaging, calorimetry, cell biology, challenge tests (meals, exercise, etc.), and integration of all data by systems biology, will provide insight on a much higher level than today in a field we may name molecular nutrition research. To take advantage of all the new technologies scientists should develop international collaboration and gather data in large open access databases like the suggested Nutritional Phenotype database (dbNP). This collaboration will promote standardization of procedures (SOP), and provide a possibility to use collected data in future research projects. The ultimate goals of future nutritional research are to understand the detailed mechanisms of action for how nutrients/foods interact with the body and thereby enhance health and treat diet-related diseases. PMID:23208524

Norheim, Frode; Gjelstad, Ingrid M. F.; Hjorth, Marit; Vinknes, Kathrine J.; Langleite, Torgrim M.; Holen, Torgeir; Jensen, J?rgen; Dalen, Knut Tomas; Karlsen, Anette S.; Kielland, Anders; Rustan, Arild C.; Drevon, Christian A.

2012-01-01

195

Nutrition and Wellness  

MedlinePLUS

... Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Nutrition & Wellness Leading researchers in the field continually ... lifestyle changes on the development and progression of prostate cancer. Which foods and nutrients have been shown to ...

196

Nutritional Biochemistry of Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for crew health and safety during spaceflight. To ensure adequate nutrition, the nutrient requirements need to be both accurate and available from the spaceflight food system. The existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration spaceflight have been defined largely by extrapolation from ground-based research. However, nutritional requirements are influenced by most of the physiological consequences of spaceflight, including loss of lean, adipose, and bone tissue; changes in blood composition; and increased risk of renal stone formation. This review focuses on key areas where information has been gained in recent years: dietary intake and energy metabolism, bone health, fluid and electrolyte homeostasis, and hematological changes. Areas in which specific nutrients have the potential to serve as countermeasures to the negative effects of spaceflight are also reviewed. Dietary Intake

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

197

Nutrition and OI  

MedlinePLUS

Nutrition and OI Introduction To promote bone development and optimal health, children and adults with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) should eat a ... Suggested Vitamin D-3 Intake for People with OI: Weight IU per day 50 lbs. (20 kg) ...

198

Nutrition Update, 1978.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current nutrition research areas with important practical applications. Topics include hypertension, preventable birth defects, phenylketonuria and genetic diseases, new molecular genetics techniques, and saccharin and sweetners. Entries are brief and a 65-reference list is given. (MA)

Weininger, Jean; Briggs, George M.

1978-01-01

199

Nutrition and Myasthenia Gravis  

MedlinePLUS

... to get proper nutrition when you are having difficulty with eating and drinking. Prepare foods in a way that makes them soft, tender and easy to chew and swallow. Chop, mash or puree foods. Moisten dry foods ...

200

Team Nutrition: Educator Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do we help young people learn about nutrition? It's not an easy task, but the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has created this page as part of their Food and Nutrition Service to help educators do just that. Their "Team Nutrition" staff members have brought together a range of fact sheets, classroom activities, and web applications for K-12 students. New visitors can click on the Empowering Youth with Nutrition and Physical Activity online modules to get high-quality online resources that help young people learn about the food pyramid and crafting a positive food environment. Moving along, the Elementary Schools area contains fun activities such as "Dig In!" and "The Great Garden Detective Adventure." Finally, visitors can also click on over to the Healthy Meals Resource System and the homepage of the National Food Service Management Institute.

2013-04-26

201

Nutrition 9-12  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SciGuides are a collection of thematically aligned lesson plans, simulations, and web-based resources for teachers to use with their students centered on standards-aligned science concepts. Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science

2010-05-24

202

Maternal and Child nutrition  

E-print Network

-date information. I am now working as the breastfeeding coordinator for Hawaii State WIC and I use what I learned relating to public health issues and indispensable breastfeeding and infant nutrition knowledge so that I

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

203

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Soy and Cancer: Wish You Were Young Again Star Speaker Stephen Barnes, PhD Professor, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology University of Alabama Birmingham Birmingham, Alabama Meeting Date Monday, October 04, 2010

204

Effect of copper on the growth of shrimps Litopenaeus vannamei: water parameters and copper budget in a recirculating system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shrimps ( Litopenaeus vannamei) were intensively cultured in a recirculating aquaculture system for 98 days to investigate effects of 0.3 mg/L Cu on its performance, Cu budget, and Cu distribution. Shrimps in Cu-treated systems had greater mean final weight (11.10 vs 10.50 g), body length (107.23 vs 106.42 mm), survival rate (67.80% vs 66.40%), and yield (6.42 vs 5.99 kg/m3), and lower feed conversion ratio (1.20 vs 1.29) than those in control systems but the differences were not significant. Vibrio numbers remained stable (104-106 colony forming units/mL) in the rearing tanks of both control and treated systems. Total ammonium-N, nitrite-N, nitrate-N, pH, chemical oxygen demand, 5-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were similar in controls and treatments. Dissolved Cu concentration in the treated systems decreased from 0.284 to 0.089 mg/L while in the control systems it increased from 0.006 2 to 0.018 mg/L. The main sources of Cu in the treated systems were the artificially added component (75.7% of total input), shrimp feed (21.0%), water (2.06%), and shrimp biomass (1.22%). The major outputs of Cu occurred via the mechanical filter (41.7%), water renewal (15.6%), and draining of the sediment trap (15.1%). The foam fractionator removed only 0.69% of total Cu input. Harvested shrimp biomass accounted for 11.68% of Cu input. The Cu concentration of shrimps in the Cu-treated systems (30.70 mg/kg wet weight) was significantly higher than that in control systems (22.02 mg/kg). Both were below the maximum permissible concentration (50 mg/kg) for Cu in seafood for human consumption in China. Therefore, recirculating systems can be used for commercial on-growing of Litopenaeus vannamei without loss of shrimp quality, even in water polluted by 0.30 mg/L Cu. The mechanical filter is the main route for Cu removal.

Cheng, Bo; Liu, Ying; Yang, Hongsheng; Song, Yi; Li, Xian

2014-09-01

205

Dissemination of Nutritional Knowledge in Germany – Nutrition Circle, 3D Food Pyramid and 10 Nutrition Guidelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Presentation of the general concept of the German Nutrition Society for a successful dissemination of nutritional knowledge. Methods: Evaluation of actual material used for nutrition education and teaching. Results: In Germany, different validated instruments on the basis of actual scientific evidence are available. Quantitative aspects can be easily enlightened with the help of the Nutrition Circle. Information concerning optimal

Peter Stehle

2007-01-01

206

Nutrition and Pharmacologic Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide public health problem and a progressive, debilitating condition. People with CKD\\u000a are at high risk of malnutrition, and the first priority of nutrition therapy must focus on the prevention and\\/or treatment\\u000a of protein energy malnutrition. Additional nutrition therapy goals include slowing the progression of CKD and its uremic complications\\u000a and preventing renal osteodystrophy,

Kathy Schiro Harvey

207

Nutritional requirements of sesame  

E-print Network

L)&RARYi ~st t~6~ 0F TEXACO NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAME A Thesis By JOE C. ELLER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in. partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of M... AS TER 0 F SCIENC E January 1958 Major Subject: Agronomy NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS OF SESAME A Thesis JOE C. ELLER Approved. as to style and content by. ' Chairman of Committee Head qg Department January 1958 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes...

Eller, Joe C

2012-06-07

208

Nutritional support in cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms and mediators behind the complex syndrome of cancer cachexia are being elucidatedslowly. Recent evidence suggests that pro-inflammatory cytokines and tumour-specific cachectic factors may be important. The failure of conventional nutritional support to improve nutritional status and hence improve the efficacy of standard anti-neoplastic therapy (surgery or chemotherapy) may be explained at least in part by the persistent action

K. C. H. Fearon

2001-01-01

209

Structure of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in binary complexes with purine and pyrimidine nucleoside diphosphates.  

PubMed

Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK; EC 2.7.4.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the third phosphorylation of nucleoside diphosphates, leading to nucleoside triphosphates for DNA replication. Expression of the NDK from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvNDK) is known to be regulated under viral infection. Also, as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry, LvNDK binds both purine and pyrimidine deoxynucleoside diphosphates with high binding affinity for dGDP and dADP and with no heat of binding interaction for dCDP [Quintero-Reyes et al. (2012), J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 44, 325-331]. In order to investigate the differences in selectivity, LvNDK was crystallized as binary complexes with both acceptor (dADP and dCDP) and donor (ADP) phosphate-group nucleoside diphosphate substrates and their structures were determined. The three structures with purine or pyrimidine nucleotide ligands are all hexameric. Also, the binding of deoxy or ribonucleotides is similar, as in the former a water molecule replaces the hydrogen bond made by Lys11 to the 2'-hydroxyl group of the ribose moiety. This allows Lys11 to maintain a catalytically favourable conformation independently of the kind of sugar found in the nucleotide. Because of this, shrimp NDK may phosphorylate nucleotide analogues to inhibit the viral infections that attack this organism. PMID:25195883

López-Zavala, Alonso A; Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesús S; Stojanoff, Vivian; Weichsel, Andrzej; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

2014-09-01

210

Accumulation and Elimination of Enrofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin in Tissues of Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Laboratory and Farm Conditions  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to quantify the accumulation and elimination of Enrofloxacin (ENRO) and Ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei under controlled laboratory and farm conditions. Laboratory- and farm-raised shrimp were given feed supplemented with 200?mg/kg ENRO for 14 days, followed by a 16-day diet without antibiotics. The levels of ENRO and CIPRO were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the laboratory, ENRO concentrations in the muscle and hepatopancreas reached a maximum (Cmax) of 0.54 ± 0.26??g/g and 3.52 ± 1.9??g/g, respectively; Cmax values for CIPRO in the laboratory were 0.18 ± 0.13??g/g (muscle) and 1.05 ± 0.20??g/g (hepatopancreas). In farmed shrimp, Cmax values for ENRO were 0.36 ± 0.17??g/g muscle and 1.60 ± 0.82??g/g in the hepatopancreas; CIPRO Cmax values were 0.03 ± 0.02??g/g (muscle) and 0.36 ± 0.08??g/g (hepatopancreas). Two to fourteen days were necessary to eliminate both antibiotics from muscular tissue and four to more fourteen days for complete elimination of the antibiotics from the hepatopancreas. These results should be considered in terms of minimum concentrations necessary to inhibit Vibrio bacteria to determine whether the current use of this antibiotic is effective in controlling disease. PMID:22779008

Flores-Miranda, Brisa Marisol; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angelica; Gomez-Jimenez, Silvia; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso Alexis; Gonzalez-Carrillo, Hayde Hayamai; Bermudez-Almada, Maria del Carmen

2012-01-01

211

Salmonid alphavirus replicon is functional in fish, mammalian and insect cells and in vivo in shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) is the etiological agent of pancreas disease in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Sleeping disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). SAV differs from alphaviruses infecting terrestrial animals in that it infects salmonid fish at low temperatures and does not use an arthropod vector for transmission. In this study we have shown that a SAVbased replicon could express proteins when driven by the subgenomic promoter in vitro in cells from fish, mammals and insects, as well as in vivo in shrimps (Litopanaeus vannamei). The SAV-replicon was found to be functional at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C. Protein expression was slow and moderate compared to that reported from terrestrial alphavirus replicons or from vectors where protein expression was under control of the immediate early CMV-promoter. No cytopathic effect was visually observable in cells transfected with SAV-replicon vectors. Double stranded RNA was present for several days after transfection of the SAV-replicon in fish cell lines and its presence was indicated also in shrimp. The combination of prolonged dsRNA production, low toxicity, and wide temperature range for expression, may potentially be advantageous for the use of the SAV replicon to induce immune responses in aquaculture of fish and shrimp. PMID:24120486

Olsen, Christel M; Pemula, Anand Kumar; Braaen, Stine; Sankaran, Krishnan; Rimstad, Espen

2013-11-19

212

Effect of salinity on the biosynthesis of amines in Litopenaeus vannamei and the expression of gill related ion transporter genes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examined the effect of salinity on the expression of Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA) ?-subunit and vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) ?-subunit gene in the gill of Litopenaeus vannamei. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay showed that the expression of NKA ?-subunit and V-ATPase ?-subunit gene was significantly influenced by salinity. It was found that the NKA activity significantly varied with salinity in time and dose dependent manner; whereas the V-ATPase activity did not. The abundance of NKA ?-subunit gene transcript increased rapidly when the salinity decreased from 26b to 21, and slowly when the salinity decreased from 26 to 31 within the first 24 h. When the salinity decreased from 26 to 21, the transcription of NKA ?-subunit gene in gill epithelium was higher at 12 h than that at 0 h, which was consistent with the result of immunoblotting assay of NKA ?-subunit. In addition, salinity had a significant time- and dose-dependent effect on the concentration of biogenic amines in both hemolymph and gill. As compared to other parameters, the concentration of dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) varied in different patterns when the salinity decreased from 26 to 21 or increased from 26 to 31, suggesting that DA and 5-HT played different regulatory roles in osmotic adaption and modulation of shrimp when salinity varies.

Pan, Luqing; Liu, Hongyu; Zhao, Qun

2014-06-01

213

Goals for Preventive Nutrition in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Low- and middle-income countries increasingly face extremely complex problems in the arena of public health nutrition. Persistent\\u000a endemic malnutrition affecting primarily children and women of reproductive age contributes hugely to global burdens of disease\\u000a and disability. Recent estimates are that one-third of child deaths worldwide and 11% of the global disease burden are due\\u000a to largely preventable maternal and child

Osman M. Galal; Gail G. Harrison

214

Molecular Characterizations of a Novel Putative DNA-Binding Protein LvDBP23 in Marine Shrimp L. vannamei Tissues and Molting Stages  

PubMed Central

Background Litopenaeus Vannamei, well known as pacific white shrimp, is the most popular shrimp in the world shrimp market. Identification and characterization of shrimp muscle regulatory genes are not only important for shrimp genetic improvement, but also facilitate comparative genomic tools for understanding of muscle development and regeneration. Methodology/Principal Findings A novel mRNA encoding for a putative DNA-binding protein LvDBP23 was identified from Litopenaeus vannamei abdominal muscle cDNA library. The LvDBP23 cDNA contains 639 nucleotides of protein-coding sequence with deduced 212 amino acids of predicted molecular mass 23.32 kDa with glycine-rich domain at amino acid position 94–130. The mRNA sequence is successfully used for producing LvDBP23 recombinant protein in sf9 insect cell expression system. The expression of LvDBP23 mRNA is presented in abdominal muscle and swimming leg muscle, as well as other tissues including intestine, lymphoid and gill. The mRNA expression has the highest level in abdominal muscle in all tested tissues. LVDBP23 transcript during the molt cycle is highly expressed in the intermolt stage. In vitro nucleic acid-binding assays reveal that LvDBP23 protein can bind to both ssDNA and dsDNA, indicating its possible role of regulation of gene transcription. Conclusions/Significance We are the first to report a DNA-binding protein identified from the abdominal muscle tissue of marine shrimp L. Vannamei. Its high-level specific expression during the intermot stage suggests its role in the regulation of muscle buildup during the growth phase of shrimp molt cycle. PMID:21625495

Laoong-u-thai, Yanisa; Zhao, Baoping; Phongdara, Amornrat; Yang, Jinzeng

2011-01-01

215

Administration of the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis enhanced the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.  

PubMed

White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which had been injected with the hot-water extract of Spirulina platensis at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), or immersed in aerated seawater containing extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1) were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 1.5 x 10(6) or 1.4 x 10(6) colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp(-1), and then placed in seawater. Survival rates of shrimp that received the extract of S. platensis at 6-20 microg g(-1), and those of shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 400 and 600 mg L(-1) were significantly higher than those of control shrimp after 24-96 and 48-96 h, respectively. In a separate experiment, the hyaline cell (HC) count, granular cell (GC, including semi-granular cell) count, total haemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, and lysozyme activity were measured when shrimp were injected with the extract at 6, 10, and 20 microg g(-1), and immersed in seawater containing the extract at 200, 400, and 600 mg L(-1). These parameters directly increased with the concentration, and significantly increased when shrimp were immersed in the seawater containing the extract at 0.5-4 h. L. vannamei that received all doses of the extract via injection or via immersion all had increased phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to V. alginolyticus at 12-72 h and 3-4 h, respectively. It was concluded that L. vannamei that received the hot-water extract of S. platensis had enhanced innate immunity and increased resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:20139007

Tayag, Carina Miranda; Lin, Yong-Chin; Li, Chang-Che; Liou, Chyng-Hwa; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2010-01-01

216

Nutrition of the elderly.  

PubMed Central

The progressively increasing number of elderly people in the Canadian population and the disproportionate expenditure on their health care has stimulated interest in prevention of common illnesses observed in this age group. It is now recognized that nutrition plays an important role in health status, and both undernutrition and overnutrition are associated with greater risk of morbidity and mortality. Nutritional problems in the elderly can be suspected if there are several high-risk factors present--for example, living alone, physical or mental disability, recent loss of spouse or friend, weight loss, use of multiple medications, poverty, and high consumption of alcohol. Physical examination, anthropometry, and measurements of serum albumin levels and hemoglobin and lymphocyte counts are simple but helpful tools in confirming the presence of nutritional disorders. The prevention and correction of nutritional problems is likely to prove beneficial in the management of common geriatric illnesses. In these efforts, it is desirable to have a team approach in which the physician, the dietitian and the nurse each have a defined interactive role. Home care support services are important adjuncts in continuing care. Nutrition should receive a greater emphasis in the training of physicians and other health professionals. PMID:1959109

Chandra, R K; Imbach, A; Moore, C; Skelton, D; Woolcott, D

1991-01-01

217

ISS Update: Nutrition Manager Talks About Children's Book '??Space Nutrition'  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Scott Smith, Manager of Nutritional Biochemistry at Johnson Space Center, about the children'??s book he co-authored called "Space Nutrition."? T...

218

The effects of body weight, temperature, salinity, pH, light intensity and feeding condition on lethal DO levels of whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tolerance of whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to different temperatures (14.5, 21.5, 24.8, 27.8, 30.8, and 35.0 °C), salinities (9, 15, 26, 35, and 40‰), pH (3.3, 6.5, 7.7, 8.1, and 9.2), and light intensities (strong 2100 lx and weak 60 lx) at various body weights (3.0, 3.7, 4.3, 5.7, 7.8, 9.0, 9.5, 10.7, 11.9, and 13.3 g) and feeding conditions (fed

Peidong Zhang; Xiumei Zhang; Jian Li; Guoqiang Huang

2006-01-01

219

7 CFR 1150.116 - Nutrition education.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 true Nutrition education. 1150.116 Section 1150...Definitions § 1150.116 Nutrition education. Nutrition education means those activities intended...nutritional principles, including the role of milk and dairy products...

2010-01-01

220

[Nutrition and HIV infection].  

PubMed

The HIV infection leads to many nutritional problems. For a long time, the Wasting Syndrome was one of the most frequent inaugural features of AIDS and still concerns many patients. The weight loss worsens the prognosis of the disease. The reduced dietary intakes, the increased digestive losses and energetic expenditure result in severe malnutrition. Therefore, the nutritional support and its association with orexigenes, anabolic agents and physical activity has to be carefully selected. The adverse events of new antiretroviral drugs influence the nutritional state and the patient's compliance towards their treatments. For lipodystrophy, whose etiology is still unknown, no treatment has yet been found. Metabolic disorders (dyslipidemia, glucose intolerance, diabetes, etc.) in this presently chronic disease require particular attention since they increase cardiovascular risks. In general they are sensitive to a dietary approach. PMID:11723703

Karsegard, V L; Genton, L; Raguso, C; Pichard, C

2001-09-01

221

Nutrition in Severe Dementia  

PubMed Central

An increasing proportion of older adults with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias are now surviving to more advanced stages of the illness. Advanced dementia is associated with feeding problems, including difficulty in swallowing and respiratory diseases. Patients become incompetent to make decisions. As a result, complex situations may arise in which physicians and families decide whether artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is likely to be beneficial for the patient. The objective of this paper is to present methods for evaluating the nutritional status of patients with severe dementia as well as measures for the treatment of nutritional disorders, the use of vitamin and mineral supplementation, and indications for ANH and pharmacological therapy. PMID:22645608

Pivi, Glaucia Akiko Kamikado; Bertolucci, Paulo Henrique Ferreira; Schultz, Rodrigo Rizek

2012-01-01

222

Nutrition Services in Illinois. Feeding Programs and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication lists information about Illinois state agencies and organizations that participate in feeding programs and/or have nutrition programs and nutrition services available to the public. This nutrition services sourcebook lists where one can go for help and available information and services. Statewide organizations which support…

Illinois State Council on Nutrition, Springfield.

223

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition  

E-print Network

usask.ca/pharmacy-nutrition College of Pharmacy and Nutrition Annual Report 2011-12 #12;Table ................................................................................................. 5 Awards Pharmacy Management Business Plan Competition 2012 Faculty Highlights ........................................................................................................16 College of Pharmacy and Nutrition / Thorvaldson Building / 110 Science Place / Saskatoon, SK S7N 5

Saskatchewan, University of

224

Nutrition Education for Native Americans: A Guide for Nutrition Educators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written for professionals working with food assistance and other programs with a nutrition component, this guide is intended to aid in understanding the cultural characteristics and basic health and diet-related problems of Native Americans and to promote more effective nutrition counseling and community nutrition education. The background section…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

225

Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition  

E-print Network

Food Science and Nutrition Department of Food Science and Nutrition Institute for Food Safety of Food Science and Nutrition (FdSN) at the School of Applied Technology and the Institute for Food Safety experts, provides a unique training ground for individuals seeking graduate education in food safety

Heller, Barbara

226

Nutrition Counts. Massachusetts Nutrition Surveillance System. FY90 Annual Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Nutrition Counts," the pediatric portion of the Massachusetts Department of Public Health's (MDPH) Nutrition Surveillance System, monitors and describes aspects of nutritional status among groups of young children in the state. This report presents cross-sectional data describing 5,176 infants and young children in Massachusetts. Of these, 3,181…

Wiecha, Jean L.; And Others

227

Special Food and Nutrition Needs in School Nutrition Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of special food and/or nutrition needs in school nutrition programs. In addition, researchers focused on the issues surrounding these needs and the role of the school nutrition (SN) directors and managers in meeting these needs. Methods: An expert panel was used to…

Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Nettles, Mary Frances

2010-01-01

228

The Importance of Appropriate Nutrition and Nutrition Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how nutrition education may be implemented in early childhood classrooms. Describes the incidence of malnutrition and obesity, and topics covered--the food pyramid, vegetable growth, and nutritional needs--through several integrated nutrition units including: (1) the bread basket; (2) potatoes; (3) vegetable soup; (4) fruit basket; (5)…

Fuhr, Janet E.; Barclay, Kathy H.

1998-01-01

229

Preconception care: nutritional risks and interventions  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive strategies (such as food fortification; integration of nutrition initiatives with other maternal and child health interventions; and community based platforms) is necessary among adolescent girls and women of reproductive age. The effectiveness of interventions will need to be simultaneously monitored, and form the basis for the development of improved delivery strategies and new nutritional interventions.

2014-01-01

230

Use the Nutrition Facts Label  

MedlinePLUS

... For Health Professionals Tools and Resources Promotional Materials Programming Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ... Training For Health Professionals Tools & Resources Promotional ... Materials Weight Management Nutrition Physical Activity Reduce Screen ...

231

Nutrition and Health in Canada.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report provides an overview of nutrition in Canadian society, focussing particularly on those aspects which influence individual choices and preferences. The material is organized as follows: Section II examines the setting of nutrition in Canada in t...

I. M. Ducharme, M. Adam, J. A. Bachynsky, M. Ballantyne, P. G. Banister

1979-01-01

232

Nutrition and You: Trends 2011  

MedlinePLUS

... Google+ You Tube Twitter Facebook Welcome to the Media Press Room Home > Media In This Section Quicklinks ... PhD, RD Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 Presentation Media Releases Introduction to Nutrition and You: Trends 2011 ...

233

Comparison in nutritional quality between wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the proximate composition and the amino and fatty acid profiles of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (prey) and wild and cultured cuttlefish Sepia pharaonis (the latter fed the prey) were determined and compared with FAO/WHO recommendations. The resulting scores for isoleucine, phenylalanine+tyrosine, histidine, lysine, threonine, and tryptophan in cultured cuttlefish were ?150. The ratio of EAA (essential amino acids)/nonessential amino acids in cultured cuttlefish (0.82) was higher than in the wild form (0.80). All EAA amino acid scores for cultured cuttlefish were higher than their wild counterparts, except for histidine and tryptophan. Both groups of cuttlefish possessed similar saturated fatty acid content, with the cultured containing much more total (?) monounsaturated fatty acids, ? n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3) but less ? n-3 PUFA, arachidonic acid (C20:4 n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) than their wild counterparts. Therefore, the present results suggest that these cultured cuttlefish were better than the wild form for human health. Notably, these results also indicate that the nutritional composition of these cuttlefish might have been significantly affected by diet.

Wen, Jing; Chen, Daohai; Zeng, Ling

2014-01-01

234

Consumer attitudes to nutrition labelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research findings have suggested that today’s consumers view nutrition in a positive light. The findings of this survey support such evidence. The majority of consumers consider diet to be a very important component of their lifestyles and regard nutrition as a positive attribute of food products. A high level of awareness of nutrition labelling is evident among consumers, and 58

Angela Shine; Seamus O’Reilly; Kathleen O’Sullivan

1997-01-01

235

Sports Nutrition for Young Athletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutritional needs for peak athletic performance include sufficient calorie intake, adequate hydration, and attention to timing of meals. Student athletes and their advisors often are misinformed or have misconceptions about sports nutrition. This paper identifies nutritional needs of young athletes, reviews common misconceptions, and examines the…

Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E.; McBee, Sheldon

2005-01-01

236

Nutrition Education Needs Pantry Clients  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two food pantries were surveyed for nutrition education (NE) interests and experiences. One site provided nutrition education classes; the comparison site was utilized to assess client interest in class topics. "Fixing low cost meals," "fixing quick and easy recipes," and "stretching food and food dollars" were topics rated highly by nutrition…

Wood, Dolores K.; Shultz, Jill Armstrong; Edlefsen, Miriam; Butkus, Sue N.

2007-01-01

237

Nutritional deficiencies after bariatric surgery.  

PubMed

A current review of nutritional complications following bariatric procedures is presented, focusing on the most common and clinically important deficiencies. A brief outline of nutritional supplementation protocol is presented, highlighting the need for a standardized, national or international set of guidelines for pre- and postoperative nutritional screening and appropriate supplementation. PMID:18074487

Davies, D J; Baxter, J M; Baxter, J N

2007-09-01

238

Nutrition for healthy pregnancy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many healthcare professionals and their patients are aware of the importance of proper nutrition during preg- nancy, but may not be aware of specific nutritional recommendations on how to achieve a healthy pregnancy outcome. This review article aims to discuss the implications maternal nutritional status and weight gain have in both the short and long terms. Babies born to mothers

Tannys Vause; Pat Martz; Francesca Richard; Leah Gramlich

2006-01-01

239

Nutrition, health and human rights  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us begin with an unequivocal assertion: proper nutrition and health are funda- mental human rights. What does this mean? What are the primary links between nutrition and health seen from a human-rights perspective? Firstly, nutrition is a cornerstone that affects and defines the health of all people, rich and poor. It paves the way for us to grow, develop,

Gro Harlem Brundtland

240

The Federal Government and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Both the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services conduct research related to food and human nutrition. Several federal programs supporting nutrition research and education are reviewed. Footnotes provide addresses and ways to obtain more detailed information about nutrition related programs. (JN)

Powers, Margaret A.

1980-01-01

241

Nutrition in Children's Sports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Young athletes need to be aware of the importance of good nutrition to athletic performance. A basic diet plan, worked out with a physician to satisfy energy and weight needs, is essential. The best eating schedule and amount and type of food varies with different sports depending on the intensity and duration of physical activity. Weight control…

Smith, Nathan J.

242

Nutritional Supplements and Doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: The problems of doping in sport and the increasing use of nutritional supplements by athletes are issues that inter- sect to the degree that a large number of supplements may contain substances that are banned in sport. Many supplements contain substances that are associated with significant health hazards. Athletes consuming such supplement products may jeopardize their sporting status, and

Andrew Pipe; Christiane Ayotte

243

Teenage Nutrition and Physique.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Body size, composition, and conformation in a teen-age population, and associated factors were studied to obtain useful data for planning programs in public health nutrition. This book describes the purpose, methods, and findings of this four-year longitudinal and cross-sectional study conducted in Berkeley, California, during the years 1961 to…

Huenemann, Ruth L.; And Others

244

Sports Nutrition Reference Guide  

E-print Network

and optimal sports drinks (containing 4-8% carbohydrate and about 100 mg sodium per cup) before, during fluid, and urine formation will stop. H--SportsNutrition 176 #12;How much should I drink right after faster and minimizing fatigue after exercise. Are sports drinks better than water for athletes? Water

245

Sleep, Exercise, and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The first part of this booklet concerns why sleep and exercise are necessary. It includes a discussion of what occurs during sleep and what dreams are. It also deals with the benefits of exercise, fatigue, posture, and the correlation between exercise and personality. The second part concerns nutrition and the importance of food. This part covers…

Harrelson, Orvis A.; And Others

246

Nutritional Management of Phenylketonuria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, needed to convert the essential amino acid (AA) phenylalanine (phe) to tyrosine. In order to prevent neurological damage, lifelong adherence to a low-phe diet that is restricted in natural foods and requires ingestion of a phe-free AA formula to meet protein needs is required. The goal of nutritional

Erin L. MacLeod; Denise M. Ney

2010-01-01

247

Nutrition, sleep and recovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ensuring athletes achieve an appropriate quality and\\/or quantity of sleep may have significant implications for performance and recovery and reduce the risk of developing overreaching or overtraining. Indeed, sleep is often anecdotally suggested to be the single best recovery strategy available to elite athletes. A number of nutritional factors have been suggested to improve sleep, including valerian, melatonin, tryptophan, a

Shona L. Halson

2008-01-01

248

Nutrition and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between nutrition and lung cancer is reviewed. Observational studies of diet and lung cancer, both prospective and retrospective, continue to suggest strongly that increased vegetable and fruit intake is associated with reduced risk in men and women; in various countries; in smokers, ex-smokers, and never-smokers; and for all histologic types of lung cancer. Prospective studies

Regina G. Ziegler; Susan Taylor Mayne; Christine A. Swanson

1996-01-01

249

Nutritional issues for women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the health concerns of women at different life stages are affected by nutrition. Diet is one lifestyle factor that is amenable to change. Health practitioners have a major role to play in helping women to adopt a healthier diet in order to gain the benefits that this offers. Women of all ages cite losing weight as one of

Orla Hugueniot

2004-01-01

250

Nutrition in Pediatric Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Pediatric cardiomyopathies are heterogeneous groups of serious disorders of the heart muscle and are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality among children who have the disease. While enormous improvements have been made in the treatment and survival of children with congenital heart disease, parallel strides have not been made in the outcomes for cardiomyopathies. Thus, ancillary therapies, such as nutrition and nutritional interventions, that may not cure but may potentially improve cardiac function and quality of life, are imperative to consider in children with all types of cardiomyopathy. Growth failure is one of the most significant clinical problems of children with cardiomyopathy with nearly one-third of children with this disorder manifesting some degree of growth failure during the course of their illness. Optimal intake of macronutrients can help improve cardiac function. In addition, several specific nutrients have been shown to correct myocardial abnormalities that often occur with cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In particular, antioxidants that can protect against free radical damage that often occurs in heart failure and nutrients that augment myocardial energy production are important therapies that have been explored more in adults with cardiomyopathy than in the pediatric population. Future research directions should pay particular attention to the effect of overall nutrition and specific nutritional therapies on clinical outcomes and quality of life in children with pediatric cardiomyopathy. PMID:18159216

Miller, Tracie L.; Neri, Daniela; Extein, Jason; Somarriba, Gabriel; Strickman-Stein, Nancy

2007-01-01

251

Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

252

Nutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE  

E-print Network

are online. Important Dates Please visit the program web site for application deadlines and program datesNutrition Online GRADUATE CERTIFICATE PROGRAMS Reach your career goals while you continue to work from anywhere in the world with three unique programs for mid-career professionals. Online Programs in

Tufts University

253

Nutritional optic neuropathy.  

PubMed

Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy. PMID:25345287

Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia

2014-01-01

254

Nutrition in pregnancy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological evidence shows that women living in affluent circumstances have bigger babies with a lower mortality than underpriviliged women. How much of that effect is due to nutrition alone is not known but supplementary feeding in pregnancy of chronically ill nourished women does appear to increase mean birth weight, and famine conditions in a basically well nourished community reduce the

F. E. Hytten

1979-01-01

255

Nutrition and Stroke Prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Nutrition is much,more important in prevention of stroke than is appreciated by most physicians. The powerful effects of statin drugs in lowering the levels of fasting cholesterol, combined with an unbalanced focus on fasting lipids (as opposed to postprandial fat and oxidative stress), have led many physicians and patients to believe that diet is relatively unimportant. Because the statins can

Marc Fisher; Kennedy Lees; J. David Spence

2009-01-01

256

Nutrition during teenage pregnancy.  

PubMed

The nutritional needs of pregnant adolescents are the greatest at a time when it is most difficult to meet them. Dieting, skipping meals, snacking, eating away from home, consuming fast foods, and trying unconventional diets are common eating behaviors among adolescents, which relate to their changing lifestyles of increased independence, busy schedules, search for self-identity, peer influence, group conformity, and body image dissatisfaction. Total nutritional needs of pregnant adolescents who are at least 2-year post-menarche are similar to those of pregnant adults. But, because of their poor dietary habits, they usually enter pregnancy with reduced nutrient stores and increased risk of nutritional deficiencies. All pregnant teens, therefore, should have their dietary habits assessed along with special dietary counseling, and vitamin-mineral supplements should be recommended if their usual nutritional intake is below standard. Also, the weight-gain pattern should be monitored to ensure that energy intakes are sufficient to support a gain of about 0.4 kg (1 lb) per week in the second and third trimester. PMID:8493060

Gutierrez, Y; King, J C

1993-02-01

257

Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

Lee, Carolyn

258

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis. The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary

Maurice Laville; Denis Fouque

2000-01-01

259

Iron nutrition in adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to increased dietary requirements for growth and development. Iron needs are elevated as a result of intensive growth and muscular development, which implies an increase in blood volume; thus, it is extremely important for the adolescent's iron requirements to be met. Diet, therefore, must provide enough iron and, moreover, nutrients producing

MARTA MESÍAS; ISABEL SEIQUER; M. PILAR NAVARRO

2012-01-01

260

Immunity and Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The three articles in this issue of a periodical focussed on various aspects of the life and health of children in the tropics concern: (1) immune defenses; (2) interactions between nutrition disorders and infection; and (3) immunity and vaccination. The science of immunology has progressed rapidly in recent years. A brief review of present…

Dupin, Henri; Guerin, Nicole

1990-01-01

261

Nutrition in Team Sports  

Microsoft Academic Search

Team sports are based on intermittent high-intensity activity patterns, but the exact characteristics vary between and within codes, and from one game to the next. Despite the challenge of predicting exact game demands, performance in team sports is often dependent on nutritional factors. Chronic issues include achieving ideal levels of muscle mass and body fat, and supporting the nutrient needs

Iñigo Mujika; Louise M. Burke

2010-01-01

262

Nutrition: What is Food?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the first of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It demonstrates that all

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2010-05-24

263

Nutrition: What are Nutrients?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science Objects are two hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach This Science Object is the third of four Science Objects in the Nutrition SciPack. It explores nutrients and

2010-05-24

264

Director of Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

sugary soft drinks, chips, and chocolate bars in school vending machines. Some school fund- raisers even enlisted students as a miniature sales force to hawk chocolate confections to pay for school trips, library books, and sports equipment. Health Canada should help establish na- tional model nutrition standards for school meals, vending machines, and fundraising activities. In the classroom, we don't

Stephen B. Schmidt; Jayne Hurley; David Schardt; Senior Nutritionists; Heather Jones; Tamara Goldis; Danielle Weinberg; Debra Brink; James Nocera; Damon Dorsey; Myriam Pierre; Louella Fennell; Cecilia Saad; Greg Hildebrandt; Chris Schmidt; Ken Waldmiller; Greta R. Bunin; Caldwell B. Esselstyn Jr; Stephen Havas; David Jacobs; Norman M. Kaplan; JoAnn E. Manson; Susan Taylor Mayne; Julie Mares

2005-01-01

265

The Science of Nutrition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nutrition and learning are inextricably connected. Protein, fat, B vitamins, iron, choline, and antioxidants promote brain functions. The USDA's "Food Guide Pyramid for Young Children" (and adaptations for school-age kids) offers guidelines for formulating a child's diet. Breakfast, family meal-sharing, and exercise are essential. (Contains 23…

Wolfe, Pat; Burkman, Mary Anne; Streng, Katharina

2000-01-01

266

Insects: A nutritional alternative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Insects are considered as potential food sources in space. Types of insects consumed are discussed. Hazards of insect ingestion are considered. Insect reproduction, requirements, and raw materials conversion are discussed. Nutrition properties and composition of insects are considered. Preparation of insects as human food is discussed.

Dufour, P. A.

1981-01-01

267

[Microorganisms effect with probiotic potential in water quality and growth of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in intensive culture].  

PubMed

The use of probiotics has gained acceptance in aquaculture, particularly in maintaining water quality and enhancing growth in organisms. This study analyzed the effect of the commercial (EM, Japan) natural product composed by (Rhodopseudomonas palustris, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) added to the water, in order to determine its effect in water quality, sediment and growth of L. vannamei under intensive culture. The evaluation included three treatments with a weekly addition of EM: i) tanks without probiotics (C), ii) tanks with a dose of 4 L/ha (EM1) and iii) tanks with a dose of 10 L/ha (EM2). The treatment C was carried out three times, while treatments EM1 and EM2 were carried out four times. A total of 4 350 shrimps were measured for total length and weight, to calculate total and porcentual weight gain, daily weight gain, specific growth rate (TCE), and food conversion factor (FCA); besides, the survival rate was estimated. The use of probiotics allowed a shorter harvest time in treatments EM1 (90 d) and EM2 (105 d) with relation to the treatment C (120d). Treatments EM1 and EM2 were within the recommended intervals for culture, with respect to treatment C. The use of probiotic bacteria significantly regulated pH (EM1, 8.03 +/- 0.33; EM2, 7.77 +/- 0.22; C, 9.08 +/- 0.35) and reduced nitrate concentration (EM1, 0.64 +/- 0.25 mg/L; EM2, 0.39 +/- 0.26 mg/L; C, 0.71 mg/L). Water pH mostly explained the variance with respect to the treatments. Treatment EM2 presented the greatest removal of organic matter (1.77 +/- 0.45%), whereas the contents of extractable phosphorus increased significantly in treatment EM1 with 21.6 +/- 7.99 mg/kg and in treatment EM2 with 21.6 +/- 8.45 mg/kg with control relation (14.3 +/- 5.47). The shrimp growth was influenced by dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the sediment, establishing that salinity was the most important variable in the weight with a negative association. Treatment EM1 recorded an improved TCE (2.69 +/- 0.35%/d) and FCA (1.46 +/- 0.20) with relation to the control treatment (TCE, 1.88 +/- 0.25%/d; FCA, 2.13 +/- 0.48). Survival was significantly greater in treatments containing probiotics with 61 +/- 8.76% and 60 +/- 10.5% for EM1 and EM2, respectively. This study indicated the positive effect obtained with the use of this commercial probiotic, to improve culture conditions and growth parameters in an intensive culture of L. vannamei. PMID:24027919

Melgar Valdes, Carolina Esther; Barba Macías, Everardo; Alvarez-González, Carlos Alfonso; Tovilla Hernández, Cristian; Sánchez, Alberto J

2013-09-01

268

Effect of dietary potassium on growth, nitrogen metabolism, osmoregulation and immunity of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in low salinity seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An 8 weeks feeding experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary potassium on the growth and physiological acclimation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) reared in diluted seawater (salinity 4). Six semi-purified practical diets containing 0.59, 0.96, 1.26, 1.48, 1.74, and 2.17 g potassium K+ per 100 g diet were formulated, respectively. The survival and feed conversion rate did not show significant difference among groups of shrimps given these diets (P>0.05). The shrimps fed the diets containing 0.96-1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet gained the highest weight, specific growth rate, and protein efficiency ratio. Their ammonium-N excretion rate as well as hemolymph concentration of Na+ and Cl- were significantly lower than those of the control (P<0.05), but a reverse trend was observed for their gill Na+/K+-ATPase. Moreover, the shrimps fed with 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet were the highest in hemolymph urea level, and the phenoloxidase and lysozyme activities were significantly higher than those of the control (P<0.05). The growth and physiological response of the test shrimps suggested that diet containing 1.48 g K+ per 100 g diet improved the growth of L. vannamei in low-salinity seawater, and enhanced the physiological acclimation of the organism.

Liu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinjie; Tan, Beiping; Lin, Yingbo; Chi, Shuyan; Dong, Xiaohui; Yang, Qihui

2013-11-01

269

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications  

PubMed Central

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei. PMID:24086466

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-01-01

270

Functional feed assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei using 100% fish meal replacement by soybean meal, high levels of complex carbohydrates and Bacillus probiotic strains.  

PubMed

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)-carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

2011-01-01

271

Characterization of Four Novel Caspases from Litopenaeus vannamei (Lvcaspase2-5) and Their Role in WSSV Infection through dsRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis plays an important role in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) pathogenesis, and caspases are central players in apoptosis. Here, we cloned four novel caspases (Lvcaspase2-5) from the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, and investigated their potential roles in WSSV replication using dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. Lvcaspase2-5 have the typical domain structure of caspase family proteins, with the conserved consensus motifs p20 and p10. Lvcaspase2 and Lvcaspase5 were highly expressed in muscle, while Lvcaspase3 was highly expressed in hemocytes and Lvcaspase4 was mainly expressed in intestine. Lvcaspase2-5 could also be upregulated by WSSV infection, and they showed different patterns in various tissues. When overexpressed in Drosophila S2 cells, Lvcaspase2-5 showed different cellular localizations. Using dsRNA-medicated gene silencing, the expression of Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3, and Lvcaspase5 were effectively knocked down. In Lvcaspase2-, Lvcaspase3- or Lvcaspase5-silenced L. vannamei, expression of WSSV VP28 gene was significantly enhanced, suggesting protective roles for Lvcaspase2, Lvcaspase3 and Lvcaspase5 in the host defense against WSSV infection. PMID:24376496

Wang, Pei-Hui; Wan, Ding-Hui; Chen, Yong-Gui; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Qiang; He, Jian-Guo

2013-01-01

272

Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains  

PubMed Central

Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulate functional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probiotic strains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed the best performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feeds containing high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures. PMID:21747750

Olmos, Jorge; Ochoa, Leonel; Paniagua-Michel, Jesus; Contreras, Rosalia

2011-01-01

273

Impact of the O2 concentrations on bacterial communities and quality of modified atmosphere packaged Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).  

PubMed

The importance of spoilage-related bacteria in fresh Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under different modified atmospheres (MAs) at 4 °C and the effect of O2 were demonstrated in the current study. The changes of bacterial communities in MA-packed shrimp during cold storage were studied by a combined method of plate counts with isolation and identification. Three gas mixtures were applied: 80% CO2 /5% O2 /15% N2, 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 and 80% CO2 /20% O2, and unsealed packages of shrimp were used as the control. In addition, the TVB-N, pH, whiteness index, and sensory scores were also determined to evaluate the quality changes of shrimp. MA packaging effectively inhibited the increase of total psychrotrophic bacteria counts and H2 S-producing bacteria counts by about 1.7 and 2.1 log cycles, respectively. The growth of Gram-negative spoilage bacteria in shrimp, including Shewanella spp., Aeromonas spp., and Pseudomonas spp., was inhibited by MA packaging, but the growth rate of Gram-positive bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Brochothrix spp. were less affected by MA as effectively as Gram-negative bacteria. In comparison with the MA-packaged samples, the counts of H2 S producers in shrimp under a CO2 -enriched atmosphere with 20% O2 were slightly lower than the count in samples under an atmosphere with 5% O2 . However, MA with 20% O2 led to higher concentrations of TVB-N, and lower whiteness values and sensory scores. The shelf life of shrimp under 80% CO2 /10% O2 /10% N2 has been prolonged by > 6 d in comparison with the control according to the sensory scores. PMID:24329954

Qian, Yun-Fang; Yang, Sheng-Ping; Xie, Jing; Xiong, Qing; Gao, Zhi-Li

2013-12-01

274

Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection.  

PubMed

In this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. Shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue. In another experiment, the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and respiratory bursts (RBs) were examined after the shrimp had been fed diets containing fucoidan at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-21 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with time. The immune parameters of shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 2.0 g kg(-1) diet after 14 and 21 days. Phagocytic activity and the clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus were significantly higher in shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet compared to those of shrimp fed the 0, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets. In a separate experiment, shrimp that had been fed diets containing fucoidan for 21 days were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 10(6) colony-forming units shrimp(-1). Survival rates of shrimp fed the 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) diets for 96-120 h. We concluded that fucoidan provokes innate immunity of shrimp as evidenced by haemocyte degranulation, proPO activation, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue, and that dietary administration of fucoidan at 1.0 g kg(-1) enhanced the immune response of shrimp and their resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. PMID:23201320

Kitikiew, Suwaree; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa

2013-01-01

275

Nutrition in Africa.  

PubMed

Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation. PMID:12283697

Murray-lee, M

1989-07-01

276

Nutrition issues for space exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crew members begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes in status during a mission, and to assess changes after landing to facilitate return of the crew to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. Nutritional assessment provides the basis for intervention, if it is necessary, to maintain optimal status throughout the mission. We report here our nutritional assessment of the US astronauts who participated in the first 12 International Space Station missions.

Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

2008-09-01

277

Workshop Report: concepts and methods in the economics of nutrition--gateways to better economic evaluation of nutrition interventions.  

PubMed

Improving health through better nutrition of the population may contribute to enhanced efficiency and sustainability of healthcare systems. A recent expert meeting investigated in detail a number of methodological aspects related to the discipline of nutrition economics. The role of nutrition in health maintenance and in the prevention of non-communicable diseases is now generally recognised. However, the main scope of those seeking to contain healthcare expenditures tends to focus on the management of existing chronic diseases. Identifying additional relevant dimensions to measure and the context of use will become increasingly important in selecting and developing outcome measurements for nutrition interventions. The translation of nutrition-related research data into public health guidance raises the challenging issue of carrying out more pragmatic trials in many areas where these would generate the most useful evidence for health policy decision-making. Nutrition exemplifies all the types of interventions and policy which need evaluating across the health field. There is a need to start actively engaging key stakeholders in order to collect data and to widen health technology assessment approaches for achieving a policy shift from evidence-based medicine to evidence-based decision-making in the field of nutrition. PMID:22947201

Lenoir-Wijnkoop, I; Nuijten, M J C; Gutiérrez-Ibarluzea, I; Hutton, J; Poley, M J; Segal, L; Bresson, J L; van Ganse, E; Jones, P; Moreno, L; Salminen, S; Dubois, D

2012-11-14

278

The failure of charitable school- and community-based nutrition programmes to feed hungry children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing rates of child poverty in Canada and recognition of relationships among poverty, compromised nutrition, health and educational opportunities have led to a proliferation of child-feeding programmes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the contributions of charitable school- and community-based nutrition programmes toward meeting their goal of feeding hungry children through a critical ethnography of nine diverse programmes

Kim Raine; Lynn McIntyre; Jutta B. Dayle

2003-01-01

279

NUTRITION OF OYSTERS: GLYCOGEN FORMATION AND ByPhilip H. Mitchell  

E-print Network

NUTRITION OF OYSTERS: GLYCOGEN FORMATION AND STORAGE ByPhilip H. Mitchell Contribution from of Brown University #12;Blank page retained for pagination #12;NUTRITION OF OYSTERS : GLYCOGEN FORMAn the difficulties of producing well-nourished oysters for market are prone to increase. The continued increment

280

Çocuk Kanser Hastalar›nda Beslenme Nutrition in Children with Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Malnutrition is a common event in children with cancer. Both cancer and its therapies contribute to malnutrition in different proportion. Malnutrition predis- poses the child to increased morbidity, poorer outcome and reduction in qual- ity of life. To prevent and\\/or treat malnutrition, children with cancer need to be evaluated their nutritional status and need to be supported nutritionally. (Jour-

Gönül Dinler

281

Education and Nutrition Linkages in Africa: Evidence from National Level Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

National level data were analyzed to establish the nature of association and the magnitude of contribution of education exposure to variance on measures nutritional well-being across Africa. Height and weight dependent anthropometric measures were used to assess nutritional well-being. Literacy (illiteracy) rates were the measures of educational…

Mukudi, E.

2003-01-01

282

Nutritional status and HIV in rural South African children  

PubMed Central

Background Achieving the Millennium Development Goals that aim to reduce malnutrition and child mortality depends in part on the ability of governments/policymakers to address nutritional status of children in general and those infected or affected by HIV/AIDS in particular. This study describes HIV prevalence in children, patterns of malnutrition by HIV status and determinants of nutritional status. Methods The study involved 671 children aged 12-59 months living in the Agincourt sub-district, rural South Africa in 2007. Anthropometric measurements were taken and HIV testing with disclosure was done using two rapid tests. Z-scores were generated using WHO 2006 standards as indicators of nutritional status. Linear and logistic regression analyses were conducted to establish the determinants of child nutritonal status. Results Prevalence of malnutrition, particularly stunting (18%), was high in the overall sample of children. HIV prevalence in this age group was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.79 to 5.97). HIV positive children had significantly poorer nutritional outcomes than their HIV negative counterparts. Besides HIV status, other significant determinants of nutritional outcomes included age of the child, birth weight, maternal age, age of household head, and area of residence. Conclusions This study documents poor nutritional status among children aged 12-59 months in rural South Africa. HIV is an independent modifiable risk factor for poor nutritional outcomes and makes a significant contribution to nutritional outcomes at the individual level. Early paediatric HIV testing of exposed or at risk children, followed by appropriate health care for infected children, may improve their nutritional status and survival. PMID:21439041

2011-01-01

283

Nutrition and socio-economic development in Southeast Asia.  

PubMed

While most Third World countries, particularly in Africa and Latin America, have experienced a deterioration in child welfare as a result of the severe economic downturn in the 1980s, Southeast Asia in general managed to sustain improvements in the situation of its children because it has maintained satisfactory rates of economic growth. However, there were exceptions within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Dem. Kampuchea and Laos had unsatisfactory growth rates and, consequently, unsustained nutritional gains from the 1970s through the 1980s. Economic factors exerted a big impact on the Philippine nutrition situation, particularly on the dietary status of the households and the nutritional status of children. As a result of the economic dislocation occurring in the country, the nutritional gains of 1978-82 were not maintained in succeeding years. Unlike the case of Thailand, it has been estimated that the solution to nutritional problems in the Philippines is far from being achieved in the immediate future (Villavieja et al. 1989). On the other hand, the nutrition improvements in Thailand have been as remarkable as the economic growth over the last decade. Long-term investments in health, nutrition and other social services in Thailand (as well as in Indonesia) have paid off according to the assessment by the United Nations (1990). It appears, therefore, that the nutrition situation in developing countries is highly dependent on the economic situation, globally and nationally (Cornia et al. 1987), as well as on investment in social services. Adjustment policies should, therefore, consider their implications on distribution and poverty in order that they could positively contribute to the improvement of the nutrition of the people. PMID:1508934

Florentino, R F; Pedro, R A

1992-05-01

284

Foundations of Nutrition Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dietitians and nutritionists already know the importance of nutrition science. Now, others can learn more about this field through this course from Tufts University's OpenCourseWare Initiative. This particular course was offered through the Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and was designed with working professionals in mind. The course was developed by Diane McKay and the materials here include the syllabus, a course calendar, and lectures. The course meetings cover sixteen topics, including vitamins, proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates. In the Lectures area, visitors can find overviews of each meeting, along with the audio content for six of the meetings. All in all, it's a nice overview of these critical topics and users will appreciate the accessibility and compelling nature of the course and its delivery. [KMG

Mckay, Diane

2013-01-01

285

Nutrition Support in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Older cancer patients have unique qualities related to aging that place them at nutritional risk during cancer treatment.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Routine assessment of nutritional risk is indicated in older cancer patients.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Comprehensive geriatric assessment of older cancer patients can assist with determination of which older patients can tolerate\\u000a cancer treatment with acceptable levels of morbidity and mortality.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Dietary

Elizabeth Kvale; Christine Seel Ritchie; Lodovico Balducci

286

Evolution of tree nutrition.  

PubMed

Using a broad definition of trees, the evolutionary origins of trees in a nutritional context is considered using data from the fossil record and molecular phylogeny. Trees are first known from the Late Devonian about 380 million years ago, originated polyphyletically at the pteridophyte grade of organization; the earliest gymnosperms were trees, and trees are polyphyletic in the angiosperms. Nutrient transporters, assimilatory pathways, homoiohydry (cuticle, intercellular gas spaces, stomata, endohydric water transport systems including xylem and phloem-like tissue) and arbuscular mycorrhizas preceded the origin of trees. Nutritional innovations that began uniquely in trees were the seed habit and, certainly (but not necessarily uniquely) in trees, ectomycorrhizas, cyanobacterial, actinorhizal and rhizobial (Parasponia, some legumes) diazotrophic symbioses and cluster roots. PMID:20581011

Raven, John A; Andrews, Mitchell

2010-09-01

287

Nutritional biochemistry of spaceflight.  

PubMed

As we approach the end of the first 50 years of human space travel, much has been learned about adaptation to microgravity and the risks associated with extended-duration space exploration. As the frequency and duration of flights grew, nutrition issues became more critical and the questions to be answered became more complex: What are the nutrient requirements for space travelers? Can nutrients be used as tools to mitigate the negative effects of space travel on humans? How does nutrition interrelate with other physiological systems (such as muscle, bone, and cardiovascular system) and their adaptation to microgravity? Much research has been done over the decades in both actual spaceflight and ground-based analogs. We review here much of what is known, and highlight areas of ongoing research and concerns for future exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. PMID:19004188

Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

2008-01-01

288

USDA: Food & Nutrition Service  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Despite the abundance of foodstuffs in the United States, many individuals and families go hungry on a regular basis. There are a number of public and private organizations working to address this problem, and the USDA's Food & Nutrition Service is just such an organization. Their website allows persons working in this area to learn about their various nutrition assistance programs through their online newsroom, their specific program areas, and their "Spotlights" features. For a brief introduction to their current initiatives and work, interested parties should browse on over to the newsroom, where they can learn about recent grant awards, state food stamp participation rates, and disaster assistance. After that, visitors may wish to look at the multimedia materials within the "Eat Smart. Play Hard" feature designed for young people. Here they can learn about the food pyramid and how to eat balanced meals everyday.

289

Investing in Child Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Child malnutrition is pervasive and persistent in Asia, and at present rates it will take decades to halve the prevalence—a goal common to many national plans. Nutrition-oriented programs are familiar in most countries, but have far too low coverage and resources, which is wasteful as well as ineffective. A massive expansion of community-based programs is feasible, with well-established activities (usually

Joseph Hunt; David Parker; Urban Jonsson

290

Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

Eckerson, Joan M.

291

Factors influencing maternal nutrition in rural Nepal: an exploratory research project.  

PubMed

In this pilot project we examined factors contributing to maternal nutrition among women of child-bearing age in the Western Region of Nepal. We found that rural women are interested in learning about nutrition regardless of educational attainment and that level of education is strongly associated with interest in learning about nutrition (p <.001). Although the majority of women with no education expressed interest in learning about nutrition (71%), a substantial percentage (22%) were not interested. Education and the teaching of basic health messages may hold important benefits for improving maternal and child health. PMID:24228638

Schumer, Jean E; Bernell, Stephanie L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Long, Marie L

2014-10-01

292

Nutritional adaptation and variability.  

PubMed

In current nutrition literature man's requirement for energy for a given status and pattern of physical activity and body mass is fixed. Available experimental data on the other hand show that it is variable and self-regulated over a considerable range. This homoeostatic range is associated with covariance of man's genotype with local environmental effect under a sustained perturbation of common external environment. The implication is that man can have his intake anywhere in the range without being under nutritional stress. Below the lower limit of this range man is under energy stress, growth is retarded and man adapts to small body size. Unlike the homoeostatic range, this long-term adaptation is heritable, but there is no evidence that work output equals energy intake in adaptation to low intake. On the contrary, small subjects on a lower plane of nutrition are found to be metabolically more efficient. Evidence is cited to show that it is the decrease in BMR in subjects with low intake which plays a major role in facilitating a higher level of metabolic efficiency for subjects undergoing energy stress. PMID:2707218

Sukhatme, P V

1989-02-01

293

The effects of non-nutritive sweeteners in Florence’s Homestyle Cha-Cha.  

E-print Network

??Non-nutritive sweeteners are alternative sweeteners that provide the taste of sweetness without a caloric contribution. In this Florence’s HomeStyle Cha-Cha study, aspartame, acesulfame K, sodium… (more)

Boone, Leslie

2011-01-01

294

[Artificial nutrition in acute pancreatitis].  

PubMed

Nutritional support in acute pancreatitis. Despite increasing knowledge and available guidelines in the fields of nutritional support in pancreatic diseases there do still exist a lot of controversies, aversions, delusions in the clinical work. Hungarian Society of Clinical Nutrition has already published it's own guideline on nutrition in pancreatic diseases in 2002. European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ESPEN) also published a Consensus Statement based on the proposals of an international Consensus Conference with active Hungarian participation. The aim of this article is to clear up habitual considerations of some physicians and to share current knowledge from physiology/pathophysiology to quality control upon these guidelines, meta-analyses, and, the daily practice of Hungarian pioneers of nutrition support in pancreatic diseases. PMID:15997665

Harsányi, László

2005-05-29

295

Nutrition education in Missouri schools.  

PubMed

This survey examined the status of nutrition education in Missouri schools, profiled teacher preparation in nutrition, and identified teacher preferences for additional nutrition education resources. Questionnaires were mailed to a systematic sample of 1,664 teachers representing different grade levels K-12 and subject areas including biological science, health, home economics, and physical education. Responses from 793 teachers indicated most integrated nutrition into other subjects such as health and science. Almost all taught the concept of food groups. Teachers expressed a need for materials on a range of concepts and preferred the videotape format. About one-third of elementary teachers reported completing a college-level nutrition course: 70% of secondary teachers had completed such a course. Results indicate the need for materials to integrate nutrition into various subjects and encourage teaching on concepts beyond the food groups. PMID:7707716

Gates, G; McDonald, M; Dalton, M

1994-12-01

296

Challenges of molecular nutrition research 6: the nutritional phenotype database to store, share and evaluate nutritional systems biology studies.  

PubMed

The challenge of modern nutrition and health research is to identify food-based strategies promoting life-long optimal health and well-being. This research is complex because it exploits a multitude of bioactive compounds acting on an extensive network of interacting processes. Whereas nutrition research can profit enormously from the revolution in 'omics' technologies, it has discipline-specific requirements for analytical and bioinformatic procedures. In addition to measurements of the parameters of interest (measures of health), extensive description of the subjects of study and foods or diets consumed is central for describing the nutritional phenotype. We propose and pursue an infrastructural activity of constructing the "Nutritional Phenotype database" (dbNP). When fully developed, dbNP will be a research and collaboration tool and a publicly available data and knowledge repository. Creation and implementation of the dbNP will maximize benefits to the research community by enabling integration and interrogation of data from multiple studies, from different research groups, different countries and different-omics levels. The dbNP is designed to facilitate storage of biologically relevant, pre-processed-omics data, as well as study descriptive and study participant phenotype data. It is also important to enable the combination of this information at different levels (e.g. to facilitate linkage of data describing participant phenotype, genotype and food intake with information on study design and-omics measurements, and to combine all of this with existing knowledge). The biological information stored in the database (i.e. genetics, transcriptomics, proteomics, biomarkers, metabolomics, functional assays, food intake and food composition) is tailored to nutrition research and embedded in an environment of standard procedures and protocols, annotations, modular data-basing, networking and integrated bioinformatics. The dbNP is an evolving enterprise, which is only sustainable if it is accepted and adopted by the wider nutrition and health research community as an open source, pre-competitive and publicly available resource where many partners both can contribute and profit from its developments. We introduce the Nutrigenomics Organisation (NuGO, http://www.nugo.org) as a membership association responsible for establishing and curating the dbNP. Within NuGO, all efforts related to dbNP (i.e. usage, coordination, integration, facilitation and maintenance) will be directed towards a sustainable and federated infrastructure. PMID:21052526

van Ommen, Ben; Bouwman, Jildau; Dragsted, Lars O; Drevon, Christian A; Elliott, Ruan; de Groot, Philip; Kaput, Jim; Mathers, John C; Müller, Michael; Pepping, Fre; Saito, Jahn; Scalbert, Augustin; Radonjic, Marijana; Rocca-Serra, Philippe; Travis, Anthony; Wopereis, Suzan; Evelo, Chris T

2010-09-01

297

Nutritional evaluation of wild yam ( Dioscorea spp.) tubers of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wild yams make a significant contribution to diets of tribal people in Nepal. However, there is insufficient study of their nutritional value. In this paper, four wild yam species: Dioscorea bulbifera, D. versicolor, D. deltoidea and D. triphylla, were studied. The dry matter ranged from 19.8 to 30.5% on a fresh weight basis. The ranges of crude protein, ash, crude

Megh Raj Bhandari; Takanori Kasai; Jun Kawabata

2003-01-01

298

Chapter XIX Nutritional status of different feed resources of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper analyses the nutritional status of different feed resources of Nepal. Different topographical conditions of Nepal favour a variety of feed resources. A traditional and unique mixed crop livestock farming system in the country contributes to produce different types of feedstuffs. The major sources are of plant resources such as tree fodders, green grasses, dry roughage, crop by-

S. B. Panday; C. R. Upreti

299

Bamboo Shoots: A novel source of nutrition and medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bamboo, a group of large woody grasses belonging to the family Poaceae and subfamily Bambusoideae are much talked about for their contribution to the environment. However, the food potential of Bamboo shoot per se remains unexploited. Literature on the nutritional and medicinal potential of bamboo shoots is scarce. This paper therefore provides insight on bamboo shoot as a food resource.

Poonam Singhal; Santosh Satya; Lalit Mohan Bal; P. Sudhakar

2011-01-01

300

Nutrition education: towards a whole-school approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Schools are widely accepted as having the potential to make substantial contributions to promoting healthy eating habits in children and adolescents. This paper aims to present a case study from an Australian school of how a whole-school approach, planned and implemented through a health promoting school framework, can foster improved nutrition in schools by creating a supportive environment

Fiona Rowe; Donald Stewart; Shawn Somerset

2010-01-01

301

Nutrition and the immune system  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Infectious diseases reduce productivity and diminish animal welfare.2.?Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimising the incidence of diseases by enhancing immunity.3.?An understanding of the pressures imposed by evolution that underlie poultry nutrition as well as those which underlie immunity provides focus to the field of nutritional immunology. Additional understanding is provided by knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which diet affects

K. C. Klasing

2007-01-01

302

Massachusetts Growth and Nutrition Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME:To describe three socio-demographic or nutritional characteristics of children enrolled in the Growth and Nutrition Programs.Since their inception in 1984, Massachusetts Growth and Nutrition (GN) Programs have provided care to over 3000 infants and children with growth delay (GD), also known as Failure to Thrive. Services are provided by multidisciplinary family centered teams consisting of a physician, nurse practitioner,

E. A. Colavito; K. Cunningham; E. Metallinos-Katsaras

1997-01-01

303

Nutritional Considerations for Cancer Patients  

PubMed Central

Although weight loss is a frequent, though not invariable, component of the cancer syndrome, the associated malnutrition is a poor prognostic sign among both children and adults. This article describes the possible mechanisms of cancer cachexia; reviews the present state of nutritional support in cancer patients; identifies nutritional problems and workable approaches during the pre- and post-treatment periods; discusses the unconventional nutritional practices commonly encountered and lists resource materials for patients and families. PMID:21274086

Chen, Angela

1985-01-01

304

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental “nutritive tissue” in carnivorous plants of\\u000a Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the “nutritive\\u000a tissue” and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key

Bartosz J. P?achno; Piotr ?wi?tek

2008-01-01

305

The Paradox of Nutrition-Related Diseases in the Arab Countries: The Need for Action  

PubMed Central

The aim of this review was to highlight the current situation of nutrition-related diseases in the Arab countries, and factors associated with prevalence of these diseases. PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for data relating to such nutrition-related diseases published between January 1990 and May 2011. The picture of nutritional status in the Arab countries has changed drastically over the past 30 years as a result of changes in the social and economic situation. Two contrasting nutrition-related diseases exist, those associated with inadequate intake of nutrients and unhealthy dietary habits such as growth retardation among young children and micronutrient deficiencies; and those associated with changes in lifestyle such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, osteoporosis, diabetes and obesity (diet-related non-communicable diseases). Factors contributing to nutritional problems vary from country to country, depending on socio-economic status. In general, unsound dietary habits, poor sanitation, poverty, ignorance and lack of access to safe water and health services are mainly responsible for under-nutrition. Changes in lifestyle and dietary habits as well as inactivity are associated with the occurrence of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Programs to prevent and control nutrition-related diseases are insufficient and ineffective, due mainly to a focus on curative care at the expense of preventive health care services, lack of epidemiological studies, lack of nutritional surveillance, inadequate nutrition information and lack of assessment of the cost-effectiveness of nutrition intervention programs. PMID:22016708

Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Hassan, Abdelmonem S.; Obeid, Omar

2011-01-01

306

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

to pursue a minor. Dietetics is the application of the knowledge of human nutrition to support the nutritional needs of the healthy as well as the sick. The study of human nutrition encompasses biology are prerequisites for many human nutrition courses, which cover basic and advanced nutrition, medical nutrition

Raina, Ramesh

307

Brief Reports Nickelodeon Markets Nutrition-Poor Foods  

E-print Network

While many factors contribute to childhood obesity and children’s poor diets, food marketing affects children’s food choices, preferences, their diets, and their health. The purpose of this study was to assess the nutritional quality of the foods marketed by one of the largest companies that markets food to children, Nickelodeon. Methods: In fall 2005, the nutritional quality of foods advertised via Nickelodeon media and with Nickelodeon characters was assessed. The cross-sectional sample included food ads on the Nickelodeon television station and in Nickelodeon magazine, product packages with Nickelodeon characters found in one large urban grocery store, and meals at restaurants with promotions tied to Nickelodeon programs or characters. Results: Of 168 television food ads, 148 (88%) were for foods of poor nutritional quality. Of 21 magazine food ads, 16 (76%) were for foods of poor nutritional quality. Fifteen grocery store products were identified with Nickelodeon characters on the packaging; nine (60%) were foods of poor nutritional quality. In addition, of the 48 possible children’s meal combinations at restaurants with promotional offers tied to Nickelodeon programs, 45 (94%) were of poor nutritional quality. Conclusions: Through its food marketing, the Nickelodeon entertainment company influences the diets of millions of American children. Unfortunately, eight of ten foods, beverages, and restaurant meals advertised on Nickelodeon’s television station, in its magazine, or tied to its characters are of poor nutritional quality. Rather than undermining parents ’ efforts to feed their children healthfully, Nickelodeon should support parents by setting nutrition standards and marketing to children only foods that meet those standards.

To Children; Ameena Batada; Margo G. Wootan

308

The changing nutrition scenario  

PubMed Central

The past seven decades have seen remarkable shifts in the nutritional scenario in India. Even up to the 1950s severe forms of malnutrition such as kwashiorkar and pellagra were endemic. As nutritionists were finding home-grown and common-sense solutions for these widespread problems, the population was burgeoning and food was scarce. The threat of widespread household food insecurity and chronic undernutrition was very real. Then came the Green Revolution. Shortages of food grains disappeared within less than a decade and India became self-sufficient in food grain production. But more insidious problems arising from this revolution were looming, and cropping patterns giving low priority to coarse grains and pulses, and monocropping led to depletion of soil nutrients and ‘Green Revolution fatigue’. With improved household food security and better access to health care, clinical manifestations of severe malnutrition virtually disappeared. But the decline in chronic undernutrition and “hidden hunger” from micronutrient deficiencies was slow. On the cusp of the new century, an added factor appeared on the nutritional scene in India. With steady urban migration, upward mobility out of poverty, and an increasingly sedentary lifestyle because of improvements in technology and transport, obesity rates began to increase, resulting in a dual burden. Measured in terms of its performance in meeting its Millennium Development Goals, India has fallen short. Despite its continuing high levels of poverty and illiteracy, India has a huge demographic potential in the form of a young population. This advantage must be leveraged by investing in nutrition education, household access to nutritious diets, sanitary environment and a health-promoting lifestyle. This requires co-operation from all the stakeholders, including governments, non government organizations, scientists and the people at large. PMID:24135189

Gopalan, C.

2013-01-01

309

Childhood nutrition and poverty.  

PubMed

One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the health of children. PMID:10946800

Nelson, M

2000-05-01

310

Nutrition and gastrointestinal disease.  

PubMed

Nutrition and intestinal function are intimately interrelated. The chief purpose of the gut is to digest and absorb nutrients in order to maintain life. Consequently, chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disease commonly results in malnutrition and increased morbidity and mortality. For example, studies have shown that 50-70% of adult patients with Crohn's disease were weight-depleted and 75% of adolescents growth-retarded. On the other hand, chronic malnutrition impairs digestive and absorptive function because food and nutrients are not only the major trophic factors to the gut but also provide the building blocks for digestive enzymes and absorptive cells. For example, recent studies of ours have shown that a weight loss of greater than 30% accompanying a variety of diseases was associated with a reduction in pancreatic enzyme secretion of over 80%, villus atrophy and impaired carbohydrate and fat absorption. Finally, specific nutrients can induce disease, for example, gluten-sensitive enteropathy, whilst dietary factors such as fibre, resistant starch, short-chain fatty acids, glutamine and fish-oils may prevent gastrointestinal diseases such as diverticulitis, diversion colitis, ulcerative colitis, colonic adenomatosis and colonic carcinoma. The role of dietary antigens in the aetiology of Crohn's disease is controversial, but controlled studies have suggested that elemental diets may be as effective as corticosteroids in inducing a remission in patients with acute Crohn's disease. In conclusion, nutrition has both a supportive and therapeutic role in the management of chronic gastrointestinal diseases. With the development of modern techniques of nutritional support, the morbidity and mortality associated with chronic GI disease can be reduced. On the other hand, dietary manipulation may be used to treat to prevent specific GI disorders such as coeliac disease, functional bowel disease, Crohn's disease and colonic neoplasia. The future development of nutria-pharmaceuticals is particularly attractive in view of their low cost and wide safety margins. PMID:8898436

O'Keefe, S J

1996-01-01

311

Towards a National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Government.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experts testifying at the National Nutrition Policy study hearings on June 19-21, 1974 in Washington, at the invitation of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs, recommended several steps which the committee staff feel merit a prompt Congressional response. This report prepared by staff incorporates those recommendations,…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

312

Nutrition and You  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Objectives: You will assess your own nutrition and health. You will also convert units in a recipe. You will need a computer with internet access and a printer to print off your personal eating plan. You will also need a paper and pen to record information. Materials Needed: computer with internet access printer paper and pen to record information Calculate your Body Mass Index (BMI). Calculate Your Body Mass Index What\\'s your body mass index? Assess an Adult\\'s Health with a given scenario. Calculator For BMI Describe the adult\\'s health status and suggested ...

Neves, Ms. P.

2007-11-30

313

University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition  

E-print Network

University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure.............................................................................................................. 7 #12;University of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating of Saskatchewan College of Pharmacy & Nutrition Division of Standard Operating Procedure # Chemical Spills Page 3

Saskatchewan, University of

314

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 17-21, 2008 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

315

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 20-24, 2006 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

316

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 15-19, 2010 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

317

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 16-20, 2009 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of

318

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION RESEARCH PRACTICUM March 19-23, 2007 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept.

319

NCI Curriculum in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention  

Cancer.gov

1 NUTRITION AND CANCER PREVENTION PRACTICUM March 14-18, 2005 Nutritional Science Research Group, Division of Cancer Prevention National Cancer Institute & Clinical Center, Department of Nutrition National Institutes of Health Dept. of Health

320

Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P<0.05) growth than those fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). Shrimp fed diets 2-4 (30%-50% fish meal replacement) showed significantly higher growth than those fed diets 6 and 7 (70% and 100% fish meal replacement, respectively). Survival ranged from 94.7% to 100.0% and did not differ significantly ( P>0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

2009-12-01

321

Metabolic enzyme activities, metabolism-related genes expression and bioaccumulation in juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to benzo[a]pyrene.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on metabolic detoxification system and bioaccumulation of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. In this study, juvenile white shrimp L. vannamei were exposed for 21 days at four different concentrations of 0, 0.03, 0.3 and 3?g/L. Detoxification enzyme activities of phase I (aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH)) and phase II (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), sulfotransferase (SULT), uridine diphosphate glucuronyl transferase (UGT)) were determined, and results showed that all the detoxification enzyme activities increased in a dose-dependent manner except for the low BaP exposure. Transcription of genes was detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day six BaP increased cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, GST, SULT visa aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of BaP that disrupt the detoxification system. The consistency of their responses to BaP exposure implies that AhR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation. Additionally, BaP bioaccumulation increased rapidly first and showed an incoming plateau. Besides, the enzyme activities and bioaccumulation in the hepatopancreas were higher than those in the gills. These results will not only provide information on BaP metabolic mechanism for this species, but also scientific data for pollution monitoring. PMID:24636950

Ren, Xianyun; Pan, Luqing; Wang, Lin

2014-06-01

322

Nutrition in sports medicine.  

PubMed

Strenuous or vigorous exercise does not appear to significantly alter the requirements for any specific nutrient except calories. The major nutritional problem in sports medicine, particularly among the young, will be one of meeting caloric requirements from a variety of foods. As high- or low-energy requirements are met, so will requirements for all other essential nutrients. We should all heed the words of Sir Robert Hutchison (1871-1960), as perhaps the Food and Nutrition Board did. He wrote in the New Castle Medical Journal, vol. 12, 1932, "One swears by whole meal bread, one by sour milk; vegetarianism is the only road to the salvation of some, other insist not only in vegetables alone, but on eating those raw. At one time the only thing that matters is calories; at another time they are crazy about vitamins or about roughage. Scientific truth may be put quite briefly; eat moderately, having an ordinary mixed diet and don't worry." Robert Charles Benchley (1889-1945), an American humorist, critic, and actor, was known to say that when the thought of exercise came upon him, he would lie down until the thought passed over. Clement Richard Attlee (1883-1967), prime minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951, said he owed his long life to resisting all forms of exercise. PMID:4028546

Vitale, J J

1985-09-01

323

Nutrition for winter sports.  

PubMed

Winter sports are played in cold conditions on ice or snow and often at moderate to high altitude. The most important nutritional challenges for winter sport athletes exposed to environmental extremes include increased energy expenditure, accelerated muscle and liver glycogen utilization, exacerbated fluid loss, and increased iron turnover. Winter sports, however, vary greatly regarding their nutritional requirements due to variable physiological and physique characteristics, energy and substrate demands, and environmental training and competition conditions. What most winter sport athletes have in common is a relatively lean physique and high-intensity training periods, thus they require greater energy and nutrient intakes, along with adequate food and fluid before, during, and after training. Event fuelling is most challenging for cross-country skiers competing in long events, ski jumpers aiming to reduce their body weight, and those winter sport athletes incurring repeated qualification rounds and heats. These athletes need to ensure carbohydrate availability throughout competition. Finally, winter sport athletes may benefit from dietary and sport supplements; however, attention should be paid to safety and efficacy if supplementation is considered. PMID:22150424

Meyer, Nanna L; Manore, Melinda M; Helle, Christine

2011-01-01

324

Nutrition for cyclists.  

PubMed

Good nutrition is important at every stage of training and competition. Both the serious competitive cyclist as well as the recreational cyclist should eat a balanced diet that provides calories adequate to meet energy demands. Athletes consuming less than 2000 calories a day may have difficulty meeting nutrient needs, particularly for iron and calcium. Weight loss, glycogen depletion, and dehydration also are possible results of an inadequate diet. Dietary strategies to enhance or maintain the body's carbohydrate stores are necessary for performance, especially for cyclists with high training miles or participating in road racing and other endurance events. Additionally, cyclists should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids, especially when in a hot environment. It appears that protein requirements of endurance athletes increase as the duration and intensity of exercise increases. However, factors such as total calorie intake and protein quality should be considered when determining protein needs. Many athletes are concerned about vitamin and mineral intake and often use nutritional supplements both for "insurance" as well as performance reasons. The supplements taken most often include vitamin C, the B-complex, and iron. Vitamins and minerals in excess of the RDA do not improve performance and can be toxic when consumed in large amounts. On the other hand, vegetarians and cyclists with low-calorie intakes may benefit from a multivitamin or mineral supplement. PMID:8111855

Grandjean, A C; Ruud, J S

1994-01-01

325

Nutritional aspects in hemodialysis.  

PubMed

The results of cross sectional studies throughout the world indicate that maintenance hemodialysis patients are at risk of malnutrition. Longitudinal studies show that malnutrition is associated with a reduced life expectancy mainly because of cardiovascular and infectious complications. Several factors are responsible for malnutrition of hemodialysis patients. Protein-energy intake is often reduced because of inappropriate dietary restrictions, anorexia, and taste alterations, promoting malnutrition in most patients entering dialysis. Intercurrent illnesses and frequent hospitalizations add to meal disturbances. A state of persistent catabolism may result from acidosis, resistance to anabolic factors such as growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-1, as well as a chronic inflammatory state caused by dialysis membrane and fluid bioincompatibility. In addition, losses of nutrients, including glucose, amino acids, proteins, and vitamins, occur during the dialysis treatment. Careful monitoring of dietary intakes is mandatory even in predialysis patients. In hemodialysis patients, the dose of dialysis should be adapted to correct acidosis and to relieve anorexia caused by accumulation of uremic toxins and hyperleptinemia. When malnutrition is established, active therapeutic interventions should take place, including intradialytic parenteral nutrition if oral supplementation has failed to improve nutritional status. Anabolism has been observed during the administration of recombinant growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1. Emerging therapeutic strategies against malnutrition may also involve a short period of daily dialysis. PMID:10936810

Laville, M; Fouque, D

2000-08-01

326

Nutrition Education: Selected Resources. Bibliographies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended chiefly for nutrition instructors in elementary, secondary, and college classes, this bibliography can supplement the reading lists of other nutrition fields, such as food science and diet therapy. Separate sections of the document are devoted to books, documents and journal articles culled from the ERIC data base, films, multimedia…

Rhea, Harold C.

327

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

2008-01-01

328

PEDIATRIC NUTRITION SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM (PEDNSS)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is a program-based surveillance system designed to monitor the growth, anemia, and breast-feeding status of low-income U.S. children who participate in federally funded maternal and child health nutritional programs. The system...

329

Nutrition Education Curriculum. Kindergarten Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six major concepts form the framework for this kindergarten nutrition education curriculum: (1) Food is essential for all living things (learning to identify foods and food sources); (2) Nutrition is the food you eat and how the body uses it (recognizing the relationship between body growth and the ingestion of food); (3) Food is made up of…

Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

330

NUTRITION IN RENAL, HEPATIC, AND  

Microsoft Academic Search

disease include diabetes (~40% of cases), hypertension (27%), and glomerulonephritis (13%). A decrease in kidney function greatly alters metabolism and nutritional status. These patients are at high risk for protein energy malnutrition. Common manifestations include edema, uremia, hypertension, anemia, and metabolic acidosis. Medical nutrition therapy for kidney disease becomes increasingly complex as the renal disease advances. The diet prescription is

331

International trends in adolescent nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses international trends in adolescent nutrition by reviewing the literature from English-language indexed journals and online sources from around the world. Information is presented by geographic region and by nation within region. The literature shows that malnutrition remains a significant problem for adolescents, worldwide, but that the types of nutritional problems impacting this group have changed significantly over

Dona Schneider

2000-01-01

332

Prenatal Nutrition and Later Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text of an affidavit in the case, Kennedy v. Detroit Board of Education. Reports on a study which established that prenatal nutrition is directly related to brain size and volume determined at 48 hours of infancy and at eight months of age. Pinpoints the relationship between inadequate nutrition in pregnancy, infant brain size, and intellectual…

Evans, T. N.

1972-01-01

333

Nutrition Connections has the help  

E-print Network

, low-cost meals. Serve healthy foods and snacks that children will eat. Save money at the grocery Courses Eat Healthy Stay Fit in English and Unos Cambios Pequeños Para la Mejor Salud for our SpanishNutrition Connections has the help you need... Eat HEaltHiEr and SavE MonEy Nutrition Connections

New Hampshire, University of

334

Nutritional issues in cancer management  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article was to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, as it relates to the initiation, promotion, and treatment of tumor growth. English-language studies published in the last 25 years were retrieved using MEDLINE, bibliographies, and consultation with experts. MEDLINE search terms included “cancer”, “malnutrition,” and “nutritional support.” In vitro and in vivo controlled studies addressing

Alessandro Laviano; Michael M. Meguid

1996-01-01

335

Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women  

MedlinePLUS

... Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Health & Nutrition Information for Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women When you are pregnant or breastfeeding, you have ...

336

Association between sociodemographic factors and nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits among Iranian girls.  

PubMed

Prolonged duration of finger- and pacifier-sucking may be a risk factor for maldevelopment of orofacial structures and dental occlusion. This study assessed the prevalence of nutritive and non-nutritive sucking habits and their association with some contributing factors among 7-year-old girls in Mashhad, Islamic Republic of Iran. Based on a questionnaire to the parents of 436 schoolgirls, the rate of current or previous pacifier-sucking was 26.6% and of finger-sucking was 10.6%. Child's birth rank and number of siblings and parents' educational level were significantly related to ever pacifier-sucking but not to finger-sucking. The highest prevalence of ever pacifier-sucking was among children who had been breast- and bottle-fed but finger-sucking was more common among exclusively breastfed children. PMID:21218738

Jahanbin, A; Mokhber, N; Jabbarimani, A

2010-11-01

337

The challenges for molecular nutrition research 2: quantification of the nutritional phenotype  

PubMed Central

In quantifying the beneficial effect of dietary interventions in healthy subjects, nutrition research meets a number of new challenges. Inter individual variation in biomarker values often is larger than the effect related to the intervention. Healthy subjects have a remarkable capacity to maintain homeostasis, both through direct metabolic regulation, metabolic compensation of altered diets, and effective defence and repair mechanisms in oxidative and inflammatory stress. Processes involved in these regulatory activities essentially different from processes involved in early onset of diet related diseases. So, new concepts and approaches are needed to better quantify the subtle effects possibly achieved by dietary interventions in healthy subjects. Apart from quantification of the genotype and food intake (these are discussed in separate reviews in this series), four major areas of innovation are discussed: the biomarker profile concept, perturbation of homeostasis combined with omics analysis, imaging, modelling and fluxes. All of these areas contribute to a better understanding and quantification of the nutritional phenotype. PMID:18850187

Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Elliott, Ruan; Drevon, Christian A.; McArdle, Harry; Gibney, Mike; Muller, Michael

2008-01-01

338

Effect of high water temperature (33 °C) on the clinical and virological outcome of experimental infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) Litopenaeus vannamei  

Microsoft Academic Search

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most lethal pathogen of cultured shrimp. Previous studies done with undefined WSSV titers showed that high water temperature (32–33 °C) reduced\\/delayed mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp. This study evaluated the effect of high water temperature on the clinical and virological outcome of a WSSV infection under standardized conditions. Groups of specific pathogen-free Litopenaeus vannamei were

M. M. Rahman; C. M. Escobedo-Bonilla; M. Corteel; J. J. Dantas-Lima; M. Wille; V. Alday Sanz; M. B. Pensaert; P. Sorgeloos; H. J. Nauwynck

2006-01-01

339

Fifty-five-year personal experience with human nutrition worldwide.  

PubMed

By 1950 the vitamins had been identified, but little was known of their functions. Beriberi, pellagra, and ariboflavinosis were disappearing, but kwashiorkor and/or marasmus were common in most developing countries. Requirements for protein were still uncertain, and those for essential amino acids or essential fatty acids were unknown. The author's contributions in the field of vitamins began in the 1950s and have been reported in more than 650 publications and in 20 books or monographs. These contributions include establishing the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama, the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the World Hunger Program of the United Nations University, and the International Nutrition Foundation. His scientific contributions include identification of synergistic interactions of nutrition and infection, use of potassium iodate for fortifying crude moist salt, research in the epidemiology of kwashiorkor and marasmus, development of a successful low-cost protein-rich food for infants and young children, establishment of human protein requirements, and investigation of single-cell protein for food use. PMID:17506667

Scrimshaw, Nevin S

2007-01-01

340

The nutrition advisor expert system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutrition Advisor Expert System (NAES) is an expert system written in the C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS). NAES provides expert knowledge and guidance into the complex world of nutrition management by capturing the knowledge of an expert and placing it at the user's fingertips. Specifically, NAES enables the user to: (1) obtain precise nutrition information for food items; (2) perform nutritional analysis of meal(s), flagging deficiencies based upon the U.S. Recommended Daily Allowances; (3) predict possible ailments based upon observed nutritional deficiency trends; (4) obtain a top ten listing of food items for a given nutrient; and (5) conveniently upgrade the data base. An explanation facility for the ailment prediction feature is also provided to document the reasoning process.

Huse, Scott M.; Shyne, Scott S.

1991-01-01

341

Two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB proteins interact with transcription factors LvSTAT and LvDorsal to activate the promoter of white spot syndrome virus immediate-early gene ie1.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused great economic damage to shrimp aquaculture. Previous studies have shown that WSSV successfully usurps the immunity system of the host for its own gene regulation. To investigate the role of shrimp high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins in WSSV gene regulation, two Litopenaeus vannamei HMGB genes, LvHMGBa and LvHMGBb, were isolated by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Recombinant LvHMGBa/b proteins were present in the nucleus of transfected Drosophila Schneider 2 (S2) cells. Luciferase reporter assays revealed that LvHMGBa/b upregulated the WSSV immediate-early (IE) gene (ie1) in a NF-?B and STAT binding site-dependent manner. GST pull-down assays demonstrated that LvHMGBa/b interacted with L. vannamei Dorsal (LvDorsal) and L. vannamei STAT (LvSTAT), respectively. LvHMGBa was highly expressed in hepatopancreas while HMGBb was highly expressed in stomach, intestine, heart, antennal gland, and epidermis. Moreover, an immune challenge assay demonstrated that the expression of LvHMGBa/b was upregulated by WSSV infection and that both mRNAs reached peak values at 24 h post-infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that invertebrate HMGB proteins participates in viral gene regulation. PMID:21186060

Chen, Yi-Hong; Jia, Xiao-Ting; Huang, Xian-De; Zhang, Shuang; Li, Mei; Xie, Jun-Feng; Weng, Shao-Ping; He, Jian-Guo

2011-02-01

342

Nutrition Standards for Child Care Programs: Meeting Children's Nutrition and Education Needs. Nutrition, Health and Safety.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents information on standards for American child care and early education programs participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program. Topics discussed include meal plans, nutritional requirements, food preparation and food service, cultural diversity, food safety and sanitation, nutrition education, and emotional climate at mealtimes. (KB)

Briley, Margaret E.; Grey, Cynthia R.

2000-01-01

343

The role of agriculture in the nutrition of children.  

PubMed

Data from across the developing world show consistently that a fundamental cause of poor nutrition is low agricultural productivity and consequent low incomes, especially amongst poor rural households. Conventionally, technical solutions have been sought to contribute to greater household food security, and thus better childhood nutrition. A more holistic approach is required. This paper draws from field examples, mainly in southern and east Africa, to illustrate the implementation and effectiveness of what is termed a 'green evolution' approach which emphasizes the efficient use of available resources of land, labour and inputs, thus allowing food to be sold profitably at low prices. With low food prices, the poor can use their limited funds to invest in better housing, education and health care. This is achieved through building thoughtful, farmer demand-led initiatives, backed by high quality science to deliver widespread improvements in nutrition for the poor. PMID:25309997

Blackie, Malcolm

2014-11-01

344

Nutritional models for space travel from chemically defined diets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human nutritional requirements are summarized, including recommended daily intake and maximum safe chronic intake of nutrients. The biomedical literature on various types of chemically defined diets (CDD's), which are liquid, formulated diets for enteral and total parenteral nutrition, is reviewed. The chemical forms of the nutrients in CDD's are detailed, and the compositions and sources of representative commercial CDD's are tabulated. Reported effects of CDD's in medical patients, healthy volunteers, and laboratory animals are discussed. The effects include gastrointestinal side effects, metabolic imbalances, nutrient deficiencies and excesses, and psychological problems. Dietary factors contributing to the side effects are examined. Certain human nutrient requirements have been specified more precisely as a result of long-term use of CDD's, and related studies are included. CDD's are the most restricted yet nutritionally complete diets available.

Dufour, P. A.

1984-01-01

345

The role of the media in influencing children's nutritional perceptions.  

PubMed

Recently the mass media environment of children, in particular food advertising, has come under scrutiny as a contributing factor in the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. Focus groups were used to explore how children's appraisals of various forms of media inform their health-related perceptions about eating and nutrition. Ninety participants aged 10 to 12 years were recruited from schools throughout Auckland, New Zealand. Schools were randomly selected from among those rated with low, medium, and high socioeconomic status. Results show that the media is a key factor shaping how young people conceptualize healthy eating and healthy bodies. Mass media food messages were not seen as a credible source of health information; rather, they assist in constructing and reinforcing dominant misconceptions about food, healthy eating, and nutrition. Nutritional messages embedded in both health promotion and advertising were perceived to be conflicting and ambiguous, and might serve to undermine the trustworthiness of health promotion initiatives. PMID:19380500

Dorey, Enid; McCool, Judith

2009-05-01

346

Effective Nutritional Supplement Combinations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Few supplement combinations that are marketed to athletes are supported by scientific evidence of their effectiveness. Quite often, under the rigor of scientific investigation, the patented combination fails to provide any greater benefit than a group given the active (generic) ingredient. The focus of this chapter is supplement combinations and dosing strategies that are effective at promoting an acute physiological response that may improve/enhance exercise performance or influence chronic adaptations desired from training. In recent years, there has been a particular focus on two nutritional ergogenic aids—creatine monohydrate and protein/amino acids—in combination with specific nutrients in an effort to augment or add to their already established independent ergogenic effects. These combinations and others are discussed in this chapter.

Cooke, Matt; Cribb, Paul J.

347

Nutrition and HIV infection.  

PubMed

Infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is characterized by progressive destruction of the immune system, which leads to recurrent opportunistic infections and malignancies, progressive debilitation and death. Malnutrition is one major complication of HIV infection and is recognized as a significant prognostic factor in advanced disease. Malnutrition is multifactorial and poorly treated during the course of HIV. Even if a standardized approach to the management of active weight loss has not been well established, early nutritional intervention is important in HIV infected patients to maximize gain of lean body mass. From early in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), an initial decreased incidence of malnutrition was noted only in western countries while a variety of changes in the distribution of body fat and associated metabolic abnormalities have been recognized under the banner of lipodystrophy. PMID:11895147

Salomon, J; De, Truchis P; Melchior, J C

2002-01-01

348

Nutrition and ageing.  

PubMed

The reviewed literature indicates that, even in industrialised countries, the nutrition of mature and aged subjects is often inadequate (because of deficiency or excess), which may lead to premature or pathological senescence. Recent nutritional research on ageing laboratory animals shows that dietary restriction may be the most effective procedure to achieve a long and disease-free life span, probably owing to a better protection against mitochondria-linked oxygen stress. Likewise, the experimental and clinical work from many laboratories, including our own, indicates that age-dependent changes in the cardiovascular and immune systems are linked to oxygen stress and that an adequate intake of dietary antioxidants may protect those systems against chronic degenerative syndromes in the physiopathology of which reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a key role. The extant data indicate that the antioxidant vitamins C and E are centrally involved in defending the above two systems against ROS attack. Moreover, recent research suggests that the glutathione-related thiolic antioxidants, thiazolidine carboxylic acid (thioproline) and N-acetylcysteine, as well as the phenolic liposoluble 'co-antioxidants' of Curcuma longa, may have a significant protective effect against age-related atherogenesis and immune dysfunction. Key messages from this paper are the following. (1) It is generally accepted that oxygen free radicals released in metabolic reactions play a key role in the physiopathology of 'normal ageing' and of many age-related degenerative diseases. (2) Consumption of adequate levels of antioxidants in the diet is essential in order to preserve health in old age. (3) A certain degree of protection against atherogenesis and immune dysfunction may be achieved by preventing vitamin E deficiency and an excessive oxidation of the glutathione-supported thiol pool. PMID:11918486

Miquel, J

2001-12-01

349

[Enteral nutrition in cancer patients].  

PubMed

The significance of nutritional management in patients with malignant tumors is under-recognized due to the lack of clear evidence of a direct link with survival rate. However, for cancer patients, with markedly reduced food intake continuing for?7 days or intake of under 60% of estimated energy expenditure for?10 days, as referred to in the European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, rapid implementation of nutritional support constitutes a clinically appropriate intervention. With regard to route of administration, as with other conditions, enteral nutritional management is recommended if the gastrointestinal tract is available. The utility of enteral immunonutrition formulae containing eicosapentaenoic acid and other forms of nutritional management has also recently been reported and further studies are anticipated. However, the principles of nutritional management for cancer patients comprise not simply weight increase or improvement in nutritional markers but the maintenance of patient QOL in ways that include alleviation of symptoms and antitumor therapy side-effects, and decreased risk of infection. Administration routes such as percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy should therefore also be discussed from this perspective. PMID:25335700

Suzuki, Yutaka

2014-10-01

350

Nutritional Status Assessment (SMO 016E)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Nutritional Status Assessment Supplemental Medical Objective was initiated to expand nominal clinical nutrition testing of ISS astronauts, and to gain a better understanding of the time course of changes in nutritional status during flight. The primary activity of this effort was collecting blood and urine samples during flight for analysis after return to Earth. Samples were subjected to a battery of tests. The resulting data provide a comprehensive survey of how nutritional status and related systems are affected by 4-6 months of space flight. Analysis of these data has yielded many findings to date, including: Vision. Documented evidence that biochemical markers involved in one-carbon metabolism were altered in crewmembers who experienced vision-related issues during and after flight (1). Iron, Oxidative Stress, and Bone. In-flight data document a clear association of increased iron stores, markers of oxidative damage to DNA, and bone loss (2). Exercise. Documented that well-nourished crewmembers performing heavy resistance exercise returned from ISS with bone mineral densities unchanged from preflight (3). Furthermore, the response of bone to space flight and exercise countermeasures was the same in men and women (4). Body Mass. Crewmembers lose 2-5% of their body mass in the first month of flight, and maintain the lower body mass during flight (5). Additionally, the two devices to measure body mass on orbit, the SLAMMD and BMMD, provide similar results (5). Cytokines. Findings indicated that a pattern of persistent physiological adaptations occurs during space flight that includes shifts in immune and hormonal regulation (6). Fish/Bone. Documented a relationship between fish intake and bone loss in astronauts (that is, those who ate more fish lost less bone) (7). Vitamin K. Documented that in generally well-fed and otherwise healthy individuals, vitamin K status and bone vitamin K-dependent proteins are unaffected by space flight (and bed rest) (8). Testosterone. Documented that blood concentrations of testosterone were unchanged during flight, but a transient decline occurred after landing (9). Calcium. Nutrition SMO data contributed to the ISS Program by helping understand how and why the Urine Processor Assembly clogged with calcium sulfate precipitate (10). Sample Processing. Ground-based analytical testing results have also been published (11).

Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Zwart, S. R.

2014-01-01

351

NUTRITION 203 as an STS course Principles of Human Nutrition  

E-print Network

in the investigation and interpretation of nutrients and their interactions within the body. The course is required of food borne illnesses 14. identify the prevalence of food insecurity and hunger 15. evaluate nutrition

Bolding, M. Chad

352

Nutrition systems for pressure suits.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nutrition systems were successfully developed in the Apollo Program for astronauts wearing pressure suits during emergency decompression situations and during lunar surface explorations. These nutrition systems consisted of unique dispensers, water, flavored beverages, nutrient-fortified beverages, and intermediate moisture food bars. The emergency decompression system dispensed the nutrition from outside the pressure suit by interfacing with a suit helmet penetration port. The lunar exploration system utilized dispensers stowed within the interior layers of the pressure suit. These systems could be adapted for provision of nutrients in other situations requiring the use of pressure suits.

Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Smith, M. C., Jr.

1973-01-01

353

Cytoarchitecture of Utricularia nutritive tissue.  

PubMed

Beginning with light microscopy studies in the late 19th century, the placental "nutritive tissue" in carnivorous plants of Utricularia spp. has been well described by several authors. Based on observations of direct contact between the embryo sac and the "nutritive tissue" and the lack of vascularization of the ovule, it has been suggested that this nutritive tissue plays a key role in the nutrition of the female gametophyte. To date, however, the structure of this tissue has received only scant attention. To fill this knowledge gap, we have characterized its anatomy and histochemistry in more detail and addressed the speculations of a number of earlier researchers. Nutritive tissue during the period of flower opening in three Utricularia species, each belonging to different sections and subgenera (Polypompholyx, Bivalvaria and Utricularia), was examined by light and, in particular, electron microscopy. In all of the investigated species, nutritive tissue cells differ from placental parenchyma cells in having no huge vacuole, no large amyloplasts with starch grains, and no protein inclusions in the nucleus. The funicular nutritive tissue in U. dichotoma consists of active cells with a secretory character, while U. sandersonii has a small placental nutritive tissue consisting of colenchymatous cells accumulating lipids. The most complex nutritive tissue occurs in aquatic U. intermedia, which occupies a derived position in the genus phylogeny. In this latter species, the cells of this tissue resemble meristematic cells in having a relatively large nucleus, thin cell walls, and reduced vacuoles, but the well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in some cells is similar to that in secretory cells. The cytoplasm is rich in microtubules, some of which are in close contact with the ER cisternae. We found very thick cell walls between nutritive tissue cells and parenchyma cells, but plasmodesmata between these types of cells are rare. Similarities in both the position and structure of nutritive tissue in Polypompholyx and section Pleiochasia support their classification together in one subgenus, based on results from a molecular study. The position and structure of the nutritive tissue in Utricularia spp. are related to the position of various species in the genus phylogeny. PMID:18802663

P?achno, Bartosz J; Swiatek, Piotr

2008-12-01

354

Novel omics technologies in nutrition research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key scientific objective of nutrition research is to determine the role of diet in metabolic regulation and to improve health. There are many new opportunities and challenges for the nutrition research in post-genome era. Novel omics technologies and bioinformatics tools offer enormous potential to investigate the complex relationship between nutrition and metabolism. An overview of omics technologies in nutrition

Xuewu Zhang; Yeeleng Yap; Dong Wei; Gu Chen; Feng Chen

2008-01-01

355

Report on Nutrition and Teenage Pregnancy Hearings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because of the importance of nutrition during teenage pregnancies, the Illinois State Council on Nutrition held public hearings in Chicago and in Carbondale, areas having a high incidence of infant mortality. Several issues were identified: (1) effects on nutrition of low income, poor nutrition habits, and lack of understanding of the increased…

Narins, Dorice M.; Hill, Virginia R.

356

Syndromes associated with nutritional deficiency and excess  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal functioning of the human body requires a balance between nutritional intake and metabolism, and imbalances manifest as nutritional deficiencies or excess. Nutritional deficiency states are associated with social factors (war, poverty, famine, and food fads), medical illnesses with malabsorption (such as Crohn disease, cystic fibrosis, and after bariatric surgery), psychiatric illnesses (eating disorders, autism, alcoholism), and medications. Nutritional excess

Melinda Jen; Albert C. Yan

2010-01-01

357

Impact of Nutrition Screening on Patient Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nutrition screening program was initiated to provide early identification of patients who might benefit from nutrition intervention. All patients were screened within 72 hours of admission. Four indicators were used to determine nutritional risk 1) serum albumin or prealbumin 2) current weight as percent desirable body weight 3) percent of meals consumed or nutrition support by tube feeding (TF)

S. Kemp; M. Burck; M. Harris; M. O’Keefe Ralph; P. Nuwash

1995-01-01

358

Early Aggressive Nutrition for the Premature Infant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrition for sick newborn infants, both term and preterm, has been evolving since the first published report of use of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in an infant. The more preterm infants have posed an even greater challenge, because optimal timing for use of enteral nutrition is an additional factor for completing their nutritional demands. Although benefiting the immune system among

Anjali Parish; Jatinder Bhatia

2008-01-01

359

Serving up Success! Team Nutrition Days, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication presents success stories and actual activities from Team Nutrition Days 1997 to serve as a starting point for other schools wanting to create their own nutrition education activities. Team Nutrition Days was a 1-week celebration that used innovative, interactive activities to teach children that nutrition is the link between…

Food and Nutrition Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

360

Effective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics  

E-print Network

of the action of biologically active components of food and their role in maintaining human health. NutritionEffective September 2013 1 Nutrition and Dietetics Degree: Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Dietetics Contact: Dr. Cathy English Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences (http

Rhode Island, University of

361

Factors Influencing Adoption and Implementation of Cooking with Kids, an Experiential School-Based Nutrition Education Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Little research has been conducted to examine factors leading to adoption and implementation of nutrition education curricula. Data from two Web-based surveys (n = 313) and 27 interviews were used to explore how Diffusion of Innovations' perceived attributes contributed to adoption and implementation of Cooking with Kids (CWK) food and nutrition…

Diker, Ann; Walters, Lynn M.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie; Baker, Susan S.

2011-01-01

362

Transculturalization of a diabetes-specific nutrition algorithm: Asian application.  

PubMed

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Asia is growing at an alarming rate, posing significant clinical and economic risk to health care stakeholders. Commonly, Asian patients with T2D manifest a distinctive combination of characteristics that include earlier disease onset, distinct pathophysiology, syndrome of complications, and shorter life expectancy. Optimizing treatment outcomes for such patients requires a coordinated inclusive care plan and knowledgeable practitioners. Comprehensive management starts with medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in a broader lifestyle modification program. Implementing diabetes-specific MNT in Asia requires high-quality and transparent clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) that are regionally adapted for cultural, ethnic, and socioeconomic factors. Respected CPGs for nutrition and diabetes therapy are available from prestigious medical societies. For cost efficiency and effectiveness, health care authorities can select these CPGs for Asian implementation following abridgement and cultural adaptation that includes: defining nutrition therapy in meaningful ways, selecting lower cutoff values for healthy body mass indices and waist circumferences (WCs), identifying the dietary composition of MNT based on regional availability and preference, and expanding nutrition therapy for concomitant hypertension, dyslipidemia, overweight/obesity, and chronic kidney disease. An international task force of respected health care professionals has contributed to this process. To date, task force members have selected appropriate evidence-based CPGs and simplified them into an algorithm for diabetes-specific nutrition therapy. Following cultural adaptation, Asian and Asian-Indian versions of this algorithmic tool have emerged. The Asian version is presented in this report. PMID:22311609

Su, Hsiu-Yueh; Tsang, Man-Wo; Huang, Shih-Yi; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Marchetti, Albert

2012-04-01

363

Use of Nutrition Screening to Develop and Target Nutrition Education Interventions for Nevada's Elderly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nutrition Screening Initiative tools and approaches were utilized to enhance the nutritional health of Nevada's elderly through nutrition screening, education and counseling. Participants (n = 2037) were recruited primarily from senior nutrition programs, including congregate meal sites and home health care programs. Each was screened using the “DETERMINE Your Nutritional Health Checklist.” The intensity of the intervention was then

Jamie A. Benedict; David Wilson; Gwenn Snow; Peggy Nipp; Valentina Remig; Mary Spoon; Carolyn Leontos; Marsha Read

2000-01-01

364

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2013­2014 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

365

BS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

requirements: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism NDFS 294 Nutrition ResearchBS in NUTRITIONAL SCIENCE (284325) MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the degree program during the 2014­2015 curricular year. Nutritional science

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

366

Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: nutritional genomics.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that nutritional genomics provides insight into how diet and genotype interactions affect phenotype. The practical application of nutritional genomics for complex chronic disease is an emerging science and the use of nutrigenetic testing to provide dietary advice is not ready for routine dietetics practice. Registered dietitian nutritionists need basic competency in genetics as a foundation for understanding nutritional genomics; proficiency requires advanced knowledge and skills. Unlike single-gene defects in which a mutation in a single gene results in a specific disorder, most chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer are multigenetic and multifactorial and therefore genetic mutations are only partially predictive of disease risk. Family history, biochemical parameters, and the presence of risk factors in individuals are relevant tools for personalizing dietary interventions. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing is not closely regulated in the United States and may not be accompanied by access to health care practitioners. Applying nutritional genomics in clinical practice through the use of genetic testing requires that registered dietitian nutritionists understand, interpret, and communicate complex test results in which the actual risk of developing a disease may not be known. The practical application of nutritional genomics in dietetics practice will require an evidence-based approach to validate that personalized recommendations result in health benefits to individuals and do not cause harm. PMID:24439821

Camp, Kathryn M; Trujillo, Elaine

2014-02-01

367

Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: nutrition security in developing nations: sustainable food, water, and health.  

PubMed

It is the position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics that all people should have consistent access to an appropriately nutritious diet of food and water, coupled with a sanitary environment, adequate health services, and care that ensure a healthy and active life for all household members. The Academy supports policies, systems, programs, and practices that work with developing nations to achieve nutrition security and self-sufficiency while being environmentally and economically sustainable. For nations to achieve nutrition security, all people must have access to a variety of nutritious foods and potable drinking water; knowledge, resources, and skills for healthy living; prevention, treatment, and care for diseases affecting nutrition status; and safety-net systems during crisis situations, such as natural disasters or deleterious social and political systems. More than 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient; 1.5 billion people are overweight or obese; 870 million people have inadequate food energy intake; and 783 million people lack potable drinking water. Adequate nutrient intake is a concern, independent of weight status. Although this article focuses on nutritional deficiencies in developing nations, global solutions for excesses and deficiencies need to be addressed. In an effort to achieve nutrition security, lifestyles, policies, and systems (eg, food, water, health, energy, education/knowledge, and economic) contributing to sustainable resource use, environmental management, health promotion, economic stability, and positive social environments are required. Food and nutrition practitioners can get involved in promoting and implementing effective and sustainable policies, systems, programs, and practices that support individual, community, and national efforts. PMID:23522578

Nordin, Stacia M; Boyle, Marie; Kemmer, Teresa M

2013-04-01

368

Nutritional support of the oncology patient.  

PubMed

This review focuses on the nutritional support of the non-surgical cancer patient. The following topics are reviewed: cancer cachexia (definition and staging, prevalence and impact on clinical outcome); nutritional screening to identify potential candidates for nutritional support; nutritional requirements in terms of macro-and micro-nutrients of the advanced cancer patient. Finally, the indications and results of nutritional support are presented with a special focus on the following issues: routes of delivering nutritional support, the use of standard or n-3 fatty acids-enriched oral nutritional supplements during radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy, tube feeding during RT (with/without chemotherapy), parenteral nutrition during chemotherapy, nutritional support during hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, (home) enteral or total and supplemental parenteral nutrition in the incurable patient. Lastly, the bioethical aspects of feeding patients with incurable disease are briefly reviewed. PMID:23746998

Bozzetti, Federico

2013-08-01

369

Maintenance of nutritional status in patients with cystic fibrosis: new and emerging therapies  

PubMed Central

Poor clinical outcomes in cystic fibrosis are often associated with undernutrition. Normal growth and development should be achieved in cystic fibrosis, and nutritional counseling is paramount at all ages. Prevention and early detection of growth failure is the key to successful nutritional intervention. The advance in nutritional management is certainly one factor that has contributed to the improved survival in recent decades. This review outlines the major nutritional parameters in the management of the patient with cystic fibrosis, including recent advances in pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy and fat-soluble vitamin therapy. There are sections on complicated clinical situations which directly affect nutrition, for example, before and after lung transplantation, cystic fibrosis-related diabetes, and bone health. PMID:22787388

Kalnins, Daina; Wilschanski, Michael

2012-01-01

370

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities  

Cancer.gov

Nutrition Training and Funding Opportunities NIH Research Training & Research Career Development http://grants.nih.gov/training/index.htm Research and training opportunities at NIH, range from summer programs for high school students through employment

371

Nutritional Recommendation Should Promote Sustainability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Any process or event that disrupts the flow of nutrients and energy becomes a nutrition problem. Nutritionists should promote practices that protect the integrity, stability, and beauty of the land community (soil, water, air, all biological species). (Author)

Reber, Robert J.

1991-01-01

372

Primary-Graders Study Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the content of an instructional unit on nutrition prepared by the Dairy Council of California for primary-level school children and the results of its large-scale tryout in 30 California schools. (SDH)

Niedermeyer, Fred C.; Moncrief, Michael H.

1975-01-01

373

Nutritional management of Crohn's disease  

PubMed Central

Nutritional care and therapy forms an integral part of the management of patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Nutritional deficiencies result from reduced oral intake, malabsorption, medication side effects and systemic inflammation due to active disease. Enteral nutrition has a role in support for the malnourished patient, as well as in primary therapy to induce and maintain remission. The use of parenteral nutrition in CD is mainly limited to the preoperative setting or for patients with intestinal failure, but does not offer any additional advantage over EN in disease control. Dietary modifications, including elimination–reintroduction diets and a low fermentable, oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet may improve symptoms but there are currently no data to suggest that these approaches have any role in the induction or maintenance of remission. PMID:23634187

Yann, Lee H.; Lal, Simon

2013-01-01

374

Ankylosing Spondylitis: Diet and Nutrition  

MedlinePLUS

Diet & Nutrition: Quick Links Overview of Diet & Spondylitis >>> Medication & Diet >>> Dietary Supplements >>> Changing Your Diet >>> The London AS / Low Starch Diet >>> Back To The About Spondylitis Main Page >>> DIET & ...

375

Committee on Military Nutrition Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the activities of the National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine's Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR) for the period January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006. Activities during this time period which are described in ...

M. Oria

2007-01-01

376

Enteral Nutrition in Critical Care  

PubMed Central

There is a consensus that nutritional support, which must be provided to patients in intensive care, influences their clinical outcome. Malnutrition is associated in critically ill patients with impaired immune function and impaired ventilator drive, leading to prolonged ventilator dependence and increased infectious morbidity and mortality. Enteral nutrition is an active therapy that attenuates the metabolic response of the organism to stress and favorably modulates the immune system. It is less expensive than parenteral nutrition and is preferred in most cases because of less severe complications and better patient outcomes, including infections, and hospital cost and length of stay. The aim of this work was to perform a review of the use of enteral nutrition in critically ill patients. PMID:23390469

Seron-Arbeloa, Carlos; Zamora-Elson, Monica; Labarta-Monzon, Lorenzo; Mallor-Bonet, Tomas

2013-01-01

377

Poverty nutrition linkages.  

PubMed

At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per cent and about half the children are undernourished. While poverty and mortality rates came down by 50 per cent, fertility rate by 40 per cent, the reduction in undernutrition in children is only 20 per cent. National surveys indicate that a third of the children from high income group who have not experienced any deprivations are undernourished. The high undernutrition rates among children appears to be mainly due to high low birthweight rates, poor infant and young child feeding and caring practices. At the other end of the spectrum, surveys in school children from high income groups indicate that between 10-20 per cent are overnourished; the major factor responsible appears to be reduction in physical activity. Some aspects of the rapidly changing, complex relationship between economic status, poverty, dietary intake, nutritional and health status are explored in this review. PMID:18032800

Ramachandran, Prema

2007-10-01

378

[Evaluation of a teaching program of nutrition in agronomy].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate a set of teaching materials on food, nutrition and agriculture, adapted at the Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, within the scope of a project with AID and the School of Agronomy of the Chilean Catholic University (U. C.) aimed at incorporating the teaching of human nutrition into the curriculum of Latin American agronomists. A one semester course (54 hours) was given to 22 students of the 7th semester of Agronomy and two Ecuatorian agronomists (with AID scholarships). A set of knowledge evaluation instruments was applied at the beginning and at the end of the course. A total of 83.3% of the students passed the final examination (with more than 75% of correct answers). The difference between the initial and final performance was highly significant (p less than 0.001). According to the students' and teachers' opinions, the general textbook and the teachers book contributed effectively to meet the learning objectives whereas the students handbook needed some modifications. In conclusion, the program is an important contribution to the education of agronomists in a new conception of their role in regard to improvement of the nutritional status and quality of life of the rural population. With a few minor modifications, a final version to be used in the countries of the Region, shall soon become available. PMID:3836610

Olivares, S; Andrade, M; Harper, L; Kain, J; Eskenazi, M E; Sánchez, F; Domínguez, J I; Valiente, S

1985-06-01

379

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific\\u000a nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research\\u000a has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today’s endurance athletes. Several\\u000a of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance

Christopher J. Rasmussen

380

Nutrition in Inflammatory Bowel Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussed in this chapter are ways in which inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and nutrition are intimately related. Both Crohn’s\\u000a disease and ulcerative colitis can have a profound effect on the nutritional status of those afflicted with these diseases.\\u000a This can occur as a result of decreased food intake, digestion and absorption, increased requirements, altered metabolism\\u000a of nutrients, increased losses and

Darlene G. Kelly

381

Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis  

PubMed Central

Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis. PMID:24490104

Petrov, Max

2013-01-01

382

The importance of paediatric nutrition.  

PubMed

This articles looks at infant nutrition, from birth and through the first year of life. Good quality foods in infancy and childhood do not only promote optimum growth and development during that time, but also play a role in helping to prevent obesity and some diseases of adulthood, particularly non-communicable diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers. Ensuring a good nutritional start for the paediatric population will help reduce morbidity and mortality later in life. PMID:25299659

Patience, Sara

2014-10-01

383

Nutrition and health promotion in older adults.  

PubMed

During recent decades, the concept of health promotion has become a legitimate part of health care because of the aging of the postwar baby boom generation. As this population ages, the potential strain on health care systems will increase because the greatest use of health care services occurs during the last years of life. In older adults there are many correctable health factors that can be assessed through screening protocols. Hypertension, cholesterol, hearing, vision, diabetes, and cancer screening are well integrated into health promotion programs; nutrition promotion programs are not as well integrated. Reluctance to develop health promotion programs for older adults exists because of a perception that they would not follow such plans or change their lifestyles. However, longitudinal studies have shown that health promotion activities extend the number of years of health in older people although the relationship weakens in older age. Changes in diet and exercise patterns are most effective in the prevention of nutrition-related conditions when they are instituted early in life, but positive effects can occur at any age. If nutritional interventions are instituted early, a substantial reduction in health care expenditures may result from a decrease in the incidence or the delayed onset of these conditions. Changes in behaviors (reducing salt and fat intake) were positively associated with a belief that consuming a healthful diet would contribute to better health. The use of a variety of adult education theories and models will enhance behavior changes that lead to more healthful habits and enable a health educator to be successful in effecting change. PMID:11730237

Chernoff, R

2001-10-01

384

78 FR 20411 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Assistance Program: Nutrition Education and Obesity Prevention Grant Program AGENCY: Food...for provision of nutrition education and obesity prevention programs. These programs will...Act to carry out nutrition education and obesity prevention services each fiscal...

2013-04-05

385

[Nutrition and fertility].  

PubMed

There is a growing body of evidence that nutritional habits may have a significant effect on both male and female fertility. Maintenance of normal body mass may be effective in the prevention of infertility resulting from ovulatory disorders. Underweight and, to a larger degree, overweight and/or obesity, are related to the enhanced risk of infertility. Insulin resistance is an important pathogenic mechanism that may impair ovulation. Adequate intake of monounsaturated fatty acids, derived mainly from vegetable fats, as well as avoidance of trans isomers of unsaturated fatty acids which are present in industrially produced cakes and sweets, crisps, fast-foods, powdered soups and hard margarines, may be effective in the prevention of infertility in females. Choice of plant rather than animal sources of proteins, decrease in glycemic load of the diet, use of dietary supplements containing iron and folic acid, could also be beneficial. Avoidance of vitamin B12 deficiency and its supplementation seem to be important in the prevention of early miscarriages. Sufficient intake of antioxidants also promotes female reproductive functions. Free radical processes play an important role in the development of male factor infertility. It was shown that proper intake or supplementation with antioxidants may be effective in its prevention and treatment. Such nutrients as zinc, selenium and folic acid act beneficially on sperm quality. A well-balanced diet seems to play an important role in the prevention of infertility in both sexes. PMID:22516697

Szostak-W?gierek, Dorota

2011-01-01

386

Nutritional aspects of selenium  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project was to investigate the effect of protein and/or dietary fiber supplementation on selenium absorption and metabolism. These relationships might be of importance in determining either minimum selenium nutritional requirements or levels of intake at which this mineral becomes toxic. Three studies compose the project. The first study involved the controlled feeding of fifteen young adults mice. Subjects were fed a laboratory-controlled diet with and without supplements of selenium or selenium plus guar gum. Selenium supplementation resulted in increased selenium excretion in urine and feces. Supplementation of guar gum, as a dietary fiber, tended to increase fecal selenium excretion and to decrease selenium balance and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity regardless of dietary selenium levels. In study II, seventy two weanling mice were fed varied levels of dietary selenium and protein. Numerically, urinary selenium excretion increased and fecal selenium excretion and selenium balance decreased with increased dietary protein level within the same level of dietary selenium; however, selenium absorption rate tended to decrease with increased dietary protein level. Whole blood and brain tissue glutathione peroxidase activities were higher in animals fed moderate protein level than those fed the other two protein levels. In study III, a survey was conducted to investigate the correlation between dietary fiber or protein intake and urinary selenium excretion. There was a negative correlation between dietary fiber and urinary selenium excretion levels while dietary protein and urinary selenium excretion were positively correlated.

Choe, M.

1987-01-01

387

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

388

Nutrition and healthy eating  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Mayo Clinic is known around the world for their medical facilities, and they also have a number of public outreach programs and health tips available on their website. This particular section of their site addresses nutrition and healthy eating concerns, and it is a valuable resource with information that has been vetted by their professional staff. The materials here are divided into six sections, including "Basics", "In-Depth", and "Expert Answers". The "Basics" section contains information about healthy diets, cooking, and shopping strategies. This section also includes topical pieces, such as "Sodium: How to tame your salt habit now" and "Water: How much should you drink every day?" Moving on, the "Multimedia" area includes interactive graphics such as "Reading food labels", and images that include "cuts of beef" and "functions of water in the body". Visitors shouldn't miss the "Expert Blog", as it features tips by registered dieticians and nurses on topics like kitchen organization, meal planning, and ideas for healthy salads.

2011-04-22

389

An Assessment of Nutritional Sources of Organisms in a Temperate Coastal Marine System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contribution of seagrass primary production to nutrient flow in temperate aquatic systems is widely debated. The purpose of this work was to verify that eelgrass ( Zostera marina) comprises a measurable fraction of the diet of consumers in recently restored eelgrass meadows. This investigation endeavored to quantify the nutritional contributions from primary producers to the aquatic food web of

S. A. Harbeson; S. A. Macko

2007-01-01

390

Nutritional and Healthful Aspects of Cultured and Culture-Containing Dairy Foods1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritional and therapeutic qualities of fermented dairy products are reviewed. Partial hydrolysis of milk constituents (proteins, fats, and lactose) in yogurt, cheese, and other cultured dairy foods appears to contribute to their increased digestibility. Lactase and other constituent enzymes of various culturing organisms should contribute to assimilation of lactose by lactose intolerant individuals. Several lactic cultures synthesize certain B-vitamins in

Khem M. Shahani; Ramesh C. Chandan

1979-01-01

391

Relationship of phenotypic variation in sorghum to nutritive value of crop residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvements in dry matter digestibility of crop residues contribute to greater productivity of livestock consuming dual-purpose sorghums (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Delayed leaf senescence (stay-green), brown-midrib (bmr), leaf disease resistance, and high yield are among sorghum phenotypic traits that could enhance nutritive value of crop residues. The objective was to evaluate nutritive value and hydrocyanic acid potential (HCN-p) of leaf

D. M. Vietor; G. A. Rhodes; W. L. Rooney

2010-01-01

392

Interactive learning for congregate nutrition site nutrition education: a pilot study.  

PubMed

Older adults who participate in the Older Americans Act Title III-C Elderly Nutrition Program often are at moderate to high nutritional risk. Although nutrition education is a component of the Elderly Nutrition Program, there are numerous barriers to promoting behavior change in older adults. Nutrition education programs targeted to congregate nutrition site participants must address their unique nutritional needs, while engaging them in activities that promote learning and motivate them to make positive behavior changes. This paper describes a pilot study of a theory-driven, five-lesson educational module designed to promote healthful eating behaviors among congregate nutrition site participants through interactive learning. PMID:14650554

Bobroff, Linda B; Turner, Elaine; Weddle, Dian O; Brake, Julie H; Lieberman, Leslie Sue; Allen, Tina B

2003-01-01

393

Nutritional Biochemistry of Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Adequate nutrition is critical for maintenance of crew health during and after extended-duration space flight. The impact of weightlessness on human physiology is profound, with effects on many systems related to nutrition, including bone, muscle, hematology, fluid and electrolyte regulation. Additionally, we have much to learn regarding the impact of weightlessness on absorption, mtabolism , and excretion of nutrients, and this will ultimately determine the nutrient requirements for extended-duration space flight. Existing nutritional requirements for extended-duration space flight have been formulated based on limited flight research, and extrapolation from ground-based research. NASA's Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory is charged with defining the nutritional requirements for space flight. This is accomplished through both operational and research projects. A nutritional status assessment program is included operationally for all International Space Station astronauts. This medical requirement includes biochemical and dietary assessments, and is completed before, during, and after the missions. This program will provide information about crew health and nutritional status, and will also provide assessments of countermeasure efficacy. Ongoing research projects include studies of calcium and bone metabolism, and iron absorption and metabolism. The calcium studies include measurements of endocrine regulation of calcium homeostasis, biochemical marker of bone metabolism, and tracer kinetic studies of calcium movement in the body. These calcium kinetic studies allow for estimation of intestinal absorption, urinary excretion, and perhaps most importantly - deposition and resorption of calcium from bone. The Calcium Kinetics experiment is currently being prepared for flight on the Space Shuttle in 2001, and potentially for subsequent Shuttle and International Space Station missions. The iron study is intended to assess whether iron absorption is down-regulated dUl1ng space flight. This is critical due to the red blood cell changes which occur, and the increase in iron storage that has been observed after space flight. The Iron Absorption and Metabolism experiment is currently planned for long-term flights on the International Space Station.

Smith, Scott M.

2000-01-01

394

“Eat Healthy. Your Kids are Watching.” Pilot Nutrition Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research shows that too many Americans fail to recognize the diet\\/health link, while those who do recognize it often lack the information they need to change. A nutrition campaign was developed and used a two-step approach to change negative consumption patterns and the social and cultural influences that contribute to them. First, the program used an innovative, focus-group tested message

P. Kerr; P. Hammerschmidt; L. Himebaugh

1999-01-01

395

Value of cane trash in nitrogen nutrition of sugarcane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The significance of trash containing 0.3 to 0.5% N in the N nutrition of sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid sp.) was investigated in pot- and field experiments using15N-labelled trash. The data obtained from the pot study with 2 silty-clay loams (a Humic Nitosol and a Humic Acrisol) showed\\u000a that surface-applied trash (10 tonnes\\/ha), although ground to pass a 1-mm sieve, contributed less

K. F. NG Kee Kwong; J. Deville; P. C. Cavalot; V. Riviere

1987-01-01

396

Exercise, bone and nutrition.  

PubMed

Predisposition to poor skeletal health resulting in osteoporotic fracture is a major public health problem, the future economical impact of which is likely to be phenomenal. Two mechanisms principally determine adult bone health: (1) maximum attainment of peak bone mass (PBM); (2) the rate of bone loss with advancing age. Both aspects are regulated by a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors, and although genetic influences are believed to account for up to 75% of the variation in bone mass, there is still room for modifiable factors to play a vital role. Weight-bearing physical activity is beneficial to the skeleton, but clarification of the exact type, intensity and duration required for optimum bone mass is needed. Excessive levels of exercise, which result in amenorrhoea, are detrimental to skeletal health. The importance of Ca to bone remains controversial. There is evidence that Ca is effective in reducing late post-menopausal bone loss, but more research is required on the long-term benefit of increased Ca intake on PBM attainment. Vitamin D 'insufficiency' appears to be widespread amongst population groups and is an area of considerable public health concern. The role of other micronutrients on bone metabolism remains to be fully quantified, but data from a combination of experimental, clinical and observational studies suggest a positive link between alkaline-forming foods and indices of bone health. The influence of nutrient-gene interactions on the skeleton requires further elucidation, but it may be useful in the future to target nutrition advice at those individuals who are genetically susceptible to osteoporosis. PMID:11681642

New, S A

2001-05-01

397

School-based nutrition education: lessons learned and new perspectives.  

PubMed

Nutrition is a major environmental influence on physical and mental growth and development in early life. Food habits during infancy can influence preferences and practices in later life and some evidence suggests fair to moderate tracking of food habits from childhood to adolescence. Studies support that good nutrition contributes to improving the wellbeing of children and their potential learning ability, thus contributing to better school performance. Children and young people who learn healthy eating habits, are encouraged to be physically active, to avoid smoking and to learn to manage stress, have the potential for reduced impact of chronic diseases in adulthood. Nutrition education is a key element to promoting lifelong healthy eating and exercise behaviours and should start from the early stages of life; it should also address the specific nutritional needs associated with pregnancy, including reinforcing breastfeeding. Food habits are complex in nature and multiple conditioning factors interact in their development. Young children do not choose what they eat, but their parents decide and prepare the food for them. During infancy and early childhood the family is a key environment for children to learn and develop food preferences and eating habits. As they grow and start school, teachers, peers and other people at school, together with the media and social leaders, become more important. Progressively children become more independent and start making their own food choices. The peer group is very important for adolescents and has a major influence in developing both food habits and lifestyles. Community trials suggest that nutrition education is an accessible effective tool in health promotion programmes with a focus on the development of healthy eating practices. PMID:11255503

Pérez-Rodrigo, C; Aranceta, J

2001-02-01

398

Combined use of DGT and transplanted shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to assess the bioavailable metals of complex contamination: implications for implementing bioavailability-based water quality criteria.  

PubMed

The diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) were field deployed alongside the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at seven sites with different levels of contamination to assess the potentially bioavailable and toxic fraction of metal contaminants. After 7 days of exposure, several antioxidant biomarkers were quantified in hepatopancreas of exposed shrimps, and tissue levels as well as the total, dissolved, and DGT-labile concentrations of metal contaminants were determined in the pooled site samples. The results showed that the caged shrimps had high tissue contaminant concentrations and significantly inhibited antioxidant responses at the more contaminated sites. DGT-labile metal concentrations provided better spatial resolution of differences in metal contamination when compared with traditional bottle sampling and transplanted shrimp. The total, dissolved, and DGT-labile metal fractions were used to evaluate the potential bioavailability of metal contaminants, comparing with metal accumulation and further linking to antioxidant biomarker responses in tissues of exposed shrimps. Regression analysis showed the significant correlations between DGT-Cu concentrations and tissue-Cu and activities of some biomarker responses in the shrimp hepatopancreas. This indicated that DGT-labile Cu concentrations provided the better prediction of produced biological effects and of the bioavailability than the total or dissolved concentrations. The study supports the use of methods combining transplanted organisms and passive sampling for assessing the chemical and ecotoxicological status of aqueous environments and demonstrates the capability of the DGT technique as a powerful tool for measuring the bioavailability-based water quality in variable coastal environments. PMID:24337999

Wang, Zaosheng; Zhao, Peihong; Yan, Changzhou; Chris, Vulpe D; Yan, Yijun; Chi, Qiaoqiao

2014-03-01

399

Quantitation of infectious myonecrosis virus in different tissues of naturally infected Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry.  

PubMed

The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, is the most important shrimp species in volume in world aquaculture. However, in recent decades, outbreaks of diseases, especially viral diseases, have led to significant economic losses, threatening the sustainability of shrimp farming worldwide. In 2004, Brazilian shrimp farming was seriously affected by a new disease caused by the Infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). Thus, disease control based on rapid and sensitive pathogen detection methods has become a priority. In this study, a specific quantitation method for IMNV was developed using real-time PCR with SYBR Green chemistry and viral load of the principal target tissues of chronically infected animals was quantified. The quantitative analysis revealed that mean viral load ranged from 5.08×10(8) to 1.33×10(6)copies/?g of total RNA in the hemolymph, 5.096×10(5) to 1.26×10(3)copies/?g in the pleopods, 6.85×10(8) to 3.09×10(4)copies/?g in muscle and 8.15×10(6) to 3.90×10(3)copies/?g in gills. Different viral loads of IMNV were found with greater values in the hemolymph and muscle, followed by the pleopods and gills. PMID:21854806

da Silva, Suzianny Maria Bezerra Cabral; Pinheiro, Ana Cristina de Aguiar Saldanha; Coimbra, Maria Raquel Moura

2011-11-01

400

Effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.): mortality and viral replication.  

PubMed

Multiple infections are commonly found in practical shrimp culture and may cause more serious consequences than infections by one pathogen only. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of multiple infections with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio anguillarum on Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L.), mortality, WSSV replication in vivo and host immune response. In the WSSV single-infection group (WSSV load, 2 × 10(2)  copies ?L(-1) ), mean cumulative mortality was 29.2%. In the V. anguillarum single-infection group, cumulative mortality was 12.5% when shrimp were challenged by 10(5)  CFU mL(-1)  of bacteria. In the co- and super-infection groups, 37.5% and 50% cumulative mortalities, respectively, were observed at a lower bacterial concentration of 10(3)  CFU mL(-1) , suggesting that shrimp with multiple infections died earlier and more frequently than singly infected shrimp. WSSV load after injection was tracked over time by TaqMan quantitative PCR. WSSV load increased more rapidly in the multiple-infection groups than in the single-infection group. Additionally, mRNA expression of the genes encoding prophenoloxidase 1 and 2, which are closely involved in innate immunity in shrimp, was down-regulated more extensively in multiple-infection groups than in single-infection groups, as indicated by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. PMID:24127689

Jang, I K; Qiao, G; Kim, S-K

2014-10-01

401

Effects of lipopolysaccharide on gene expression of antimicrobial peptides (penaeidins and crustin), serine proteinase and prophenoloxidase in haemocytes of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  

PubMed

For shrimp immune defences, prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system and antimicrobial peptides in circulating haemocytes play important roles. In the present study, the effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on gene expression of penaeidins, crustin, serine proteinase and proPO in haemocytes were determined using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. After injection of LPS, mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides, penaeidin 2 (PEN2), penaeidin 3 (PEN3), penaeidin 4 (PEN4) and crustin decreased in a dose-dependent manner, while mRNA levels of serine proteinase and proPO did not change significantly. In a time-course experiment, injection of LPS caused significant depression in mRNA levels of PEN2, PEN3, PEN4 and crustin at 4h post-injection, and the depressed mRNA levels returned to initial levels by 72h post-injection. On the other hand, mRNA levels of serine proteinase and proPO did not show a significant change after injection. These results suggest that the antimicrobial peptide system responds to LPS injection at a gene expression level while the proPO system does not respond at a gene expression level. PMID:16702000

Okumura, Takuji

2007-01-01

402

Regulation of the immediate-early genes of white spot syndrome virus by Litopenaeus vannamei kruppel-like factor (LvKLF).  

PubMed

Kruppel-like factors (KLFs) belong to a subclass of Cys2/His2 zinc-finger DNA-binding proteins, and act as important regulators with diverse roles in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and tumorigenesis. Our previous research showed that PmKLF from Penaeus monodon is crucial for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection, yet the mechanisms by which PmKLF influences WSSV infection remain unclear. This study cloned KLF from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvKLF), which had 93% similarity with PmKLF. LvKLF formed a dimer via the C-terminal zinc-finger motif. Knockdown of LvKLF expression by dsRNA injection in WSSV-challenged shrimps was found to significantly inhibit the transcription of two important immediate-early (IE) genes, IE1 and WSSV304, and also reduced WSSV copy numbers. Moreover, reporter assays revealed that the promoter activities of these two WSSV IE genes were substantially enhanced by LvKLF. Mutations introduced in the promoter sequences of IE1 and WSSV304 were shown to abolish LvKLF activation of promoter activities; and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that LvKLF binds to putative KLF-response elements (KRE) in the promoters. Taken together, these results indicate that LvKLF transcriptional regulation of key IE genes is critical to WSSV replication. PMID:24881625

Huang, Ping-Han; Lu, Shao-Chia; Yang, Shu-Han; Cai, Pei-Si; Lo, Chu-Fang; Chang, Li-Kwan

2014-10-01

403

A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of meat and bone meal (MBM) and poultry by-product meal (PBM) as the replacement of fish meal in the diets on the growth performance, survival and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of Litopenaeus vannamei. The basal diets were formulated with 22% fish meal and other ingredients which provided about 40% protein and 9% lipid in the diet. The experimental diets included MBM or PBM to replace 0, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of total fish meal respectively. All diets were iso-nitrogenous and isocaloric in gross terms. The results showed that there were no significant differences (P?;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 60% fish meal had been replaced with MBM, while the percent weight gain (WG, %), body length gain (BLG, %) and ADC significantly decreased when the MBM was up to 80% of the fish meal. There were no significant differences (P?;0.05) in growth performance and ADC among all the treatments fed with the diets in which 0 80% fish meal had been replaced with PBM.

Zhu, Wei; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Baigang; Wang, Fuzhen; Yu, Yu

2004-10-01

404

Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

Rasmussen, Christopher J.

405

Nutritional Supplements to Enhance Recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to recover from intense exercise often separates good athletes from great ones. In the past, "recovery" often simply included rest, physical modalities (e.g., massage, hydration therapy) and meeting basic nutritional needs for fluid and energy intake. Today, athletes have a number of additional options to help them recover from high intensity training, one of which includes the judicious use of dietary supplements. This chapter briefly reviews nutritional strategies that have a strong theoretical background for enhancing rehydration/electrolyte balance, replenishing energy reserves, minimizing oxidative damage, and stimulating muscle repair.

Ziegenfuss, Tim N.; Landis, Jamie; Greenwood, Mike

406

Nutritional factors and Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Nutritional factors are integrally linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although AD patients have no changes in energy metabolism, fluctuations in weight are fairly common. The potential role of vitamin B(12) and folate, with the production of hyperhomocysteinemia, in the pathophysiology of AD is explored. The role of free-radical damage in AD is discussed. It is stressed that alterations in dietary lipids may play an important role in cognitive defects in AD secondary to their effects on neuronal membrane lipids. More research is needed on the role of nutrition in the ongoing development of cognitive changes in AD. PMID:11682574

Reynish, W; Andrieu, S; Nourhashemi, F; Vellas, B

2001-11-01

407

The economics of nutrition planning.  

PubMed

Economic theory suggests that consumers act to maximize their utility subject to constraints on their income and time. An individual's actions in the market (demand) generally reflect preferences based on his or her perception of utility, or welfare. Economic research has indicated that consumers purchase food, not nutrients, and that public programs and decisions concerning nutrition which have ignored consumer preferences have often been ineffective and heavily criticized. Approaches which integrate consumer demand and nutrition planning may be more successful in achieving national and institutional goals. PMID:7310029

Keith, J E

1981-12-01

408

Factors Affecting Deer Diets and Nutrition  

E-print Network

Knowledge of deer diets and nutrition can benefit ranchers who are interested in deer management and who want to coordinate vegetation management practices with changes in nutritional value of the habitat. Three important considerations...

Richardson, Calvin

2000-04-25

409

Nutritional Preparation of Athletes: What Makes Sense?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of nutrition's role in athletics is presented in this article. The effects of good day-to-day nutrition, the pregame meal, fluid intake, and dietary supplements on the athletes endurance and performance are discussed. (DF)

McCutcheon, Malcolm L.

1984-01-01

410

Nutritional toxicology: basic principles and actual problems.  

PubMed

Nutritional toxicology is a specialty that combines the backgrounds and research approaches of nutrition and toxicology. Many problems of substantial importance to health and food safety involve interactions of nutrition process and requirement with the effects of toxicological impact. Solution of these problems requires research that meets the procedural and design criteria of experimental nutrition and these of experimental toxicology. The relationships may be described in three basic categories: (1) influence of nutrition on toxicities; (2) influence of toxicants on nutrition; and (3) toxicities of nutrients. Trypsin inhibitor research, an example of diet impacting on toxicological response, illustrates the necessity of controlling nutritional composition aspects that can confound the results. Prolonged acetaminophen administration provides an example of the effects of toxicants on nutritional requirement and function which could be important for persons with marginal sulphur amino acid intake. PMID:2262017

Hathcock, J N

1990-01-01

411

45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification...

2011-10-01

412

45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification...

2010-10-01

413

45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification...

2013-10-01

414

45 CFR 1304.23 - Child nutrition.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child nutrition. 1304.23 Section 1304...HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM...Development and Health Services § 1304.23 Child nutrition. (a) Identification...

2012-10-01

415

October 23, 2006: Stars In Nutrition & Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Nutritional and Molecular Biomarkers in Diet and Cancer Epidemiology Star Speaker Sheila Bingham, PhD Director, Medical Research Council Centre for Nutrition in Cancer Prevention and Survival Dept. of Public Health and Primary Care University of Cambridge Head,

416

[Nutrition support therapy of inflammatory bowel disease].  

PubMed

Malnutrition is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease(IBD). The therapeutic role of nutrition has attracted more and more attention in the development of IBD. In recent years, researches have demonstrated that nutrition support has its unique advantages in improving patients nutritional status and reducing adverse events, and it has been recommended as the first line therapy in children with active Crohn disease. Since there are no standardized guidelines of nutritional support therapy worldwide, this article is to review the relationship between nutrition and IBD, the choice of nutritional therapy mode, the duration of the nutritional treatment and evaluation of therapeutic effects based on Expert Consensus on Nutrition Support Therapy of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (2013·Shenzhen). PMID:25341900

Peng, Junsheng; Gao, Xiang

2014-10-01

417

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

2013-10-01

418

45 CFR 1326.15 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON AGING, OLDER AMERICANS PROGRAMS GRANTS TO INDIAN TRIBES FOR SUPPORT AND NUTRITION SERVICES § 1326.15 Nutrition...

2012-10-01

419

Nutrition Education in the Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The involvement of seven elementary teachers in a summer nutrition workshop expanded into a complete nutrition education program on nutrients, caloric balance, junk foods, food selection, preparation, and storage. (MB)

Eisenhauer, John E.; Bell, Paul E.

1976-01-01

420

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer - March 15, 2011  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer False Positives, False Negatives, and Small Effects: Genome, Exposome, and Nutrition Star Speaker John Ioannidis, MD, DSc CF Rehnborg Professor in Disease Prevention Professor of Medicine and Director Stanford Prevention

421

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer - October 06, 2014  

Cancer.gov

Stars in Nutrition & Cancer Childhood and Adolescent Nutrition and Growth Drive Breast Cancer Risk: Untapped Opportunities for Prevention Speaker Graham Colditz, MD, DrPH Niess-Gain Professor of Surgery, Professor of Medicine Associate Director Prevention

422

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2010-10-01

423

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2013-10-01

424

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2012-10-01

425

45 CFR 1308.20 - Nutrition services.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nutrition services. 1308.20 Section...Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...FOR CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Nutrition Performance Standards §...

2011-10-01

426

Effects of parasitism on aphid nutritional and protective symbioses.  

PubMed

Insects often carry heritable symbionts that negotiate interactions with food plants or natural enemies. All pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, require infection with the nutritional symbiont Buchnera, and many are also infected with Hamiltonella, which protects against the parasitoid Aphidius ervi. Hamiltonella-based protection requires bacteriophages called APSEs with protection levels varying by strain and associated APSE. Endoparasitoids, including A. ervi, may benefit from protecting the nutritional symbiosis and suppressing the protective one, while the aphid and its heritable symbionts have aligned interests when attacked by the wasp. We investigated the effects of parasitism on the abundance of aphid nutritional and protective symbionts. First, we determined strength of protection associated with multiple symbiont strains and aphid genotypes as these likely impact symbiont responses. Unexpectedly, some A. pisum genotypes cured of facultative symbionts were resistant to parasitism and resistant aphid lines carried Hamiltonella strains that conferred no additional protection. Susceptible aphid clones carried protective strains. qPCR estimates show that parasitism significantly influenced both Buchnera and Hamiltonella titres, with multiple factors contributing to variation. In susceptible lines, parasitism led to increases in Buchnera near the time of larval wasp emergence consistent with parasite manipulation, but effects were variable in resistant lines. Parasitism also resulted in increases in APSE and subsequent decreases in Hamiltonella, and we discuss how this response may relate to the protective phenotype. In summary, we show that parasitism alters the within-host ecology of both nutritional and protective symbioses with effects likely significant for all players in this antagonistic interaction. PMID:24152321

Martinez, Adam J; Weldon, Stephanie R; Oliver, Kerry M

2014-03-01

427

The role of mycorrhizal associations in plant potassium nutrition.  

PubMed

Potassium (K(+)) is one of the most abundant elements of soil composition but it's very low availability limits plant growth and productivity of ecosystems. Because this cation participates in many biological processes, its constitutive uptake from soil solution is crucial for the plant cell machinery. Thus, the understanding of strategies responsible of K(+) nutrition is a major issue in plant science. Mycorrhizal associations occurring between roots and hyphae of underground fungi improve hydro-mineral nutrition of the majority of terrestrial plants. The contribution of this mutualistic symbiosis to the enhancement of plant K(+) nutrition is not well understood and poorly studied so far. This mini-review examines the current knowledge about the impact of both arbuscular mycorrhizal and ectomycorrhizal symbioses on the transfer of K(+) from the soil to the plants. A model summarizing plant and fungal transport systems identified and hypothetically involved in K(+) transport is proposed. In addition, some data related to benefits for plants provided by the improvement of K(+) nutrition thanks to mycorrhizal symbioses are presented. PMID:25101097

Garcia, Kevin; Zimmermann, Sabine D

2014-01-01

428

The nutrition magician: integrating nutrition into basic education.  

PubMed

A primer on nutrition and other educational materials were produced in 1985-87 as part of the Jamaica Primary Education Nutrition Project carried out by the Education Development Center in collaboration with the Jamaica Ministry of Education, UNESCO, and USAID. The main purpose of the project was to determine whether integrating nutrition education into existing school curricula was an efficient way to concurrently increase students' nutritional knowledge and reading skills. There are several reasons why the effort was made to reach children directly instead of their mothers. Although children form eating habits and preferences early in life, they remain susceptible to change through school-based education. Peer pressure and support may then reenforce education which takes place in school, especially since children's choice of food while they are away from home is more influenced by their friends than by their parents. Finally, in developing countries, older children often care for their younger siblings. The author describes planning research, baseline survey, collaborative materials design workshop, materials development and testing, project implementation and monitoring, and program evaluation. PMID:12346420

Hollis, C

1989-01-01

429

Do Data Support Nutrition Support? Part I: Intravenous Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intravenous (parenteral) nutrition has been advocated widely as adjunctive care in patients with a variety of underlying diseases. However, the enthusiasm for this therapeutic intervention was based largely on expert opinion. Because the best way to assess the efficacy of any treatment is to test it in a randomized controlled trial, this review will focus on data that was derived

Ronald L. Koretz

2007-01-01

430

Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition  

E-print Network

and physical sciences. In addition to food science, nutrition in health, medical nutrition therapyPublic Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Department Of Public Health, Food Studies And Nutrition Kay Stearns Bruening, Chair, 315-443-2386 426 Ostrom Ave. The Department of Public Health, Food

Raina, Ramesh

431

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and the Consumer--II. A Working Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is organized in four parts. Part One is a "State on the Needs for Nutrition Education" submitted by the Board of Directors, Society for Nutrition Education in connection with The Panel on Consumer Programs and Public Education, The National Nutrition Policy Study, to the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Part Two…

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs.

432

Master of Advanced Study Program in Maternal and Child Nutrition Bylaws Home Department: Department of Nutrition  

E-print Network

Master of Advanced Study Program in Maternal and Child Nutrition Bylaws Home Department: Department The Master of Advanced Study (MAS) Program in Maternal and Child Nutrition is a part-time, self in maternal and child nutrition for working professionals in the health care and nutrition education sectors

Ullrich, Paul

433

Exploring Nutrition Literacy and Knowledge among a National Sample of School Nutrition Managers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this national study was to describe nutrition literacy levels and nutrition knowledge among school nutrition (SN) managers, and explore if barriers to seeking SN information, perceived role in school wellness, and confidence in SN decision making varied by nutrition literacy and knowledge scores. Methods: An…

Zoellner, Jamie; Carr, Deborah

2010-01-01

434

Nutrition Education in the Classroom: Project SNACK (Sharing Nutritional Awareness through Curriculum for Kids, K-6).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Funded under the Nutrition Education and Training Program, Michigan's Project SNACK (Sharing Nutritional Awareness through Curriculum for Kids, K-6) is an adaptable model of nutrition education that focuses on staff development (trainer of trainers) involving the infusion of nutrition education into the regular classroom curriculum. During the…

Javid, Sue

435

Patient Nutrition Acuity as a Predictor of the Time Required to Perform Medical Nutrition Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if patient nutrition acuity accurately predicts the time required to perform medical nutrition therapy (MNT).Design Data detailing demographic characteristics, patient nutrition acuity, and time spent performing MNT were collected for 12 consecutive days. Random systematic sampling was used to select 25%, or a minimum of 20 patients, from daily admissions to the hospital. Nutrition acuity was categorized

MARGARET LAU SIMMONS; LINDA A VAUGHAN

1999-01-01

436

NUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

. Complete the following: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition 3.0 NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism 3.0 AfterNUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the minor programs during the 2014­2015 curricular year. NUTRITION MINOR

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

437

Minor in Nutrition and Health Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University  

E-print Network

may be used. Global Perspectives on Human Health NS 3060 Nutrition and Global Health NS 4450 Toward Health and Nutrition NS 1220 Nutrition and the Life Cycle NS 2750 Human Biology and Evolution (also ANTHR Nutrition (Restricted � priority given to Dietetics students) NS 3410 Human Anatomy and Physiology (Lecture

Lipson, Michal

438

NUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science  

E-print Network

. Complete the following: NDFS 100 Essentials of Human Nutrition 3.0 NDFS 200 Nutrient Metabolism 3.0 AfterNUTRITION, DIETETICS, AND FOOD SCIENCE minor MAP Sheet Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science For students entering the minor programs during the 2013­2014 curricular year. NUTRITION MINOR

Olsen Jr., Dan R.

439

Aging in Community Nutrition, Diet Therapy, and Nutrition and Aging Textbooks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using content analysis, this study evaluated the aging content and context in 11 nutrition sub-specialty textbooks: community nutrition (n = 3), diet therapy (n = 4), and nutrition and aging (n = 4). Pages with paragraphs on aging were identified in community nutrition and diet therapy textbooks, and 10% random samples of pages were evaluated in…

O'Neill, Peggy Schafer; Wellman, Nancy S.; Himburg, Susan P.; Johnson, Paulette; Elfenbein, Pamela

2005-01-01

440

Public Health Nutrition (PUB HLTH 413) Winter 2008 PUB HLTH 413 Public Health Nutrition  

E-print Network

of diet on nutritional status and thus on the health of populations including populations with specialPublic Health Nutrition (PUB HLTH 413) ­ Winter 2008 PUB HLTH 413 Public Health Nutrition Winter-moran@northwestern.edu I. Course Description This course introduces students to nutrition from the perspective

Contractor, Anis

441

The 1993 nutrition label: development of a rating system and a perspective by nutrition and food industry professionals  

E-print Network

The objectives of this study were to develop a nutrition scoring system which would combine the nutritional information on the new label into a single number, to identify strengths and weaknesses of the new nutritional labels according to nutrition...

Osborn, Lacye Ann

2012-06-07

442

Nutrition and Maternal Survival in Developing Countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal mortality continues to be high and maternal nutrition poor in the developing world. However, the specific role of\\u000a nutrition in affecting maternal health and survival remains unclear. Recent trials provide support for a specific and perhaps\\u000a important place for nutrition in reducing the burden of maternal mortality in developing countries. Specific nutrition interventions\\u000a have been shown to be efficacious

Parul Christian

443

Nutrition Education and Practices Among Practicing Chiropractors  

E-print Network

nutrition and athletic performance, as well as common ergogenic aids. In addition, NYCC offers a graduate program in acupuncture and Oriental medicine that includes a course in the science and practice of clinical nutrition from both Eastern and Western... publications. He has also written a book titled Clinical Nutrition for Pain, Inflammation, and Tissue Healing. Five respondents cited Weston A. Price or the Price-Pottenger Foundation, and another listed Price?s book, Nutrition and Physical Degeneration...

Werner, Donna

2008-04-29

444

Vegetarian Nutrition on the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To identify topics related to vegetarian nutrition which are of interest to visitors to a vegetarian organization's web site.Vegetarian nutrition is a topic of interest to many consumers. In order to develop appropriate educational materials, it is important to know which areas of vegetarian nutrition are of particular concern. We decided to assess interest in various topics related

A. R. Mangels; B. Scott; B. Pasternak; D. Wasserman

1997-01-01

445

Assistant Professor Beef Cattle Nutrition/Management  

E-print Network

Assistant Professor Beef Cattle Nutrition/Management Department of Animal Science University Beef Cattle Nutrition/Management, 12-month, tenure track position (100% Research) in the Department and to the recently established University of Tennessee Beef and Forage Center in the area of ruminant nutrition

Tennessee, University of

446

An accelerated nutrition transition in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To describe the emergence of the nutrition transition, and associated morbidity shifts, in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Design: Review and analysis of secondary data relating to the socio-political and nutritional context, demographic trends, food utilisation and consumption patterns, obesity, and diet-related morbidity. Results and conclusions: The nutrition transition in Iran is occurring rapidly, secondary to the rapid change

Hossein Ghassemi; Gail Harrison; Kazem Mohammad

2002-01-01

447

Nutrition Programs for Children. ERIC Digest.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite recognition of the importance of good nutrition for children's cognitive development, many children in America are poorly nourished. This digest reviews programs designed to address this problem and suggests ways to improve child nutrition and school meal programs. Federal programs administered by the Food and Nutrition Service of the…

ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

448

State Skill Standards: Foods and Nutrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mission of Foods and Nutrition Education is to prepare students for family life, community life and careers in the foods and nutrition fields by creating opportunities to develop the knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviors needed to: (1) Analyze career paths within the foods and nutrition industry; (2) Examine factors that influence food…

Atkinson, Jeanette; Black, Sara; Capdeville, Elsie; Grover, Janice; Killion, Marlene; Martin, Jan; Mathews, Carol; Moen, Julie; Reynolds, Penny; Chessell, Karen

2008-01-01

449

Medical Position Paper The Need for Nutrition Support Teams in Pediatric Units: A Commentary by the ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reported prevalence of malnutrition in pediatric hospitals ranges from 15% to 30% of patients, with an impact on growth, morbidity and mortality. Major deficits in nutrition care have been highlighted in European hospitals, and the implementation of nutrition support teams (NSTs) has been suggested as a means to improve malnutrition diagnosis and nutrition care for hospitalized patients.

Carlo Agostoni; Irene Axelson; Virginie Colomb; Olivier Goulet; Berthold Koletzko; Kim F. Michaelsen; John W. L. Puntis; Jacques Rigo; Raanan Shamir; Hania Szajewska

450

Helping Older Adults Meet Nutritional Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention of premature chronic diseases is an important component of healthy aging. Nutrition education can help to reduce the risk of premature chronic diseases in some older adults. Home delivered meals and congregate dining services assist vulnerable elderly persons by providing opportunities for nutritional and social support. Screening and assessment tools identify factors affecting nutritional health and can also provide

Magdalena Krondl; Patricia Coleman; Daisy Lau

2008-01-01

451

Nutritional Risk among Oklahoma Congregate Meal Participants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine if there were differences by demographic variables in response rates to Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) Checklist statements reported by over 50% of Oklahoma Older Americans Act Nutrition Program (OAANP) congregate meal participants categorized at high nutritional risk based on cumulative NSI Checklist scores. Design:…

Quigley, Kimberly K.; Hermann, Janice R.; Warde, William D.

2008-01-01

452

Raman spectroscopy for for determining nutritional facts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of the nutritional parameters of food products is a difficult and laborious process. Many companies spend considerable financial and other resources to frequently check the nutritional facts of their products. In addition, current methods are unsuitable for day-to-day, restaurant or home use. A new device, that would automatically estimate the nutritional facts of any edible product, could prove

Christos Moustakas; Costas Pitris

2009-01-01

453

Maternal Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook  

E-print Network

. By actively participating in Maternal Nutrition, you will have: · Appraised conditions during pregnancy gain and other changes during pregnancy is for your background knowledge. In your role as a nutritionUNIT 16: Maternal Nutrition Participant Materials for Notebook #12;Navigating for Success Maternal

454

Dietitians' Attitudes Regarding Elderly Nutritional Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: The elderly are becoming a significant segment of the public receiving medical nutritional care in the community. Since dietitians are the professionals responsible for their nutritional care, the aim of this study was to assess dietitians' attitudes and correlates regarding elderly nutritional factors.Participants and methods: Questionnaires were distributed at a dietitians' conference to 114 dietitians working in

Ronit Endevelt; Perla Werner; Osnat Stone

2007-01-01

455

Go Abroad in Nutrition and Exercise and  

E-print Network

Go Abroad in Nutrition and Exercise and Sport Science (EXSS) Nutrition and EXSS have many students. Employers in fields related to Nutrition and EXSS, including sports medicine, future leadership, allied geographic region and people. Some of the potential benefits of going abroad include: · Learn about

Escher, Christine

456

Food for Thought: Good Nutrition Begins  

E-print Network

Food for Thought: Good Nutrition Begins at Home It's 5:00. You're stuck in traffic, you're tired a positive impact on your family's health. March is National Nutrition Month NIH Division of Nutrition Research Coordination National Institutes of Health U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES www

Rau, Don C.

457

HEART SMART NUTRITION Lesson Series Evaluation  

E-print Network

HEART SMART NUTRITION Lesson Series Evaluation Please check the appropriate column if you did any of these activities either before or after receiving and reading the HeartSmart Nutrition lessons. Lifestyle Practices/Activities BEFORE Reading Lessons AFTER Reading Lessons Read any heart disease and nutrition information or website

458

Foods & Nutrition Program Dietetics Montana State University  

E-print Network

3 4 5 Medical terminology 1 2 3 4 5 Medical nutrition therapy 1 2 3 4 5 Calculate specific diets Community nutrition programs 1 2 3 4 5 Social/cultural/ethnic issues of food/diet 1 2 3 4 5 Role of foodFoods & Nutrition Program ­ Dietetics Montana State University Exit Survey ­ Spring 2009 Knowledge

Dyer, Bill

459

Nutritional aspects of human lactation*  

PubMed Central

This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

1975-01-01

460

Glycemic index in sport nutrition.  

PubMed

Carbohydrates (CHO) can be classified on the basis of their glycemic index (GI), and the use of this classification has been increasingly supported by science. Because of its impact on blood glucose and insulin responses following the ingestion of CHO foods, the GI has been studied in many fields of medicine, including sport nutrition. As a new tool in sport nutrition, glycemic index manipulation has been evaluated to improve the first and second phases of glycogen recovery, glycogen load, and exercise metabolism, including control of rebound hypoglycemia and, it is interesting to note, stimulation of lipid oxidation for longer availability of glucose sources during endurance exercise. Although attractive, the use of GI in sport nutrition has received only partial support from available experimental evidence. At the biochemical level, consistent evidence has been attained to suggest that GI manipulation can determine variations in adipocyte lipolysis, plasma free fatty acids levels, and lipid and CHO oxidation rates during exercise. However, when the effects of GI manipulation have been assessed at the functional level, the results have been inconsistent, with evidence of improved exercise performance in some studies, but not in many others. The purpose of the current article is to review the effects and limits of GI manipulation in sport nutrition, and to propose an overall strategy for its application. PMID:20234033

Mondazzi, Luca; Arcelli, Enrico

2009-08-01

461

Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ)  

MedlinePLUS

... marked by a loss of appetite, weight loss, muscle loss, and general weakness. It is common in patients ... side effects that affect eating and cause weight loss are treated early. Both nutrition ... food. To help the muscles of the stomach and intestines contract (to keep ...

462

School Nutrition Facility Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication is designed to help superintendents, local facilities coordinators, and food-service directors in planning the remodeling of an outdated food-service facility or the building of a new one. The introduction describes the roles of the local facility coordinator, the local child-nutrition director, the architect, the food-service…

Pannell, Dorothy VanEgmond

463

MSc Nutrition for Global Health  

E-print Network

MSc Nutrition for Global Health The Mission of the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, postgraduate teaching and advanced training in national and international public health and tropical medicine: Registry London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Keppel Street London WC1E 7HT UNITED KINGDOM

Maizels, Rick

464

National Nutrition Policy: Nutrition and Health; Nutrition and the International Situation; Nutrition and Food Availability, Working Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document was compiled by the Specialist, Life Sciences, Science Policy Research Division and the Analyst, Biological Sciences, Science Policy Research Division of the Library of Congress in response to a request of the Senate Select Committee on Nutrition and Human Needs. Submitted under the general title, "A Compilation of Key Papers for Use…

Quimby, Freeman H.; Chapman, Cynthia B.

465

Nutrition: Grades 5-8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Nutrition can be defined quite simply as the science of how the body uses food. But what is food? How does food transform into substances that nourish the body? What do those substances do, and what foods provide them? And how do we make informed food cho

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

1900-01-01

466

[Enteral nutrition: techniques and indications].  

PubMed

Enteral nutrition must be preferred to parenteral nutrition if case of intact digestive tract. Naso-gastric tubes are frequently used, particularly in enteral feeding. However, the use of naso-enteral tubes, i.e. naso-duodenal and naso-jejunal tubes, is expected to increase in the future. Their efficacy has been demonstrated in two specific cases: intensive care (post-operative or post-traumatic states), acute pancreatitis. A third potential use is in the replacement of a naso-gastric tube by a naso-jejunal tube in cases of frequent aspiration pneumonia related to a gastro-esophageal reflux. Gastro- and jejunostomies have to be indicated when enteral nutrition is thought to be used for more than one month. The insertion of a naso-gastric tube is generally performed by the nurse following medical guidelines and the insertion of a naso-jejunal tube is often done during an endoscopy by the physician. The verification of the correct position of the tube should preferably be done with an X-ray confirmation. However, this is difficult to perform at home and the most frequent method for control is the clinical method by auscultation. Enteral nutrients are generally polymeric and infused with gravity without a peristatic pump excepted in children. In conclusion, technical improvements in enteral nutrition have led to a simple, cost-effective and low risk methods of treatment. PMID:11173710

Guedon, C

2000-12-01

467

Personalised nutrition: ready for practice?  

PubMed

The efficacy by which dietary interventions influence risk markers of multi-factorial diseases is mainly determined by taking population-based approaches. However, there exists considerable inter-individual variation in response to dietary interventions, and some interventions may benefit certain individuals or population subgroups more than others. This review evaluates the application of nutrigenomic technologies to further the concept of personalised nutrition, as well as the process to take personalised nutrition to the marketplace. The modulation of an individual's response is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Many nutrigenetics studies have attempted to explain variability in responses based on a single or a few genotypes so that a genotype may be used to define personalised dietary advice. It has, however, proven very challenging to define an individual's responsiveness to complex diets based on common genetic variations. In addition, there is a limited understanding of what constitutes