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Sample records for vapor phase cigarette

  1. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  2. Headspace stir bar sorptive extraction-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization of the diluted vapor phase of cigarette smoke delivered to an in vitro cell exposure chamber.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Navneet; Cabral, Jean-Louis; Morin, André; Waldron, Karen C

    2011-01-14

    Advanced smoke generation systems, such as the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) smoking machine used in combination with the BAT exposure chamber, allow for the generation, dilution and delivery of fresh cigarette smoke to cell or tissue cultures for in vitro cell culture analyses. Recently, our group confirmed that the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) is a reliable tool to generate and deliver repeatable and reproducible exposure concentrations of whole smoke to in vitro cultures. However, the relationship between dose and diluted smoke components found within the exposure chamber has not been characterized. The current study focused on the development of a headspace stir bar sorptive extraction (HSSE) method to chemically characterize some of the vapor phase components of cigarette smoke generated by the Borgwaldt RM20S(®) and collected within a cell culture exposure chamber. The method was based on passive sampling within the chamber by HSSE using a Twister™ stir bar. Following exposure, sorbed analytes were recovered using a thermal desorption unit and a cooled injection system coupled to gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry for identification and quantification. Using the HSSE method, sixteen compounds were identified. The desorption parameters were assessed using ten reference compounds and the following conditions led to the maximal response: desorption temperature of 200°C for 2 min with cryofocussing temperature of -75°C. During transfer of the stir bars to the thermal desorption system, significant losses of analytes were observed as a function of time; therefore, the exposure-to-desorption time interval was kept at the minimum of 10±0.5 min. Repeatability of the HSSE method was assessed by monitoring five reference compounds present in the vapor phase (10.1-12.9% RSD) and n-butyl acetate, the internal standard (18.5% RSD). The smoke dilution precision was found to be 17.2, 6.2 and 11.7% RSD for exposure concentrations of 1, 2 and 5% (v/v) cigarette vapor phase in air, respectively. A linear response of analyte abundance was observed as a function of dilution. Extrapolation to 100% (v/v) cigarette vapor phase, i.e., undiluted smoke, gave yields for the five compounds ranging from 6 to 450 ng for 10 min exposure. PMID:21163485

  3. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Scheffler, Stefanie; Dieken, Hauke; Krischenowski, Olaf; Förster, Christine; Branscheid, Detlev; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user. PMID:25856554

  4. Vapor phase pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steurer, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis process is designed exclusively for the lunar production of oxygen. In this concept, granulated raw material (soil) that consists almost entirely of metal oxides is vaporized and the vapor is raised to a temperature where it dissociates into suboxides and free oxygen. Rapid cooling of the dissociated vapor to a discrete temperature causes condensation of the suboxides, while the oxygen remains essentially intact and can be collected downstream. The gas flow path and flow rate are maintained at an optimum level by control of the pressure differential between the vaporization region and the oxygen collection system with the aid of the environmental vacuum.

  5. Source: www.fasebj.org (Search: "green leafy") -cigarettes (electronic vapor

    E-print Network

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Source: www.fasebj.org (Search: "green leafy") E -cigarettes (electronic vapor nicotine devices) probably won't help you quit smoking tobacco, according to a recent study that found e-cigarette users 49 with tobacco smokers who try to quit. One prediction did come true: Adolescents using e-cigarettes get hooked

  6. Chemical hazards present in liquids and vapors of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Hutzler, Christoph; Paschke, Meike; Kruschinski, Svetlana; Henkler, Frank; Hahn, Jürgen; Luch, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    Electronic (e-)cigarettes have emerged in recent years as putative alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes. These products do not contain typical carcinogens that are present in tobacco smoke, due to the lack of combustion. However, besides nicotine, hazards can also arise from other constituents of liquids, such as solvents, flavors, additives and contaminants. In this study, we have analyzed 28 liquids of seven manufacturers purchased in Germany. We confirm the presence of a wide range of flavors to enhance palatability. Although glycerol and propylene glycol were detected in all samples, these solvents had been replaced by ethylene glycol as dominant compound in five products. Ethylene glycol is associated with markedly enhanced toxicological hazards when compared to conventionally used glycerol and propylene glycol. Additional additives, such as coumarin and acetamide, that raise concerns for human health were detected in certain samples. Ten out of 28 products had been declared "free-of-nicotine" by the manufacturer. Among these ten, seven liquids were identified containing nicotine in the range of 0.1-15 µg/ml. This suggests that "carry over" of ingredients may occur during the production of cartridges. We have further analyzed the formation of carbonylic compounds in one widely distributed nicotine-free brand. Significant amounts of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde were only found at 150 °C by headspace GC-MS analysis. In addition, an enhanced formation of aldehydes was found in defined puff fractions, using an adopted machine smoking protocol. However, this effect was delayed and only observed during the last third of the smoking procedure. In the emissions of these fractions, which represent up to 40 % of total vapor volume, similar levels of formaldehyde were detected when compared to conventional tobacco cigarettes. By contrast, carbonylic compounds were hardly detectable in earlier collected fractions. Our data demonstrate the necessity of standardized machine smoking protocols to reliably address putative risks of e-cigarettes for consumers. PMID:24958024

  7. Infrared spectroscopy study of the influence of inhaled vapors/smoke produced by cigarettes of active smokers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popa, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    While much is known about the effect of smoke and vapors on the composition of blood, little is known about their impact on the composition of breath. When tobacco from traditional cigarettes (T) is burned, it produces harmful smoke compared with the vapor produced when using electronic cigarettes (E). Using a noninvasive, safe, and rapid CO2 laser-photoacoustic method, this study aimed to examine the ethylene changes at different time intervals in the exhaled breath composition of E-cigarette smokers and T-cigarette smokers, before and after the consecutive exposures to cigarettes. Oxidative stress from exposure to tobacco smoke has a role in the pathogenic process, leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evidence on the mechanisms by which T-smoking causes damage indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to tobacco smoke. The study revealed that the ethylene level (in the E-cigarette smoker's case) was found to be in smaller concentrations (compared with T-cigarette smoker's case) and that E-cigarettes may provide an alternative to T-cigarette smoking.

  8. Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael T.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) teststand and the results of an experimental program designed to evaluate the potential of the technology as a water purification process. In the experimental program the technology is evaluated based upon product water purity, water recovery rate, and power consumption. The experimental work demonstrates that the technology produces high purity product water and attains high water recovery rates at a relatively high specific power consumption. The experimental program was conducted in 3 phases. In phase I an Igepon(TM) soap and water mixture was used to evaluate the performance of an innovative Wiped-Film Rotating-Disk evaporator and associated demister. In phase II a phenol-water solution was used to evaluate the performance of the high temperature catalytic oxidation reactor. In phase III a urine analog was used to evaluate the performance of the combined distillation/oxidation functions of the processor.

  9. Adult Behavior in Male Mice Exposed to E-Cigarette Nicotine Vapors during Late Prenatal and Early Postnatal Life

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Dani; Aherrera, Angela; Lopez, Armando; Neptune, Enid; Winickoff, Jonathan P.; Klein, Jonathan D.; Chen, Gang; Lazarus, Philip; Collaco, Joseph M.; McGrath-Morrow, Sharon A.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine exposure has been associated with an increased likelihood of developing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring of mothers who smoked during pregnancy. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to E-cigarette nicotine vapors during late prenatal and early postnatal life altered behavior in adult mice. Methods Timed-pregnant C57BL/6J mice were exposed to 2.4% nicotine in propylene glycol (PG) or 0% nicotine /PG once a day from gestational day 15 until delivery. After delivery, offspring and mothers were exposed to E-cigarette vapors for an additional 14 days from postnatal day 2 through 16. Following their last exposure serum cotinine levels were measured in female juvenile mice. Male mice underwent behavioral testing at 14 weeks of age to assess sensorimotor, affective, and cognitive functional domains. Results Adult male mice exposed to 2.4% nicotine/PG E-cigarette vapors had significantly more head dips in the zero maze test and higher levels of rearing activity in the open field test compared to 0% nicotine/PG exposed mice and untreated controls. In the water maze test after reversal training, the 2.4% nicotine/PG mice spent more than 25% of time in the new location whereas the other groups did not. Conclusion Adult male mice exhibited increased levels of activity in the zero maze and open field tests when exposed to E-cigarette vapor containing nicotine during late prenatal and early postnatal life. These findings indicate that nicotine exposure from E-cigarettes may cause persistent behavioral changes when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth. PMID:26372012

  10. Water vapor radiometry research and development phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resch, G. M.; Chavez, M. C.; Yamane, N. L.; Barbier, K. M.; Chandlee, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the research and development phase for eight dual-channel water vapor radiometers constructed for the Crustal Dynamics Project at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and for the NASA Deep Space Network. These instruments were developed to demonstrate that the variable path delay imposed on microwave radio transmissions by atmospheric water vapor can be calibrated, particularly as this phenomenon affects very long baseline interferometry measurement systems. Water vapor radiometry technology can also be used in systems that involve moist air meteorology and propagation studies.

  11. A Simple and Rapid Method for Standard Preparation of Gas Phase Extract of Cigarette Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Noya, Yoichi; Horinouchi, Takahiro; Terada, Koji; Hoshi, Akimasa; Nepal, Prabha; Harada, Takuya; Horiguchi, Mika; Hatate, Chizuru; Kuge, Yuji; Miwa, Soichi

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke consists of tar and gas phase: the latter is toxicologically important because it can pass through lung alveolar epithelium to enter the circulation. Here we attempt to establish a standard method for preparation of gas phase extract of cigarette smoke (CSE). CSE was prepared by continuously sucking cigarette smoke through a Cambridge filter to remove tar, followed by bubbling it into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). An increase in dry weight of the filter was defined as tar weight. Characteristically, concentrations of CSEs were represented as virtual tar concentrations, assuming that tar on the filter was dissolved in PBS. CSEs prepared from smaller numbers of cigarettes (original tar concentrations ?15 mg/ml) showed similar concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity versus virtual tar concentrations, but with CSEs from larger numbers (tar ?20 mg/ml), the curves were shifted rightward. Accordingly, the cytotoxic activity was detected in PBS of the second reservoir downstream of the first one with larger numbers of cigarettes. CSEs prepared from various cigarette brands showed comparable concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity. Two types of CSEs prepared by continuous and puff smoking protocols were similar regarding concentration-response curves for cytotoxicity, pharmacology of their cytotoxicity, and concentrations of cytotoxic compounds. These data show that concentrations of CSEs expressed by virtual tar concentrations can be a reference value to normalize their cytotoxicity, irrespective of numbers of combusted cigarettes, cigarette brands and smoking protocols, if original tar concentrations are ?15 mg/ml. PMID:25229830

  12. COMPARATIVE YIELDS OF MUTAGENS FROM CIGARETTE SMOKERS' URINE OBTAINED BY USING SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urine from cigarette smokers was prepared for mutagenicity testing by extracting mutagens with solid phase extraction columns. ommercially available prepacked bonded silicas (cotadecyl, cyclohexyl, cyanopropyl) were compared for their efficiency and specificity in concentration o...

  13. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Lee, J. M.; Kim, Y. I.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1983-01-01

    Porous plugs serve as both entropy rejection devices and phase separation components separating the vapor phase on the downstream side from liquid Helium 2 upstream. The liquid upstream is the cryo-reservoir fluid needed for equipment cooling by means of Helium 2, i.e Helium-4 below its lambda temperature in near-saturated states. The topics outlined are characteristic lengths, transport equations and plug results.

  14. Liquid-phase compositions from vapor-phase analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, W. Jr. ); Cochran, H.D. )

    1990-02-01

    Arsenic normally is not considered to be a contaminant. However, because arsenic was found in many cylinders of UF{sub 6}, including in corrosion products, a study was performed of the distribution of the two arsenic fluorides, AsF{sub 3} and AsF{sub 5}, between liquid and vapor phases. The results of the study pertain to condensation or vaporization of liquid UF{sub 6}. This study includes use of various experimental data plus many extrapolations necessitated by the meagerness of the experimental data. The results of this study provide additional support for the vapor-liquid equilibrium model of J.M. Prausnitz and his coworkers as a means of describing the distribution of various impurities between vapor and liquid phases of UF{sub 6}. Thus, it is concluded that AsF{sub 3} will tend to concentrate in the liquid phase but that the concentration of AsF{sub 5} in the vapor phase will exceed its liquid-phase concentration by a factor of about 7.5, which is in agreement with experimental data. Because the weight of the liquid phase in a condensation operation may be in the range of thousands of times that of the vapor phase, most of any AsF{sub 5} will be in the liquid phase in spite of this separation factor of 7.5. It may also be concluded that any arsenic fluorides fed into a uranium isotope separation plant will either travel with other low-molecular-weight gases or react with materials present in the plant. 25 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Selective Detection of Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide with Phthalocyanine Chemiresistors

    E-print Network

    Kummel, Andrew C.

    Selective Detection of Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide with Phthalocyanine Chemiresistors Forest I and toxicity (OSHA PEL ) 1 ppm), vapor phase monitoring of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is also an important, California 92093 Received November 14, 2007; E-mail: wtrogler@ucsd.edu Vapor phase monitoring of peroxides

  16. Vapor-liquid phase separator studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Hepler, W. A.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1985-01-01

    A study of porous plug use for vapor-liquid phase seperation in spaceborne cryogenic systems was conducted. The three main topics addressed were: (1) the usefulness of porous media in designs that call for variable areas and flow rates; (2) the possibility of prediction of main parameters of porous plugs for a given material; and (3) prediction of all parameters of the plug, including secondary parameters.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL IN VIVO EFFECTS OF WHOLE CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE VERSUS CIGARETTE SMOKE EXTRACT ON MOUSE CILIATED TRACHEAL EPITHELIUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we compared the affect of vapor phase cigarette smoke (CS) versus cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on the lungs and upper airway of C57BL/6 mice. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased neutrophil influx (P<0.001), baseline ciliary beat frequency (CBF) (P<0.05), and protein ki...

  18. MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF LIQUID-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION

    E-print Network

    Faccanoni, Gloria

    . (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method. (,) P pressure law. G. Faccanoni DNS OF LIQUIDE-VAPOR PHASE TRANSITION 6 / 23 #12;Model Numerical Method Vapor = 0 x = 0 = 1Fictive fluid 0 pressure law

  19. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  20. Reasons Supporting Regulation of E-Cigarettes 1. E-cigarette vapor is a new source of pollution and toxins being emitted into the environment.

    E-print Network

    Russell, Lynn

    -cigarettes in indoor and outdoor environments where smoking is restricted have the potential to undo decades of de-term health effects of e-cigarette use and although the industry marketing of the product implies and toxins being emitted into the environment. 1. Research studies show that secondhand exposure does occur

  1. Electronic cigarettes and alternative nicotine products.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karmen

    2014-07-01

    (1) Electronic cigarettes currently are not regulated by the FDA. (2) Ingredients and design of electronic cigarettes and vaporizers vary. (3) States are taking action to regulate electronic cigarettes in various ways. PMID:25514811

  2. Simultaneous Analysis of 22 Volatile Organic Compounds in Cigarette Smoke Using Gas Sampling Bags for High-Throughput Solid-Phase Microextraction

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Maureen M.; Chambers, David M.; Pazo, Daniel Y.; Moliere, Fallon; Blount, Benjamin C.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Quantifying volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cigarette smoke is necessary to establish smoke-related exposure estimates and evaluate emerging products and potential reduced-exposure products. In response to this need, we developed an automated, multi-VOC quantification method for machine-generated, mainstream cigarette smoke using solidphase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC–MS). This method was developed to simultaneously quantify a broad range of smoke VOCs (i.e., carbonyls and volatiles, which historically have been measured by separate assays) for large exposure assessment studies. Our approach collects and maintains vapor-phase smoke in a gas sampling bag, where it is homogenized with isotopically labeled analogue internal standards and sampled using gas-phase SPME. High throughput is achieved by SPME automation using a CTC Analytics platform and custom bag tray. This method has successfully quantified 22 structurally diverse VOCs (e.g., benzene and associated monoaromatics, aldehydes and ketones, furans, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride, and nitromethane) in the microgram range in mainstream smoke from 1R5F and 3R4F research cigarettes smoked under ISO (Cambridge Filter or FTC) and Intense (Health Canada or Canadian Intense) conditions. Our results are comparable to previous studies with few exceptions. Method accuracy was evaluated with third-party reference samples (?15% error). Short-term diffusion losses from the gas sampling bag were minimal, with a 10% decrease in absolute response after 24 h. For most analytes, research cigarette inter- and intrarun precisions were ?20% relative standard deviation (RSD). This method provides an accurate and robust means to quantify VOCs in cigarette smoke spanning a range of yields that is sufficient to characterize smoke exposure estimates. PMID:24933649

  3. Chiroptical Spectroscopy in the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Priyanka; Long, Benjamin D.; Wiberg, Kenneth B.; Vaccaro, Patrick H.

    2011-06-01

    Electromagnetic radiation propagating through an isotropic chiral medium experiences a complex index of refraction that differs in both real (in-phase) and imaginary (in-quadrature) parts for the right-circular and left-circular polarization states that define the helicity basis. The resulting phenomena of circular birefringence (CB) and circular dichroism (CD) lead to observable effects in the form of dispersive rotation and absorptive elliptization for an impinging beam of plane-polarized light, which commonly are measured under conditions of nonresonant and resonant excitation, respectively. This talk will discuss ongoing efforts designed to elucidate the provenance of electronic optical activity under complementary solvated and isolated conditions, with the latter vapor-phase work made possible by our continuing development of Cavity Ring-Down Polarimetry (CRDP). Molecules of interest include the rigid bicyclic ketone (1R,4R)-norbornenone, where the spatial arrangement of distal alkene and carbonyl moeities gives rise to extraordinarily large specific rotation (CB) parameters that are predicted incongruously by different quantum-chemical methods; the monoterpene constitutional isomers (S)-2-carene and (S)-3-carene, which display surprisingly distinct chiroptical properties; and conjugated ketones such as (S)-verbenone, where CD probes of weak ?*?n absorption bands have been performed at vibronic resolution. The disparate nature of gas-phase and condensed-phase optical activity will be highlighted, with complementary ab initio calculations serving to elucidate the structural, chemical, and electronic origins of observed behavior. T. Müller, K. B. Wiberg, P. H. Vaccaro, J. R. Cheeseman, and M. J. Frisch, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19, 125 (2002) P. H. Vaccaro, ``Chapter 1.II.10: Optical Rotation and Intrinsic Optical Activity'' in Comprehensive Chiroptical Spectroscopy, N. Berova, P. L. Polavarapu, K. Nakanishi, and R. W. Woody, eds. (John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011).

  4. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    E-print Network

    J. B. Elliott; L. G. Moretto; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak; T. Lefort; L. Beaulieu; K. Kwiatkowski; W. -C. Hsi; L. Pienkowski; H. Breuer; R. G. Korteling; R. Laforest; E. Martin; E. Ramakrishnan; D. Rowland; A. Ruangma; V. E. Viola; E. Winchester; S. J. Yennello

    2001-05-02

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid- vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  5. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.

    2001-05-08

    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  6. External fuel vaporization study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to devise and evaluate techniques for the external vaporization of fuel for use in an aircraft gas turbine with characteristics similar to the Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)). Three vaporizer concepts were selected and they were analyzed from the standpoint of fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. One of the concepts was found to improve the performance of the baseline E(3) engine without seriously compromising engine startup and power change response. Increased maintenance is required because of the need for frequent pyrolytic cleaning of the surfaces in contact with hot fuel.

  7. Development of Vapor-Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kiss, Mark; Borchers, Bruce; Tleimat, Badawi; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale; Genovese, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    A report describes recent accomplishments of a continuing effort to develop the vapor-phase catalytic ammonia removal (VPCAR) process for recycling wastewater for consumption by humans aboard a spacecraft in transit to Mars.

  8. FIELD TRAPPING OF SUBSURFACE VAPOR PHASE PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soil gas samples from intact soil cores were collected on adsorbents at a field site, then thermally desorbed and analyzed by laboratory gas chromatography (GC). ertical concentration profiles of predominant vapor phase petroleum hydrocarbons under ambient conditions were obtaine...

  9. Preliminary assessment of halogenated alkanes as vapor-phase tracers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Michael C.; Moore, Joseph N.; Hirtz, Paul

    1991-01-01

    New tracers are needed to evaluate the efficiency of injection strategies in vapor-dominated environments. One group of compounds that seems to meet the requirements for vapor-phase tracing are the halogenated alkanes (HCFCs). HCFCs are generally nontoxic, and extrapolation of tabulated thermodynamic data indicate that they will be thermally stable and nonreactive in a geothermal environment. The solubilities and stabilities of these compounds, which form several homologous series, vary according to the substituent ratios of fluorine, chlorine, and hydrogen. Laboratory and field tests that will further define the suitability of HCFCs as vapor-phase tracers are under way.

  10. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  11. Identification and Characterization of Chemistry of Different Radicals in Mainstream Gas- phase Cigarette Smoke by ESI-MS method

    E-print Network

    Nejad, Maryam Abili

    2010-01-01

    We have investigated some of the free radicals in cigarette smoke. Free radicals in the gas phase, mainstream cigarette smoke have been trapped directly by using a nitroxide probe, 3- amino- 2, 2, 5, 5- tetramethyl-1- pyrrolidinyloxy (3AP) which is supported on a solid phase, derivatized by fluorescamine, and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (EI- MS). We have identified some specific radicals in cigarette smoke mainstream gas phase derived from nicotine, isoprene, and glucose radicals which may be produced by reactions of OH radical through H-abstraction or addition reactions. Nicotine may undergo both OH radical addition and abstraction. However nicotine shows more tendencies to react with hydrogen abstraction from methyl group on nicotine. The addition reaction of OH radical with nicotine may happen on double bond of 6 member ring of nicotine. Isoprene and glucose react with OH radical by addition and abstraction reaction, respectively. In order to confirm the results obtained for the i...

  12. Calibration of an explosives vapor generator based on vapor diffusion from a condensed phase

    SciTech Connect

    Parmeter, J.E.; Eiceman, G.A.; Preston, D.A.; Tiano, G.S.

    1996-08-01

    In the field of explosives detection there is currently a need for a calibrated source of explosives vapor. Such a source could be used to test and calibrate explosives detection systems which identify explosives via the collection of vapor or air borne particulate matter. This paper describes the principles of operation and evaluation of one such explosives vapor generator. This generator is based on the diffusion of vapor from a condensed phase (i.e., solid or liquid) in a source reservoir, and the output has been tied to a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass standard. We discuss results of the calibration of this generator using the explosives 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and cyclonite (RDX). The mass output of this generator is stable over hundreds of hours of continuous operation, and is adjustable from the low picograms(pg)/sec range to at least 10 nanograms(ng)/sec. In the case of TNT, the mass output correlates well with predictions based on gas phase diffusion theory. In the case of RDX, the agreement with theory is less good. This may be attributable to a variety of factors, possibly including inaccuracies in the published data on RDX vapor pressure as a function of temperature.

  13. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL, FINITE-DIFFERENCE MODEL OF THE PHASE DISTRIBUTION AND VAPOR

    E-print Network

    ..................................................................................... 14 Solution of Phase Equilibria............................................................. 17A TWO-DIMENSIONAL, FINITE-DIFFERENCE MODEL OF THE PHASE DISTRIBUTION AND VAPOR TRANSPORT-Difference Formulation ......................................................... 11 Phase Equilibrium

  14. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P M.; Kleimeyer, J; Rowland, Brad; Gardner, Patrick J.

    2003-04-21

    Quantitative high resolution (0.1 cm -1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of pressure broadened (101.3 KPa N2), vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, nitrogen mustard (HN3), sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L).

  15. Fog Machines, Vapors, and Phase Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitz, Ed

    2008-01-01

    A series of demonstrations is described that elucidate the operation of commercial fog machines by using common laboratory equipment and supplies. The formation of fogs, or "mixing clouds", is discussed in terms of the phase diagram for water and other chemical principles. The demonstrations can be adapted for presentation suitable for elementary…

  16. The liquid and vapor phases in particle models with Kac potentials

    E-print Network

    Roma Tor Vergata, Università di

    #12; LIQUID AND VAPOR PHASES 2 P T liquid solid gas Figure 1. Phase diagram well understood. Indeed are expected to have a simple structure in the liquid and gas phases, hence the project of studying the liquid-vaporThe liquid and vapor phases in particle models with Kac potentials F. BaÆoni, I. Merola, and E

  17. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.

    1986-11-01

    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  18. Supported complex catalysts for vapor-phase carbonylations

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, S.; Weigt, A.; Kant, M.; Schuelke, U.

    1996-10-01

    Supported mixed bidentate rhodium and iridium complexes derived from phosphonate-phosphanes have been studied in methanol carbonylation and in ethylene hydroformylation. The complexes showed higher activities than bis-phosphane complexes in homogeneous and vapor-phase methanol carbonylation. Hemilabile behavior of the mixed bidentate complexes may explain these findings. In contrast to strongly chelating ligands, phosphonate-phosphane ligands improved the selectivity of supported rhodium complexes in ethylene hydroformylation. Mixed zirconium phosphonate structures containing phosphane groups afforded excellent heterogeneous rhodium complex catalysts. The zirconium phosphonate-phosphane-rhodium catalysts were several times more active than rhodium on silica or rhodium on activated carbon, showed a superior stability, and produced butyraldehydes with up to 96% selectivity in the vapor-phase hydroformylation of propylene.

  19. Superfluid helium 2 liquid-vapor phase separation: Technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A literature survey of helium 2 liquid vapor phase separation is presented. Currently, two types of He 2 phase separators are being investigated: porous, sintered metal plugs and the active phase separator. The permeability K(P) shows consistency in porous plug geometric characterization. Both the heat and mass fluxes increase with K(P). Downstream pressure regulation to adjust for varying heat loads and both temperatures is possible. For large dynamic heat loads, the active phase separator shows a maximum heat rejection rate of up to 2 W and bath temperature stability of 0.1 mK. Porous plug phase separation performance should be investigated for application to SIRTF and, in particular, that plugs of from 10 to the minus ninth square centimeters to 10 to the minus eighth square centimeters in conjunction with downstream pressure regulation be studied.

  20. The influence of prestrained metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial gallium-nitride templates on hydride vapor phase epitaxial growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, M.; Meisch, T.; Lipski, F.; Scholz, F.

    2014-09-01

    We have varied the strain situation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) grown gallium-nitride (GaN) by exchanging the nucleation layer and by inserting a submono-SixNy-interlayer in the first few hundred nanometers of growth on sapphire substrates. The influence on the MOVPE template and subsequent hydride vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) growth could be shown by in-situ measurements of the sample curvature. Using the results of these investigations, we have established a procedure to confine the curvature development in MOVPE and HVPE growth to a minimum. By increasing the layer thickness in HVPE, we could create self-separated, freestanding GaN layers with small remaining curvature.

  1. Graphene oxide bound silica for solid-phase extraction of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rui; Yan, Lihong; Xu, Tongguang; Liu, Dongye; Zhu, Yongfa; Zhou, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were considered as a source of carcinogenicity in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS). Accurate quantification of these components was necessary for assessing public health risk. In our study, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method using graphene oxide (GO) bound silica as adsorbent for purification of 14 PAHs in MSS was developed. During SPE process, large matrices interferences of MSS were adsorbed on SPE column. The result of FTIR spectra demonstrated that these matrices interferences were adsorbed on GO mainly through OH and CO groups. The concentrations of PAHs in MSS extract were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the developed method for 14 PAHs ranged from 0.05 to 0.36 ng/cig and 0.17 to 1.19 ng/cig, respectively. The accuracy of the measurement of 14 PAHs was from 73 to 116%. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day analysis were less than 7.8% and 13.9%, respectively. Moreover, the developed method was successfully applied for analysis of real cigarette containing 1R5F reference cigarette and 12 top-selling commercial cigarettes in China. PMID:25512123

  2. Crystal growth from the vapor phase experiment MA-085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeir, H.; Sadeek, H.; Klaessig, F. C.; Norek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Three vapor transport experiments on multicomponent systems were performed during the Apollo Soyuz mission to determine the effects of microgravity forces on crystal morphology and mass transport rates. The mixed systems used germanium selenide, tellurium, germanium tetraiodide (transport agent), germanium monosulfide, germanium tetrachloride (transport agent), and argon (inert atmosphere). The materials were enclosed in evacuated sealed ampoules of fused silica and were transported in a temperature gradient of the multipurpose electric furnace onboard the Apollo Soyuz spacecraft. Preliminary evaluation of 2 systems shows improved quality of space grown crystals in terms of growth morphology and bulk perfection. This conclusion is based on a direct comparison of space grown and ground based crystals by means of X-ray diffraction, microscopic, and chemical etching techniques. The observation of greater mass transport rates than predicted for a microgravity environment by existing vapor transport models indicates the existence of nongravity caused transport effects in a reactive solid/gas phase system.

  3. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the e-cigarette converts the liquid into a vapor, which the person inhales. That's why using e- ... brain, nervous system, and heart. It raises blood pressure and heart rate. The larger the dose of ...

  4. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the e-cigarette converts the liquid into a vapor, which the person inhales. That's why using e- ... brain, nervous system, and heart. It raises blood pressure and heart rate. The larger the dose of ...

  5. Molar Fraction of Oxalic Acid in Vapor Phase for Tank 241-C-106 Acid Dissolution Project

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, M.A.

    2003-08-06

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the molar fraction of oxalic acid in the vapor phase. This calculation will be used to assist the materials compatibility assessment for equipment that will be exposed to the oxalic acid vapor.

  6. Sensitive and selective determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mainstream cigarette smoke using a graphene-coated solid-phase microextraction fiber prior to GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuan; Qin, Yaqiong; Ding, Li; Chen, Yi; Xie, Fuwei

    2015-08-01

    A simple method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in mainstream cigarette smoke. The procedure is based on employing a homemade graphene-coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber for extraction prior to GC/MS. In comparison to commercial 100-?m poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) fiber, the graphene-coated SPME fiber exhibits advantageous cleanup and preconcentration efficiencies. By collecting the particulate phase 5 cigarettes, the LODs and LOQs of 16 target PAHs were 0.02-0.07 and 0.07-0.22 ng/cigarette, respectively, and all of the linear correlation efficiencies were larger than 0.995. The validation results also indicate that the method has good repeatability (RSD between 4.2% and 9.5%) and accuracy (spiked recoveries between 80% and 110%). The developed method was applied to analyze two Kentucky reference cigarettes (1R5F and 3R4F) and six Chinese brands of cigarettes. In addition, the PAH concentrations in the particulate phase of the smoke from the 1R5F Kentucky cigarettes were in good agreement with recently reported results. Due to easy operation and good validation results, this SPME-GC/MS method may be an excellent alternative for trace analysis of PAHs in cigarette smoke. PMID:26048830

  7. Surface phases of GaAs and InAs ,,001... found in the metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy environment

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    -phase epitaxy MOVPE reactor. Scanning tunneling micrographs show that these surfaces are terminated with arsenic of a metal- organic vapor-phase epitaxy MOVPE reactor. This is be- cause growth is carried out at 10­760 TorrSurface phases of GaAs and InAs ,,001... found in the metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy environment

  8. Modeling of Gallium Nitride Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A reactor model for the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN is presented. The governing flow, energy, and species conservation equations are solved in two dimensions to examine the growth characteristics as a function of process variables and reactor geometry. The growth rate varies with GaCl composition but independent of NH3 and H2 flow rates. A change in carrier gas for Ga source from H2 to N2 affects the growth rate and uniformity for a fixed reactor configuration. The model predictions are in general agreement with observed experimental behavior.

  9. Vapors-liquid phase separator. [infrared telescope heat sink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.

    1980-01-01

    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  10. Sporicidal Activity of the KMT reagent in its vapor phase against Geobacillus stearothermophilus Spores.

    PubMed

    Kida, Nori; Mochizuki, Yasushi; Taguchi, Fumiaki

    2007-01-01

    In an investigation of the sporicidal activity of the KMT reagent, a vapor phase study was performed using five kinds of carriers contaminated with Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores. When 25 ml of the KMT reagent was vaporized in a chamber (capacity; approximately 95 liters), the 2-step heating method (vaporization by a combination of low temperature and high temperature) showed the most effective sporicidal activity in comparison with the 1-step heating method (rapid vaporization). The 2-step heating method appeared to be related to the sporicidal activity of vaporized KMT reagent, i.e., ethanol and iodine, which vaporized mainly when heated at a low temperature such as 55 C, and acidic water, which vaporized mainly when heated at a high temperature such as 300 C. We proposed that the KMT reagent can be used as a new disinfectant not only in the liquid phase but also in the vapor phase in the same way as peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:17237604

  11. Effect of dimensionality on vapor-liquid phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Sudhir Kumar

    2014-04-24

    Dimensionality play significant role on ‘phase transitions’. Fluids in macroscopic confinement (bulk or 3-Dimensional, 3D) do not show significant changes in their phase transition properties with extent of confinement, since the number of molecules away from the surrounding surfaces is astronomically higher than the number of molecules in close proximity of the confining surfaces. In microscopic confinement (quasi 3D to quasi-2D), however, the number of molecules away from the close proximity of the surface is not as high as is the case with macroscopic (3D) confinement. Hence, under the same thermodynamic conditions ‘phase transition’ properties at microscopic confinement may not remain the same as the macroscopic or 3D values. Phase transitions at extremely small scale become very sensitive to the dimensions as well as the surface characteristics of the system. In this work our investigations reveal the effect of dimensionality on the phase transition from 3D to quasi-2D to 2D behavior. We have used grand canonical transition matrix Monte Carlo simulation to understand the vapor–liquid phase transitions from 3D to quasi-2D behavior. Such studies can be helpful in understanding and controlling the fluid film behaviour confined between solid surfaces of few molecular diameters, for example, in lubrication applications.

  12. Continuous Determination of High-Vapor Phase Concentrations of Tetrachloroethylene Using On-Line Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    A method was developed to determine the vapor concentration of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) at and below its equilibrium vapor phase concentration, 168,000 ?g/L (25°C). Vapor samples were drawn by vacuum into a six-port sampling valve and injected through a jet separator into an io...

  13. Phase Transition Enthalpy Measurements of Organic and Organometallic Compounds. Sublimation, Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    , Vaporization and Fusion Enthalpies From 1880 to 2010 William Acree, Jr. Department of Chemistry, University published within the period 1880­2010 is reported. Phase change enthalpies including fusion, vaporization.1063/1.3309507 Key words: Vaporization enthalpy; fusion enthalpy; sublimation enthalpy; compendium. CONTENTS 1

  14. Vapor-liquid coexistence of patchy models: Relevance to protein phase behavior

    E-print Network

    Sciortino, Francesco

    Vapor-liquid coexistence of patchy models: Relevance to protein phase behavior Hongjun Liu online 22 August 2007 The vapor-liquid coexistence boundaries of fluids composed of particles interacting, it is established that the reduced widths of the metastable vapor-liquid coexistence curve predicted by a model

  15. What Are Tobacco, Nicotine, and E-Cigarette Products?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... smoke, chew, or sniff them, or inhale their vapors. Smoked tobacco products. Cigarettes (regular, light, and menthol). ... vaporizes the liquid in the cartridge. The resulting vapor is then inhaled (called “vaping”). See What About ...

  16. A High Temperature Vapor Phase Lubrication Study Utilizing a Thioether Liquid Lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Graham, E. Earl; Galvin, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Much of the experimental work on vapor phase lubrication has employed certain organo phosphorous compounds as the vapor phase lubricant. Graham and Klaus, for instance, used tricresyl phosphate (TCP) and tributyl phosphate to vapor phase lubricate a four-ball wear tester using M50 steel balls at 370 C. Makki and Graham were able to vapor phase lubricate a reciprocating pin on plate tribometer using 1018 steel at 280 C with TCP vapor. Although a few organo phosphorous compounds, such as TCP, have been successfully used as vapor phase lubricants in many laboratory experiments, many problems remain unsolved. Two areas of concern relate to the 'durability' of phosphate deposited films and to the ability of the lubricating system to "self-recover" when vapor phase lubricated with an organo phosphorous compound. Durability refers to the ability of the deposited film to provide effective lubrication, for a period of time, after the vapor flow to the lubricating surfaces has been interrupted. Vapor phase lubrication tests, conducted at Cleveland State University with their high temperature tribometer, revealed that when TCP vapor flow to the lubricating surfaces was interrupted the frictional coefficient of the system rapidly increased from a value less than 0.1 to a value of 0.3 which was selected as our failure point. Self-recovery means the ability of the vapor phase lubricant to reduce the frictional coefficient of the lubricating system back down to value less than 0.1 after startup of the interrupted vapor flow. Lubrication tests conducted at Cleveland State University revealed that the high temperature tribometer could not self-recover after startup of the interrupted TCP vapor flow.

  17. Carbon microspheres grown by using hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hunsoo; Lee, Chanmi; Park, Minah; Lee, Chanbin; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yang, Min; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Kim, Suck-Whan; Yu, Young Moon; Shin, Kee Sam; Bae, Jong Seong; Sawaki, Nobuhiko

    2015-10-01

    A carbon microsphere of a core-shell type was grown by using a new method of mixed-source hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The surface and the cross section of the carbon microsphere grown by using the new method were observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The characteristics of the carbon microsphere were investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). From these measurements, the diameters of the carbon spheres were about a few hundred micrometers. Furthermore, we showed that carbon microspheres of the core-shell type could be grown successfully by using a mixed-source HVPE method and that they had larger sizes than those grown by using existing methods. This mixed-source HVPE method is proposed as a new method for making carbon microspheres.

  18. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P. M.; Kleimeyer, J.; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, moderately high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of nitrogen broadened (1 atm N2) vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Nitrogen Mustard (HN3), Sulfur Mustard (HD), and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White Cell1 of 5.6 meter optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer’s law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at Dugway proving Grounds (DPG).

  19. GaN Selective Area Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Prediction of Growth Rate Enhancement by Vapor Phase Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioda, Tomonari; Tomita, Yuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2007-11-01

    Thickness profiles of GaN grown by selective area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) were successfully reproduced by a vapor phase diffusion model that employs only one parameter—effective diffusion length D/ks. The value of D/ks of Ga-containing precursors changes from 10 to 50 ?m under growth temperature of 1000-1250 °C and reactor total pressure of 100 mbar. It was confirmed that, in the wide-stripe SA-MOVPE of GaN, the vapor phase diffusion of Ga-containing precursors govern the profile of growth rate. Numerical simulation using the vapor phase diffusion model is of great help for the design and control of thickness profiles in the SA-MOVPE of GaN.

  20. Low Pressure Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Joe Sung

    A comprehensive investigation of ZnCdS grown on GaAs by the low pressure metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique has been conducted. Optimization, growth characteristics, film properties, solid-vapor equilibrium and device applications are key issues that have been addressed. The Taguchi method or design of experiments (DOE) approach is taken to determine the effects of process parameters on the crystalline quality of epilayers. Its main advantage over the standard methodology of changing one-factor-at -a-time is the reduction of experimental runs needed to obtain the same precision of information. In addition, DOE can statistically evaluate significance of multi-parameter interactions. Thin ZnCdS films have been grown on (100) and (111) oriented GaAs substrates using diethyl zinc (DEZn), dimethyl cadmium (DMCd) and H_2S. The lowest reported full width at half maximum of peaks obtained from X-ray diffraction spectra has been obtained using this chemistry. Critical process parameters and their setpoints have also been identified that influence the desirable 2-dimensional and undesirable 3-dimensional growth. A nucleation/growth mechanism is presented to explain the preferential initiation of one growth mode over the other. Other growth characteristics including flow mechanics, film thickness uniformity, defect density, crystal structure, solid phase composition and optical purity have been studied as a function of growth parameters. The general growth characteristics highly influence the optical, physical and electrical properties of ZnCdS. The bandgap energy and complex refractive index have been measured by reflectometry and ellipsometry, respectively. Thermal expansion coefficients have been calculated from lattice constant changes at various temperatures. In-situ doping studies have also been performed to determine the maximum electron and hole concentrations. A simple model based on the regular solution approach was developed to explain the solid-vapor equilibrium distribution. For the first time, the interaction parameters for binary II -VI compounds were calculated from Stringfellow's delta lattice parameter model based solely on material properties of II-VI compounds. The results show a good fit to experimental data across a wide range of temperature values. The measured properties of ZnCdS have been used in theoretical calculations of double heterostructure lasers. The complex refractive indices are needed to evaluate the optical confinement of a symmetric three-layer slab waveguide: ZnCdS/ZnSe/ZnCdS. The relationship between the active layer thickness and optical confinement have also been investigated. Bandgap energies along with electron affinities have been used to determine the carrier confinement. Calculations based on photothreshold values confirm these results.

  1. Condensed-phase transitions in binary systems during dynamic vaporization experiments. Effusion and transpiration

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J.G.; Franzen, H.F.

    1995-03-30

    During a condensed-phase transition at equilibrium in a vaporization experiment, three phases are present. In this paper, equations relating vapor pressure, temperature, and compositions of the vapor and condensed phases are derived for systems undergoing such transitions. Previously observed unusual phenomena, such as vapor pressures that increase at constant temperature and vapor pressures that increase with decreasing temperature, are explained. It is shown that equilibrium condensed-phase transitions in the presence of the vapor are always hysteretic in the temperature; the transition occurs at a higher temperature in the increasing-temperature direction than in the decreasing-temperature direction. The particular cases of effusion and transpiration experiments are treated in detail. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Liquid-vapor phase equilibrium in a tin-selenium system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volodin, V. N.; Burabaeva, N. M.; Trebukhov, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Based on the pressure of the saturated vapor and components over liquid alloys in a tin-selenium system, determined using the boiling points approach (isothermal variant), its boiling point and corresponding vapor phase composition are calculated in the region of liquid solutions. The phase diagram is supple-mented with the liquid-vapor phase transition under atmospheric pressure and in vacuums of 100 and 10 Pa with the boundaries of the region in which the regions of liquid and vapor coexist being determined.

  3. Vapor phase elemental sulfur amendment for sequestering mercury in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brian B.; Denham, Miles E.; Jackson, Dennis G.

    2014-07-08

    The process of treating elemental mercury within the soil is provided by introducing into the soil a heated vapor phase of elemental sulfur. As the vapor phase of elemental sulfur cools, sulfur is precipitated within the soil and then reacts with any elemental mercury thereby producing a reaction product that is less hazardous than elemental mercury.

  4. VAPOR-PHASE 2,3,7,8-TCDD SORPTION TO PLANT FOILAGE - A SPECIES COMPARISON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant uptake rate constants (k1) were determined for vapor-phase 2,3,7,8-TCDD using grass, azalea, spruce, kale and pepper foliage, and the fruit from apple, tomato and pepper. lants were exposed to vapor-phase 3H-2,3,7,8-TCDD for 96 h, and the TCDD sorption rate constant for eac...

  5. A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction

    E-print Network

    Peter, Yves-Alain

    A Fabry-Perot refractometer for chemical vapor sensing by solid-phase microextraction R. St-Gelais1 with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based polymers to detect vapor analytes by solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Preliminary and the gas, and the SPME extraction efficiency. Therefore, monitoring the RI of siloxane polymers allows

  6. A comparative assessment of cigarette smoke aerosols using an in vitro air-liquid interface cytotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Thorne, David; Dalrymple, Annette; Dillon, Deborah; Duke, Martin; Meredith, Clive

    2015-10-01

    This study describes the evaluation of a modified air-liquid interface BALB/c 3T3 cytotoxicity method for the assessment of smoke aerosols in vitro. The functionality and applicability of this modified protocol was assessed by comparing the cytotoxicity profiles from eight different cigarettes. Three reference cigarettes, 1R5F, 3R4F and CORESTA Monitor 7 were used to put the data into perspective and five bespoke experimental products were manufactured, ensuring a balanced and controlled study. Manufactured cigarettes were matched for key variables such as nicotine delivery, puff number, pressure drop, ventilation, carbon monoxide, nicotine free dry particulate matter and blend, but significantly modified for vapor phase delivery, via the addition of two different types and quantities of adsorptive carbon. Specifically manufacturing products ensures comparisons can be made in a consistent manner and allows the research to ask targeted questions, without confounding product variables. The results demonstrate vapor-phase associated cytotoxic effects and clear differences between the products tested and their cytotoxic profiles. This study has further characterized the in vitro vapor phase biological response relationship and confirmed that the biological response is directly proportional to the amount of available vapor phase toxicants in cigarette smoke, when using a Vitrocell® VC 10 exposure system. This study further supports and strengthens the use of aerosol based exposure options for the appropriate analysis of cigarette smoke induced responses in vitro and may be especially beneficial when comparing aerosols generated from alternative tobacco aerosol products. PMID:26339773

  7. The nuclear liquid-vapor phase transition: Equilibrium between phases or free decay in vacuum?

    SciTech Connect

    Phair, L.; Moretto, L.G.; Elliott, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    2002-11-14

    Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.

  8. Crystallization from a vapor phase in igneous rocks -- A conceptual model

    SciTech Connect

    Kleck, W.D. )

    1993-04-01

    Euhedral, late-stage crystals in pocket pegmatite and in vesicles of volcanic rocks are commonly cited as examples of crystallization from a vapor phase. If, however, crystallization takes place only from the cavity forming vapor, that vapor cannot contain sufficient material for the formation of the observed crystals. The approximate amount of H[sub 2]O vapor and percentage of dissolved silicate matter (1) for shallow pocket pegmatite is 0.5 g/cm[sup 3] and 0.3 percent; (2) for vesicles is 0.002 g/cm[sup 3] and [much lt]1 percent. These values show that the silicate matter dissolved in the vapor is insufficient for the formation of the observed crystals. No (or little) recharge of the vapor is an unstated assumption in most discussions of enclosed cavities. This, however, is not quite correct. For a simplified system, four phases will exist in equilibrium: (1) mineral grains growing from liquid, (2) late-stage, H[sub 2]O-enriched, silicate liquid, (3) vapor, (4) crystals growing from vapor. The total system (for transferal of silicate matter) is given. Little silicate matter is dissolved in the vapor at any one time, but it is replenished as the crystals grow. The vapor becomes a continuously resupplied reservoir of dissolved silicate matter; crystallization from the vapor continues until the silicate liquid is depleted.

  9. Electronic Cigarette Use by College Students

    PubMed Central

    Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Morrell, Holly E. R.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or ecigarettes, are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapor. There is considerable controversy about the disease risk and toxicity of ecigarettes and empirical evidence on short- and long-term health effects is minimal. Limited data on e-cigarette use and correlates exist, and to our knowledge, no prevalence rates among U.S. college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of ecigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students. Methods 4,444 students from 8 colleges in North Carolina completed a Webbased survey in fall 2009. Results Ever use of ecigarettes was reported by 4.9% of students, with 1.5% reporting past month use. Correlates of ever use included male gender, Hispanic or “Other race” (compared to non-Hispanic Whites), Greek affiliation, conventional cigarette smoking and e-cigarette harm perceptions. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, 12% of ever e-cigarette users had never smoked a conventional cigarette. Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with lack of knowledge about e-cigarette harm, but was not associated with intentions to quit. Conclusions Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, it was not exclusive to them. E-cigarette use was not associated with intentions to quit smoking among a sub-sample of conventional cigarette smokers. Unlike older, more established cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use by college students does not appear to be motivated by the desire to quit cigarette smoking. PMID:23746429

  10. A review of porous media enhanced vapor-phase diffusion mechanisms, models, and data: Does enhanced vapor-phase diffusion exist?

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1996-05-01

    A review of mechanisms, models, and data relevant to the postulated phenomenon of enhanced vapor-phase diffusion in porous media is presented. Information is obtained from literature spanning two different disciplines (soil science and engineering) to gain a diverse perspective on this topic. Findings indicate that while enhanced vapor diffusion tends to correct the discrepancies observed between past theory and experiments, no direct evidence exists to support the postulated processes causing enhanced vapor diffusion. Numerical modeling analyses of experiments representative of the two disciplines are presented in this paper to assess the sensitivity of different systems to enhanced vapor diffusion. Pore-scale modeling is also performed to evaluate the relative significance of enhanced vapor diffusion mechanisms when compared to Fickian diffusion. The results demonstrate the need for additional experiments so that more discerning analyses can be performed.

  11. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, M. )

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ignition-type'' steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that triggers'' the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  12. Underwater vapor phase burning of aluminum particles and on aluminum ignition during steam explosions

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, M.

    1991-09-01

    Recently reported experimental studies on aluminum-water steam explosions indicate that there may be a critical metal temperature at which the process changes over from a physical explosion to one which is very violent and involves the rapid liberation of chemical energy. In this report we examine the hypothesis that vapor-phase burning of aluminum is a necessary condition for the occurrence of such ``ignition-type`` steam explosions. An available two-phase stagnation flow film-boiling model is used to calculate the steam flux to the vaporizing aluminum surface. Combining this calculation with the notion that there is an upper limit to the magnitude of the metal vaporization rate at which the reaction regime must change from vapor phase to surface burning, leads to prediction of the critical metal surface temperature below which vapor phase burning is impossible. The critical temperature is predicted for both the aluminum-water pre-mixture configuration in which coarse drops of aluminum are falling freely through water and for the finely-fragmented aluminum drops in the wake of the pressure shock that ``triggers`` the explosion. Vapor phase burning is predicted to be possible during the pre-mixture phase but not very likely during the trigger phase of a steam explosion. The implications of these findings in terms of the validity of the hypothesis that ignition may begin with the vapor phase burning of aluminum is discussed. Recently postulated, alternative mechanisms of underwater aluminum ignition are also discussed.

  13. VALIDATION OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUES FOR EVALUATION OF VAPORS IN AMBIENT AIR/MUTAGENICITY TESTING OF TWELVE (12) VAPOR-PHASE COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The overall objective of this research was to further validate Ames mutagenicity preincubation system for detection of vapors in ambient air. Parametes for detection of vapors in the Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity assay were investigated and 12 vapor-phase compounds were tested for...

  14. Vapors produced by electronic cigarettes and e-juices with flavorings induce toxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response in lung epithelial cells and in mouse lung.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Chad A; Sundar, Isaac K; Yao, Hongwei; Gerloff, Janice; Ossip, Deborah J; McIntosh, Scott; Robinson, Risa; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a "vaping" session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that could lead to unrealized health consequences. PMID:25658421

  15. Vapors Produced by Electronic Cigarettes and E-Juices with Flavorings Induce Toxicity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammatory Response in Lung Epithelial Cells and in Mouse Lung

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Chad A.; Sundar, Isaac K.; Yao, Hongwei; Gerloff, Janice; Ossip, Deborah J.; McIntosh, Scott; Robinson, Risa; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are the key events in the pathogenesis of chronic airway diseases. The consumption of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) with a variety of e-liquids/e-juices is alarmingly increasing without the unrealized potential harmful health effects. We hypothesized that electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS)/e-cigs pose health concerns due to oxidative toxicity and inflammatory response in lung cells exposed to their aerosols. The aerosols produced by vaporizing ENDS e-liquids exhibit oxidant reactivity suggesting oxidants or reactive oxygen species (OX/ROS) may be inhaled directly into the lung during a “vaping” session. These OX/ROS are generated through activation of the heating element which is affected by heating element status (new versus used), and occurs during the process of e-liquid vaporization. Unvaporized e-liquids were oxidative in a manner dependent on flavor additives, while flavors containing sweet or fruit flavors were stronger oxidizers than tobacco flavors. In light of OX/ROS generated in ENDS e-liquids and aerosols, the effects of ENDS aerosols on tissues and cells of the lung were measured. Exposure of human airway epithelial cells (H292) in an air-liquid interface to ENDS aerosols from a popular device resulted in increased secretion of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and IL-8. Furthermore, human lung fibroblasts exhibited stress and morphological change in response to treatment with ENDS/e-liquids. These cells also secrete increased IL-8 in response to a cinnamon flavored e-liquid and are susceptible to loss of cell viability by ENDS e-liquids. Finally, exposure of wild type C57BL/6J mice to aerosols produced from a popular e-cig increase pro-inflammatory cytokines and diminished lung glutathione levels which are critical in maintaining cellular redox balance. Thus, exposure to e-cig aerosols/juices incurs measurable oxidative and inflammatory responses in lung cells and tissues that could lead to unrealized health consequences. PMID:25658421

  16. Liquid-vapor phase diagram of metals using EAM potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Chandrani

    2013-02-01

    Pair-wise additive potentials are not adequate to describe the properties of metallic systems since many body effects are completely ignored in that approximation. In this regard, the embedded atom method is more appropriate because, in addition to the pair interaction, the total energy includes an embedding energy which is the energy required to add an impurity atom to the host electron fluid. Thus EAM takes into account the many body effects to some extent. We use the Cai and Ye's EAM potential to predict the liquid vapor phase diagram and critical constants of Aluminum and Copper within a perturbation theory approach. In this method, free energy of a fluid molecule, trapped in a cage formed by its nearest neighbors, is expanded about a hard sphere reference system. The first order correction term is calculated in terms of the zero temperature isotherm of the solid obtained using the EAM potential. Higher order correction terms are added to account for the deviation of the behavior of the real fluid from the reference hard sphere fluid.

  17. Numerical Modeling of Liquid-Vapor Phase Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esmaeeli, Asghar; Arpaci, Vedat S.

    2001-01-01

    We implemented a two- and three-dimensional finite difference/front tracking technique to solve liquid-vapor phase change problems. The mathematical and the numerical features of the method were explained in great detail in our previous reports, Briefly, we used a single formula representation which incorporated jump conditions into the governing equations. The interfacial terms were distributed as singular terms using delta functions so that the governing equations would be the same as conventional conservation equations away from the interface and in the vicinity of the interface they would provide correct jump conditions. We used a fixed staggered grid to discretize these equations and an unstructured grid to explicitly track the front. While in two dimensions the front was simply a connection of small line segments, in three dimensions it was represented by a connection of small triangular elements. The equations were written in conservative forms and during the course of computations we used regriding to control the size of the elements of the unstructured grid. Moreover, we implemented a coalescence in two dimensions which allowed the merging of different fronts or two segments of the same front when they were sufficiently close. We used our code to study thermocapillary migration of bubbles, burst of bubbles at a free surface, buoyancy-driven interactions of bubbles, evaporation of drops, rapid evaporation of an interface, planar solidification of an undercooled melt, dendritic solidification, and a host of other problems cited in the reference.

  18. Non-aqueous phase liquid spreading during soil vapor extraction

    PubMed Central

    Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Many non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) are expected to spread at the air – water interface, particularly under non-equilibrium conditions. In the vadose zone, this spreading should increase the surface area for mass transfer and the efficiency of volatile NAPL recovery by soil vapor extraction (SVE). Observations of spreading on water wet surfaces led to a conceptual model of oil spreading vertically above a NAPL pool in the vadose zone. Analysis of this model predicts that spreading can enhance the SVE contaminant recovery compared to conditions where the liquid does not spread. Experiments were conducted with spreading volatile oils hexane and heptane in wet porous media and capillary tubes, where spreading was observed at the scale of centimeters. Within porous medium columns up to a meter in height containing stagnant gas, spreading was less than ten centimeters and did not contribute significantly to hexane volatilization. Water film thinning and oil film pinning may have prevented significant oil film spreading, and thus did not enhance SVE at the scale of a meter. The experiments performed indicate that volatile oil spreading at the field scale is unlikely to contribute significantly to the efficiency of SVE. PMID:14734243

  19. A liquid vapor phase transition in quantum statistical F. Baffioni, T. Kuna, I. Merola, and E. Presutti

    E-print Network

    A liquid vapor phase transition in quantum statistical mechanics F. Baffioni, T. Kuna, I. Merola, and E. Presutti Abstract. We prove a liquid vapor phase transition for a quantum system of particles the van der Waals theory of liquid vapor phase transitions, and indeed the limit 0, after

  20. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Tobacco Products Electronic Cigarettes New FDA Regulations HEALTH EFFECTS Nicotine Addiction and Your Health Secondhand Smoke Effects of Smoking on Your Health Smokeless Tobacco and Your Health ...

  1. Sorption capacity of ground tires for vapor-phase volatile organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.Y.; Park, J.K.; Edil, T.B.; Jhung, J.K.

    1996-12-31

    Batch sorption tests were conducted to determine the partition coefficient of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by ground tires. The partition coefficient in the vapor phase was estimated by dividing the partition coefficient in the aqueous phase by Henry`s law constant. Under a diluted condition VOCs are sorbed onto ground tires noncompetitively regardless of the existence of other VOCs. Polar compounds such as methylene chloride were less sorbed onto ground tires than nonpolar compounds. The vapor-phase partition coefficient was found to have a logarithmic relationship with the saturation vapor concentration. VOCs emitted from waste-water treatment facilities can be effectively retarded by the ground tires.

  2. Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas Phase Complex Formation,

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Studies of Titanium Nitride Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas Phase Complex Received June 6, 2000 The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of titanium nitride can be carried out with TiCl4 Titanium nitride thin films have a variety of proper- ties, such as extreme hardness, high chemical

  3. Analysis of the growth modes for gallium arsenide metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Analysis of the growth modes for gallium arsenide metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy D. C. Law March 2000 The surface roughness of gallium arsenide 001 films produced by metalorganic vapor for gallium surface diffusion has been estimated: Ed 1.35 0.1 eV. © 2000 American Institute of Physics. S0021

  4. Molecular Orbital Studies of Zinc Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of Diethyl Zinc,

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular Orbital Studies of Zinc Oxide Chemical Vapor Deposition: Gas-Phase Hydrolysis of Diethyl Zinc, Elimination Reactions, and Formation of Dimers and Tetramers Stanley M. Smith and H. Bernhard deposition of zinc oxide thin films can be carried out with diethyl zinc and water vapor. The present study

  5. Use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) impairs indoor air quality and increases FeNO levels of e-cigarette consumers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Wolfgang; Szendrei, Katalin; Matzen, Wolfgang; Osiander-Fuchs, Helga; Heitmann, Dieter; Schettgen, Thomas; Jörres, Rudolf A; Fromme, Hermann

    2014-07-01

    Despite the recent popularity of e-cigarettes, to date only limited data is available on their safety for both users and secondhand smokers. The present study reports a comprehensive inner and outer exposure assessment of e-cigarette emissions in terms of particulate matter (PM), particle number concentrations (PNC), volatile organic compounds (VOC), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), carbonyls, and metals. In six vaping sessions nine volunteers consumed e-cigarettes with and without nicotine in a thoroughly ventilated room for two hours. We analyzed the levels of e-cigarette pollutants in indoor air and monitored effects on FeNO release and urinary metabolite profile of the subjects. For comparison, the components of the e-cigarette solutions (liquids) were additionally analyzed. During the vaping sessions substantial amounts of 1,2-propanediol, glycerine and nicotine were found in the gas-phase, as well as high concentrations of PM2.5 (mean 197 ?g/m(3)). The concentration of putative carcinogenic PAH in indoor air increased by 20% to 147 ng/m(3), and aluminum showed a 2.4-fold increase. PNC ranged from 48,620 to 88,386 particles/cm(3) (median), with peaks at diameters 24-36 nm. FeNO increased in 7 of 9 individuals. The nicotine content of the liquids varied and was 1.2-fold higher than claimed by the manufacturer. Our data confirm that e-cigarettes are not emission-free and their pollutants could be of health concern for users and secondhand smokers. In particular, ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor can be deposited in the lung, and aerosolized nicotine seems capable of increasing the release of the inflammatory signaling molecule NO upon inhalation. In view of consumer safety, e-cigarettes and nicotine liquids should be officially regulated and labeled with appropriate warnings of potential health effects, particularly of toxicity risk in children. PMID:24373737

  6. VAPOR-PHASE DECONTAMINATION OF APPLES CONTAINING ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved methods of decontaminating apples containing human pathogens are required. In this investigation, application of gaseous antimicrobial agents was investigated. An apparatus, which transfers vapor from hot antimicrobial solutions to a treatment vessel, was evaluated with Golden Delicious app...

  7. Surface tension and vapor-liquid phase coexistence of confined square-Jayant K. Singh and Sang Kyu Kwak

    E-print Network

    Singh, Jayant K.

    Surface tension and vapor-liquid phase coexistence of confined square- well fluid Jayant K. Singh://jcp.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Surface tension and vapor-liquid phase coexistence of confined square-well fluid Jayant K. Singha is in agreement with that given in literature. The surface tension of the vapor-liquid interface is calculated via

  8. Gas-phase unsteadiness and its inuence on droplet vaporization in sub-and super-critical environments

    E-print Network

    Aggarwal, Suresh K.

    Gas-phase unsteadiness and its in¯uence on droplet vaporization in sub- and super quantitatively the in¯uence of gas-phase unsteadiness on the droplet vaporization process in sub- and super-critical environments. Two comprehensive models of high-pressure droplet vaporization, including a transient model

  9. Comparison of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) concentrations generated by an electrically heated cigarette smoking system and a conventional cigarette.

    PubMed

    Tricker, Anthony R; Schorp, Matthias K; Urban, Hans-Jörg; Leyden, Donald; Hagedorn, Heinz-Werner; Engl, Johannes; Urban, Michael; Riedel, Kirsten; Gilch, Gerhard; Janket, Dinamis; Scherer, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Smoking conventional lit-end cigarettes results in exposure of nonsmokers to potentially harmful cigarette smoke constituents present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) generated by sidestream smoke emissions and exhaled mainstream smoke. ETS constituent concentrations generated by a conventional lit-end cigarette and a newly developed electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) that produces only mainstream smoke and no sidestream smoke emissions were investigated in simulated "office" and "hospitality" environments with different levels of baseline indoor air quality. Smoking the EHCSS (International Organisation for Standardization yields: 5 mg tar, 0.3 mg nicotine, and 0.6 mg carbon monoxide) in simulated indoor environments resulted in significant reductions in ETS constituent concentrations compared to when smoking a representative lit-end cigarette (Marlboro: 6 mg tar, 0.5 mg nicotine, and 7 mg carbon monoxide). In direct comparisons, 24 of 29 measured smoke constituents (83%) showed mean reductions of greater than 90%, and 5 smoke constituents (17%) showed mean reductions between 80% and 90%. Gas-vapor phase ETS markers (nicotine and 3-ethenylpyridine) were reduced by an average of 97% (range 94-99%). Total respirable suspended particles, determined by online particle measurements and as gravimetric respirable suspended particles, were reduced by 90% (range 82-100%). The mean and standard deviation of the reduction of all constituents was 94 +/- 4%, indicating that smoking the new EHCSS in simulated "office" and "hospitality" indoor environments resulted in substantial reductions of ETS constituents in indoor air. PMID:18951229

  10. Epitaxial growth of phase-pure ?-Ga2O3 by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Yuichi; Víllora, Encarnación G.; Matsushita, Yoshitaka; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Epitaxial growth of ?-Ga2O3 is demonstrated for the first time. The ?-Ga2O3 films are grown on GaN (0001), AlN (0001), and ?-Ga2O3 ( 2 ¯01 ) by halide vapor phase epitaxy at 550 °C using gallium chloride and O2 as precursors. X-ray ?-2? and pole figure measurements prove that phase-pure ?-Ga2O3 (0001) films are epitaxially grown on the three kinds of substrates, although some minor misoriented domains are observed. High temperature X-ray diffraction measurements reveal that the ?-Ga2O3 is thermally stable up to approximately 700 °C. The optical bandgap of ?-Ga2O3 is determined for the first time to be 4.9 eV.

  11. Vapor Phase Detection Using Chemi-Resistor Sensor Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan S. Lewis

    1999-02-17

    This paper focuses on two main areas: understanding sensor response times so as to obtain improved time response in the field when needed for vapor tracking and classification, and improved theoretical understanding of the sensor response properties that generate the pattern on the array in response to a given analyte.

  12. Student Understanding of Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibrium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Andrew; Campbell, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Student understanding of the equilibrium coexistence of a liquid and its vapor was the subject of an extended investigation. Written assessment questions were administered to undergraduates enrolled in introductory physics and chemistry courses. Responses have been analyzed to document conceptual and reasoning difficulties in sufficient detail to…

  13. Vapor Phase Transport Synthesis of Zeolites from Sol-Gel Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    THOMA,STEVEN G.; NENOFF,TINA M.

    2000-07-14

    A study of zeolite crystallization from sol-gel precursors using the vapor phase transport synthesis method has been performed. Zeolites (ZSM-5, ZSM-48, Zeolite P, and Sodalite) were crystallized by contacting vapor phase organic or organic-water mixtures with dried sodium silicate and dried sodium alumino-silicate gels. For each precursor gel, a ternary phase system of vapor phase organic reactant molecules was explored. The vapor phase reactant mixtures ranged from pure ethylene diamene, triethylamine, or water, to an equimolar mixture of each. In addition, a series of gels with varied physical and chemical properties were crystallized using the same vapor phase solvent mixture for each gel. The precursor gels and the crystalline products were analyzed via Scanning Electron Microscopy, Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray mapping, X-ray powder diffraction, nitrogen surface area, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, and thermal analyses. The product phase and purity as a function of the solvent mixture, precursor gel structure, and precursor gel chemistry is discussed.

  14. The experimental liquid-vapor phase diagram of bulk nuclear matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretto, L. G.; Elliott, J. B.; Phair, L.; Lake, P. T.

    2011-11-01

    The modern investigation of clusters, for which 1 Lt N Lt ?, requires a generalization of the thermodynamics developed for infinite systems. For instance, in finite systems, phase transitions and phase coexistence become ill-defined with ambiguous signals. The existence of phase transitions in nuclear systems, in particular of the liquid-vapor kind, has been widely discussed and even experimentally claimed. A consistent and unambiguous approach to this problem requires a connection between finite systems and the corresponding infinite systems. Historically, this has been achieved at temperature T = 0 by the introduction of the liquid drop model and the extraction of the volume term, which is a fundamental quantity of nuclear matter. This work extends this approach to T > 0, by determining the liquid-vapor coexistence line and its termination at the critical point. Since there is no known experimental situation where a nuclear liquid and vapor are in coexistence, we establish a relationship between evaporation rates and saturated vapor concentration and characterize the saturated vapor with Fisher's droplet model. We validate this approach by analyzing cluster concentrations in the Ising and Lennard-Jones models and extracting the corresponding first-order coexistence line and critical temperature. Since the vapor of clusters coexists with a finite liquid drop, we devise a finite size correction leading to a modified Fisher equation. The application of the above techniques to nuclear systems requires dealing also with the Coulomb force. Nuclear cluster evaporation rates can be corrected for Coulomb effects and can be used to evaluate the cluster concentrations in the 'virtual' equilibrium vapor. These cluster concentrations, determined over a wide temperature range, can be analyzed by means of a modified Fisher formula. This leads to the extraction of the entire liquid-vapor coexistence line terminating at the critical point. A large body of experimental data has been analyzed in this manner and the liquid-vapor phase diagram of nuclear matter has been extracted.

  15. Vapor-Phase Stoichiometry and Heat Treatment of CdTe Starting Material for Physical Vapor Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Sha, Yi-Gao; Lehoczky, S. L.; Liu, Hao-Chieh; Fang, Rei; Brebrick, R. F.

    1998-01-01

    Six batches of CdTe, having total amounts of material from 99 to 203 g and gross mole fraction of Te, X(sub Te), 0.499954-0.500138, were synthesized from pure Cd and Te elements. The vapor-phase stoichiometry of the assynthesized CdTe batches was determined from the partial pressure of Te2, P(sub Te2) using an optical absorption technique. The measured vapor compositions at 870 C were Te-rich for all of the batches with partial pressure ratios of Cd to Te2, P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2), ranging from 0.00742 to 1.92. After the heat treatment of baking under dynamic vacuum at 870 C for 8 min, the vapor-phase compositions moved toward that of the congruent sublimation, i.e. P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2) = 2.0, with the measured P(sub Cd)/P(sub Te2) varying from 1.84 to 3.47. The partial pressure measurements on one of the heat-treated samples also showed that the sample remained close to the congruent sublimation condition over the temperature range 800-880 C.

  16. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate became the fundamental cigarette filter material. By the mid-1960s, the meaning of the phrase ‘filter problem’ changed, such that the effort to develop effective filters became a campaign to market cigarette designs that would sustain the myth of cigarette filter efficacy. Conclusions This study indicates that cigarette designers at Philip Morris, British-American Tobacco, Lorillard and other companies believed for a time that they might be able to reduce some of the most dangerous substances in mainstream smoke through advanced engineering of filter tips. In their attempts to accomplish this, they developed the now ubiquitous cellulose acetate cigarette filter. By the mid-1960s cigarette designers realised that the intractability of the ‘filter problem’ derived from a simple fact: that which is harmful in mainstream smoke and that which provides the smoker with ‘satisfaction’ are essentially one and the same. Only in the wake of this realisation did the agenda of cigarette designers appear to transition away from mitigating the health hazards of smoking and towards the perpetuation of the notion that cigarette filters are effective in reducing these hazards. Filters became a marketing tool, designed to keep and recruit smokers as consumers of these hazardous products. PMID:21504917

  17. Menthol Cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... menthol? Menthol is a substance naturally found in mint plants such as peppermint and spearmint. It gives ... of Mentholated Cigarettes Course. Module 1. Menthol and Mint Flavor Additives - General History and Applications. 1985. Celebucki, ...

  18. Phase liquid-vapor equilibria and thermodynamic properties of solutions of n-propanol-aliphatic ketones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntsov, Yu. K.; Vlasov, M. V.; Chuikov, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The boiling points of solutions of five binary systems are measured using the ebulliometric method in the pressure range of 4.4-101.3 kPa. Compositions of the equilibrium vapor phases of systems are calculated, based on the constructed pressure isotherms of saturated vapor. The values of excess Gibbs energy and the enthalpy and entropy of solutions are calculated from the data on the liquid-vapor equilibrium. The patterns of change in the phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties of the solutions are established, based on the composition and temperature of the systems. The liquid-vapor equilibrium of systems is described using the equations of Wilson and the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid model).

  19. LLNL vapor phase manufacturing progress report, June--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Anklam, T.; Benterou, J.; Berzins, L.; Braun, D.; Haynam, C.; Heestand, G.; McClelland, M.

    1996-01-09

    This report gives progress made on the following milestones: demonstrate Ti and Nb monitoring at 3M site, demonstrate Al monitoring at LLNL, complete baseline melt and vapor plume model for the metal matrix process (3M fiber coating process), prototype a laser at LLNL to monitor Cu, ZrO{sub 2} monitoring demonstration at LLNL, Se monitoring demonstration, and process scale-up study for YBCO high-temperature superconductor.

  20. Infrared analysis of vapor phase deposited tricresylphosphate (TCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Hanyaloglu, Bengi; Graham, Earl E.

    1994-01-01

    Infrared transmission was employed to study the formation of a lubricating film deposited on two different substrates at 700 C. The deposit was formed from tricresylphosphate vapors and collected onto a NaCl substrate and on an iron coated NaCl substrate. Analysis of the infrared data suggests that a metal phosphate is formed initially, followed by the formation of organophosphorus polymeric compounds.

  1. Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal-Organic Framework

    E-print Network

    Vapor-Phase Metalation by Atomic Layer Deposition in a Metal- Organic Framework Joseph E. Mondloch introduce a new synthetic strategy capable of metallating MOFs from the gas phase: atomic layer deposition and in some instances host- guest interactions may lead to unstable metal@MOFs. Atomic layer deposition (ALD

  2. X-ray-induced phase transformation in congruent and vapor-transport-equilibrated lithium tantalate

    E-print Network

    Byer, Robert L.

    X-ray-induced phase transformation in congruent and vapor-transport-equilibrated lithium tantalate an effect of a partially reversible x-ray-induced increase of diffuse x-ray scattering in both congruent been attributed to x-ray-induced decay of the ferroelectric phase at room temperature. The x-ray

  3. Determination of nicotine and other minor alkaloids in international cigarettes by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weijia; Ashley, David L; Watson, Clifford H

    2002-10-01

    Nicotine, nornicotine, anabasine, and anatabine are the most abundant alkaloids in tobacco. Along with the addictiveness of nicotine, other properties, including their occurrence in tobacco at relatively high concentrations, and as the primary precursors for the highly carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosoamines, make these chemicals important from a public health standpoint Therefore, developing a fast and accurate quantitative method to screen large numbers of cigarette samples for these alkaloids was important. This report describes the first use of headspace analysis using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for the unambiguous detection of tobacco alkaloids. Detection and confirmation of each analyte isestablished by both chromatographic retention times and the ratio of reconstructed ion chromatogram peak areas from characteristic quantitation ion and confirmation ion. Twenty-eight cigarette brands from 14 countries were analyzed. Surprisingly, the minor alkaloids' response factors varied considerably among different styles of cigarettes. Accurate quantification was achieved using a three-point standard addition protocol. The standard addition approach was essential to obtain accurate measurements by minimizing matrix effects that would otherwise have contributed to quantitation bias. Significant differences in the alkaloid profiles were measured in the different cigarette brands. These results strongly suggest that such differences reflect variations associated with blend compositions, tobacco quality, and manufacturing practices. PMID:12380807

  4. [E-Cigarettes – Friend or Foe?].

    PubMed

    Russi, Erich W

    2015-07-01

    Not nicotine, but an abundant amount of toxic chemicals produced by the combustion of tobacco are the cause of well-known health problems. E-cigarette vapor contains no or only minimal quantities of potentially harmful substances. Hence it can be assumed that vaping in adults is much less harmful than smoking of cigarettes. Furthermore, no data exist that e-cigarettes will encourage youngsters to become cigarette smokers. E-cigarette vaping has the potential to reduce the daily number of cigarettes smoked or facilitates cessation of smoking in heavily nicotine-dependent smokers, who keep on smoking despite a structured smoking cessation program. Health professionals should be aware of this type of nicotine substitution, since the controversial discussion is often emotional and not evidence-based. PMID:26135724

  5. VaporLiquidSolid and VaporSolid Growth of Phase-Change Sb2Te3 Nanowires and Sb2Te3/GeTe Nanowire

    E-print Network

    Yu, Dong

    Vapor­Liquid­Solid and Vapor­Solid Growth of Phase-Change Sb2Te3 Nanowires and Sb2Te3/GeTe Nanowire as an improved synthesis of Sb2Te3 nanowires. The synthesis of the heterostructures employs Au nanowires and nanowire heterostructures demonstrates that these nanostructures exhibit memory

  6. Phase-coherent transport in catalyst-free vapor phase deposited Bi2Se3 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ockelmann, R.; Müller, A.; Hwang, J. H.; Jafarpisheh, S.; Drögeler, M.; Beschoten, B.; Stampfer, C.

    2015-08-01

    Freestanding Bi2Se3 single-crystal flakes of variable thicknesses are grown using a catalyst-free vapor-solid synthesis and are subsequently transferred onto a clean Si++/SiO2 substrate where the flakes are contacted in Hall bar geometry. Low-temperature magnetoresistance measurements are presented which show a linear magnetoresistance for high magnetic fields and weak antilocalization (WAL) at low fields. Despite an overall strong charge-carrier tunability for thinner devices, we find that electron transport is dominated by bulk contributions for all devices. Phase-coherence lengths l? as extracted from WAL measurements increase linearly with increasing electron density exceeding 1 ? m at 1.7 K. Although l? is in qualitative agreement with electron-electron interaction-induced dephasing, we find that spin-flip scattering processes limit l? at low temperatures.

  7. Oral cavity discrimination of vapor-phase long-chain 18-carbon fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Wajid, Naji A; Halpern, Bruce P

    2012-09-01

    Linoleic, oleic, and stearic fatty acids, presented vapor-phase retronasally, were discriminable from blanks and each other, but the same concentrations, oral-cavity-only (OCO), were not discriminable from blanks. It remained possible that higher concentrations might be discriminable OCO. To evaluate this, participants attempted to discriminate undiluted linoleic, oleic, or stearic acids, vapor-phase OCO, from blanks. For each fatty acid, participants received 5 stimulus delivery containers (SDCs) in 2 trials; 4 SDC held blanks, the fifth, a fatty acid. As a "positive control" in 2 trials, participants received vapor-phase OCO peppermint extract and blanks. For all trials, the task was to select the 1 different SDC. It was found that the 1 different SDC was selected in 24% of stearic, 32% of linoleic, 47% of oleic acid, and in 92% of peppermint trials; discriminations (the 1 different SDC selected in both trials) occurred in 0%, 16%, 26%, and 84% of pairs, respectively. Correct selections for oleic acid differed from chance, P = 0.0004, but not for linoleic acid, P = 0.125, or stearic acid, P = 0.345, Bonferroni corrected. Vapor-phase oleic acid can be an oral cavity trigeminal stimulus, linoleic acid might be (uncorrected P = 0.0384), but vapor-phase stearic acid cannot be. PMID:22459162

  8. A Preliminary Study on the Vapor/Mist Phase Lubrication of a Spur Gearbox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    Organophosphates have been the primary compounds used in vapor/mist phase lubrication studies involving ferrous bearing material. Experimental results have indicated that the initial formation of an iron phosphate film on a rubbing ferrous surface, followed by the growth (by cationic diffusion) of a lubricious pyrophosphate-type coating over the iron phosphate, is the reason organophosphates work well as vapor/mist phase lubricants. Recent work, however, has shown that this mechanism leads to the depletion of surface iron atoms and to eventual lubrication failure. A new organophosphate formulation was developed which circumvents surface iron depletion. This formulation was tested by generating an iron phosphate coating on an aluminum surface. The new formulation was then used to vapor/mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox in a preliminary study.

  9. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael T.; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  10. Liquid-vapor phase equilibrium conditions in an ultrasonic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, G. A.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Gruzdkov, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    An analytical model is proposed that allows predicting the effect of an acoustic field on the phase equilibrium conditions of liquid continua. Under the conditions of an arbitrary ultrasonic wave, an equilibrium interaction value analogous to the effect on the phase state of a substance is determined with use of the incubation time criterion. As an example, improved phase diagrams are built for the state of water affected by ultrasonic waves with frequencies in the range 10-100 kHz.

  11. Experimental studies on nucleation, nanoparticle's formation and polymerization from the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsayed, Victor Maher

    This research is divided into three major parts. In part I, the critical supersaturations required for the homogeneous nucleation of 2,2,2-trifluorothanol (TFE) vapor have been measured over a temperature range (266-296 K) using an upward thermal diffusion cloud chamber (DCC). The measured supersaturations are in agreement with the predictions of both the classical and the scaled theory of nucleation. Moreover, the condensation of supersaturated TFE vapor on laser-vaporized magnesium nanoparticles has been studied under different experimental conditions, such as the supersaturation, the pressure and the electric field. In part II, the laser vaporization controlled condensation (LVCC) technique was used to prepare Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles in the vapor phase using designed targets of compressed Au and Ag micron-sized powder mixtures of selected composition. The results showed that the optical properties of these nanoparticles could be tuned depending on the alloy composition and the laser wavelength. Different intermetallic nanoparticles (FeAl and NiAl) from the vapor phase has also been prepared, using the same approach. In this work, the fraction of the charged particles generated during the laser vaporization process was used to prepare a new class of nanoparticle assemblies in the LVCC chamber under the influence of an electric field. The results showed that the electric field required to induce the formation of these nanoassemblies is material and field dependent. By coupling the LVCC chamber with the differential mobility analyzer, size-selected nanoparticles have been prepared in the vapor phase. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. In part III, new methods were developed to prepare nanoparticle-polymer composites from the vapor phase. In the first method, the LVCC method was used to prepare a carbonaceous cross-linked resin, with different nanoparticles (Ni, Pt and FeAl) embedded inside. In the second method, free radical-thermally initiated polymerization was used to polymerize a monomer vapor of styrene on the surfaces of activated Ni nanoparticles.

  12. Crystal growth from the vapor phase. Experiment MA-085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeier, H.

    1977-01-01

    The positive effects of microgravity on crystal quality and the fundamental properties of the vapor transport reaction were established by analyzing the results of three transport experiments on multicomponent systems performed during the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. The systems employed were GeSe0.99Te0.01-GeI4(A), GeS0.98Se0.02-GeCl4(B), and GeS-GeCl4-Ar (C). The crystallographic analysis is based on a direct comparison of space and ground-based (prototype) crystals employing X-ray diffraction, microprobe, microscopic, and chemical etching techniques. The results demonstrate a considerable improvement of the space-grown crystals in terms of chemical and crystalline homogeneity, surface morphology, and bulk perfection relative to ground specimens.

  13. Liquid-phase dispersion during injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of water injection plumes in vapor-dominated reservoirs is examined. Stressing the similarity to water infiltration in heterogeneous soils, we suggest that ever-present heterogeneities in individual fractures and fracture networks will cause a lateral broadening of descending injection plumes. The process of lateral spreading of liquid phase is viewed in analogy to transverse dispersion in miscible displacement. To account for the postulated ``phase dispersion`` the conventional two-phase immiscible flow theory is extended by adding a Fickian-type dispersive term. The validity of the proposed phase dispersion model is explored by means of simulations with detailed resolution of small-scale heterogeneity. We also present an illustrative application to injection into a depleted vapor zone. It is concluded that phase dispersion effects will broaden descending injection plumes, with important consequences for pressure support and potential water breakthrough at neighboring production wells.

  14. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes Part 6: the impact of ingredients added to kretek cigarettes on smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hirter, J; Deger Evans, A; Weber, S; Ode, A; Wittke, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Mainstream smoke (MS) from experimental kretek cigarettes with three ingredient mixes at low (typical use level) and high (2.5 or 3 times that level) inclusion rates was compared to a control kretek cigarette of identical construction (cloves and humectants), but without the addition of ingredients. 350 ingredients, commonly used in various combinations and in a limited number in a given brand in the manufacture of marketed kretek cigarettes were assessed. The MS composition of the kretek cigarettes was characterized by a comprehensive set of analytes (55 smoke constituents). Furthermore, the smoke was assessed in vitro for its cytotoxicity in the Neutral Red Uptake assay (particle phase and gas/vapor phase separately) in mouse embryo BALB/c 3T3 cells, and for mutagenicity/genotoxicity in the Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay and the mammalian cell mouse lymphoma TK assay in L5178Y cells, the latter with and without metabolic activation. There were some statistically significant differences in the yield of smoke constituents (increases as well as decreases, nearly all of them less than ± 20%) as a result of the addition of the ingredient mixes. However, the addition of the three different mixes of ingredients to the experimental kreteks did not change the in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity/genotoxicity of the smoke, when compared to the control kretek cigarette. PMID:25496764

  15. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials instead of from vapor

    DOEpatents

    Geohegan, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Seals, Roland D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Puretzky, Alex A. (Knoxville, TN); Fan, Xudong (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2010-10-19

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed phase matrix material instead of from vapor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  16. Large core Yb-doped optical fiber through vapor phase doping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Maitreyee; Pal, Atasi; Pal, Mrinmay; Sen, Ranjan

    2013-05-01

    Rare earth (RE) doped optical fibers have shown tremendous progress for producing high power fiber lasers for industrial, medical and strategic applications. However, fabrication of large core, high Yb-doped fiber is still a challenge through conventional process due to poor repeatability and limitation regarding core size. This paper presents successful fabrication of Yb-doped fibers through vapor phase doping technique. Preform fabrication was carried out using a specially constructed MCVD system containing High Temperature Vapor Delivery Unit with sublimators for Al and Yb precursors. The novelty of the present work lies in deposition of Al2O3 and Yb2O3 in vapor phase simultaneously with silica during formation of sintered core layer which result in uniform dopants distribution in the preform. The fibers exhibited lasing efficiency of 76% with low `photodarkening effect'.

  17. The Fisher Droplet Model and Physical Clusters at Liquid-Vapor Phase Coexistence with Implications for the Nuclear Phase Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lake, Peter Theodore, Jr.

    The nuclear strong force, which binds the nucleons within an atomic nucleus, is a van der Waals force. A consequence of this is that the phenomenon of liquid-vapor phase coexistence occurs in the nuclear system. The experimental means of constructing the nuclear phase diagrams rely heavily on the thermodynamics of cluster theories, theories that historically have not served in many practical applications. In this thesis I explore the validity of the ideal cluster law and the Fisher droplet model in systems where the phase diagrams are known from traditional means. For molecular fluids, I show that the phase coexistence of a wide variety of systems can be described using the Fisher theory. This study is closely related to the study of an extended principle of corresponding states. These considerations demonstrates the utility of the Fisher droplet model in describing liquid-vapor phase coexistence of van der Waals fluids. For model systems, I show that the physical clusters of the Lennard-Jones model at coexistence can be used to construct the phase diagrams of the fluid. The connection between the physical clusters and the thermodynamic properties of the vapor are established using the ideal cluster law. Furthermore, the cluster concentrations are well described by the Fisher droplet model. These considerations lead to an alternative construction of the phase diagrams for the Lennard-Jones system. The success of cluster theories to describe properties of liquid-vapor coexistence that are already well established demonstrates the validity of applying these concepts to construct the nuclear phase diagrams.

  18. Molecular orbital studies of titanium nitride chemical vapor deposition: gas phase b-elimination

    E-print Network

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    Molecular orbital studies of titanium nitride chemical vapor deposition: gas phase b) of titanium nitride can be carried out using TiNR24 and NH3 (R Me or Et). Imido compounds are thought. Ó 2001 Pub- lished by Elsevier Science B.V. 1. Introduction It is well known that titanium nitride

  19. Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase

    E-print Network

    Borguet, Eric

    Sulfur Impregnation on Activated Carbon Fibers through H2S Oxidation for Vapor Phase Mercury: Sulfur was impregnated onto activated carbon fibers ACFs through H2S oxidation catalyzed by the sorbent surface in a fixed-bed reactor. By changing the temperature and duration of the sulfur impregnation

  20. Journal of Crystal Growth 310 (2008) 562569 Selective area metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of gallium

    E-print Network

    Hicks, Robert F.

    2008-01-01

    of gallium arsenide on silicon S.F. Chenga , L. Gaoa , R.L. Wooa , A. Panganb , G. Maloufb , M.S. Goorskyb, metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of gallium arsenide on silicon substrates was investigated. Low,13,14]. Gallium arsenide films grown on silicon using graded buffer layers combined with thermal annealing have

  1. POTENTIAL USE AND MODIFICATION OF EXISTING MESOCOSMS FOR VAPOR PHASE PHOTOTOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    With vapor phase plant toxicity testing becoming a requirement in Europe, there is a pressing need to develop and implement acceptable tests protocols. The quickest way to proceed is to examine and modify existing methodologies while determining if new technologies are needed. ...

  2. Inhibition effects of vapor phase thymol and modified atmosphere against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. Natural antimicrobial compounds (e.g. essential oils) in vapor phase and modified atmosphere (MA) technology can inhibit the growth potential of Salmonella spp. However, each strategy has its limitations, wh...

  3. Influence of solid-state characteristics on critical parameters of vapor-liquid phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomkin, A. L.; Shumikhin, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    New method for calculation of critical point parameters and binodal of vapor-liquid (dielectric-metal) phase transition is suggested. Method is based on the hypothesis that cohesion, which determines the main properties of solid state, determines also the properties in vicinity of critical point. Comparison with known experimental data for rare gases and mercury shows satisfactory agreement with our calculations.

  4. A technique for eliminating white phosphorus deposits in vapor phase epitaxy systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, D. M.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    A technique of heating the exhaust lines is described whereby phosphorus in the exhaust portion of an organometallic vapor phase epitaxy reactor is encouraged to deposit in the red form rather than the pyrophoric white form. This technique is simple, effective, and does not hinder or limit the conditions under which the reactor may be operated.

  5. Liquid-vapor interface, cavitation, and the phase diagram of water Frdric Caupin

    E-print Network

    Caupin, Frédéric

    near a SL. It was later understood 2 that a liquid-gas SL was unlikely to exist at positive pressure point. The SL can, however, end at negative pressure by meeting a liquid-solid spinodal see Ref. 2Liquid-vapor interface, cavitation, and the phase diagram of water Frédéric Caupin Laboratoire de

  6. EFFECT OF VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR OPERATION ON BIOMASS ACCUMULATION, DISTRIBUTION, AND ACTIVITY. (R826168)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Excess biomass accumulation and activity loss in vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) can lead to unreliable long-term operation. In this study, temporal and spatial variations in biomass accumulation, distribution and activity in VPBs treating toluene-contaminated air were monitored o...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF AN AIR-TO-LEAF VAPOR PHASE TRANSFER FACTOR FOR DIOXINS AND FURANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of an experiment in which grass was grown in a greenhouse and outdoors, and in soils of different concentration levels of dioxins and furans, were used in a modeling exercise to derive an air-to-leaf vapor phase transfer factor. The purpose of the experiment was to under...

  8. ORGANIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AEROSOLS AND VAPOR PHASE COMPOUNDS IN URBAN ATMOSPHERES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic pollutants in urban atmospheres were characterized by analyzing particulate and/or vapor-phase samples collected by EPA in St. Louis, Missouri; Miami, Florida; Denver, Colorado; Houston, Texas; and at the General Motors Test Track in Milford, Michigan. The particulate sam...

  9. Effect of Liquid-Vapor Phase Distribution on the Heat Transfer

    E-print Network

    Kandlikar, Satish

    for developing the advanced heat transfer surfaces and systems employed in evaporator applications. This paperEffect of Liquid-Vapor Phase Distribution on the Heat Transfer Mechanisms during Flow Boiling Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY, USA Heat transfer during flow boiling in minichannels

  10. EFFECT OF DIRECTIONAL SWITCHING FREQUENCY ON TOLUENE DEGRADATION IN A VAPOR-PHASE BIOREACTOR. (R826168)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A potential method to improve biomass distribution and the stability of vapor-phase bioreactors is to operate them in a directionally switching mode such that the contaminant air stream direction is periodically reversed through the reactor. In this study, the effect of switching...

  11. Space cryogenics components based on the thermomechanical effect - Vapor-liquid phase separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of the thermomechanical effect has been qualified including incorporation in large-scale space systems in the area of vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS). The theory of the porous-plug phase separator is developed for the limit of a high thermal impedance of the solid-state grains. Extensions of the theory of nonlinear turbulent flow are presented based on experimental results.

  12. Plasma Spray-PVD: A New Thermal Spray Process to Deposit Out of the Vapor Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Niessen, Konstantin; Gindrat, Malko

    2011-06-01

    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is a low pressure plasma spray technology recently developed by Sulzer Metco AG (Switzerland). Even though it is a thermal spray process, it can deposit coatings out of the vapor phase. The basis of PS-PVD is the low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS) technology that has been well established in industry for several years. In comparison to conventional vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) or low pressure plasma spraying (LPPS), the new proposed process uses a high energy plasma gun operated at a reduced work pressure of 0.1 kPa (1 mbar). Owing to the high energy plasma and further reduced work pressure, PS-PVD is able to deposit a coating not only by melting the feed stock material which builds up a layer from liquid splats but also by vaporizing the injected material. Therefore, the PS-PVD process fills the gap between the conventional physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies and standard thermal spray processes. The possibility to vaporize feedstock material and to produce layers out of the vapor phase results in new and unique coating microstructures. The properties of such coatings are superior to those of thermal spray and electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) coatings. In contrast to EB-PVD, PS-PVD incorporates the vaporized coating material into a supersonic plasma plume. Owing to the forced gas stream of the plasma jet, complex shaped parts such as multi-airfoil turbine vanes can be coated with columnar thermal barrier coatings using PS-PVD. Even shadowed areas and areas which are not in the line of sight of the coating source can be coated homogeneously. This article reports on the progress made by Sulzer Metco in developing a thermal spray process to produce coatings out of the vapor phase. Columnar thermal barrier coatings made of Yttria-stabilized Zircona (YSZ) are optimized to serve in a turbine engine. This process includes not only preferable coating properties such as strain tolerance and erosion resistance but also the simultaneous coverage of multiple air foils.

  13. New low toxicity, multi-metal active vapor phase corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, D.E.; Dixon, B.G.; Koehan, F.L.

    1999-07-01

    Traditional vapor phase corrosion inhibitors (VCIs) were developed for short-term protection of steel articles. VCIs have been applied for protecting metallic structures between stages of manufacturing, between manufacturing and deployment, and in enclosed service environments. Some of the problems associated with this corrosion inhibiting application include: protecting dissimilar metallic structures, avoiding toxic materials such as nitrite salts and formaldehyde emitting compounds, an the need for longer duration corrosion protection. Several types of organic compounds were derivatized for temporary volatility and formulated to yield materials with sufficient ambient temperature vapor pressure for VCI application. The ability of these new VCIs to prevent vapor phase metallic corrosion was investigated by an accelerated hydrothermal exposure method. Metals investigated included an aluminum aircraft alloy, cold rolled steel, brass and a copper-nickel alloy. Potentiodynamic slow scan electrochemical analysis and SEM were also used to study the surface behavior and corrosion processes for metallic specimens treated with experimental and control VCIS. Several of the new compounds showed significant vapor phase corrosion inhibition on all four metal alloys.

  14. Correlation enhanced phase sensitive Raman scattering in atomic vapors

    E-print Network

    Chun-Hua Yuan; L. Q. Chen; Z. Y. Ou; Weiping Zhang

    2013-05-25

    We theoretically propose a method to enhance Raman scattering by injecting a seeded light field which is correlated with the initially prepared atomic spin wave. Such a light-atom correlation leads to an interference in the Raman scattering. The interference is sensitive to the relative phase between the seeded light field and initially prepared atomic spin wave. For constructive interference, the Raman scattering is greatly enhanced. Such an enhanced Raman scattering may find applications in quantum information, nonlinear optics and optical metrology due to its simplicity.

  15. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J; Li, Q; Abrams, S; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Background: Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Methods: Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. Results: 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Conclusion: Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts. PMID:15791017

  16. Assessment of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Technology at the MSFC ECLS Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomes, Kristin; Long, David; Carter, Layne; Flynn, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia. Removal (VPCAR) technology has been previously discussed as a viable option for. the Exploration Water Recovery System. This technology integrates a phase change process with catalytic oxidation in the vapor phase to produce potable water from exploration mission wastewaters. A developmental prototype VPCAR was designed, built and tested under funding provided by a National Research. Announcement (NRA) project. The core technology, a Wiped Film Rotating Device (WFRD) was provided by Water Reuse Technologies under the NRA, whereas Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International performed the hardware integration and acceptance test. of the system. Personnel at the-Ames Research Center performed initial systems test of the VPCAR using ersatz solutions. To assess the viability of this hardware for Exploration. Life Support (ELS) applications, the hardware has been modified and tested at the MSFC ECLS Test facility. This paper summarizes the hardware modifications and test results and provides an assessment of this technology for the ELS application.

  17. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-05-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  18. An intercomparison of measurement systems for vapor and particulate phase concentrations of formic and acetic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keene, William C.; Talbot, Robert W.; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Beecher, Kristene; Berresheim, Harold

    1989-01-01

    During June 1986, eight systems for measuring vapor phase and four for measuring particulate phase concentrations of formic acid (HCOOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) were intercompared in central Virginia. HCOOH and CH3COOH vapors were sampled by condensate, mist, Chromosorb 103 GC resin, NaOH-coated annular denuders, NaOH-impregnated quartz filters, K2CO3 and NaCO3-impregnated cellulose filters, and Nylasorb membranes. Atmospheric aerosol was collected on Teflon and Nuclepore filters using both hi-vol and lo-vol systems to measure particulate phase concentrations. Performances of the mist chamber and K2CO3-impregnated filter techniques were evaluated using zero air and ambient air spiked with HCOOH(g) and CH3COOH(g), and formaldehyde from permeation sources. The advantages and drawbacks of these methods are reported and discussed.

  19. Phase-transition thresholds and vaporization phenomena for ultrasound phase-change nanoemulsions assessed via high speed optical microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sheeran, Paul S.; Matsunaga, Terry O.; Dayton, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonically activated phase-change contrast agents (PCCAs) based on perfluorocarbon droplets have been proposed for a variety of therapeutic and diagnostic clinical applications. When generated at the nanoscale, droplets may be small enough to exit the vascular space and then be induced to vaporize with high spatial and temporal specificity by externally-applied ultrasound. The use of acoustical techniques for optimizing ultrasound parameters for given applications can be a significant challenge for nanoscale PCCAs due to the contributions of larger outlier droplets. Similarly, optical techniques can be a challenge due to the sub-micron size of nanodroplet agents and resolution limits of optical microscopy. In this study, an optical method for determining activation thresholds of nanoscale emulsions based on the in vitro distribution of bubbles resulting from vaporization of PCCAs after single, short (<10 cycles) ultrasound pulses is evaluated. Through ultra-high-speed microscopy it is shown that the bubbles produced early in the pulse from vaporized droplets are strongly affected by subsequent cycles of the vaporization pulse, and these effects increase with pulse length. Results show that decafluorobutane nanoemulsions with peak diameters on the order of 200 nm can be optimally vaporized with short pulses using pressures amenable to clinical diagnostic ultrasound machines. PMID:23760161

  20. Liquid-phase and vapor-phase dehydration of organic/water solutions

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Yu (Palo Alto, CA); Ly, Jennifer (San Jose, CA); Aldajani, Tiem (San Jose, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2011-08-23

    Processes for dehydrating an organic/water solution by pervaporation or vapor separation using fluorinated membranes. The processes are particularly useful for treating mixtures containing light organic components, such as ethanol, isopropanol or acetic acid.

  1. Phase diagram of nanoscale alloy particles used for vapor-liquid-solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Eli; Sutter, Peter

    2008-02-01

    We use transmission electron microscopy observations to establish the parts of the phase diagram of nanometer sized Au-Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs) that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition and, hence, their exchange of semiconductor material with the NWs. We find that the phase diagram of the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy, which explains discrepancies between actual growth results and predictions on the basis of the bulk-phase equilibria. Our findings provide the basis for tailoring vapor-liquid-solid growth to achieve complex one-dimensional materials geometries. PMID:18193910

  2. Resonant Acoustic Measurement of Vapor Phase Transport Phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuhmann, R. J.; Garrett, S. L.; Matson, J. V.

    2002-12-01

    A major impediment to accurate non steady-state diffusion measurements is the ability to accurately measure and track a rapidly changing gas concentration without disturbing the system. Non-destructive methods that do not interfere with system dynamics have been developed in the past. These methods, however, have tended to be cumbersome or inaccurate at low concentrations. A new experimental approach has been developed to measure gaseous diffusion in free air and through porous materials. The method combines the traditional non steady-state laboratory methodology with resonant acoustic gas analysis. A phase-locked-loop (PLL) resonance frequency tracker is combined with a thermally insulated copper resonator. A piston sealed with a metal bellows excites the fundamental standing wave resonance of the resonator. The PLL maintains a constant phase difference (typically 90§) between the accelerometer mounted on the piston and a microphone near the piston to track the resonance frequency in real time. A capillary or glass bead filled core is fitted into an o-ring sealed opening at the end of the resonator opposite the bellows. The rate at which the tracer gas is replaced by air within the resonator is controlled by the diffusion coefficient of the gas in free air through the capillary (DA) or by the effective diffusion coefficient of the gas through the core (De). The mean molecular weight of the gas mixture in the resonator is directly determined six times each minute from the ratio of the absolute temperature to the square of the fundamental acoustic resonance frequency. Average system stability (temperature divided by frequency squared) is better than 350 ppm. DA values for a 0.3-inch diameter capillary were in excellent agreement with published values. De values for porous media samples (0.5 mm glass beads) of four different lengths (1 through 4 inches) using three different tracer gases (He, CH4, Kr) will be reported. Comments will be offered regarding tracer gas selection and device orientation and their effect on experimental results. [Work supported by the Office of Naval Research.

  3. Novel Process for Removal and Recovery of Vapor Phase Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Collin Greenwell; Daryl L. Roberts; Jason Albiston; Robin Stewart; Tom Broderick

    1998-03-09

    We demonstrated in the Phase I program all key attributes of a new technology for removing mercury from flue gases, namely, a) removal of greater than 95% of both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury, both in the laboratory and in the field b) regenerability of the sorbent c) ability to scale up, and d) favorable economics. The Phase I program consisted of four tasks other than project reporting: Task I-1 ? Screen Sorbent Configurations in the Laboratory Task I-2 ? Design and Fabricate Bench-Scale Equipment Task I-3 ? Test Bench-Scale Equipment on Pilot Combustor Task I-4 ? Evaluate Economics Based on Bench-Scale Results In Task I-1, we demonstrated that the sorbents are thermally durable and are regenerable through at least 55 cycles of mercury uptake and desorption. We also demonstrated two low-pressure- drop configurations of the sorbent, namely, a particulate form and a monolithic form. We showed that the particulate form of the sorbent would take up 100% of the mercury so long as the residence time in a bed of the sorbent exceeded 0.1 seconds. In principle, the particulate form of the sorbent could be imbedded in the back side of a higher temperature bag filter in a full-scale application. With typical bag face velocities of four feet per minute, the thickness of the particulate layer would need to be about 2000 microns to accomplish the uptake of the mercury. For heat transfer efficiency, however, we believed the monolithic form of the sorbent would be the more practical in a full scale application. Therefore, we purchased commercially-available metallic monoliths and applied the sorbent to the inside of the flow channels of the monoliths. At face velocities we tested (up to 1.5 ft/sec), these monoliths had less than 0.05 inches of water pressure drop. We tested the monolithic form of the sorbent through 21 cycles of mercury sorption and desorption in the laboratory and included a test of simultaneous uptake of both mercury and mercuric chloride. Overall, in Task I-1, we found that the particulate and monolith forms of the sorbent were thermally stable and durable and would repeatedly sorb and desorb 100% of the mercury, including mercuric chloride, with low pressure drop and short residence times at realistic flue gas conditions.

  4. VUV photoionization of gas phase adenine and cytosine: A comparison between oven and aerosol vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touboul, D.; Gaie-Levrel, F.; Garcia, G. A.; Nahon, L.; Poisson, L.; Schwell, M.; Hochlaf, M.

    2013-03-01

    We studied the single photon ionization of gas phase adenine and cytosine by means of vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation coupled to a velocity map imaging electron/ion coincidence spectrometer. Both in-vacuum temperature-controlled oven and aerosol thermodesorption were successfully applied to promote the intact neutral biological species into the gas phase. The photoion yields are consistent with previous measurements. In addition, we deduced the threshold photoelectron spectra and the slow photoelectron spectra for both species, where the close to zero kinetic energy photoelectrons and the corresponding photoions are measured in coincidence. The photoionization close and above the ionization energies are found to occur mainly via direct processes. Both vaporization techniques lead to similar electronic spectra for the two molecules, which consist of broadbands due to the complex electronic structure of the cationic species and to the possible contribution of several neutral tautomers for cytosine prior to ionization. Accurate ionization energies are measured for adenine and cytosine at, respectively, 8.267 ± 0.005 eV and 8.66 ± 0.01 eV, and we deduce precise thermochemical data for the adenine radical cation. Finally, we performed an evaluation and a comparison of the two vaporization techniques addressing the following criteria: measurement precision, thermal fragmentation, sensitivity, and sample consumption. The aerosol thermodesorption technique appears as a promising alternative to vaporize large thermolabile biological compounds, where extended thermal decomposition or low sensitivity could be encountered when using a simple oven vaporization technique.

  5. Transient-pressure analysis in geothermal steam reservoirs with an immobile vaporizing liquid phase

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, A.F.; Atkinson, P.G.

    1978-01-01

    A finite-difference model for the radial horizontal flow of steam through a porous medium is used to evaluate transient-pressure behavior in the presence of an immobile vaporizing or condensing liquid phase. Graphs of pressure drawdown and buildup in terms of dimensionless pressure and time are obtained for a well discharging steam at a constant mass flow rate for a specified time. The assumptions are made that the steam is in local thermal equilibrium with the reservoir rocks, that temperature changes are due only to phase change, and that effects of vapor-pressure lowering are negligible. Computations show that when a vaporizing liquid phase is present the pressure drawdown exhibits behavior similar to that observed in noncondensable gas reservoirs, but delayed in time. A theoretical analysis allows for the computation of this delay and demonstrates that it is independent of flow geometry. The response that occurs upon pressure buildup is markedly different from that in a noncondensable gas system. This result may provide a diagnostic tool for establishing the existence of phase-change phenomena within a reservoir. ?? 1979.

  6. Models of p- T diagrams for a ternary system with invariant equilibrium of three solid phases, liquid, and vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaldoyanidi, K. A.

    2013-03-01

    A version of a model of the p- T diagram for a ternary system in which three solid phases, liquid, and vapor are in invariant five-phase equilibrium is developed. The phase equilibria and phase transitions in the isobaric T- x- y diagram are analyzed, and isothermal and polythermal sections are presented.

  7. In situ, subsurface monitoring of vapor-phase TCE using fiber optics

    SciTech Connect

    Rossabi, J.; Colston, B. Jr.; Brown, S.; Milanovich, F.; Lee, L.T. Jr.

    1993-03-05

    A vapor-phase, reagent-based, fiber optic trichloroethylene (TCE) sensor developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was demonstrated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in two configurations. The first incorporated the sensor into a down-well instrument bounded by two inflatable packers capable of sealing an area for discrete depth analysis. The second involved an integration of the sensor into the probe tip of the Army Corps of Engineers Waterways Experiment Station (WES) cone penetrometry system. Discrete depth measurements of vapor-phase concentrations of TCE in the vadose zone were successfully made using both configurations. These measurements demonstrate the first successful in situ sensing (as opposed to sampling) of TCE at a field site.

  8. Selective vapor phase sensing of small molecules using biofunctionalized field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Joshua A.; Kim, Sang Nyon; Kelley-Loughnane, Nancy; Naik, Rajesh R.; Stone, Morley O.

    2011-05-01

    This work details a proof of concept study for vapor phase selective sensing using a strategy of biorecognition elements (BRE) integrated into a zinc oxide field effect transistor (ZnO FET). ZnO FETs are highly sensitive to changes to the environment with little to no selectivity. Addition of a biorecognition element retains the sensitivity of the device while adding selectivity. The DNA aptamer designed to bind the small molecule riboflavin was covalently integrated into the ZnO FET and detects the presence of 116 ppb of riboflavin in a nitrogen atmosphere by a change in current. The unfunctionalized ZnO FET shows no response to this same concentrations of riboflavin, showing that the aptamerbinding strategy may be a promising strategy for vapor phase sensing.

  9. Vapor Compression Hybrid Two-Phase Loop Technology for Lunar Surface Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chanwoo; Sunada, Eric

    2008-01-01

    NASA's vision for Space Exploration that would return humans to the Moon by 2020 in preparation for human explorations of Mars. This requires innovative technical advances. The lunar mission requires a temperature-lift (heat pump) technology to reject waste heat to hot lunar surface (heat sink) environments during lunar daytime. The lunar outpost and Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to operate anywhere during the hot lunar daytime require a high performance and energy-efficient, yet reliable refrigeration technology. A vapor compressor-driven hybrid two-phase loop was developed for such high temperature-lift applications. The vapor compression loop used an advanced porous wick evaporator capable of gravity-insensitive capillary phase separation and excess liquid management to achieve high temperature-lift, large-area, isothermal and high heat flux cooling capability and efficient compression. The high temperature lift will allow the lunar surface systems use compact radiators by increased heat rejection temperature.

  10. Growth of GaN on Metallic Compound Graphite Substrate Using Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Gang Seok; Jung, Se-Gyo; Park, Min Ah; Shin, Min Jeong; Yi, Sam Nyung; Yang, Min; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yu, Young Moon; Kim, Suck-Whan; Lee, Hyo Suk; Kang, Hee Shin; Jeon, Hun Soo; Sawaki, Nobuhiko

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, the GaN poly crystal was grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy at 1090 °C on the metallic compound graphite substrate with good heat dissipation. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the metallic compound graphite substrate is 6.2 µm/(m.K). The heat conductivity is 150 W/(m.K), and specific gravity is 3.1. The metallic compound graphite substrate was gained higher thermal conductivity more than the sapphire substrate through by injecting the nonferrous metal in the porosity carbon graphite base. The GaN poly crystal grown along the [0001] c-axis by hydride vapor phase epitaxy was observed on the metallic compound graphite substrate through the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy. And electrical characteristic of substrate with each different condition was investigated by Hall Effect measurement.

  11. Liquid-vapor phase transition in nuclei or compound nucleus decay?

    E-print Network

    L. G. Moretto; J. B. Elliott; L. Phair; G. J. Wozniak

    2002-09-12

    Recent analyses of multifragmentation in terms of Fisher's model and the related construction of a phase diagram brings forth the problem of the true existence of the vapor phase and the meaning of its associated pressure. Our analysis shows that a thermal emission picture is equivalent to a Fisher-like equilibrium description which avoids the problem of the vapor and explains the recently observed Boltzmann-like distribution of the emission times. In this picture a simple Fermi gas thermometric relation is naturally justified. Low energy compound nucleus emission of intermediate mass fragments is shown to scale according to Fisher's formula and can be simultaneously fit with the much higher energy ISiS multifragmentation data.

  12. Sintering behavior of ultrafine silicon carbide powders obtained by vapor phase reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okabe, Y.; Miyachi, K.; Hojo, J.; Kato, A.

    1984-01-01

    The sintering behavior of ultrafine SiC powder with average particle size of about 0.01-0.06 microns produced by a vapor phase reaction of the Me4Si-H2 system was studied at the temperature range of 1400-2050 deg. It was found that the homogeneous dispersion of C on SiC particles is important to remove the surface oxide layer effectively. B and C and inhibitive effect on SiC grain growth.

  13. Removal of Oxygen from Electronic Materials by Vapor-Phase Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, Witold

    1997-01-01

    Thermochemical analyses of equilibrium partial pressures over oxides with and without the presence of the respective element condensed phase, and hydrogen, chalcogens, hydrogen chalcogenides, and graphite are presented. Theoretical calculations are supplemented with experimental results on the rate of decomposition and/or sublimation/vaporization of the oxides under dynamic vacuum, and on the rate of reaction with hydrogen, graphite, and chalcogens. Procedures of removal of a number of oxides under different conditions are discussed.

  14. Radioiodination of interleukin 2 to high specific activities by the vapor-phase chloramine T method

    SciTech Connect

    Siekierka, J.J.; DeGudicibus, S.

    1988-08-01

    Recombinant human interleukin 2 (IL-2) was radioiodinated utilizing the vapor phase chloramine T method of iodination. The method is rapid, reproducible, and allows the efficient radioiodination of IL-2 to specific activities higher than those previously attained with full retention of biological activity. IL-2 radioiodinated by this method binds with high affinity to receptors present on phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes and should be useful for the study of receptor structure and function.

  15. Synthesis of polymer nanoparticles via vapor phase deposition onto liquid substrates.

    PubMed

    Haller, Patrick D; Gupta, Malancha

    2014-12-01

    In this article, the growth of polymer nanoparticles formed at the liquid-vapor interface via vapor phase polymerization is studied. The particles grow by polymer aggregation, which is driven by the surface tension interaction between the liquid and polymer. It is demonstrated that the mechanism of particle growth is determined by whether polymer particles remain at the liquid-vapor interface or submerge into the liquid. The position of the particles depends on the interaction between the polymer and the liquid. For example, the deposition of poly(n-butyl acrylate) onto poly(dimethyl siloxane) and Krytox liquids leads to the formation of nanoparticles that remain at the liquid-vapor interface. The size of these particles increases as a function of deposition time. The deposition of poly(4-vinylpyridine) onto poly(dimethyl siloxane) and Krytox leads to the formation of nanoparticles that submerge into the liquid. The size of these particles does not significantly change with deposition time. Our study offers a new rapid, one-step synthetic approach for fabricating functional polymer nanoparticles for applications in catalysis, photonics, and drug delivery. PMID:25269429

  16. The Similarity Relations Set on the Basis of Symmetrization of the Liquid-Vapor Phase Diagram.

    PubMed

    Apfelbaum, E M; Vorob'ev, V S

    2015-07-01

    An approach to symmetrize the liquid-vapor phase coexistence curve is proposed. It is based on the introduction of the lattice-like density x = ?1/(?1 + ?2), where ?1 and ?2 are the densities along the liquid-gas binodal. The global symmetrical phase diagram is created using experimental and simulation data for the real substances and models (noble gases, polyatomic molecules, organic substances and two metals, van der Waals system, Lennard-Jones system). The pressure and the temperature along the binodal are shown to satisfy some new similarity relations. PMID:26039358

  17. Acoustic strength of water and effect of ultrasound on the liquid-vapor phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, G. A.; Petrov, Yu. V.; Gruzdkov, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The structure-time approach is used to develop an analytical model that makes it possible to predict the dependences of the acoustic cavitation threshold of water on temperature and background pressure. The calculated dependences are compared with the results of experiments carried out in the leading laboratories. It is demonstrated that the proposed approach allows the estimation of the effect of the acoustic field on the phase state of the substance under study. The calculated liquid-vapor phase curves for water in the presence of acoustic fields are presented.

  18. Modeling of liquid-vapor phase change using smoothed particle hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, A. K.; Das, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    A model has been proposed based on smoothed particle hydrodynamics to describe gas liquid phase change. Pseudo particles of zero mass are initially placed to locate the interface. Mass generated due to phase change is assigned to the pseudo particles and their positions are updated at intervals to track the mobility of the interface. The developed algorithm has been used to simulate vapor formation around solid spheres both in the absence of gravity and in the normal gravitational field. Finally, bubble growth over a hot horizontal surface due to boiling has been simulated. Simulated results showed good matching with the reported literature.

  19. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of phase change Ge1Sb2Te4 nanowires.

    PubMed

    Longo, Massimo; Fallica, Roberto; Wiemer, Claudia; Salicio, Olivier; Fanciulli, Marco; Rotunno, Enzo; Lazzarini, Laura

    2012-03-14

    The self-assembly of Ge(1)Sb(2)Te(4) nanowires (NWs) for phase change memories application was achieved by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, catalyzed by Au nanoislands in a narrow range of temperatures and deposition pressures. In the optimized conditions of 400 °C, 50 mbar, the NWs are Ge(1)Sb(2)Te(4) single hexagonal crystals. Phase change memory switching was reversibly induced by nanosecond current pulses through metal-contacted NWs with threshold voltage of about 1.35 V. PMID:22364321

  20. Biodegradation of high concentrations of benzene vapors in a two phase partition stirred tank bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the biodegradation rate of benzene vapors in a two phase stirred tank bioreactor by a bacterial consortium obtained from wastewater of an oil industry refinery house. Initially, the ability of the microbial consortium for degrading benzene was evaluated before running the bioreactor. The gaseous samples from inlet and outlet of bioreactor were directly injected into a gas chromatograph to determine benzene concentrations. Carbone oxide concentration at the inlet and outlet of bioreactor were also measured with a CO2 meter to determine the mineralization rate of benzene. Influence of the second non-aqueous phase (silicon oil) has been emphasized, so at the first stage the removal efficiency (RE) and elimination capacity (EC) of benzene vapors were evaluated without any organic phase and in the second stage, 10% of silicon oil was added to bioreactor media as an organic phase. Addition of silicon oil increased the biodegradation performance up to an inlet loading of 5580?mg/m3, a condition at which, the elimination capacity and removal efficiency were 181?g/m3/h and 95% respectively. The elimination rate of benzene increased by 38% in the presence of 10% of silicone oil. The finding of this study demonstrated that two phase partition bioreactors (TPPBs) are potentially effective tools for the treatment of gas streams contaminated with high concentrations of poorly water soluble organic contaminant, such as benzene. PMID:23369269

  1. The mechanism of vapor phase hydration of calcium oxide: implications for CO2 capture.

    PubMed

    Kud?acz, Krzysztof; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos

    2014-10-21

    Lime-based sorbents are used for fuel- and flue-gas capture, thereby representing an economic and effective way to reduce CO2 emissions. Their use involves cyclic carbonation/calcination which results in a significant conversion reduction with increasing number of cycles. To reactivate spent CaO, vapor phase hydration is typically performed. However, little is known about the ultimate mechanism of such a hydration process. Here, we show that the vapor phase hydration of CaO formed after calcination of calcite (CaCO3) single crystals is a pseudomorphic, topotactic process, which progresses via an intermediate disordered phase prior to the final formation of oriented Ca(OH)2 nanocrystals. The strong structural control during this solid-state phase transition implies that the microstructural features of the CaO parent phase predetermine the final structural and physicochemical (reactivity and attrition) features of the product hydroxide. The higher molar volume of the product can create an impervious shell around unreacted CaO, thereby limiting the efficiency of the reactivation process. However, in the case of compact, sintered CaO structures, volume expansion cannot be accommodated in the reduced pore volume, and stress generation leads to pervasive cracking. This favors complete hydration but also detrimental attrition. Implications of these results in carbon capture and storage (CCS) are discussed. PMID:25233236

  2. Design and optimization of a total vaporization technique coupled to solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Rainey, Christina L; Bors, Dana E; Goodpaster, John V

    2014-11-18

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a popular sampling technique in which chemical compounds are collected with a sorbent-coated fiber and then desorbed into an analytical instrument such as a liquid or gas chromatograph. Typically, this technique is used to sample the headspace above a solid or liquid sample (headspace SPME), or to directly sample a liquid (immersion SPME). However, this work demonstrates an alternative approach where the sample is totally vaporized (total vaporization SPME or TV-SPME) so that analytes partition directly between the vapor phase and the SPME fiber. The implementation of this technique is demonstrated with polydimethylsiloxane-divinylbenzene (PDMS-DVB) and polyacrylate (PA) coated SPME fibers for the collection of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in chloroform extracts. The most important method parameters were optimized using a central composite design, and this resulted in an optimal extraction temperature (96 °C), extraction time (60 min), and sample volume (120 ?L). In this application, large sample volumes up to 210 ?L were analyzed using a volatile solvent such as chloroform at elevated temperatures. The sensitivity of TV-SPME is nearly twice that of liquid injection for cotinine and nearly 6 times higher for nicotine. In addition, increased sampling selectivity of TV-SPME permits detection of both nicotine and cotinine in hair as biomarkers of tobacco use where in the past the detection of cotinine has not been achieved by conventional SPME. PMID:25313649

  3. Ordered organic thin films self-assembled from the vapor phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debe, M. K.

    1993-01-01

    Organic films self-assembled from a liquid phase, as in Langmuir-Blodgett or adsorption from solution, have received much attention in the past decade as techniques to achieve highly oriented-ordered polymeric thin films. Many organic compounds including some of the same fatty acids have been vapor deposited as well. However, organic pigments and dyes comprise a major class of important materials which have very low solubilities yet excellent thermal stabilities, making them ideally suited for film deposition from the vapor phase. Surprisingly, such molecular systems exhibit a significant propensity to self order, a high sensitivity to deposition parameters, and a range of microstructural forms that cannot be duplicated by the less energetic mechanisms associated with solution adsorption processes. Molecular solids such as heterocyclic polynuclear aromatics are excellent candidates for film formation by vacuum deposition means. Over the past decade, our work and that of others investigating a wide variety of perylene and phthalocyanine derivatives identified five deposition parameters that can significantly affect film morphology, physical microstructure, and type and extent of ordering developed in vacuum and vapor transport grown films. These parameters are substrate temperature, deposition rate, substrate chemistry and epitaxy, ambient gas convective flows, and post deposition annealing. Examples of how each of these conditions manifest themselves in the film structure and ordering, most frequently revealed by scanning electron microscopy, reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIR), and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIX), are presented.

  4. Custom Mentholation of Commercial Cigarettes for Research Purposes

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Ian C.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Turner, Douglas J.; Butler, Jenny M.; Hanft, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Hyoshin; Kroeger, Robyn R.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Tefft, Margaret E.; Clark, Pamela I.; Buehler, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of L-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and developed a method to measure a cigarette’s menthol and nicotine content. With our custom-mentholation technique we achieved the desired moderately high menthol content (as compared to commercial brands) of 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/g (n = 25) without perturbing the cigarettes’ nicotine content (17.7 ± 0.7 mg/g [n = 25]). We also characterized other pertinent attributes of our custom-mentholated cigarettes, including percent transmission of menthol and nicotine to mainstream smoke and the rate of loss of menthol over time during storage at room temperature. We are currently using this simple mentholation technique to investigate the differences in human exposure to selected chemicals in cigarette smoke due only to the presence of the added menthol. Our cigarettes will also aid in the elucidation of the effects of menthol on the toxicity of tobacco smoke. PMID:25621204

  5. Cross-correlation video recording of gas-vapor-droplet two-phase flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Roman S.; Vysokomornaya, Olga V.; Zhdanova, Alyona O.; Strizhak, Pavel A.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental investigations of gas-vapor-droplet two-phase flow formation during single water droplets and their aggregate motion through high-temperature (more than 1000 K) combustion products have been conducted with usage of cross-correlation measuring facility and optical methods of "tracer" visualization ("Particle Image Velocimetry" and "Interferometric Particle Imaging"). Modes of droplet motion in high-temperature gases area have been established. It has been determined the influence of the main droplet (sizes, composition, temperature, dispersability, form, velocity) and gas (temperature and velocity) characteristics on parameters of forming gas-vapor-droplet mixtures. The main elements of advanced firefighting technologies with the usage of time and space apportioned polydisperse composition water droplet flows have been formulated. Physical and predictive mathematical models have been developed to determine the basic parameters of equipment which is necessary for operation with these technology usage.

  6. Columnar jointing in vapor-phase-altered, non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite, Paycuqui, Argentina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Heather M.; Lesti, Chiara; Cas, Ray A.F.; Porreca, Massimiliano; Viramonte, Jose G.; Folkes, Christopher B.; Giordano, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Columnar jointing is thought to occur primarily in lavas and welded pyroclastic flow deposits. However, the non-welded Cerro Galán Ignimbrite at Paycuqui, Argentina, contains well-developed columnar joints that are instead due to high-temperature vapor-phase alteration of the deposit, where devitrification and vapor-phase crystallization have increased the density and cohesion of the upper half of the section. Thermal remanent magnetization analyses of entrained lithic clasts indicate high emplacement temperatures, above 630°C, but the lack of welding textures indicates temperatures below the glass transition temperature. In order to remain below the glass transition at 630°C, the minimum cooling rate prior to deposition was 3.0?×?10?3–8.5?×?10?2°C/min (depending on the experimental data used for comparison). Alternatively, if the deposit was emplaced above the glass transition temperature, conductive cooling alone was insufficient to prevent welding. Crack patterns (average, 4.5 sides to each polygon) and column diameters (average, 75 cm) are consistent with relatively rapid cooling, where advective heat loss due to vapor fluxing increases cooling over simple conductive heat transfer. The presence of regularly spaced, complex radiating joint patterns is consistent with fumarolic gas rise, where volatiles originated in the valley-confined drainage system below. Joint spacing is a proxy for cooling rates and is controlled by depositional thickness/valley width. We suggest that the formation of joints in high-temperature, non-welded deposits is aided by the presence of underlying external water, where vapor transfer causes crystallization in pore spaces, densifies the deposit, and helps prevent welding.

  7. Dry phase of tropical lower stratospheric water vapor: Role of BDC, convection and ozone variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Shipra; Jain, A. R.; Mandal, T. K.

    2014-12-01

    In the present paper, the relationship between dry phase of water vapor in the tropical lower stratosphere (TLS) and 100 hPa temperatures (T100) has been examined. Role of various processes, such as Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC), convective activities and seasonal minimum of ozone mixing ratio, has been quantified to explain the reason of low T100 over Indonesian-Australian western Pacific region (IAWPR). Aura MLS data show that low water vapor mixing ratio (WVMR) first appears over the western Pacific during northern hemisphere (NH) winters and directs the dry phase of TLS. Observations of low T100 (~188 K), close association between WVMR and T100, slow transport of water vapor in TLS and saturation of air close to 82.5-100 hPa over IAWPR indicate conditions favorable for 'freeze drying'. Present analysis has brought out several interesting features (a) in addition to BDC, convective activities and low ozone mixing ratio near the tropopause level seems to be contributing to the low T100 over IAWPR during NH winter/spring, (b) apart from the seasonal decrease, T100 over IAWPR is noted to be continually low throughout the year by ~1.2 K than the zonal mean value where part of such decrease in T100 (i.e. ~0.7 K) can be understood in terms of water vapor feedback process and (c) wave activity of different temporal scale and amplitude (~1-2 K) also modulate T100 over IAWPR. MLS observations also provide an evidence of coupling between the surface and TLS processes, if the sea surface temperature over IAWPR is more than 301.7 K.

  8. Comparison of the layer structure of vapor phase and leached SRL glass by use of AEM

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; Bates, J.K.; Abrajano, T.A. Jr.; Bradley, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Test samples of 131 type glass that have been reacted for extended time periods in water vapor atmospheres of different relative humidities and in static leaching solution have been examined to characterize the reaction products. Analytical electron microscopy (AEM) was used to characterize the leached samples, and a complicated layer structure was revealed, consisting of phases that precipitate from solution and also form within the residual glass layer. The precipitated phases include birnes-site, saponite, and an iron species, while the intralayer phases include the U-Ti containing phase brannerite distributed within a matrix consisting of bands of an Fe rich montmorillonite clay. Comparison is made between samples leached at 40C for 4 years with those leached at 90C for 3-1/2 years. The samples reacted in water vapor were examined with scanning electron microscopy and show increasing reaction as both the relative humidity and time of reaction increases. These samples also contain a layered structure with reaction products on the glass surface.

  9. Vapor-Phase Garnet at Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Geochemistry and Oxygen-Isotope Thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    R. J. Moscati; C.A. Johnson; J.F. Whelan

    2001-07-03

    About 20 vapor-phase garnets were studied in two samples of the Topopah Spring Tuff from Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada. The Miocene-age Topopah Spring Tuff is a 350-m-thick, devitrified, moderately to densely welded ash flow that is compositionally zoned from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. During cooling of the tuff, escaping vapor produced lithophysae (former gas cavities) lined with an assemblage of tridymite, cristobalite, alkali feldspar, and locally, hematite and/or garnet. Vapor-phase topaz and economic deposits (such as porphyry molybdenum-tungsten) commonly associated with topaz-bearing rhyolites (characteristically enriched in fluorine) were not found in the Topopah Spring Tuff at Yucca Mountain. The garnets are not primary igneous phenocrysts, but rather crystals that grew from a fluorine-poor magma-derived vapor trapped during emplacement of the tuff. The garnets are euhedral, vitreous, reddish brown, trapezohedral, as large as 2 mm in diameter, and fractured. The garnets also contain inclusions of tridymite. Electron-microprobe analyses of the garnets reveal that they are almandine-spessartine (48.0 and 47.9 mol percent, respectively), have an average chemical formula of (Fe{sub 1.46}, Mn{sub 1.45}, Mg{sub 0.03}, Ca{sub 0.10}) (Al{sub 1.93}, TiO{sub 0.02}) Si{sub 3.01}O{sub 12}, and are homogeneous in Fe and Mn concentrations from core to rim. Composited garnets from each sample site have {delta}{sup 18}O values of 7.2 and 7.4{per_thousand}. The coexisting tridymite, however, has {delta}{sup 18}O values of 17.4 and 17.6{per_thousand} values indicative of reaction with later, low-temperature water. Unaltered tridymite from higher in the stratigraphic section has a {delta}{sup 18}O of 11.1{per_thousand} which, when coupled with the garnet {delta}{sup 18}O values in a quartz-garnet fractionation equation, indicates vapor-phase crystallization at temperatures of almost 600 C. This high-temperature mineralization, formed during cooling of the tuffs, is distinct from the later and commonly recognized low-temperature stage (generally 50-70 C) of calcite, quartz, and opal secondary mineralization, formed from percolating meteoric water, that locally coats fracture footwalls and lithophysal floors.

  10. Pin-in-paste DFM constraints in vapor phase soldering technology for optoelectronic components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotog, I.; Varzaru, G.; Turcu, C.; Cucu, T. C.; Svasta, P.; Vasile, A.

    2009-01-01

    The topical trends in the field of electronic equipments developing are a large integration on pcb support for different types of components and devices, including optoelectronic type, from small to medium power, in condition of reducing physical dimensions, in order to create new electronic products in short time at lower manufacturing cost. The condition for economical success for a product is to assure the product, even from the conception stage, with a high level of quality by reducing the product cost; to conclude, designing according with production possibilities by using Design For Manufacturing (DFM) concept. This desideratum depends on the conception and design of the product. According to DFM concept, a successful project assures design requirements for the system and finally for printed circuit boards (PCB), accomplishes the assembling technology constraints defined by international standards in the field of electronic packaging, such as IPC or Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. Active from July 1, 2006, the RoHS Directive 2002/95/EC adopted in February 2003 by the European Union, and adopted in Romania by HG - 992/2005, completed by HG - 816/2006, call forth important consequences in assembling technologies. In order to minimize manufacturing cost, Pin-In-Paste offers solutions for complete assembling of high complexity PCBs in Vapor Phase Technology using only one reflow machine avoiding overheating of the assemblies relatively to infrared reflow oven. Starting from RoHS consequences analysis, especially thermal profile, the paper presents the applied research performed in the assembling lines on VPS machine in order to define the design requirements for Pin-In-Paste dedicated stencils and PCBs, experiments result and conclusions regarding DFM requirements for lead-free assembling technologies of optoelectronic components. Finally, scientific and practical conclusions shall be drawn to configure the optimum implementation way for Pin-In-Paste in Vapor Phase Technology. The authors emphasizes that Vapor Phase Technology has all the conditions to become the disruptive technology of the moment.

  11. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant.

    PubMed

    Klapes, N A; Vesley, D

    1990-02-01

    The feasibility of utilizing vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) as a surface decontaminant and sterilant was evaluated in a centrifuge application. The prototype VPHP decontamination system, retrofitted into a Beckman L8-M ultracentrifuge, was designed to vaporize a 30% (wt/wt) solution of aqueous hydrogen peroxide continuously injecting and withdrawing VPHP in a deep-vacuum flow-through system. VPHP cycles of 4, 8, 16, and 32 min were examined for cidal activity against spores of Bacillus subtilis subsp. globigii and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Spore inocula (approximately 10(6)/coupon) were dried onto 0.5-in. (1.27-cm)-square stainless-steel coupons, and coupons were suspended in the centrifuge chamber, the space between the refrigeration can and the barrier ring (inner gap), and the space between the barrier ring and the vacuum ring (outer gap). At a chamber temperature of 4 degrees C, B. subtilis subsp. globigii spores were inactivated within 8 min, while inactivation of spores located in the outer gap at 27 degrees C required 32 min. The elevated temperature and high surface area/volume ratios in the outer gap may serve to decompose the gas more rapidly, thus reducing cidal efficacy. Of the two test spores, B. stearothermophilus was more resistant to VPHP. Nonetheless, VPHP was shown to possess significant sporicidal capability. For practical decontamination applications of the type described, VPHP shows promise as an effective and safer alternative to currently used ethylene oxide or formaldehyde vapors. PMID:2106287

  12. Vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide as a surface decontaminant and sterilant.

    PubMed Central

    Klapes, N A; Vesley, D

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP) as a surface decontaminant and sterilant was evaluated in a centrifuge application. The prototype VPHP decontamination system, retrofitted into a Beckman L8-M ultracentrifuge, was designed to vaporize a 30% (wt/wt) solution of aqueous hydrogen peroxide continuously injecting and withdrawing VPHP in a deep-vacuum flow-through system. VPHP cycles of 4, 8, 16, and 32 min were examined for cidal activity against spores of Bacillus subtilis subsp. globigii and Bacillus stearothermophilus. Spore inocula (approximately 10(6)/coupon) were dried onto 0.5-in. (1.27-cm)-square stainless-steel coupons, and coupons were suspended in the centrifuge chamber, the space between the refrigeration can and the barrier ring (inner gap), and the space between the barrier ring and the vacuum ring (outer gap). At a chamber temperature of 4 degrees C, B. subtilis subsp. globigii spores were inactivated within 8 min, while inactivation of spores located in the outer gap at 27 degrees C required 32 min. The elevated temperature and high surface area/volume ratios in the outer gap may serve to decompose the gas more rapidly, thus reducing cidal efficacy. Of the two test spores, B. stearothermophilus was more resistant to VPHP. Nonetheless, VPHP was shown to possess significant sporicidal capability. For practical decontamination applications of the type described, VPHP shows promise as an effective and safer alternative to currently used ethylene oxide or formaldehyde vapors. PMID:2106287

  13. Triboluminescence and vapor-induced phase transitions in the solids of methyltriphenylphosphonium tetrahalomanganate(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Balsamy, Sujitha; Natarajan, Palani; Vedalakshmi, Rathinavel; Muralidharan, Srinivasan

    2014-06-16

    Triboluminescence (TL) of the methyltriphenylphosphonium tetrahalomanganate(II) complexes such as bis(methyltriphenylphosphonium) tetrabromomanganate (PMBB) and bis(methyltriphenylphosphonium) dibromodichloromanganate (PMBC) was switched ON and OFF reversibly by vapors of aprotic and protic solvents, respectively, for the first time. Detailed analyses indicate that solids of the PMBB and the PMBC undergo phase transitions depending on the environment, which regulate the TL activity of these compounds. The combined results of luminescence, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and electron paramagnetic resonance were used to demonstrate crystal dynamism as well as the TL emission of PMBB and PMBC. PMID:24899549

  14. Synthesis of graphene nanoribbons from amyloid templates by gallium vapor-assisted solid-phase graphitization

    SciTech Connect

    Murakami, Katsuhisa Dong, Tianchen; Kajiwara, Yuya; Takahashi, Teppei; Fujita, Jun-ichi; Hiyama, Takaki; Takai, Eisuke; Ohashi, Gai; Shiraki, Kentaro

    2014-06-16

    Single- and double-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) with widths of around 10?nm were synthesized directly onto an insulating substrate by solid-phase graphitization using a gallium vapor catalyst and carbon templates made of amyloid fibrils. Subsequent investigation revealed that the crystallinity, conductivity, and carrier mobility were all improved by increasing the temperature of synthesis. The carrier mobility of the GNR synthesized at 1050?°C was 0.83 cm{sup 2}/V?s, which is lower than that of mechanically exfoliated graphene. This is considered to be most likely due to electron scattering by the defects and edges of the GNRs.

  15. Low pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of InP in a vertical reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Oishi, M.; Kuroiwa, K.

    1985-05-01

    InP growth characteristics in low pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) in a vertical reactor were studied. A maximum mobility of 32,000 cmS/V s at 77 K was obtained. Selective epitaxy was also investigated, and completely selective epitaxy was realized for 15 m wide SiO2 masks at 40 torr. Preliminary results are shown for a hybrid LPE/MOVPE-grown distributed-feedback laser diode. Single longitudinal mode operation under pulsed current injection was achieved at room temperature.

  16. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy of AlN using a high temperature hot-wall reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Troy; Mayo, Ashley; Veisi, Zeinab; Lu, Peng; Schmitt, Jason

    2014-10-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) was grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). The experiments utilized a two zone inductively heated hot-wall reactor. The surface morphology, crystal quality, and growth rate were investigated as a function of growth temperature in the range of 1450-1575 °C. AlN templates grown to a thickness of 1 ?m were optimized with double axis X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve full width half maximums (FWHMs) of 135? for the (002) and 513? for the (102).

  17. Carbon delta-doped AlGaAs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tribuzy, C. V. B.; Butendeich, R.; Pires, M. P.; Souza, P. L.; Henriques, A. B.

    2001-08-01

    Good-optical-quality C delta-doped AlGaAs layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using CBr4 with the impurities confined over not more than 5 Å and with doping levels above 1×1012cm-2 are obtained. Such layers are found to be adequate for use in the fabrication of nipi superlattices for amplitude modulation. Yet, little flexibility is found in the growth conditions, in particular for the V to III fluxes ratio, for obtaining such layers.

  18. Performance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Tleimat, Maher; Nalette, Tim; Quinn, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of performance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed-a grant-to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. This paper presents the results of mass, power, volume, and acoustic measurements for the delivered system. Product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a simulated planetary base wastewater ersatz are also provided.

  19. Thermodynamics of Si(OH)4 in the vapor phase of water: Henry’s and vapor-liquid distribution constants, fugacity and cross virial coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plyasunov, Andrey V.

    2012-01-01

    The fugacity coefficients of Si(OH)4 are evaluated from solubilities of solid phases of SiO2 in the vapor phase of water. The virial equation of state, truncated at the third virial coefficient, is employed to describe the fugacity coefficients of Si(OH)4. The temperature dependencies of the second, B12, and the third, C112, cross virial coefficients for H2O-Si(OH)4 interactions are approximated by empirical relations. It is found that silica-water interactions in the vapor phase are significantly more non-ideal compared to water-water interactions. Knowledge of B12 and C112 allows calculation of solubilities of quartz (Q) and amorphous silica (AS) in steam up to the density of 200 kg m-3 in satisfactory agreement with available data, and should provide reasonable solubility values at temperatures where no experimental results exist. The calculated values of the solubility of Q and AS in saturated vapor up to the critical temperature of water, Tc, are tabulated. The partial molar properties of dilute solutes close to the critical point of water are governed by the Krichevskii parameter, the value of which for Si(OH)4 is evaluated from available data (mainly vapor-liquid distribution constants for silica) to be equal to -187 ± 10 MPa. The knowledge of the thermodynamic properties of Si(OH)4 in the ideal gas state and in the state of the standard solution in liquid water allows calculating Henry’s constant, kH, for Si(OH)4 up to 623.15 K at water saturation pressure P1?. The theoretically-based equation, containing the Krichevskii parameter, allows extrapolating kH values all the way toward the critical temperature of water. This, in turn, makes possible calculation of the solubility of quartz and amorphous silica in liquid water at P1? at all temperatures up to Tc. The presented results should be useful for modeling solid-liquid-vapor, solid-vapor and liquid-vapor equilibria in the H2O-SiO2 system at steam densities up to 200 kg m-3.

  20. XeF2 vapor phase silicon etch used in the fabrication of movable SOI structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Wiwi, M.; Sanchez, Carlos Anthony; Plut, Thomas Alvin; Salazar, M.; Stevens, Jeffrey; Bauer, Todd M.; Ford, C.; Shul, Randy John; Grossetete, Grant David

    2010-10-01

    Vapor phase XeF{sub 2} has been used in the fabrication of various types of devices including MEMS, resonators, RF switches, and micro-fluidics, and for wafer level packaging. In this presentation we demonstrate the use of XeF{sub 2} Si etch in conjunction with deep reactive ion etch (DRIE) to release single crystal Si structures on Silicon On Insulator (SOI) wafers. XeF{sub 2} vapor phase etching is conducive to the release of movable SOI structures due to the isotropy of the etch, the high etch selectivity to silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) and fluorocarbon (FC) polymer etch masks, and the ability to undercut large structures at high rates. Also, since XeF{sub 2} etching is a vapor phase process, stiction problems often associated with wet chemical release processes are avoided. Monolithic single crystal Si features were fabricated by etching continuous trenches in the device layer of an SOI wafer using a DRIE process optimized to stop on the buried SiO{sub 2}. The buried SiO{sub 2} was then etched to handle Si using an anisotropic plasma etch process. The sidewalls of the device Si features were then protected with a conformal passivation layer of either FC polymer or SiO{sub 2}. FC polymer was deposited from C4F8 gas precursor in an inductively coupled plasma reactor, and SiO{sub 2} was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). A relatively high ion energy, directional reactive ion etch (RIE) plasma was used to remove the passivation film on surfaces normal to the direction of the ions while leaving the sidewall passivation intact. After the bottom of the trench was cleared to the underlying Si handle wafer, XeF{sub 2} was used to isotropically etch the handle Si, thus undercutting and releasing the features patterned in the device Si layer. The released device Si structures were not etched by the XeF{sub 2} due to protection from the top SiO{sub 2} mask, sidewall passivation, and the buried SiO{sub 2} layer. Optimization of the XeF{sub 2} process and the sidewall passivation layers will be discussed. The advantages of releasing SOI devices with XeF{sub 2} include avoiding stiction, maintaining the integrity of the buried SiO{sub 2}, and simplifying the fabrication flow for thermally actuated devices.

  1. Liquid-liquid and vapor-liquid phase equilibria for 1-butanol + water + 2-propanol at ambient pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Aicher, T.; Bamberger, T.; Schluender, E.U.

    1995-05-01

    The liquid-liquid and the vapor-liquid phase equilibria of the ternary system 1-butanol + water + 2-propanol have been measured at ambient pressure. Compositions along the binodal curve have been determined gravimetrically at 0, 20, 50, and 60 C. The lines were determined for 0, 20, and 60 C. The data were compared to reported measurements at 80 C. Furthermore, the vapor-liquid equilibrium at ambient pressure has been measured for both one-phase and two-phase liquid mixtures using a recirculation still proposed by Roeck and Sieg.

  2. Vapor-phase synthesis of uniform silica spheres through two-stage hydrolysis of SiCl{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Hoey K.; Park, Kyun Y.

    2008-11-03

    We report, for the first time, a vapor-phase synthesis of nearly monodispersed silica spheres 250-300 nm in size through a two-stage hydrolysis of SiCl{sub 4}. In the first stage, SiCl{sub 4} vapor was partially hydrolyzed with water vapor in a batch reactor at 150 deg. C to form silicon oxychloride particles, nearly monodispersed and spherical. In the second stage, these oxychloride particles were converted into silica particles through further hydrolysis at 1000 deg. C in a tubular reactor, while the morphology and size after the first-stage reaction remained virtually unchanged.

  3. Simple Vapor-Phase Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Ag Nanowires and Single-Nanowire Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering

    E-print Network

    Ihee, Hyotcherl

    Simple Vapor-Phase Synthesis of Single-Crystalline Ag Nanowires and Single-Nanowire Surface, Nano-Material Research Center, KIST, Seoul 136-791, Korea, and DiVision of AdVanced Chemical Materials-phase synthesis of single-crystalline free- standing Ag nanowires (NWs) and polarized surface-enhanced Raman

  4. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  5. Feasibility Study of Vapor-Mist Phase Reaction Lubrication Using a Thioether Liquid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Handschuh, Robert F.; Krantz, Timothy L.

    2007-01-01

    A primary technology barrier preventing the operation of gas turbine engines and aircraft gearboxes at higher temperatures is the inability of currently used liquid lubricants to survive at the desired operating conditions over an extended time period. Current state-of-the-art organic liquid lubricants rapidly degrade at temperatures above 300 C; hence, another form of lubrication is necessary. Vapor or mist phase reaction lubrication is a unique, alternative technology for high temperature lubrication. The majority of past studies have employed a liquid phosphate ester that was vaporized or misted, and delivered to bearings or gears where the phosphate ester reacted with the metal surfaces generating a solid lubricious film. This method resulted in acceptable operating temperatures suggesting some good lubrication properties, but the continuous reaction between the phosphate ester and the iron surfaces led to wear rates unacceptable for gas turbine engine or aircraft gearbox applications. In this study, an alternative non-phosphate liquid was used to mist phase lubricate a spur gearbox rig operating at 10,000 rpm under highly loaded conditions. After 21 million shaft revolutions of operation the gears exhibited only minor wear.

  6. The influence of temperature on the polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate from the vapor phase

    SciTech Connect

    Dadmun, Mark D; Algaier, Dana; Baskaran, Durairaj

    2011-01-01

    The polymerization of ethyl cyanoacrylate fumes from surface bound initiators is an important step in many novel and mature technologies. Understanding the effect of temperature on the rate of poly(ethyl cyanoacrylate) (PECA) growth and its molecular weight during its polymerization from the vapor phase from surface bound initiators provides insight into the important mechanistic aspects that impact the polymerizations success. In these studies, it is shown that the amount of PECA formed during the polymerization of ECA from a latent fingerprint increases with decreasing temperature, while the polymer molecular weight varies little. This is interpreted to be the result of the loosening of the ion pair that initiates the polymer chain growth and resides on the end of the growing polymer chain with decreasing temperature. Comparison of temperature effects and counter-ion studies show that in both cases loosening the ion pair results in the formation of more polymer with similar molecular weight, verifying this interpretation. These results further suggest that lowering the temperature may be an effective method to optimize anionic vapor phase polymerizations, including the improvement of the quality of aged latent prints and preliminary results are presented that substantiate this prediction.

  7. Mechanistic investigation of non-ideal sorption behavior in natural organic matter. 1. Vapor phase equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Bell, Katherine Young; Leboeuf, Eugene J

    2012-06-19

    Results from an experimental and modeling investigation of the influence of thermodynamic properties of highly purified natural organic matter (NOM) on observed equilibrium sorption/desorption behaviors of vapor phase trichloroethylene (TCE) is presented. Identification of glass transition (T(g)) behavior in Leonardite humic acid and Organosolv lignin enabled evaluation of equilibrium and nonequilibrium sorption behavior in glassy and rubbery NOM. Specific differences in vapor phase equilibrium behavior in NOM above and below their T(g) were identified. In the glassy state (below T(g)), sorption of TCE is well-described by micropore models, with enthalpies of sorption characteristic of microporous, glassy macromolecules. Above T(g), sorptive behavior was well-described by Flory-Huggins theory, indicating that the mobility and structural configuration of rubbery NOM materials may be analogous to the characteristic sorption behavior observed in more mobile, rubbery macromolecules, including strong entropic changes during sorption. Results from this work provide further support that, at least for the samples employed in this study, NOM possesses macromolecular characteristics which display sorption behavior similar to synthetic macromolecules-an important assumption in conceptual sorption equilibrium models used in the analysis of the fate and transport of VOCs in the environment. PMID:22642948

  8. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, M.; Avinash, K.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R.

    2014-10-01

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.

  9. Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy of hexagonal Ge-Sb-Te (GST)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, Martin; Rieß, Sally; Schreiber, Marcel; Mussler, Gregor; Grützmacher, Detlev; Hardtdegen, Hilde

    2015-06-01

    Epitaxial, hexagonal Ge-Sb-Te was grown on Si(111) substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) using the precursor digermane. The effect of reactor pressure, growth temperature and in situ pre-treatment on morphology and Ge-Sb-Te composition was studied. The composition is sensitive to reactor pressure and growth temperature. Compositional control is achieved at a reactor pressure of 50 hPa. Substrate pre-treatment affects film coalescence. The use of hydrogen and a suitable precursor pre-treatment leads to enhanced surface coverage. X-ray diffraction reveals a trigonal structure with lattice parameters close to that reported for Ge1Sb2Te4 crystallizing in the R 3 bar m phase. The composition was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  10. On the existence of vapor-liquid phase transition in dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kundu, M.; Sen, A.; Ganesh, R.; Avinash, K.

    2014-10-15

    The phenomenon of phase transition in a dusty-plasma system (DPS) has attracted some attention in the past. Earlier Farouki and Hamaguchi [J. Chem. Phys. 101, 9876 (1994)] have demonstrated the existence of a liquid to solid transition in DPS where the dust particles interact through a Yukawa potential. However, the question of the existence of a vapor-liquid (VL) transition in such a system remains unanswered and relatively unexplored so far. We have investigated this problem by performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations which show that the VL transition does not have a critical curve in the pressure versus volume diagram for a large range of the Yukawa screening parameter ? and the Coulomb coupling parameter ?. Thus, the VL phase transition is found to be super-critical, meaning that this transition is continuous in the dusty plasma model given by Farouki and Hamaguchi. We provide an approximate analytic explanation of this finding by means of a simple model calculation.

  11. Fluid Phase Equilibria 243 (2006) 198205 Comment on "prediction of vapor pressures of solid organic

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    2006-01-01

    of vapor pressures of solid organic compounds with a group contribution method" William E. Acree Jr gave satisfactory vapor pressure predictions for many organic compounds having vapor pressures well only for substituting into their predictive vapor pressure expression. The intent of this short

  12. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    E-print Network

    Fechter, Stefan; Rohde, Christian; Zeiler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid-vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local multi-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the...

  13. Vapor-deposited non-crystalline phase vs ordinary glasses and supercooled liquids: Subtle thermodynamic and kinetic differences

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Deepanjan; Sadtchenko, Vlad

    2015-04-28

    Vapor deposition of molecules on a substrate often results in glassy materials of high kinetic stability and low enthalpy. The extraordinary properties of such glasses are attributed to high rates of surface diffusion during sample deposition, which makes it possible for constituents to find a configuration of much lower energy on a typical laboratory time scale. However, the exact nature of the resulting phase and the mechanism of its formation are not completely understood. Using fast scanning calorimetry technique, we show that out-of-equilibrium relaxation kinetics and possibly the enthalpy of vapor-deposited films of toluene and ethylbenzene, archetypical fragile glass formers, are distinct from those of ordinary supercooled phase even when the deposition takes place at temperatures above the ordinary glass softening transition temperatures. These observations along with the absolute enthalpy dependences on deposition temperatures support the conjecture that the vapor-deposition may result in formation of non-crystalline phase of unique structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties.

  14. Desalination of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jongho; Karnik, Rohit

    2010-08-01

    We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport of water through a nanopore with saline water on one side and pure water on the other side under a pressure difference was theoretically analyzed under the rarefied gas assumption using a probabilistic framework that accounts for diffuse scattering from the pore walls as well as reflection from the menisci. The analysis revealed that in addition to salinity, temperature, and pressure difference, the nanopore aspect ratio and the probability of condensation of a water molecule incident on a meniscus from the vapor phase, known as the condensation coefficient, are key determinants of flux. The effect of condensation coefficient on mass flux becomes critical when the aspect ratio is small. However, the mass flux becomes independent of the condensation coefficient as the pore aspect ratio increases, converging to the Knudsen flux for long nanopores. For design of a nanopore membrane that can trap vapor, a minimum aspect ratio is derived for which coalescence of the two interfaces on either side of the nanopore remains energetically unfavorable. Based on this design criterion, the analysis suggests that mass flux in the range of 20-70 g/m2 s may be feasible if the system is operated at temperatures in the range of 30-50 °C. The proposed approach further decouples transport properties from material properties of the membrane, which opens the possibility of engineering membranes with appropriate materials that may lead to reverse osmosis membranes with improved flux, better selectivity, and high chlorine resistance.

  15. Evaluating the robustness of the enantioselective stationary phases on the Rosetta mission against space vacuum vaporization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Cason, Julie R. L.; Szopa, Cyril; Sternberg, Robert; Raulin, François; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.; Goesmann, Fred

    2013-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission was launched in March 2004 in order to reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by August 2014. The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) onboard the Rosetta mission's lander "Philae" has been designed for the cometary in situ detection and quantification of organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC unit of COSAC is equipped with eight capillary columns that will each provide a specific stationary phase for molecular separation. Three of these stationary phases will be used to chromatographically resolve enantiomers, as they are composed of liquid polymers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to which chiral valine or cyclodextrin units are attached. Throughout the ten years of Rosetta's journey through space to reach comet 67P, these liquid stationary phases have been exposed to space vacuum, as the capillary columns within the COSAC unit were not sealed or filled with carrier gas. Long term exposures to space vacuum can cause damage to such liquid stationary phases as key monomers, volatiles, and chiral selectors can be vaporized and lost in transit. We have therefore exposed identical spare units of COSAC's chiral stationary phases over eight years to vacuum conditions mimicking those experienced in space and we have now investigated their resolution capabilities towards different enantiomers both before and after exposure to space vacuum environments. We have observed that enantiomeric resolution capabilities of these chiral liquid enantioselective stationary phases has not been affected by exposure to space vacuum conditions. Thus we conclude that the three chiral stationary phases of the COSAC experiment onboard the Rosetta mission lander "Philae" can be considered to have maintained their resolution capacities throughout their journey prior to cometary landing in November 2014.

  16. The Effect Of ZnO Addition On Co/C Catalyst For Vapor And Aqueous Phase Reforming Of Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Sun, Junming; Hong, Yongchun; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.; Wang, Yong

    2014-02-05

    The effect of ZnO addition on the oxidation behavior of Co along with catalytic performance in vapor and aqueous phase reforming of ethanol were investigated on Co supported on carbon black (XC-72R). Carbon was selected to minimize the support interactions. Effect of ZnO addition during both vapor and aqueous phase reforming were compared at 250 °C. ZnO addition inhibited the reduction of cobalt oxides by H2 and created surface sites for H2O activation. During vapor phase reforming at 450 °C the redox of cobalt, driven by steam oxidation and H2 reduction, trended to an equilibrium of Co0/Co2+. ZnO showed no significant effect on cobalt oxidation, inferred from the minor changes of C1 product yield. Surface sites created by ZnO addition enhanced water activation and oxidation of surface carbon species, increasing CO2 selectivity. At 250 °C cobalt reduction was minimal, in situ XANES demonstrated that ZnO addition significantly facilitated oxidation of Co0 under vapor phase reforming conditions, demonstrated by lower C1 product yield. Sites introduced by ZnO addition improved the COx selectivity at 250 °C. Both Co/C and Co-ZnO/C rapidly oxidized under aqueous phase reaction conditions at 250 °C, showing negligible activity in aqueous phase reforming. This work suggests that ZnO affects the activation of H2O for Co catalysts in ethanol reforming.

  17. Development of an acoustic wave based biosensor for vapor phase detection of small molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stubbs, Desmond

    For centuries scientific ingenuity and innovation have been influenced by Mother Nature's perfect design. One of her more elusive designs is that of the sensory olfactory system, an array of highly sensitive receptors responsible for chemical vapor recognition. In the animal kingdom this ability is magnified among canines where ppt (parts per trillion) sensitivity values have been reported. Today, detection dogs are considered an essential part of the US drug and explosives detection schemes. However, growing concerns about their susceptibility to extraneous odors have inspired the development of highly sensitive analytical detection tools or biosensors known as "electronic noses". In general, biosensors are distinguished from chemical sensors in that they use an entity of biological origin (e.g. antibody, cell, enzyme) immobilized onto a surface as the chemically-sensitive film on the device. The colloquial view is that the term "biosensors" refers to devices which detect the presence of entities of biological origin, such as proteins or single-stranded DNA and that this detection must take place in a liquid. Our biosensor utilizes biomolecules, specifically IgG monoclonal antibodies, to achieve molecular recognition of relatively small molecules in the vapor phase.

  18. Modified vapor phase growth of cadmium zinc telluride: A progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Trower, W.P.

    1998-12-31

    The author has completed a series of experiments where he realized Cd{sub (1{minus}x)}Zn{sub x}Te by modified Vapor Phase Growth in which the CdTe and ZnTe components were separated in the growth ampoule, with their vapors passing through channels and openings designed to mix them stoichiometrically at the growth surface. The author has obtained polycrystalline CZT boules 50 mm in diameter and 10 mm high whose structure is strikingly different from that obtained by standard High Pressure Bridgman methods. The mVPG properties relevant for detector applications include resistivity of {approximately}40 G{Omega}-cm when voltage is first applied, rising to {approximately}66 G{Omega}-cm after {approximately}20 min when the traps are filled, and electron mobility-lifetimes of {approximately}2 {times} 10{sup {minus}3} cm{sup 2}/V. Here the author presents some structural and operation characterizations of the mVPG CZT.

  19. Reduction of degradation in vapor phase transported InP/InGaAsP mushroom stripe lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, H.; Burkhardt, E.G.; Pfister, W.

    1988-10-03

    The rapid degradation rate generally observed in InP/InGaAsP mushroom stripe lasers can be considerably decreased by regrowing the open sidewalls of the active stripe with low-doped InP in a second epitaxial step using the hydride vapor phase transport technique. This technique does not change the fundamental laser parameters like light-current and current-voltage characteristics. Because of this drastic reduction in degradation, the vapor phase epitaxy regrown InP/InGaAsP mushroom laser seems to be an interesting candidate for application in optical communication.

  20. A three-dimensional phase field model for nanowire growth by the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanming; Ryu, Seunghwa; McIntyre, Paul C.; Cai, Wei

    2014-07-01

    We present a three-dimensional multi-phase field model for catalyzed nanowire (NW) growth by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. The equation of motion contains both a Ginzburg-Landau term for deposition and a diffusion (Cahn-Hilliard) term for interface relaxation without deposition. Direct deposition from vapor to solid, which competes with NW crystal growth through the molten catalyst droplet, is suppressed by assigning a very small kinetic coefficient at the solid-vapor interface. The thermodynamic self-consistency of the model is demonstrated by its ability to reproduce the equilibrium contact angles at the VLS junction. The incorporation of orientation dependent gradient energy leads to faceting of the solid-liquid and solid-vapor interfaces. The model successfully captures the curved shape of the NW base and the Gibbs-Thomson effect on growth velocity.

  1. CRYOCHEM, Thermodynamic Model for Cryogenic Chemical Systems: Solid-Vapor and Solid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Equilibria Toward Applications on Titan and Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, S. P.; Kargel, J. S.; Adidharma, H.; Marion, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Until in-situ measurements can be made regularly on extraterrestrial bodies, thermodynamic models are the only tools to investigate the properties and behavior of chemical systems on those bodies. The resulting findings are often critical in describing physicochemical processes in the atmosphere, surface, and subsurface in planetary geochemistry and climate studies. The extremely cold conditions on Triton, Pluto and other Kuiper Belt Objects, and Titan introduce huge non-ideality that prevents conventional models from performing adequately. At such conditions, atmospheres as a whole—not components individually—are subject to phase equilibria with their equilibrium solid phases or liquid phases or both. A molecular-based thermodynamic model for cryogenic chemical systems, referred to as CRYOCHEM, the development of which is still in progress, was shown to reproduce the vertical composition profile of Titan's atmospheric methane measured by the Huygens probe (Tan et al., Icarus 2013, 222, 53). Recently, the model was also used to describe Titan's global circulation where the calculated composition of liquid in Ligeia Mare is consistent with the bathymetry and microwave absorption analysis of T91 Cassini fly-by data (Tan et al., 2014, submitted). Its capability to deal with equilibria involving solid phases has also been demonstrated (Tan et al., Fluid Phase Equilib. 2013, 360, 320). With all those previous works done, our attention is now shifting to the lower temperatures in Titan's tropopause and on Pluto's surface, where much technical development remains for CRYOCHEM to assure adequate performance at low temperatures. In these conditions, solid-vapor equilibrium (SVE) is the dominant phase behavior that determines the composition of the atmosphere and the existing ices. Another potential application is for the subsurface phase equilibrium, which also involves liquid, thus three-phase equilibrium: solid-liquid-vapor (SLV). This presentation will discuss the current state of CRYOCHEM in representing the SVE and SLV of chemical systems at temperatures and pressures relevant to Titan's tropopause and Pluto and the upper crusts of these objects.

  2. Determination of nitroalkanes in mainstream cigarette smoke by heart-cutting multidimensional gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Guo, Jizhao; Shang, Jingjing; Ding, Li; Zhao, Ge; Xie, Fuwei; Jia, Yunzhen; Qin, Yaqiong; Yu, Yongjie; Chen, Li; Zhang, Shusheng

    2015-12-11

    In this paper, heart-cutting two-dimensional GC/MS (GC-GC/MS) method in combination with a simple sample collection procedure was developed for the determination of 6 nitroalkanes in mainstream cigarette smoke. The method could remove large amounts of impurities on-line in the first polar column by heart-cuts and separate from the left interferences in a second mid-polar column. And the target compounds could be focused at the inlet of the second column by cryo-concentration. Compared to conventional GC/MS, GC-GC/MS achieved a lower noise level and sensitivity at least an order of magnitude higher. Furthermore, the GC-GC/MS method could avoid the false negative and false positive results that appeared in the compared conventional GC/MS analysis. By trapping the vapor phase of 20 cigarettes smoke, the LODs and LOQs of the nitroalkanes were 1.3 to 9.8 and 4.3 to 32.6ng/cigarette, respectively, and all linear correlation efficiencies were larger than 0.999. The validation results also indicate that the method has high accuracy (spiked recoveries between 84% and 102%) and good repeatability (RSD between 7.2% and 9.4%). The developed method was applied to analyze 1 Kentucky reference cigarette (3R4F) and 10 Chinese commercial brands of cigarettes. The research results indicated that nitromethane, nitroethane, 2-nitropropane and 1-nitro-n-pentane were detected in mainstream cigarette smoke, but 1-nitro-n-butane and 2-nitropropane, which were reported by one previous study, were not detected in all cigarette samples. PMID:26603996

  3. Effectiveness of cigarette filter tips for reducing cadmium in relation to other mainstream smoke constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Bache, C.A.; Lisk, D.J.; Shane, B.S.; Hoffmann, D.; Adams, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The effectiveness of filter tips for reducing cadmium, tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in cigarettes was studied. The cigarettes were made from tobacco grown on municipal sewage sludge-amended soil and were therefore high in cadmium. When machine-smoked, filter tips did not result in a significant reduction of cadmium deposited on Cambridge filters. This may indicate that a considerable fraction of cadmium is present in the vapor phase of the smoke and therefore not reduced to the same extent as the tar by certain filters. Nicotine and carbon monoxide were reduced to a lesser extent than tar. This indicates that the filter tip has influenced the combustion of the tobacco column during smoking.

  4. Migration of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The migration characteristics of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling were investigated experimentally. Four types of carbon nanotubes with the outside diameters from 15 to 80 nm and the lengths from 1.5 to 10 ?m were used in the experiments. The refrigerants include R113, R141b and n-pentane. The oil concentration is from 0 to 10 wt.%, the heat flux is from 10 to 100 kW·m-2, and the initial liquid-level height is from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. The experimental results indicate that the migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the increase of the outside diameter or the length of carbon nanotube. For the fixed type of carbon nanotube, the migration ratio decreases with the increase of the oil concentration or the heat flux, and increases with the increase of the initial liquid-level height. The migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the decrease of dynamic viscosity of refrigerant or the increase of liquid phase density of refrigerant. A model for predicting the migration ratio of carbon nanotubes in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within a deviation of ±20%. PMID:21711730

  5. Liquid-vapor phase diagram and cluster formation of two-dimensional ionic fluids.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Maldonado, Gloria Arlette; González-Melchor, Minerva; Alejandre, José

    2012-08-01

    Direct molecular dynamics simulations on interfaces at constant temperature are performed to obtain the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the two-dimensional soft primitive model, an equimolar mixture of equal size spheres carrying opposite charges. Constant temperature and pressure simulations are also carried out to check consistency with interface simulations results. In addition, an analysis of the cluster formation of mixtures of particles with charge asymmetry in the range 1:1 to 1:36 at low and high densities is performed. The number of free ions, when plotted as a function of the positive ion charge, Z(+), has an oscillatory behavior and is independent of the density. The formation of aggregates is analyzed in terms of the attraction and repulsion between ions. PMID:22894375

  6. Liquid-vapor phase diagram and cluster formation of two-dimensional ionic fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Maldonado, Gloria Arlette; González-Melchor, Minerva; Alejandre, José

    2012-08-01

    Direct molecular dynamics simulations on interfaces at constant temperature are performed to obtain the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the two-dimensional soft primitive model, an equimolar mixture of equal size spheres carrying opposite charges. Constant temperature and pressure simulations are also carried out to check consistency with interface simulations results. In addition, an analysis of the cluster formation of mixtures of particles with charge asymmetry in the range 1:1 to 1:36 at low and high densities is performed. The number of free ions, when plotted as a function of the positive ion charge, Z+, has an oscillatory behavior and is independent of the density. The formation of aggregates is analyzed in terms of the attraction and repulsion between ions.

  7. A procedure for testing the effect of vapor phase corrosion inhibitors on combined multi metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kraemer, C.

    1997-08-01

    This study presents a quick and easy to implement Vapor Phase Corrosion Inhibitor (VCI) testing procedure which is capable of validating the protective effects of VCI foils in connection with various, electrically conductive, connected metals. Furthermore it may be used to demonstrate the effects of VCI for potential customers. The test procedure demonstrates various approaches as to how deficiencies in existing test procedures can be avoided with regards to the practice orientation--the temporary corrosion protection of machines. It also points out the lack of alignment of existing test procedures to meet the demands of new VCI recipes. The considerations made during the development of the test procedure are explained in this study with regards to their effects on the VCI protective influence.

  8. Nonpolar GaN grown on Si by hydride vapor phase epitaxy using anodized Al nanomask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Markov, A. V.; Mezhennyi, M. V.; Govorkov, A. V.; Pavlov, V. F.; Smirnov, N. B.; Donskov, A. A.; D'yakonov, L. I.; Kozlova, Y. P.; Malakhov, S. S.; Yugova, T. G.; Osinsky, V. I.; Gorokh, G. G.; Lyahova, N. N.; Mityukhlyaev, V. B.; Pearton, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    GaN growth by the hydride vapor phase technique on (100) Si substrates masked by porous Al anodic oxide is described. The masks were prepared by vacuum deposition of Al with subsequent anodic oxidation in dilute sorrel acid. The grown GaN layer is nonpolar, with (112¯0) a-orientation and a full width at half maximum of the (112¯0) reflection below 500 arc sec and showing small anisotropy. This result is comparable with the results obtained for a-GaN growth using selective epitaxy or advanced buffer growth routines. Microcathodoluminescence spectra of the grown films confirm a low density of stacking faults. Possible growth mechanisms are discussed.

  9. Study of near-critical states of liquid-vapor phase transition of magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emelyanov, A. N.; Shakhray, D. V.; Golyshev, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Study of thermodynamic parameters of magnesium in the near-critical point region of the liquid-vapor phase transition and in the region of metal-nonmetal transition was carried out. Measurements of the electrical resistance of magnesium after shock compression and expansion into gas (helium) environment in the process of isobaric heating was carried out. Heating of the magnesium surface by heat transfer with hot helium was performed. The registered electrical resistance of expanded magnesium was about 104-105 times lower than the electrical resistance of the magnesium under normal condition at the density less than the density of the critical point. Thus, metal-nonmetal transition was found in magnesium.

  10. Growth of vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Hammons, B.E.; Crawford, M.H.; Lear, K.L.; Choquette, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    We present growth and characterization of visible and near-infrared vertical-cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Discussions on the growth issue of VCSEL materials include growth rate and composition control using an {ital in}{ital situ} normal-incidence reflectometer, comprehensive p- and n-type doping study in AlGaAs by CCl{sub 4} and Si{sub 2}H{sub 6} over the entire composition range, and optimization of ultra-high material uniformity. We also demonstrate our recent achievements of all-AlGaAs VCSELs which include the first room-temperature continuous- wave demonstration of 700-nm red VCSELs and high-efficiency and low- threshold voltage 850-nm VCSELs.

  11. Hydride vapor phase GaN films with reduced density of residual electrons and deep traps

    SciTech Connect

    Polyakov, A. Y.; Smirnov, N. B.; Govorkov, A. V.; Yugova, T. G.; Cox, H.; Helava, H.; Makarov, Yu.; Usikov, A. S.

    2014-05-14

    Electrical properties and deep electron and hole traps spectra are compared for undoped n-GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) in the regular process (standard HVPE samples) and in HVPE process optimized for decreasing the concentration of residual donor impurities (improved HVPE samples). It is shown that the residual donor density can be reduced by optimization from ?10{sup 17}?cm{sup ?3} to (2–5)?×?10{sup 14}?cm{sup ?3}. The density of deep hole traps and deep electron traps decreases with decreased donor density, so that the concentration of deep hole traps in the improved samples is reduced to ?5?×?10{sup 13}?cm{sup ?3} versus 2.9?×?10{sup 16}?cm{sup ?3} in the standard samples, with a similar decrease in the electron traps concentration.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of dry conducting polymer actuator by vapor phase polymerization of polypyrrole.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Madeshwaran Sekkarapatti; Mahapatra, Sibdas Singha; Cho, Jae Whan

    2014-10-01

    A trilayered dry conducting polymer actuator was fabricated via application of a polypyrrole (PPy) coating on both sides of a solid polymer electrolyte film using vapor phase polymerization (VPP). The solid polymer electrolyte film was prepared by incorporation of different weight ratios of dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid sodium salt in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) by solvent casting. The successful polymerization of PPy was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; a uniform PPy coating on the solid polymer electrolyte film surface was also observed by scanning electron microscopy. The dry PVA/PPy actuator demonstrated good actuation behavior at a low applied voltage of 1-3 V. The actuator bending displacement was found to increase with an increase in the applied voltage. The VPP approach in this study provides a very effective method for achieving a uniform polymer coating in the fabrication of a dry conducting polymer actuator. PMID:25942824

  13. Optical Properties of ZnO Soccer-Ball Structures Grown by Vapor Phase Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Giwoong; Lee, Sang-heon; Kim, Soaram; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Do Yeob; Gug Yim, Kwang; Lee, Dong-Yul; Kim, Jin Soo; Kim, Jong Su; Son, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Sung-O.; Jung, Jae Hak; Leem, Jae-Young

    2012-02-01

    ZnO soccer balls were grown on an Au-catalyzed Si(100) substrate by vapor phase transport (VPT) with a mixture of zinc oxide and graphite powders. Temperature-dependent PL was carried out to investigate the mechanism governing the quenching behavior of the PL spectra. From the PL spectra of the ZnO soccer balls at 10 K, several PL peaks were observed at 3.365, 3.318, 3.249, and 3.183 eV corresponding to excitons bound to neutral donors (DoX), a donor-acceptor pair (DAP), first-order longitudinal optical phonon replica of donor-acceptor pair (DAP-1LO), and DAP-2LO, respectively. The mixed system composed of the free exciton (FX) and DoX and the DAP radiative lifetimes were estimated with a theoretical relation between the lifetime and the spectral width. The exciton radiative lifetimes were observed to increase linearly with temperature.

  14. Heterojunction Hybrid Devices from Vapor Phase Grown MoS2

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chanyoung; O'Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Riazimehr, Sarah; Schäfer-Eberwein, Heiko; Bablich, Andreas; Pawar, Ravinder; Iannaccone, Giuseppe; Downing, Clive; Fiori, Gianluca; Lemme, Max C.; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a vertically-stacked hybrid photodiode consisting of a thin n-type molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) layer transferred onto p-type silicon. The fabrication is scalable as the MoS2 is grown by a controlled and tunable vapor phase sulfurization process. The obtained large-scale p-n heterojunction diodes exhibit notable photoconductivity which can be tuned by modifying the thickness of the MoS2 layer. The diodes have a broad spectral response due to direct and indirect band transitions of the nanoscale MoS2. Further, we observe a blue-shift of the spectral response into the visible range. The results are a significant step towards scalable fabrication of vertical devices from two-dimensional materials and constitute a new paradigm for materials engineering. PMID:24975741

  15. Vapor phase ketonization of acetic acid on ceria based metal oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changjun; Karim, Ayman M.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Yong

    2013-12-01

    The activities of CeO2, Mn2O3-CeO2 and ZrO2-CeO2 were measured for acetic acid ketonization under reaction conditions relevant to pyrolysis vapor upgrading. We show that the catalyst ranking changed depending on the reaction conditions. Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 oC, while ZrO2 - CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 450 oC. Under high CO2 and steam concentration in the reactants, Mn2O3-CeO2 was the most active catalyst at 350 and 450 °C. The binding energies of steam and CO2 with the active phase were calculated to provide the insight into the tolerance of Mn2O3-CeO2 to steam and CO2.

  16. Accumulation of Background Impurities in Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy Grown GaN Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usikov, Alexander; Soukhoveev, Vitali; Kovalenkov, Oleg; Syrkin, Alexander; Shapovalov, Liza; Volkova, Anna; Ivantsov, Vladimir

    2013-08-01

    We report on accumulation of background Si and O impurities measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) at the sub-interfaces in undoped, Zn- and Mg-doped multi-layer GaN structures grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) on sapphire substrates with growth interruptions. The impurities accumulation is attributed to reaction of ammonia with the rector quartz ware during the growth interruptions. Because of this effect, HVPE-grown GaN layers had excessive Si and O concentration on the surface that may hamper forming of ohmic contacts especially in the case of p-type layers and may complicate homo-epitaxial growth of a device structure.

  17. An Assessment of the Technical Readiness of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process (VPCAR) Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2000-01-01

    This poster provides an assessment of the technical readiness of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process (VPCAR). The VPCAR technology is a fully regenerative water recycling technology designed specifically for applications such as a near term Mars exploration mission. The VPCAR technology is a highly integrated distillation/catalytic oxidation based water processor. It is designed to accept a combined wastewater stream (urine, condensate, and hygiene) and produces potable water in a single process step which requires -no regularly scheduled re-supply or maintenance for a 3 year mission. The technology is designed to be modular and to fit into a volume comparable to a single International Space Station Rack (when sized for a crew of 6). This poster provides a description of the VPCAR technology and a summary of the current performance of the technology. Also provided are the results of two separate NASA sponsored system trade studies which investigated the potential payback of further development of the VPCAR technology.

  18. Growth of III-Nitrides with Halide Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmingsson, Carl; Monemar, Bo; Kumagai, Yoshinao; Koukitu, Akinori

    III-nitrides can be grown by employing several different techniques, such as molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE), metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE), halide vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE), high-pressure solution growth, and sputtering. Each of these are suited for a particular application; the specific property of HVPE is a much larger growth rate, which makes this technique the natural choice for growth of very thick layers that can be used as high-quality native substrates for subsequent growth of device structures using other techniques. Such substrates will be needed for certain devices with high current density or high voltage load, where the high defect density caused by growth on foreign substrates (heteroepitaxy) cannot be tolerated. The HVPE technology is still under development, and below we present the present situation with emphasis on GaN. The thermodynamic limitations of HVPE growth are discussed first, including the high-temperature chemistry in both the source zone and growth zone of a growth reactor. Examples of the design of growth systems are given; in particular, issues such as flow patterns, parasitic growth, and growth rates are discussed. Methods to reduce the defect density for growth on foreign substrates are discussed, as well as various lift-off techniques to prepare free-standing GaN wafers. Common characterization techniques are mentioned, and important physical properties of high-quality GaN wafers are given. The ongoing developments of HVPE growth for AlN and InN are also briefly summarized.

  19. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-03-11

    This report summarizes work of this project from October 2003 through March 2004. The major focus of the research was to further investigate BTEX removal from produced water, to quantify metal ion removal from produced water, and to evaluate a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) for BTEX destruction in off-gases produced during SMZ regeneration. Batch equilibrium sorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of semi-volatile organic compounds commonly found in produced water on the sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) onto surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) and to examine selected metal ion sorption onto SMZ. The sorption of polar semi-volatile organic compounds and metals commonly found in produced water onto SMZ was also investigated. Batch experiments were performed in a synthetic saline solution that mimicked water from a produced water collection facility in Wyoming. Results indicated that increasing concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds increased BTEX sorption. The sorption of phenol compounds could be described by linear isotherms, but the linear partitioning coefficients decreased with increasing pH, especially above the pKa's of the compounds. Linear correlations relating partitioning coefficients of phenol compounds with their respective solubilities and octanol-water partitioning coefficients were developed for data collected at pH 7.2. The sorption of chromate, selenate, and barium in synthetic produced water were also described by Langmuir isotherms. Experiments conducted with a lab-scale vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) packed with foam indicated that this system could achieve high BTEX removal efficiencies once the nutrient delivery system was optimized. The xylene isomers and benzene were found to require the greatest biofilter bed depth for removal. This result suggested that these VOCs would ultimately control the size of the biofilter required for the produced water application. The biofilter recovered rapidly from shutdowns showing that the system was resilient to discontinuous feed conditions therefore provided flexibility on the SMZ regeneration process.

  20. Transfer of amplitude and phase modulation to a different wavelength using coherently prepared sodium vapor

    E-print Network

    Stroud Jr., Carlos R.

    sodium vapor Ryan S. Bennink,* Alberto M. Marino, Vincent Wong, Robert W. Boyd, and C. R. Stroud, Jr by scattering in a coherently prepared sodium vapor. The scattering process for this system has a bandwidth sodium vapor. The transfer fidelity is excellent, and unlike other modulation transfer schemes e.g., Refs

  1. A NEW VAPOR RECOVERY NOZZLE FOR AIR POLLUTION CONTROL - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The vapor recovery nozzle is an air pollution control device which relates to Stage II emission control equipment designed to capture gasoline vapors during automobile refueling at service stations. The existing vapor recovery nozzles are difficult to handle, the bellows pr...

  2. Adolescent Males’ Awareness of and Willingness to Try Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Pepper, Jessica K.; Reiter, Paul L.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Cameron, Linda D.; Gilkey, Melissa B.; Brewer, Noel T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a new type of device that delivers vaporized nicotine without the tobacco combustion of regular cigarettes. We sought to understand awareness of and willingness to try e-cigarettes among adolescent males, a group that is at risk for smoking initiation and may use e-cigarettes as a “gateway” to smoking. Methods A national sample of 11–19-year-old males (n =228) completed an online survey in November 2011. We recruited participants through their parents, who were members of a panel of U.S. households constructed using random-digit dialing and addressed-based sampling. Results Only two participants (< 1%) had previously tried e-cigarettes. Among those who had not tried e-cigarettes, most (67%) had heard of them. Awareness was higher among older and non- Hispanic adolescents. Nearly 1 in 5 (18%) participants were willing to try either a plain or flavored e-cigarette, but willingness to try plain versus flavored varieties did not differ. Smokers were more willing to try any e-cigarette than nonsmokers (74% vs. 13%; OR 10.25, 95% CI 2.88, 36.46). Nonsmokers who had more negative beliefs about the typical smoker were less willing to try e-cigarettes (OR .58, 95% CI .43, .79). Conclusions Most adolescent males were aware of e-cigarettes, and a substantial minority were willing to try them. Given that even experimentation with e-cigarettes could lead to nicotine dependence and subsequent use of other tobacco products, regulatory and behavioral interventions are needed to prevent “gateway” use by adolescent nonsmokers. Campaigns promoting negative images of smokers or FDA bans on sales to youth may help deter use. PMID:23332477

  3. Fast vapor phase growth of SiO2 nanowires via surface-flow on Ag core/SiO2 shell structure

    E-print Network

    Zexian, Cao

    Fast vapor phase growth of SiO2 nanowires via surface-flow on Ag core/SiO2 shell structure Lei Gao://aipadvances.aip.org/most_downloaded Information for Authors: http://aipadvances.aip.org/authors #12;AIP ADVANCES 2, 012187 (2012) Fast vapor phase scenario by cooling enables revelation of the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism here in action, which

  4. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

  5. THE EFFECT OF WATER (VAPOR-PHASE) AND CARBON ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY REMOVAL IN A FLOW REACTOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of studying the effect of vapor-phase moisture on elemental mercury (Hgo) removal by activated carbon (AC) in a flow reactor. tests involved injecting AC into both a dry and a 4% moisture nitrogen (N2) /Hgo gas stream. A bituminous-coal-based AC (Calgon WP...

  6. Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Li, Lian

    Formation of etch pits during carbon doping of gallium arsenide with carbon tetrachloride-doped gallium arsenide films grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy. Deposition was carried out at 505­545 °C the reaction of chlorine with adsorbed gallium from the group III precursor, and 2 the reaction of chlorine

  7. Potential phase control of chromium oxide thin films prepared by laser-initiated organometallic chemical vapor deposition

    E-print Network

    Idzerda, Yves

    Potential phase control of chromium oxide thin films prepared by laser-initiated organometallic used laser-initiated chemical vapor deposition to grow the chromium oxide thin films through chromium oxide CrO2 with Tc 397 K Ref. 5 has been predicted to be half metallic metallic for one spin

  8. Method for the generation of variable density metal vapors which bypasses the liquidus phase

    DOEpatents

    Kunnmann, Walter (Stony Brook, NY); Larese, John Z. (Rocky Point, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing a metal vapor that includes the steps of combining a metal and graphite in a vessel to form a mixture; heating the mixture to a first temperature in an argon gas atmosphere to form a metal carbide; maintaining the first temperature for a period of time; heating the metal carbide to a second temperature to form a metal vapor; withdrawing the metal vapor and the argon gas from the vessel; and separating the metal vapor from the argon gas. Metal vapors made using this method can be used to produce uniform powders of the metal oxide that have narrow size distribution and high purity.

  9. High-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating in continuous wave above 400 K

    E-print Network

    Loncar, Marko

    by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy MOVPE is central since this technique is a widely established platform to be 70%. The QCLs investigated here were grown by low- pressure MOVPE in a standard reactor equippedHigh-power quantum cascade lasers grown by low-pressure metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy operating

  10. Antibacterial effects of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils in tomato films determined by overlay and vapor-phase methods.

    PubMed

    Du, W-X; Olsen, C W; Avena-Bustillos, R J; McHugh, T H; Levin, C E; Mandrell, R; Friedman, Mendel

    2009-09-01

    Physical properties as well as antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Listeria monocytogenes of allspice, garlic, and oregano essential oils (EOs) in tomato puree film-forming solutions (TPFFS) formulated into edible films at 0.5% to 3% (w/w) concentrations were investigated in this study. Antimicrobial activities were determined by 2 independent methods: overlay of the film on top of the bacteria and vapor-phase diffusion of the antimicrobial from the film to the bacteria. The results indicate that the antimicrobial activities against the 3 pathogens were in the following order: oregano oil > allspice oil > garlic oil. Listeria monocytogenes was less resistant to EO vapors, while E. coli O157:H7 was more resistant to EOs as determined by both overlay and vapor-phase diffusion tests. The presence of plant EO antimicrobials reduced the viscosity of TPFFS at the higher shear rates, but did not affect water vapor permeability of films. EOs increased elongation and darkened the color of films. The results of the present study show that the 3 plant-derived EOs can be used to prepare tomato-based antimicrobial edible films with good physical properties for food applications by both direct contact and indirectly by vapors emanating from the films. PMID:19895486

  11. Fabrication of polyimide shells by vapor phase deposition for use as ICF targets

    SciTech Connect

    Alfonso, E.L.; Tsai, F.Y.; Chen, S.H.; Gram, R.Q.; Harding, D.R.

    1999-03-01

    Hollow polyimide shells, for use as ICF targets, were fabricated by co-depositing monomer precursors from the vapor phase onto bounced spherical mandrels. The process involved two stages: first, the deposited monomers (pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4{prime}-oxydianiline) reacted on the mandrel surface to form polyamic acid; second, the mandrel was heated to 300 C to imidize the polyamic acid and to decompose the mandrel. During this latter process the decomposed mandrel diffused through the thermally stable coating, leaving a polyimide shell. Depositions were performed under low ({approximately}10{sup {minus}3} Torr) and high ({approximately}10{sup {minus}6} Torr) vacuum. Also, flat witness films of polyimide deposited on Si wafers and NaCl allowed the mechanical properties and chemical composition of the film during the heating cycle to be measured. Polyimide shells with diameters ranging from 700 to 950 {micro}m and wall thicknesses ranging from 2 to 13 {micro}m were produced. The shell`s sphericity was greater than 99%. Burst and buckle pressure tests on these shells yielded the estimated mechanical strength properties. The elastic modulus and tensile strength were {approximately}15 GPa and {approximately}300 MPa, respectively. The permeability of D{sub 2} through polyamic acid at 25 C was 7.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}17} mol{center_dot}m/m{sup 2}{center_dot}Pa{center_dot}s and increased to 6.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} mol{center_dot}m/m{sup 2}{center_dot}Pa{center_dot}s at 25 C upon curing the shell to 150 C. The permeability of D{sub 2} at 25 C through vapor-deposited polyimide flat films was measured to be 240 times greater than through the as-deposited polyamic acid, and about 7 times greater than through commercially available solution-cast Kapton.

  12. Growth behavior of GaSb by metal organic vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathi, Manish K.; Hawkins, Brian E.; Kuech, Thomas F.

    2006-11-01

    The growth mechanisms of GaSb in a metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) system were studied for both trimethyl gallium (TMG)/trimethyl antimony (TMSb) and triethyl gallium (TEG)/TMSb growth chemistries. The effect of growth temperature and precursor mole fractions on GaSb growth rate was determined experimentally. Numerical analysis of the reactor and growth process was described in a combined chemical-thermal-fluid flow model. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism involving a surface reaction between adsorbed monomethyl gallium (MMG) and adsorbed monomethyl antimony (MMSb) or adsorbed Ga and adsorbed MMSb was proposed for the growth of GaSb by MOVPE using TMG or TEG and TMSb chemistries, respectively. The chemical model for TMG/TMSb chemistry included bounds on the surface chemistry derived for the range of V/III precursor ratio which were observed to lead to a second phase, i.e., elemental Ga or Sb, formation. Two growth regimes were observed for TMG/TMSb chemistry: above 575 °C the growth rate was mass transfer controlled whereas for lower temperatures it is kinetically limited. No such temperature dependence has been found for the TEG/TMSb chemistry over all experimental employed ranges of growth parameters.

  13. Elucidation of the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial growth mechanism for InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, N. I.; Larsen, C. A.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1987-01-01

    A new technique for tracing the organometallic vapor epitaxial growth is reported. The pyrolysis of PH3, alone and in the presence of trimethylindium (TMIn), and of TMIn alone was studied by conducting the epitaxial growth of InP in D2 as the carrier gas, tracing growth reactions by mass spectrometric analysis of the product molecules. The TMIn alone pyrolyzes mostly homogeneously in the gas phase, while the PH3 pyrolysis is completely heterogeneous at the InP surface. Adding TMIn to PH3 results in a dramatic decrease in the pyrolysis temperature. PH3 molecules which interact with TMIn in the gas phase pyrolyze at temperatures as low as 250, and those decomposing without TMIn interaction pyrolyze at temperatures approximately 200 C higher. Similarly, the presence of PH3 lowers the TMIn pyrolysis temperature by at least 50 C. TMIn alone in D2 produces mainly CH3D molecules. For high PH3:TMIn ratios, CH4 is the only carbon-containing reaction product.

  14. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. 159.5 Section 159... Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes...on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or...

  15. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. 159.5 Section 159... Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes...on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or...

  16. Multicomponent assessment and treatment of cigarette pica.

    PubMed Central

    Goh, H L; Iwata, B A; Kahng, S W

    1999-01-01

    We conducted a multicomponent assessment and treatment for 4 individuals who engaged in cigarette pica. During Phase 1, three stimulus preference assessments were conducted to identify (a) the reinforcing component of the cigarette, (b) potential alternative reinforcers that may be used during treatment, and (c) whether the alternative reinforcer would compete effectively with cigarettes. Results were successful in identifying the reinforcing component of the cigarette and suggested the feasibility of using alternative reinforcers during treatment to eliminate cigarette pica. During Phase 2, the effects of two treatment procedures were evaluated. Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) with the alternative edible reinforcer reduced the pica of 2 of the participants, but effects were not maintained when the initial dense schedule of NCR was thinned. Subsequently, differential reinforcement of alternative behavior with the alternative edible reinforcer was effective in reducing pica for 3 participants. An evaluation of nine treatment procedures failed to identify an effective intervention for the remaining participant; consequently, preventive measures were designed to minimize occurrences of cigarette pica. PMID:10513026

  17. Vapor Phase Dehydration of Glycerol to Acrolein Over SBA-15 Supported Vanadium Substituted Phosphomolybdic Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Viswanadham, Balaga; Srikanth, Amirineni; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-07-01

    Vapor phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was investigated over heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts containing vanadium substituted phosphomolybdic acid (H4PMo11VO40) supported on mesoporous SBA-15. A series of HPA catalysts with HPA loadings varying from 10-50 wt% were prepared by impregnation method on SBA-15 support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption of NH3, pyridine adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, pore size distribution and specific surface area measurements. The nature of acidic sites was examined by pyridine adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy. XRD results suggest that the active phase containing HPA was highly dispersed at lower loadings on the support. FT-IR and Raman spectra results confirm that the presence of primary Keggin ion structure of HPA on the support and it was not affected during the preparation of catalysts. Pore size distribution results reveal that all the samples show unimodel pore size distribution with well depicted mesoporous structure. NH3-TPD results suggest that the acidity of catalysts increased with increase of HPA loading. The findings of acidity measurements by FT-IR spectra of pyridine adsorption reveals that the catalysts consist both the Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites and the amount of Brønsted acidic sites are increasing with HPA loading. SBA-15 supported vanadium substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalysts are found to be highly active during the dehydration reaction and exhibited 100% conversion of glycerol (10 wt% of glycerol) and the acrolein selectivity was appreciably changed with HPA active phase loading. The catalytic functionalities during glycerol dehydration are well correlated with surface acidity of the catalysts. PMID:26373149

  18. m-Plane Homoepitaxy and Equilibrium Crystal Shapes of Gallium Nitride by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Benjamin Nathaniel

    Nonpolar and semipolar growth of GaN has been shown to offer a promising path for high performance devices. These non-basal plane orientations allow for minimization of the polarization effects seen in c-plane GaN which cause spatial separation of the electron and hole wavefunctions (Quantum Confined Stark Effect). Yet despite the advantages these planes present, there remains consistent problems in both their growth and the lack of substrates. This dissertation focuses on the growth of these nonpolar and semipolar planes, in particular the homoepitaxy of m-plane GaN. The equilibrium crystal shape of GaN and its stable facets were also investigated. It is hoped that with this work, progress is made towards low defect large area nonpolar and semipolar substrates and their improved vapor phase growth. Work was initially done on m-plane regrowth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Extended defect generation, in particular basal plane stacking faults (BPSF), and poor morphology control are consistent problems in m-plane growth. These issues have prevented the expansion and multiplication of m-plane GaN substrates. In this work the effects of carrier gas were investigated on m-plane regrowth. Hydrogen carrier gas was shown to create highly faceted 3D nucleation. These islands had exposed N-face facets which lead to BPSF generation. In contrast, nitrogen carrier gas lead to 2D growth and thus minimized BPSF generation. These stacking faults were then characterized by both reciprocal space mapping and cathodolumienscence where type I1 and I2 faults were observed in the regrown GaN. Further work was done in exploring the equilibrium crystal shapes of GaN under varying growth conditions. Selective area growth experiments were done on high quality bulk m-plane GaN substrates where GaN facets were exposed to show the stable polar, semipolar and nonpolar planes. From these facets the kinetic Wulff plots for GaN were constructed. This work highlights the stable growth conditions for nonpolar and semipolar GaN and leads to improved growth conditions. AlN growth by HVPE is also investigated in this dissertation with work being done on thick AlN growth on patterned sapphire substrates (PSS). These templates were made for the purpose of substrates for UV LEDs.

  19. Real-time GPS sensing of atmospheric water vapor: Precise point positioning with orbit, clock, and phase delay corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingxing; Dick, Galina; Ge, Maorong; Heise, Stefan; Wickert, Jens; Bender, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The recent development of the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service Real-Time Pilot Project and the enormous progress in precise point positioning (PPP) techniques provide a promising opportunity for real-time determination of Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) using GPS ground networks for various geodetic and meteorological applications. In this study, we develop a new real-time GPS water vapor processing system based on the PPP ambiguity fixing technique with real-time satellite orbit, clock, and phase delay corrections. We demonstrate the performance of the new real-time water vapor estimates using the currently operationally used near-real-time GPS atmospheric data and collocated microwave radiometer measurements as an independent reference. The results show that an accuracy of 1.0 ~ 2.0 mm is achievable for the new real-time GPS based IWV value. Data of such accuracy might be highly valuable for time-critical geodetic (positioning) and meteorological applications.

  20. Cigarette smoke and muscle catabolism in C2 myotubes.

    PubMed

    Rom, Oren; Kaisari, Sharon; Aizenbud, Dror; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed evidence of muscular damage and up-regulation of genes associated with impaired muscle maintenance in smokers. Cigarette smoking has also been associated with sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength. In order to investigate the cellular mechanisms by which cigarette smoke (CS) promotes muscle catabolism, C2 myotubes from an in vitro skeletal muscle cell line, were exposed to different levels of whole vapor phase CS using a controlled CS exposure apparatus. Exposure of C2 myotubes to CS caused a reduction in diameter of myotubes and a time- and dose-dependent degradation of myosin heavy chain. Also, CS exposure resulted in increased intracellular oxidative stress and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which led to up-regulation of the muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases: MAFbx/atrogin-1 and MuRF1. Pretreatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine and inhibition of p38 MAPK by SB203580 prevented CS induced catabolism. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that exposure of skeletal myotubes to CS leads to increased oxidative stress and activation of the p38 MAPK pathway resulting in muscle cell atrophy and breakdown of muscle protein mediated by muscle specific E3 ubiquitin ligases. Our findings provide a possible molecular mechanism for the catabolic effects of CS in skeletal muscle. PMID:23262287

  1. Chemical Species in the Vapor Phase of Hanford Double-Shell Tanks: Potential Impacts on Waste Tank Corrosion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Felmy, Andrew R.; Qafoku, Odeta; Arey, Bruce W.; Boomer, Kayle D.

    2010-09-22

    The presence of corrosive and inhibiting chemicals on the tank walls in the vapor space, arising from the waste supernatant, dictate the type and degree of corrosion that occurs there. An understanding of how waste chemicals are transported to the walls and the affect on vapor species from changing supernatant chemistry (e.g., pH, etc.), are basic to the evaluation of risks and impacts of waste changes on vapor space corrosion (VSC). In order to address these issues the expert panel workshop on double-shell tank (DST) vapor space corrosion testing (RPP-RPT-31129) participants made several recommendations on the future data and modeling needs in the area of DST corrosion. In particular, the drying of vapor phase condensates or supernatants can form salt or other deposits at the carbon steel interface resulting in a chemical composition at the near surface substantially different from that observed directly in the condensates or the supernatants. As a result, over the past three years chemical modeling and experimental studies have been performed on DST supernatants and condensates to predict the changes in chemical composition that might occur as condensates or supernatants equilibrate with the vapor space species and dry at the carbon steel surface. The experimental studies included research on both the chemical changes that occurred as the supernatants dried as well as research on how these chemical changes impact the corrosion of tank steels. The chemical modeling and associated experimental studies were performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the research on tank steel corrosion at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This report presents a summary of the research conducted at PNNL with special emphasis on the most recent studies conducted in FY10. An overall summary of the project results as well as their broader implications for vapor space corrosion of the DST’s is given at the end of this report.

  2. Si-doping into GaAs grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using bisdiisopropylaminosilane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochimizu, Hirosato; Tanaka, Histoshi

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a well-controlled Si doping process into GaAs epilayers by using bisdiisopropylaminosilane (Si[N(i-C 3H 7) 2] 2H 2) with metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Disilane (Si 2H 6), a commonly used Si source, shows that doping characteristics are largely dependent on growth temperature at lower reactor pressure and increased the gas-flow velocity. Based on the deliberate consideration of source material chemistry, we employed highly reactive Si[N(i-C 3H 7) 2] 2H 2 to minimize dependence of doping characteristics on growth temperature. For Si 2H 6, the carrier concentration exhibits a marked temperature dependence with an activation energy of 1.4 eV between 570°C and 730°C. For Si[N(i-C 3H 7) 2] 2H 2, it is slightly dependent on the growth temperature with an activation energy of 0.1 eV. This improvement is very significant for better uniformity and reproducibility of the epitaxial layers. Si[N(i-C 3H 7) 2] 2H 2 is a preferable Si doping source in GaAs.

  3. High-Temperature Growth of GaP on Si Substrates by Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yasushi; Morizumi, Kenta; Watanabe, Satoshi; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takuya; Noda, Kunihiro; Fukuda, Shinya; Ozeki, Tomokazu; Kuwahara, Kazuhiro; Fuke, Shunro; Furukawa, Yuzo; Yonezu, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    GaP was grown on misoriented Si substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). At 700 and 800 °C, no mirror surface was obtained. A mirror surface was achieved at 830 °C with a high PH3 flow rate. The island nucleation density at the initial growth stage increased with temperature between 700 and 800 °C and saturated beyond 800 °C. Islands with a density of 1011 cm-2 nucleated at 830 °C. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (c-TEM) shows that a 5-nm-thick GaP layer was formed by coalescence of the islands at 830 °C. A cross-hatched pattern (CHP) was observed for a 200-nm-thick GaP layer grown at 830 °C. The CHP indicates that the quality of the GaP layer was high. Cross-sectional TEM reveals that few stacking faults and dislocations exist in 5- and 40-nm-thick GaP layers on Si substrates.

  4. Growth of GaN nanotubes by halide vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Carl; Pozina, Galia; Khromov, Sergey; Monemar, Bo

    2011-02-25

    We have investigated low temperature growth of GaN nanostructures using halide vapor phase epitaxy on c-oriented Al(2)O(3) and Au coated Al(2)O(3) substrates. Depending on the III/V ratio and the growth temperature, the shape and density of the structures could be controlled. By increasing the GaCl partial pressure, the structure changed from dot-like to nanotubes. The nanotubes, which could be open or closed, were about 1 µm long with a diameter of typically 200 nm. In addition, it was observed that the nanostructures were spontaneously nucleated at droplets of Ga or, when using Au coated Al(2)O(3), on droplets of Au/Ga alloy. By varying the growth temperature, the inner diameter of the nanotubes could be controlled. The experimental results suggest that this approach with pre-patterned Au coated Al(2)O(3)substrates has the potential for fabrication of well-organized nanotubes with a high density. PMID:21242622

  5. ZnO nanorod growth by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport with different growth durations

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Oh, Hee-bong; Ryu, Hyukhyun; Yun, Jondo; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown by plasma-enhanced vapor phase transport (PEVPT) were investigated. Plasma-treated oxygen gas was used as the oxygen source for the ZnO growth. The structural properties of ZnO nanostructures grown for different durations were measured by scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The authors comprehensively analyzed the growth of the ZnO nanostructures with different growth durations both with and without the use of plasma-treated oxygen gas. It was found that PEVPT has a significant influence on the growth of the ZnO nanorods. PEVPT with plasma-treated oxygen gas facilitated the generation of nucleation sites, and the resulting ZnO nanorod structures were more vertical than those prepared by conventional VPT without plasma-treated oxygen gas. As a result, the ZnO nanostructures grown using PEVPT showed improved structural properties compared to those prepared by the conventional VPT method.

  6. Vapor Phase Hydrogenation of Nitrobenzene to Aniline Over Carbon Supported Ruthenium Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, Chakravartula S; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Viswanadham, Balaga; Srikanth, Amirineni; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-07-01

    A series of Ru/Carbon catalysts (0.5-6.0 wt%) were prepared by impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), CO-chemisorption, surface area and pore-size distribution measurements. The catalytic activities were evaluated for the vapor phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene. The dispersion measured by CO-uptake values suggests that a decrease of dispersion is observed with increasing Ru loading on carbon support. These findings are well supported by the crystallite size measured from XRD measurements. XPS study reveals the formation of Ru0 after reduction at 573 K for 3 h. The catalysts exhibit high conversion/selectivity at 4.5 wt% Ru loading during hydrogenation reaction. The particle size measured from CO-chemisorption and TEM analysis are related to the TOF during the hydrogenation reaction. Ru/C catalysts are found to show higher conversion/selectivities during hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline. PMID:26373150

  7. Acceptance Testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Engineering Development Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John; Kliss, Mark; Tleimat, Maher; Quinn, Gregory; Fort, James; Nalette, Tim; Baker, Gale

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of acceptance testing of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) technology. The VPCAR technology is currently being developed by NASA as a Mars transit vehicle water recycling system. NASA has recently completed a grant to develop a next generation VPCAR system. This grant was peer reviewed and funded through the Advanced Life Support (ALS) National Research Announcement (NRA). The grant funded a contract with Water Reuse Technology Inc. to construct an engineering development unit. This contract concluded with the shipment of the final deliverable to NASA on 8/31/03. The objective of the acceptance testing was to characterize the performance of this new system. This paper presents the results of mass power, and volume measurements for the delivered system. In addition, product water purity analysis for a Mars transit mission and a planetary base wastewater ersatz are provided. Acoustic noise levels, interface specifications and system reliability results are also discussed. An assessment of the readiness of the technology for human testing and recommendations for future improvements are provided.

  8. Vapor Phase Synthesis of Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanowires for Tunable Room-Temperature Nanolasers.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jun; Liu, Xin Feng; Zhang, Qing; Ha, Son Tung; Yuan, Yan Wen; Shen, Chao; Sum, Tze Chien; Xiong, Qihua

    2015-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires have received considerable attention in the past decade driven by both unprecedented physics derived from the quantum size effect and strong isotropy and advanced applications as potential building blocks for nanoscale electronics and optoelectronic devices. Recently, organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites have been shown to exhibit high optical absorption coefficient, optimal direct band gap, and long electron/hole diffusion lengths, leading to high-performance photovoltaic devices. Herein, we present the vapor phase synthesis free-standing CH3NH3PbI3, CH3NH3PbBr3, and CH3NH3PbIxCl3(-x) perovskite nanowires with high crystallinity. These rectangular cross-sectional perovskite nanowires have good optical properties and long electron hole diffusion length, which ensure adequate gain and efficient optical feedback. Indeed, we have demonstrated optical-pumped room-temperature CH3NH3PbI3 nanowire lasers with near-infrared wavelength of 777 nm, low threshold of 11 ?J/cm(2), and a quality factor as high as 405. Our research advocates the promise of optoelectronic devices based on organic-inorganic perovskite nanowires. PMID:26043362

  9. Unintentional Ga incorporation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of In-containing III-nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Masanobu; Oda, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Maeda, Narihiko; Yokoyama, Haruki; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    We prepared InAlN barrier layer films on GaN buffer layers using the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method and investigated the InAlN/GaN heterointerfaces. Secondary ion spectroscopy experiments revealed that a quaternary alloy of InAlGaN is grown on GaN even when trimethylindium (TMIn) and trimethylaluminum (TMAl) are exclusively supplied as group-III precursors, indicating that Ga is unintentionally incorporated into the InAlN layers. This Ga incorporation is also observed in InGaN/GaN heterostructures. Our systematic investigations of the growth condition dependence, such as the TMIn flow rate, indicate that the Ga is supplied by a transmetalation reaction between TMIn and residual Ga on the flow distributor in the reactor. Here, we show that the Ga incorporation can be eliminated by adopting an elaborate growth sequence, including reactor cleaning and regrowth processes. This study provides guides for designing the MOVPE reactor configuration, as well as the growth sequences, for the growth of device structures with In-containing nitride layers.

  10. Radiation-induced defects in GaN bulk grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Duc, Tran Thien; Pozina, Galia; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Hemmingsson, Carl; Ohshima, Takeshi

    2014-09-08

    Defects induced by electron irradiation in thick free-standing GaN layers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. In as-grown materials, six electron traps, labeled D2 (E{sub C}–0.24?eV), D3 (E{sub C}–0.60?eV), D4 (E{sub C}–0.69?eV), D5 (E{sub C}–0.96?eV), D7 (E{sub C}–1.19?eV), and D8, were observed. After 2?MeV electron irradiation at a fluence of 1?×?10{sup 14?}cm{sup ?2}, three deep electron traps, labeled D1 (E{sub C}–0.12?eV), D5I (E{sub C}–0.89?eV), and D6 (E{sub C}–1.14?eV), were detected. The trap D1 has previously been reported and considered as being related to the nitrogen vacancy. From the annealing behavior and a high introduction rate, the D5I and D6 centers are suggested to be related to primary intrinsic defects.

  11. Surface organization of homoepitaxial InP films grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocalinska, A.; Manganaro, M.; Pelucchi, E.; Vvedensky, D. D.

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic study of the morphology of homoepitaxial InP films grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy which are imaged with ex situ atomic force microscopy. These films show a dramatic range of different surface morphologies as a function of the growth conditions and substrate (growth temperature, V/III ratio, and miscut angle <0.6? and orientation toward A or B sites), ranging from stable step flow to previously unreported strong step bunching, over 10 nm in height. These observations suggest a window of growth parameters for optimal quality epitaxial layers. We also present a theoretical model for these growth modes that takes account of deposition, diffusion, and dissociation of molecular precursors, and the diffusion and step incorporation of atoms released by the precursors. The experimental conditions for step flow and step bunching are reproduced by this model, with the step bunching instability caused by the difference in molecular dissociation from above and below step edges, as was discussed previously for GaAs (001).

  12. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of high-quality ScN epilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Oshima, Yuichi Víllora, Encarnación G.; Shimamura, Kiyoshi

    2014-04-21

    The heteroepitaxial growth of ScN films was investigated on various substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Single crystalline mirror-like ScN(100) and ScN(110) layers were successfully deposited on r- and m-plane sapphire substrates, respectively. Homogeneous stoichiometric films (N/Sc ratio 1.01?±?0.10) up to 40??m in thickness were deposited. Their mosaicity drastically improved with increasing the film thickness. The band gap was determined by optical methods to be 2.06?eV. Impurity concentrations including H, C, O, Si, and Cl were investigated through energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, it was found that the presence of impurities was efficiently suppressed in comparison with that of HVPE-grown ScN films reported in the past, which was possible thanks to the home-designed corrosion-free HVPE reactor. Room-temperature Hall measurements indicated that the residual free electron concentrations ranged between 10{sup 18}–10{sup 20}?cm{sup ?3}, which was markedly lower than the reported values. The carrier mobility increased monotonically with the decreasing in carrier concentration, achieving the largest value ever reported, 284?cm{sup 2}?V{sup ?1}?s{sup ?1} at n?=?3.7?×?10{sup 18}?cm{sup ?3}.

  13. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC/solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  14. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.

    2003-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB. TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly, to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC / solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  15. Environmentally Compatible Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor for Space Shuttle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, Howard L.; Hall, Phillip B.; Martin, David (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    USA-SRB Element is responsible for the assembly and refurbishment of the non-motor components of the SRB as part of Space Shuttle. Thrust Vector Control (TVC) frames structurally support components of the TVC system located in the aft skirt of the SRB (Solid Rocket Booster). TVC frames are exposed to the seacoast environment after refurbishment and, also, to seawater immersion after splashdown, and during tow-back to CCAFS-Hangar AF refurbishment facilities. During refurbishment operations it was found that numerous TVC frames were experiencing internal corrosion and coating failures, both from salt air and seawater intrusions. Inspectors using borescopes would visually examine the internal cavities of the complicated aluminum alloy welded tubular structure. It was very difficult for inspectors to examine cavity corners and tubing intersections and particularly. to determine the extent of the corrosion and coating anomalies. Physical access to TVC frame internal cavities for corrosion removal and coating repair was virtually impossible, and an improved method using a Liquid (water based) Vapor-phase Corrosion Inhibitor (LVCI) for preventing initiation of new corrosion, and mitigating and/or stopping existing corrosion growth was recommended in lieu of hazardous paint solvents and high VOC/solvent based corrosion inhibitors. In addition, the borescopic inspection method used to detect corrosion, and/or coating anomalies had severe limitations because of part geometry, and an improved non-destructive inspection (NDI) method using Neutron Radiography (N-Ray) was also recommended.

  16. Carbon-Supported bimetallic Pd-Fe catalysts for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Karim, Ayman M.; Zhang, He; Kovarik, Libor; Li, Xiaohong S.; Hensley, Alyssa; McEwen, Jean-Sabin; Wang, Yong

    2013-10-01

    Abstract Carbon supported metal catalysts (Cu/C, Fe/C, Pd/C, Pt/C, PdFe/C and Ru/C) have been prepared, characterized and tested for vapor-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol (GUA) at atmospheric pressure. Phenol was the major intermediate on all catalysts. Over the noble metal catalysts saturation of the aromatic ring was the major pathway observed at low temperature (250 °C), forming predominantly cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol. Substantial ring opening reaction was observed on Pt/C and Ru/C at higher reaction temperatures (e.g., 350 °C). Base metal catalysts, especially Fe/C, were found to exhibit high HDO activity without ring-saturation or ring-opening with the main products being benzene, phenol along with small amounts of cresol, toluene and trimethylbenzene (TMB). A substantial enhancement in HDO activity was observed on the PdFe/C catalysts. Compared with Fe/C, the yield to oxygen-free aromatic products (i.e., benzene/toluene/TMB) on PdFe/C increased by a factor of four at 350 °C, and by approximately a factor of two (83.2% versus 43.3%) at 450 °C. The enhanced activity of PdFe/C is attributed to the formation of PdFe alloy as evidenced by STEM, EDS and TPR.

  17. Banning the Use of Electronic Cigarettes on Airplanes Act of 2015 (H.R 3840)

    Cancer.gov

    The bill aims to ban the use of electronic cigarettes on passenger flights, and defines electronic cigarettes as “a device that delivers nicotine or other substances to a user of the device in the form of a vapor that is inhaled to simulate the experience

  18. Exchange of Na+ and K+ between water vapor and feldspar phases at high temperature and low vapor pressure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    In order to determine whether gas (steam) containing a small amount of dissolved alkali chloride is effective in promoting base exchange of Na+ and K+ among alkali feldspars and coexisting brine or brine plus solid salt, experiments were carried out at 400-700??C and steam densities ranging down to less than 0.05. For bulk compositions rich in potassium, the low pressure results are close to previous high-pressure results in composition of the fluid and coexisting solid phase. However, when the bulk composition is more sodic, alkali feldspars are relatively richer in potassium at low pressure than at high pressure. This behaviour corresponds to enrichment of potassium in the gas phase relative to coexisting brine and precipitation of solid NaCl when the brine plus gas composition becomes moderately sodic. The gas phase is very effective in promoting base exchange between coexisting alkali feldspars at high temperature and low water pressure. This suggests that those igneous rocks which contain coexisting alkali feldspars out of chemical equilibrium either remained very dry during the high-temperature part of their cooling history or that the pore fluid was a gas containing very little potassium relative to sodium. ?? 1976.

  19. Fully automated analysis of four tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke using two-dimensional online solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Bai, Ruoshi; Yi, Xiaoli; Yang, Zhendong; Liu, Xingyu; Zhou, Jun; Liang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A fully automated method for the detection of four tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in mainstream cigarette smoke (MSS) has been developed. The new developed method is based on two-dimensional online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/LC-MS/MS). The two dimensional SPE was performed in the method utilizing two cartridges with different extraction mechanisms to cleanup disturbances of different polarity to minimize sample matrix effects on each analyte. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a UPLC C18 reversed phase analytical column. Under the optimum online SPE/LC-MS/MS conditions, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), N'-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were baseline separated with good peak shapes. This method appears to be the most sensitive method yet reported for determination of TSNAs in mainstream cigarette smoke. The limits of quantification for NNN, NNK, NAT and NAB reached the levels of 6.0, 1.0, 3.0 and 0.6pg/cig, respectively, which were well below the lowest levels of TSNAs in MSS of current commercial cigarettes. The accuracy of the measurement of four TSNAs was from 92.8 to 107.3%. The relative standard deviations of intra-and inter-day analysis were less than 5.4% and 7.5%, respectively. The main advantages of the method developed are fairly high sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy of results, minimum sample pre-treatment, full automation, and high throughput. As a part of the validation procedure, the developed method was applied to evaluate TSNAs yields for 27 top-selling commercial cigarettes in China. PMID:26695255

  20. Determination of nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in mainstream cigarette smoke using a glass filter and a sorbent cartridge followed by the two-phase/one-pot elution method with carbon disulfide and methanol.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Hayashida, Hideki; Izu, Rina; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2015-12-24

    We have developed a new analytical method for the determination of nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in main-stream cigarette smoke using a sorbent cartridge packed with Carboxen 572 (CX-572) and a Cambridge filter pad (CFP) followed by the two-phase/one-pot elution method. A CX-572 cartridge is installed between the intake of the CFP and the pump of the smoking machine. Gaseous compounds collected with the CX-572 cartridge and total particulate matter (TPM) collected with the CFP are coeluted simultaneously in the same vial and then analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and gas chromatograph-thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD). Carbonyl compounds are determined by adding derivatizing reagent (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, DNPH) to the eluate followed by HPLC analysis. VOCs and nicotine are determined by GC/MS, and water is determined by GC/TCD. The same sample eluate solution is used for HPLC, GC/MS and GC/TCD analyses. As a result of measuring main-stream cigarette smoke generated from reference cigarettes, almost all carbonyl compounds and VOCs except formaldehyde were passed through a CFP and trapped in a CX-572 cartridge. 100% of nicotine, tar and TPM were trapped in a CFP. 50% of water and 53% of formaldehyde were trapped in a CFP. The one-pot data is almost equal to the sums of CFP (particulate matter) and CX-572 (gaseous compounds) data. The two-phase/one-pot elution method can simultaneously measure nicotine, tar, volatile organic compounds and carbonyl compounds in cigarette smoke with simple operation and small amounts of reagents. PMID:26653840

  1. Growth of bulk AlN crystals by vapor-phase epitaxy from atomic Al and NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorel'skii, M. Yu.; Alekseev, A. N.; Pogorel'skii, Yu. V.; Shkurko, A. P.

    2015-09-01

    A new approach to obtaining bulk AlN single crystals by vapor-phase epitaxy has been tested. NH3 and Al vapor were used as growth reagents. The following ranges of growth parameters were admissible for the laboratory equipment (experimental growth installation): temperatures of 1050-1500°C at ammonia flow rates of up to 50 sccm and pressures on the order of 10-5-10-4 bar, growth rates of up to 200 ?m h-1. At a temperature of 1450°C, samples of strained bulk block AlN crystals with thicknesses of up to 200 ?m were obtained in the wurtzite phase in the [0001] direction on MBE templates based on sapphire substrates with a diameter of 2?.

  2. Vapor-phase interactions and diffusion of organic solvents in the unsaturated zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roy, W.R.; Griffin, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the interactions and static movement of 37 organic solvents as vapors through the unsaturated soil zone. The physicochemical interactions of the organic vapors with unsaturated soil materials were emphasized with focus on diffusive, and adsorptive interactions. Fick's Law and porous media diffusion coefficients for most of the solvent vapors were either compiled or estimated; coefficients were not available for some of the fluorinated solvents. The adsorption of some of the solvent vapors by silica was concluded to be due to hydrogen bond formation with surface silanol groups. Heats of adsorption data for different adsorbents were also compiled. There were very few data on the adsorption of these solvent vapors by soils, but it appears that the magnitude of adsorption of nonpolar solvents is reduced as the relative humidity of the vapor-solid system is increased. Consequently, the interaction of the vapors may then separated into two processes; (1) gas-water partitioning described by Henry's Law constants, and (2) solid-water adsorption coefficients which may be estimated from liquid-solid partition coefficients (Kd values). ?? 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  3. Method of varying a characteristic of an optical vertical cavity structure formed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    DOEpatents

    Hou, Hong Q. (Albuquerque, NM); Coltrin, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Choquette, Kent D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming an array of vertical cavity optical resonant structures wherein the structures in the array have different detection or emission wavelengths. The process uses selective area growth (SAG) in conjunction with annular masks of differing dimensions to control the thickness and chemical composition of the materials in the optical cavities in conjunction with a metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) process to build these arrays.

  4. Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Technologies Case Studies: Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal and Direct Osmotic Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Design for microgravity has traditionally not been well integrated early on into the development of advanced life support (ALS) technologies. NASA currently has a many ALS technologies that are currently being developed to high technology readiness levels but have not been formally evaluated for microgravity compatibility. Two examples of such technologies are the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Technology and the Direct Osmotic Concentration Technology. This presentation will cover the design of theses two systems and will identify potential microgravity issues.

  5. An Evaluation of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal Process for Use in a Mars Transit Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael; Borchers, Bruce

    1998-01-01

    An experimental program has been developed to evaluate the potential of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR) technology for use as a Mars Transit Vehicle water purification system. Design modifications which will be required to ensure proper operation of the VPCAR system in reduced gravity are also evaluated. The VPCAR system is an integrated wastewater treatment technology that combines a distillation process with high temperature catalytic oxidation. The distillation portion of the system utilizes a vapor compression distillation process to provide an energy efficient phase change separation. This portion of the system removes any inorganic salts and large molecular weight, organic contaminates, i.e., non-volatile, from the product water stream and concentrates these contaminates into a byproduct stream. To oxidize the volatile organic compounds and ammonia, a vapor phase, high temperature catalytic oxidizer is used. This catalytic system converts these compounds along with the aqueous product into CO2, H2O, and N2O. A secondary catalytic bed can then be used to reduce the N2O to nitrogen and oxygen (although not evaluated in this study). This paper describes the design specification of the VPCAR process, the relative benefits of its utilization in a Mars Transit Vehicle, and the design modification which will be required to ensure its proper operation in reduced gravity. In addition, the results of an experimental evaluation of the processors is presented. This evaluation presents the processors performance based upon product water purity, water recovery rates, and power.

  6. Children, Cigarettes and E-cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... can help keep your family healthy. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics E-Cigarettes Smoking and Youth About MedlinePlus ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  7. Characterization of vapor phase mercury released from concrete processing with baghouse filter dust added cement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hayes, Josh; Wu, Chang-Yu; Townsend, Timothy; Schert, John; Vinson, Tim; Deliz, Katherine; Bonzongo, Jean-Claude

    2014-02-18

    The fate of mercury (Hg) in cement processing and products has drawn intense attention due to its contribution to the ambient emission inventory. Feeding Hg-loaded coal fly ash to the cement kiln introduces additional Hg into the kiln's baghouse filter dust (BFD), and the practice of replacing 5% of cement with the Hg-loaded BFD by cement plants has recently raised environmental and occupational health concerns. The objective of this study was to determine Hg concentration and speciation in BFD as well as to investigate the release of vapor phase Hg from storing and processing BFD-added cement. The results showed that Hg content in the BFD from different seasons ranged from 0.91-1.44 mg/kg (ppm), with 62-73% as soluble inorganic Hg, while Hg in the other concrete constituents were 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than the BFD. Up to 21% of Hg loss was observed in the time-series study while storing the BFD in the open environment by the end of the seventh day. Real-time monitoring in the bench system indicated that high temperature and moisture can facilitate Hg release at the early stage. Ontario Hydro (OH) traps showed that total Hg emission from BFD is dictated by the air exchange surface area. In the bench simulation of concrete processing, only 0.4-0.5% of Hg escaped from mixing and curing BFD-added cement. A follow-up headspace study did not detect Hg release in the following 7 days. In summary, replacing 5% of cement with the BFD investigated in this study has minimal occupational health concerns for concrete workers, and proper storing and mixing of BFD with cement can minimize Hg emission burden for the cement plant. PMID:24444016

  8. Vapor-liquid phase coexistence and transport properties of two-dimensional oligomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, Tarak K.; Hens, Abhiram; Singh, Jayant K.

    2012-08-01

    Grand-canonical transition-matrix Monte Carlo and histogram reweighting techniques are used herein to study the vapor-liquid coexistence properties of two-dimensional (2D) flexible oligomers with varying chain lengths (m = 1-8). The phase diagrams of the various 2D oligomers follow the correspondence state (CS) principle, akin to the behavior observed for bulk oligomers. The 2D critical density is not influenced by the oligomer chain length, which contrasts with the observation for the bulk oligomers. Line tension, calculated using Binder's formalism, in the reduced plot is found to be independent of chain length in contrast to the 3D behavior. The dynamical properties of 2D fluids are evaluated using molecular dynamics simulations, and the velocity and pressure autocorrelation functions are investigated using Green-Kubo (GK) relations to yield the diffusion and viscosity. The viscosity determined from 2D non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation is compared with the viscosity estimated from the GK relations. The GK relations prove to be reliable and efficient for the calculation of 2D transport properties. Normal diffusive regions are identified in dense oligomeric fluid systems. The influence of molecular size on the diffusivity and viscosity is found to be diminished at specific CS points for the 2D oligomers considered herein. In contrast, the viscosity and diffusion of the 3D bulk fluid, at a reduced temperature and density, are strongly dependent on the molecular size at the same CS points. Furthermore, the viscosity increases and the diffusion decreases multifold in the 2D system relative to those in the 3D system, at the CS points.

  9. Recent progress in GaInAsSb thermophotovoltaics grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.A.; Choi, H.K.; Oakley, D.C.; Charache, G.W.

    1998-06-01

    Studies on the materials development of Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} alloys for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices are reviewed. Ga{sub 1{minus}x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1{minus}y} epilayers were grown lattice matched to GaSb substrates by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) using all organometallic precursors including triethylgallium, trimethylindium, tertiarybutylarsine, and trimethylantimony with diethyltellurium and dimethylzinc as the n- and p-type dopants, respectively. The overall material quality of these alloys depends on growth temperature, In content, V/III ratio, substrate misorientation, and to a lesser extent, growth rate. A mirror-like surface morphology and room temperature photoluminescence (PL) are obtained for GaInAsSb layers with peak emission in the wavelength range between 2 and 2.5 {micro}m. The crystal quality improves for growth temperature decreasing from 575 to 525 C, and with decreasing In content, as based on epilayer surface morphology and low temperature PL spectra. A trend of smaller full width at half-maximum for low temperature PL spectra is observed as the growth rate is increased from 1.5 to 2.5 and 5 {micro}m/h. In general, GaInAsSb layers grown on (100) GaSb substrates with a 6{degree} toward (111)B misorientation exhibited overall better material quality than layers grown on the more standard substrate (100)2{degree} toward (110). Consistent growth of high performance lattice-matched GaInAsSb TPV devices is also demonstrated.

  10. Aluminum Nitride Micro-Channels Grown via Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy for MEMs Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rodak, L.E.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Famouri, P.; Ting, L.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for a number of applications due to its temperature and chemical stability. Furthermore, AlN maintains its piezoelectric properties at higher temperatures than more commonly used materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) [1, 2], making AlN attractive for high temperature micro and nanoelectromechanical (MEMs and NEMs) applications including, but not limited to, high temperature sensors and actuators, micro-channels for fuel cell applications, and micromechanical resonators. This work presents a novel AlN micro-channel fabrication technique using Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). AlN easily nucleates on dielectric surfaces due to the large sticking coefficient and short diffusion length of the aluminum species resulting in a high quality polycrystalline growth on typical mask materials, such as silicon dioxide and silicon nitride [3,4]. The fabrication process introduced involves partially masking a substrate with a silicon dioxide striped pattern and then growing AlN via MOVPE simultaneously on the dielectric mask and exposed substrate. A buffered oxide etch is then used to remove the underlying silicon dioxide and leave a free standing AlN micro-channel. The width of the channel has been varied from 5 ìm to 110 ìm and the height of the air gap from 130 nm to 800 nm indicating the stability of the structure. Furthermore, this versatile process has been performed on (111) silicon, c-plane sapphire, and gallium nitride epilayers on sapphire substrates. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Raman measurements have been taken on channels grown on each substrate and indicate that the substrate is influencing the growth of the AlN micro-channels on the SiO2 sacrificial layer.

  11. GaInAsSb metastable alloys grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Cherng, M.J.; Stringfellow, G.B.; Kisker, D.W.; Srivastava, A.K.; Zyskind, J.L.

    1986-02-10

    Ga/sub 1-x/In/sub x/As/sub 1-y/Sb/sub y/ alloys have been grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy using trimethyl compounds of Ga, In, As, and Sb(TMGa, TMIn, TMAs, and TMSb) plus AsH/sub 3/ in an atmospheric pressure, horizontal, infrared heated reactor. For the first time, alloys near the center of the region of solid immiscibility have been grown. Alloys with room-temperature band gaps of 0.45 eV (Ga/sub 0.68/In/sub 0.32/As/sub 0.28/Sb/sub 0.72/) and 0.37 eV (Ga/sub 0.26/In/sub 0.74/As/sub 0.76/Sb/sub 0.24/) have been grown on GaSb substrates and alloys with larger band gaps (0.74 eV for Ga/sub 0.71/In/sub 0.29/As/sub 0.76/Sb/sub 0.24/) have been grown on InP substrates. The smaller band-gap alloys are grown at temperatures as low as 486 /sup 0/C. The alloys on InP substrates are grown at higher temperatures of 600 /sup 0/C, more typical of the GaAsSb and GaInAs alloys reported earlier. Solid composition was determined using energy dispersive x-ray analysis and combined x-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. The low-temperature photoluminescence of these metastable alloys consists of a single, presumably band edge peak. The half-widths of the photoluminescence peaks, especially those near the center of the region of immiscibility, are broader than those for the metastable ternary alloy GaAsSb. This may indicate that a significant amount of compositional clustering occurs during growth.

  12. Matrix Isolation Studies of Carbonic Acid—The Vapor Phase above the ?-Polymorph

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago two different polymorphs of carbonic acid, ?- and ?-H2CO3, were isolated as thin, crystalline films. They were characterized by infrared and, of late, by Raman spectroscopy. Determination of the crystal structure of these two polymorphs, using cryopowder and thin film X-ray diffraction techniques, has failed so far. Recently, we succeeded in sublimating ?-H2CO3 and trapping the vapor phase in a noble gas matrix, which was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy. In the same way we have now investigated the ?-polymorph. Unlike ?-H2CO3, ?-H2CO3 was regarded to decompose upon sublimation. Still, we have succeeded in isolation of undecomposed carbonic acid in the matrix and recondensation after removal of the matrix here. This possibility of sublimation and recondensation cycles of ?-H2CO3 adds a new aspect to the chemistry of carbonic acid in astrophysical environments, especially because there is a direct way of ?-H2CO3 formation in space, but none for ?-H2CO3. Assignments of the FTIR spectra of the isolated molecules unambiguously reveal two different carbonic acid monomer conformers (C2v and Cs). In contrast to the earlier study on ?-H2CO3, we do not find evidence for centrosymmetric (C2h) carbonic acid dimers here. This suggests that two monomers are entropically favored at the sublimation temperature of 250 K for ?-H2CO3, whereas they are not at the sublimation temperature of 210 K for ?-H2CO3. PMID:23631554

  13. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREACTOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-04-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from October 2002 to March 2003. In this starting stage of this study, we have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Two saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. Preliminary results suggest that BTEX sorption actually increases with the number of saturation/regeneration cycles. Furthermore, the experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and are currently being assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process.

  14. Polycrystalline indium phosphide on silicon by indium assisted growth in hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Metaferia, Wondwosen; Sun, Yan-Ting Lourdudoss, Sebastian; Pietralunga, Silvia M.; Zani, Maurizio; Tagliaferri, Alberto

    2014-07-21

    Polycrystalline InP was grown on Si(001) and Si(111) substrates by using indium (In) metal as a starting material in hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) reactor. In metal was deposited on silicon substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The deposited In resulted in islands of different size and was found to be polycrystalline in nature. Different growth experiments of growing InP were performed, and the growth mechanism was investigated. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy for morphological investigation, Scanning Auger microscopy for surface and compositional analyses, powder X-ray diffraction for crystallinity, and micro photoluminescence for optical quality assessment were conducted. It is shown that the growth starts first by phosphidisation of the In islands to InP followed by subsequent selective deposition of InP in HVPE regardless of the Si substrate orientation. Polycrystalline InP of large grain size is achieved and the growth rate as high as 21 ?m/h is obtained on both substrates. Sulfur doping of the polycrystalline InP was investigated by growing alternating layers of sulfur doped and unintentionally doped InP for equal interval of time. These layers could be delineated by stain etching showing that enough amount of sulfur can be incorporated. Grains of large lateral dimension up to 3??m polycrystalline InP on Si with good morphological and optical quality is obtained. The process is generic and it can also be applied for the growth of other polycrystalline III–V semiconductor layers on low cost and flexible substrates for solar cell applications.

  15. NOVEL CERAMIC-ORGANIC VAPOR PERMEATION MEMBRANES FOR VOC REMOVAL - PHASE I

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor permeation holds much promise for becoming a highly efficient means of preventing VOC emissions that are now generated by a variety of stationary sources, including solvent and surface coating operations, gasoline storage operations, and printing operations. A limitation of...

  16. NOVEL CERAMIC-ORGANIC VAPOR PERMEATION MEMBRANES FOR VOC REMOVAL - PHASE II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vapor permeation with highly permeable and organic-selective membranes is becoming an increasingly popular technique for preventing VOC emissions that are generated by a variety of stationary sources, including solvent and surface coating operations, gasoline storage operat...

  17. Desalination-of water by vapor-phase transport through hydrophobic nanopores

    E-print Network

    Lee, Jongho

    We propose a new approach to desalination of water whereby a pressure difference across a vapor-trapping nanopore induces selective transport of water by isothermal evaporation and condensation across the pore. Transport ...

  18. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  19. Influence of mass diffusion on the stability of thermophoretic growth of a solid from the vapor phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, J. L.; Garcia-Ybarra, P. L.; Rosner, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The stability of solid planar growth from a binary vapor phase with a condensing species dilute in a carrier gas is examined when the ratio of depositing to carrier species molecular mass is large and the main diffusive transport mechanism is thermal diffusion. It is shown that a deformation of the solid-gas interface induces a deformation of the gas phase isotherms that increases the thermal gradients and thereby the local mass deposition rate at the crests and reduces them at the valleys. The initial surface deformation is enhanced by the modified deposition rates in the absence of appreciable Fick/Brownian diffusion and interfacial energy effects.

  20. Vapor phase synthesis of compound semiconductors, from thin films to nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarigiannis, Demetrius

    A counterflow jet reactor was developed to study the gas-phase decomposition kinetics of organometallics used in the vapor phase synthesis of compound semiconductors. The reactor minimized wall effects by generating a reaction zone near the stagnation point of two vertically opposed counterflowing jets. Smoke tracing experiments were used to confirm the stability of the flow field and validate the proposed heat, mass and flow models of the counterflow jet reactor. Transport experiments using ethyl acetate confirmed the overall mass balance for the system and verified the ability of the model to predict concentrations at various points in the reactor under different flow conditions. Preliminary kinetic experiments were performed with ethyl acetate and indicated a need to redesign the reactor. The counterflow jet reactor was adapted for the synthesis of ZnSe nanoparticles. Hydrogen selenide was introduced through one jet and dimethylzinc-triethylamine through the other. The two precursors reacted in a region near the stagnation zone and polycrystalline particles of zinc selenide were reproducibly synthesized at room temperature and collected for analysis. Raman spectroscopy confirmed that the particles were crystalline zinc selenide, Morphological analysis using SEM clearly showed the presence of aggregates of particles, 40 to 60 nanometers in diameter. Analysis by TEM showed that the particles were polycrystalline in nature and composed of smaller single crystalline nanocrystallites, five to ten nanometers in diameter. The particles in the aggregate had the appearance of being sintered together. To prevent this sintering, a split inlet lower jet was designed to introduce dimethylzinc through the inner tube and a surface passivator through the outer one. This passivating agent appeared to prevent the particles from agglomerating. An existing MOVPE reactor for II-VI thin film growth was modified to grow III-V semiconductors. A novel new heater was designed and built around an easily replaceable, economical, 650-watt, tungsten-halogen lamp. The heater was successfully tested to temperatures up to 1500°F. The deposition reactor was successfully tested by growing a thin film of GaP on GaAs <100>. The film surface was imperfect but the experiments proved that the reactor was ready for service.

  1. E-Cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... heat the liquid inside the cartridge. The liquid contains nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals. The heated liquid ... know about some dangers of e-cigarettes: They contain nicotine, which is addictive They contain other potentially ...

  2. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nicotine levels have remained stable since then. 4 Health Risks of Smoking The evidence indicates that changing cigarette ... whether novel tobacco products reduce individual and population health risks. 4 The overall health of the public could ...

  3. Cigarette Ads and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carol, Julia

    1988-01-01

    Points out ways the tobacco industry markets products to youth, including paid advertisements, sponsorship of sporting events, music concerts, and magazines. Relates several focal points for smoking prevention, which include deglamorization of cigarette advertisements and making smoking socially undesirable. (LS)

  4. Cigarette smoking and schizophrenia 

    E-print Network

    Patrick, Jon Alan

    2007-06-28

    Section 1 Introduction Cigarette smoking is anecdotally seen more often amongst schizophrenic than well subjects. Research has suggested a variety of explanations which are discussed; the role of genetics, psychosocial ...

  5. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D.; Leischow, Scott J.; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers’ interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers’ view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers. PMID:26610541

  6. An Examination of Electronic Cigarette Content on Social Media: Analysis of E-Cigarette Flavor Content on Reddit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Zhan, Yongcheng; Li, Qiudan; Zeng, Daniel D; Leischow, Scott J; Okamoto, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the emerging electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) marketplace has shown great development prospects all over the world. Reddit, one of the most popular forums in the world, has a very large user group and thus great influence. This study aims to gain a systematic understanding of e-cigarette flavors based on data collected from Reddit. Flavor popularity, mixing, characteristics, trends, and brands are analyzed. Fruit flavors were mentioned the most (n = 15,720) among all the posts and were among the most popular flavors (n = 2902) used in mixed blends. Strawberry and vanilla flavors were the most popular for e-juice mixing. The number of posts discussing e-cigarette flavors has increased sharply since 2014. Mt. Baker Vapor and Hangen were the most popular brands discussed among users. Information posted on Reddit about e-cigarette flavors reflected consumers' interest in a variety of flavors. Our findings suggest that Reddit could be used for data mining and analysis of e-cigarette-related content. Understanding how e-cigarette consumers' view and utilize flavors within their vaping experience and how producers and marketers use social media to promote flavors and sell products could provide valuable information for regulatory decision-makers. PMID:26610541

  7. E-cigarettes: methodological and ideological issues and research priorities.

    PubMed

    Etter, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette combustion, rather than either tobacco or nicotine, is the cause of a public health disaster. Fortunately, several new technologies that vaporize nicotine or tobacco, and may make cigarettes obsolete, have recently appeared. Research priorities include the effects of vaporizers on smoking cessation and initiation, their safety and toxicity, use by non-smokers, dual use of vaporizers and cigarettes, passive vaping, renormalization of smoking, and the development of messages that effectively communicate the continuum of risk for tobacco and nicotine products. A major difficulty is that we are chasing a moving target. New products constantly appear, and research results are often obsolete by the time they are published. Vaporizers do not need to be safe, only safer than cigarettes. However, harm reduction principles are often misunderstood or rejected. In the context of a fierce ideological debate, and major investments by the tobacco industry, it is crucial that independent researchers provide regulators and the public with evidence-based guidance. The methodological and ideological hurdles on this path are discussed in this commentary. PMID:25856794

  8. The role of polymer formation during vapor phase lubrication of silicon.

    SciTech Connect

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Dirk, Shawn M.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony

    2010-10-01

    The lubrication of silicon surfaces with alcohol vapors has recently been demonstrated. With a sufficient concentration of pentanol vapor present, sliding of a silica ball on an oxidized silicon wafer can proceed with no measurable wear. The initial results of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis of wear surfaces revealed a reaction product having thickness on the order of a monolayer, and with an ion spectrum that included fragments having molecular weights of 200 or more that occurred only inside the wear tracks. The parent alcohol molecule pentanol, has molecular weight of 88amu, suggesting that reactions of adsorbed alcohols on the wearing surfaces allowed polymerization of the alcohols to form higher molecular weight species. In addition to pin-on-disk studies, lubrication of silicon surfaces with pentanol vapors has also been demonstrated using MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices. Recent investigations of the reaction mechanisms of the alcohol molecules with the oxidized silicon surfaces have shown that wearless sliding requires a concentration of the alcohol vapor that is dependent upon the contact stress during sliding, with higher stress requiring a greater concentration of alcohol. Different vapor precursors including those with acid functionality, olefins, and methyl termination also produce polymeric reaction products, and can lubricate the silica surfaces. Doping the operating environment with oxygen was found to quench the formation of the polymeric reaction product, and demonstrates that polymer formation is not necessary for wearless sliding.

  9. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2005-03-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from October 2004 through March 2005. In previous work, a surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) was shown to be an effective system for removing BTEX contaminants from produced water. Additional work on this project demonstrated that a compost-based biofilter could biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, it was also determined that the BTEX concentrations in the waste gas stream varied significantly during the regeneration period and the initial BTEX concentrations were too high for the biofilter to handle effectively. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using a passive adsorption column placed upstream of the biofilter to attenuate the peak gas-phase VOC concentrations delivered to the biofilter during the SMZ regeneration process. In preparation for the field test of the SMZ/VPB treatment system in New Mexico, a pilot-scale SMZ system was also designed and constructed during this reporting period. Finally, a cost and feasibility analysis was also completed. To investigate the merits of the passive buffering system during SMZ regeneration, two adsorbents, SMZ and granular activated carbon (GAC) were investigated in flow-through laboratory-scale columns to determine their capacity to handle steady and unsteady VOC feed conditions. When subjected to a toluene-contaminated air stream, the column containing SMZ reduced the peak inlet 1000 ppmv toluene concentration to 630 ppmv at a 10 second contact time. This level of buffering was insufficient to ensure complete removal in the downstream biofilter and the contact time was longer than desired. For this reason, using SMZ as a passive buffering system for the gas phase contaminants was not pursued further. In contrast to the SMZ results, GAC was found to be an effective adsorbent to handle the peak contaminant concentrations that occur early during the SMZ regeneration process. At a one second residence time, the GAC bed reduced peak contaminant concentrations by 97%. After the initial peak, the inlet VOC concentration in the SMZ regeneration gas stream drops exponentially with time. During this period, the contaminants on the GAC subsequently desorbed at a nearly steady rate over the next 45 hours resulting in a relatively steady effluent concentration of approximately 25 ppm{sub v}. This lower concentration is readily degradable by a downstream vapor phase biofilter (VPB) and the steady nature of the feed stream will prevent the biomass in the VPB from enduring starvation conditions between SMZ regeneration cycles. Repetitive sorption and desorption cycles that would be expected in the field were also investigated. It was determined that although the GAC initially lost some VOC sorption capacity, the adsorption and desorption profiles stabilized after approximately 6 cycles indicating that a GAC bed should be suitable for continuous operation. In preparation for the pilot field testing of the SMZ/VPB system, design, ''in-house'' construction and testing of the field system were completed during this project period. The design of the SMZ system for the pilot test was based on previous investigations by the PI's in Wyoming, 2002 and on analyses of the produced water at the field site in New Mexico. The field tests are scheduled for summer, 2005. A cost survey, feasibility of application and cost analyses were completed to investigate the long term effectiveness of the SMZ/VPB system as a method of treating produced water for re-use. Several factors were investigated, including: current costs to treat and dispose of produced water, end-use water quality requirements, and state and federal permitting requirements.

  10. Toxicological assessment of kretek cigarettes: Part 2: kretek and American-blended cigarettes, smoke chemistry and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Piadé, J-J; Roemer, E; Dempsey, R; Hornig, G; Deger Evans, A; Völkel, H; Schramke, H; Trelles-Sticken, E; Wittke, S; Weber, S; Schorp, M K

    2014-12-01

    Two commercial kretek cigarettes typical for the Indonesian market and a reference kretek cigarette were compared to the American-blended reference cigarette 2R4F by smoke chemistry characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments. Despite the widely diverse designs and deliveries of the selected kretek cigarettes, their smoke composition and in vitro toxicity data present a consistent pattern when data were normalized to total particulate matter (TPM) deliveries. This confirms the applicability of the studies' conclusions to a wide range of kretek cigarette products. After normalization to TPM delivery, nicotine smoke yields of kretek cigarettes were 29-46% lower than that of the 2R4F. The yields of other nitrogenous compounds were also much lower, less than would be expected from the mere substitution of one third of the tobacco filler by clove material. Yields of light molecular weight pyrolytic compounds, notably aldehydes and hydrocarbons, were reduced, while yields of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were unchanged and phenol yield was increased. The normalized in vitro toxicity was lowered accordingly, reflecting the yield reductions in gas-phase cytotoxic compounds and some particulate-phase mutagenic compounds. These results do not support a higher toxicity of the smoke of kretek cigarettes compared to American-blended cigarettes. PMID:25497993

  11. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED WATERS USING A SURFACTANT MODIFIED ZEOLITE/VAPOR PHASE BIOREATOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    LYNN E. KATZ; KERRY A. KINNEY; R.S. BOWMAN; E.J. SULLIVAN

    2003-10-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some of them must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. An efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed to remove these constituents. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. Our previous DOE research work (DE-AC26-99BC15221) demonstrated that SMZ could successfully remove BTEX compounds from the produced water. In addition, SMZ could be regenerated through a simple air sparging process. The primary goal of this project is to develop a robust SMZ/VPB treatment system to efficiently remove the organic constituents from produced water in a cost-effective manner. This report summarizes work of this project from March 2003 through September 2003. We have continued our investigation of SMZ regeneration from our previous DOE project. Ten saturation/stripping cycles have been completed for SMZ columns saturated with BTEX compounds. The results suggest that BTEX sorption capacity is not lost after ten saturation/regeneration cycles. The composition of produced water from a site operated by Crystal Solutions Ltd. in Wyoming has been characterized and was used to identify key semi-volatile components. Isotherms with selected semi-volatile components have been initiated and preliminary results have been obtained. The experimental vapor phase bioreactors for this project have been designed and assembled to treat the off-gas from the SMZ regeneration process. These columns will be used both in the laboratory and in the proposed field testing to be conducted next year. Innocula for the columns that degrade all of the BTEX columns have been developed.

  12. Treatment of Produced Water Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; Robert S. Bowman; Enid J. Sullivan; Soondong Kwon; Elaine B. Darby; Li-Jung Chen; Craig R. Altare

    2006-01-31

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. Produced waters typically contain a high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component as well as chemicals added during the oil-production process. It has been estimated that a total of 14 billion barrels of produced water were generated in 2002 from onshore operations (Veil, 2004). Although much of this produced water is disposed via reinjection, environmental and cost considerations can make surface discharge of this water a more practical means of disposal. In addition, reinjection is not always a feasible option because of geographic, economic, or regulatory considerations. In these situations, it may be desirable, and often necessary from a regulatory viewpoint, to treat produced water before discharge. It may also be feasible to treat waters that slightly exceed regulatory limits for re-use in arid or drought-prone areas, rather than losing them to reinjection. A previous project conducted under DOE Contract DE-AC26-99BC15221 demonstrated that surfactant modified zeolite (SMZ) represents a potential treatment technology for produced water containing BTEX. Laboratory and field experiments suggest that: (1) sorption of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) to SMZ follows linear isotherms in which sorption increases with increasing solute hydrophobicity; (2) the presence of high salt concentrations substantially increases the capacity of the SMZ for BTEX; (3) competitive sorption among the BTEX compounds is negligible; and, (4) complete recovery of the SMZ sorption capacity for BTEX can be achieved by air sparging the SMZ. This report summarizes research for a follow on project to optimize the regeneration process for multiple sorption/regeneration cycles, and to develop and incorporate a vapor phase bioreactor (VPB) system for treatment of the off-gas generated during air sparging. To this end, we conducted batch and column laboratory SMZ and VPB experiments with synthetic and actual produced waters. Based on the results of the laboratory testing, a pilot scale study was designed and conducted to evaluate the combined SMZ/VPB process. An economic and regulatory feasibility analysis was also completed as part of the current study to assess the viability of the process for various water re-use options.

  13. Infrared spectroscopy of the vapor phase above solid CrCl{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Konings, R.J.M.

    1996-02-01

    The vaporization of chromium (III) chloride has been studied by high temperature infrared spectroscopy over the temperature range 875--1,000 K. Two different binary Cr-Cl vapor species have been found present in significant abundances: CrCl{sub 3}, which has a pyramidal structure with v{sub 1} = 430 cm{sup {minus}1} and v{sub 2} = 444 cm{sup {minus}1} and CrCl{sub 2} which is linear with v{sub 3} = 422 cm{sup {minus}1}.

  14. Toxicological evaluation of cigarettes with two banded cigarette paper technologies.

    PubMed

    Theophilus, Eugenia H; Pence, Deborah H; Meckley, Daniel R; Keith Shreve, W; Ayres, Paul H; Bombick, Betsy R; Borgerding, Michael F; Garner, Charles D; Swauger, James E

    2007-09-01

    A tiered testing strategy has been employed to evaluate the potential of tobacco processes, ingredients, or technological developments to change the biological activity resulting from burning cigarette tobacco. The strategy is based on comparative chemical and biological testing. The introduction of banded cigarette papers in cigarettes to meet New York state "Fire Safety Standards for Cigarettes" constitutes an example of a technological development evaluated utilizing this tiered testing strategy that included a comparison of the chemical and biological effects of cigarettes with and without the banded cigarette paper technologies (BCPT) (representative of current marketed technologies). Specific testing included mainstream cigarette smoke chemistry studies; in vitro studies included genotoxicity (Ames and sister chromatid exchange) and cytotoxicity studies (neutral red); in vivo studies included a 13-week inhalation study in Sprague-Dawley rats and a 30-week dermal tumor promotion study in SENCAR mice. Collectively, data indicated that cigarettes with and without BCPT had a similar toxicological profile in this test battery. PMID:17590321

  15. DrugFacts: Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... also the possibility that they could perpetuate the nicotine addiction and thus interfere with quitting. Because e-cigarettes ... are any therapeutic benefits or how the health effects compare to conventional cigarettes. Learn More For more ...

  16. Development of vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, N.; Schubert, W.; Knight, J.; Quigley, M.; Forsberg, G.; Ganapathi, G.; Yarbrough, C.; Koukol, R.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will present test data and discussion on the work we are conducting at JPL to address the following issues: 1) efficacy of sterilization process; 2) diffusion of hydrogen peroxide under sterilization process conditions into hard to reach places; 3) materials and components compatibility with the sterilization process and 4) development of methodology to protect sensitive components from hydrogen peroxide vapor.

  17. Evaluation of Catalysts from Different Origin for Vapor Phase Upgrading in Biomass Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.; Mukarakate, C.; Zheng, Z.; Nimlos, M.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid fuels and chemicals from biomass resources arouse much interests in research and development. Fast pyrolysis of biomass has the potential to effectively change solid biomass materials into liquid products. However, bio-oil from traditional pyrolysis processes is difficult to apply in industry, because of its complicated composition, high oxygen content, low stability, etc. Upgrading or refining of the bio-oil should be performed for industrial application of biomass pyrolysis. Often, the process would be done in a separate reactor downstream of the pyrolysis process. In this paper, a laboratory scale micro test facility was constructed, wherein the pyrolysis of pine and catalytic upgrading of the resulting vapors were closely coupled in one reactor. The composition of vapor effluent was monitored with a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for the online evaluation of the catalyst performance. Catalysts from different origin were tested and compared for the effectiveness of pyrolysis vapor upgrading, namely commercial zeolites, Ni based steam reforming catalyst, CaO, MgO, and several laboratory-made catalysts. The reaction temperature for catalytic upgrading varied between 400 and 600 centigrade, and the gaseous residence time ranged from 0.1 second to above 2 second, to simulate the conditions in industrial application. It is revealed that some catalysts are active in transform most of primary biomass pyrolysis vapors into hydrocarbons, resulting in nonoxygenated products, which is beneficial for downstream utilization. Others are not as effective, results in minor improvement compared with blank test results.

  18. Characterization of particulate and vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of primary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krugly, Edvinas; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Sidaraviciute, Ruta; Ciuzas, Darius; Prasauskas, Tadas; Kauneliene, Violeta; Stasiulaitiene, Inga; Kliucininkas, Linas

    2014-01-01

    The indoor air of schools is considered as one of the most important factors affecting the health of children. The aim of the presented research was to characterize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of schools. The sampling campaign was conducted during the heating season of 2011/2012. Five primary schools from various urban settings in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. 150 daily samples of particulate and vapor phases were collected during the sampling period. The ultrasonic extractions followed by the gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GS/MS) analyses were used for the determination of PAHs. The concentration of total PAHs in the PM2.5 fraction ranged from 20.3 to 131.1 ng m-3, while total suspended particles (TSP) fraction contained from 19.9 to 80.3 ng m-3 of total PAHs. The vapor phase concentration of PAHs ranged from 67.2 to 372.5 ng m-3. The most abundant PAH in both phases was naphthalene. In order to define sources of indoor and outdoor PAHs several source apportionment methods were applied. The analysis revealed that emissions from motor vehicles and fuel burning for heating purposes were the major sources of PAHs in the city of Kaunas.

  19. A New Surface Modification Method to Prevent the Release-Stiction of Micromechanical Structures during HF Vapor-Phase Etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Kang, Sung Weon; Lee, Jaewoo; Jung, Sung Hae; Kim, Yoon Tae

    2004-09-01

    A novel release process without stiction problem is a major concern in surface micromachining technology to fabricate microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices. HF vapor-phase etching (VPE) has been focused as a promising dry process to remove sacrificial SiO2 layer, but still has limitation due to water condensation. We have first demonstrated the effectiveness of a new surface modification method using strongly hydrophilic materials (i.e., Ti, Al2O3) in preventing the release-stiction during HF VPE process. The role of hydrophilic surface layer is proposed to suppress the water bridging causing a attractive capillary force between micromechanical and stationary structures.

  20. Dislocation reduction of InAs nanofins prepared on Si substrate using metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    InAs nanofins were prepared on a nanopatterned Si (001) substrate by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy. The threading dislocations, stacked on the lowest-energy-facet plane {111}, move along the SiO2 walls, resulting in a dislocation reduction, as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. The dislocations were trapped within a thin InAs epilayer. The obtained 90-nm-wide InAs nanofins with an almost etching-pit-free surface do not require complex intermediate-layer epitaxial growth processes and large thickness typically required for conventional epitaxial growth. PMID:23176442

  1. A GaAs metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth process to reduce Ge outdiffusion from the Ge substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Galiana, B.; Rey-Stolle, I.; Algora, C.

    2008-04-14

    A barrier based on GaAs for controlling the Ge out diffusion has been developed by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. It is based on a thin GaAs layer (50 nm) grown at a low temperature ({approx_equal}500 deg. C) on top of a predeposition layer, showing that GaAs prevents the Ge diffusing when it is grown at a low temperature. Additionally, two different predeposition monolayers have been compared, concluding that when the Ga is deposited first, the diffusions across the GaAs/Ge heterointerface decrease.

  2. Identification of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and rocket fuels using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Stearns, Jaime A.; McElman, Sarah E.; Dodd, James A.

    2010-05-01

    Application of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to the identification of security threats is a growing area of research. This work presents LIBS spectra of vapor-phase chemical warfare agent simulants and typical rocket fuels. A large dataset of spectra was acquired using a variety of gas mixtures and background pressures and processed using partial least squares analysis. The five compounds studied were identified with a 99% success rate by the best method. The temporal behavior of the emission lines as a function of chamber pressure and gas mixture was also investigated, revealing some interesting trends that merit further study.

  3. Photoresponse properties of large-area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Siwei; Qi, Xiang E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn; Ren, Long; Hao, Guolin; Fan, Yinping; Liu, Yundan; Han, Weijia; Zang, Chen; Li, Jun; Zhong, Jianxin E-mail: jxzhong@xtu.edu.cn

    2014-10-28

    Photoresponse properties of a large area MoS{sub 2} atomic layer synthesized by vapor phase deposition method without any catalyst are studied. Scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectrum, and photoluminescence spectrum characterizations confirm that the two-dimensional microstructures of MoS{sub 2} atomic layer are of high quality. Photoelectrical results indicate that the as-prepared MoS{sub 2} devices have an excellent sensitivity and a good reproducibility as a photodetector, which is proposed to be ascribed to the potential-assisted charge separation mechanism.

  4. Dioxins in cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, H.; Takizawa, Y.

    1989-05-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke.

  5. Dioxins in cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Muto, H; Takizawa, Y

    1989-01-01

    Dioxins in cigarettes, smoke, and ash were determined using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) in cigarette smoke was approximately 5.0 micrograms/m3 at the maximum level, whereas various congeners from tetra-octa-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (-CDD) were detected. Particullary, the total concentration of hepta-CDD congeners was the highest among these congeners. Mass fragmentograms of various PCDD congeners were similar to those in flue gas samples collected from a municipal waste incinerator. The PCDD congeners that were not present in the cigarettes were found in the smoke samples. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent value--an index for effects on humans--for total PCDDs in smoke was 1.81 ng/m3 using the toxic factor of the United States Environment Protection Agency. Daily intake of PCDDs by smoking 20 cigarettes was estimated to be approximately 4.3 pg.kg body weight/day. This value was close to that of the ADIs: 1-5 pg.kg body weight/day reported in several countries. A heretofore unrecognized health risk was represented by the presence of PCDDs in cigarette smoke. PMID:2751353

  6. E-Cigarettes: The Facts

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cigarettes are rising rapidly with significant youth oriented marketing. Advertising has increased 10-fold in just three ... to Read and Learn the Link websites for mobile devices ( October 2015 ) Reducing nicotine in cigarettes decreases ...

  7. Suppression of metastable-phase inclusion in N-polar (000 1 ¯) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shojiki, Kanako; Choi, Jung-Hun; Iwabuchi, Takuya; Usami, Noritaka; Tanikawa, Tomoyuki; Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Hanada, Takashi; Katayama, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takashi

    2015-06-01

    The metastable zincblende (ZB) phase in N-polar (000 1 ¯) (-c-plane) InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is elucidated by the electron backscatter diffraction measurements. From the comparison between the -c-plane and Ga-polar (0001 ) (+c-plane), the -c-plane MQWs were found to be suffered from the severe ZB-phase inclusion, while ZB-inclusion is negligible in the +c-plane MQWs grown under the same growth conditions. The ZB-phase inclusion is a hurdle for fabricating the -c-plane light-emitting diodes because the islands with a triangular shape appeared on a surface in the ZB-phase domains. To improve the purity of stable wurtzite (WZ)-phase, the optimum conditions were investigated. The ZB-phase is dramatically eliminated with decreasing the V/III ratio and increasing the growth temperature. To obtain much-higher-quality MQWs, the thinner InGaN wells and the hydrogen introduction during GaN barriers growth were tried. Consequently, MQWs with almost pure WZ phase and with atomically smooth surface have been demonstrated.

  8. The Layou Tuff, Dominica: an Example of an Ignimbrite Showing Extensive Vapor-Phase Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnin, B.; Smith, A. L.; Fryxell, J. E.; Daly, G.

    2006-12-01

    The island of Dominica, located in the central part of the Lesser Antilles island arc, has witnessed, probably in the last 100,000 years, three large-volume Plinian eruptions. One of these from the Morne Trois Pitons center generated extensive ignimbrites (>62 km2) that extend as two tongues NE and NW from the Morne Trois Pitons caldera (now infilled by a dome complex). Preliminary studies on the NW fan, which filled the valley of the paleo-Layou River and reached the west coast near its mouth, shows that this ignimbrite sequence may be subdivided into an unlithified and a lithified facies. The former occurs in distal exposures along the edge of the ignimbrite, whereas the latter is dominant in the central valley-fill locations. The Layou ignimbrite in its most distal exposure overlies a thick sequence of fluviatile conglomerates. At this location the initial deposit is a pumiceous lapilli fall unit, 18 cm thick. Lithic clast sizes in this unit appear to be consistent with an eruption column height of 20-25 km. This deposit is followed by a thin ash-rich fall layer rich in accretionary lapilli (up to 8 mm in diameter), suggesting magma-water interaction. Overlying these fall deposits are at least 3 ignimbrite flow units. These unlithified units have a maximum thickness of over 20 m. Within the Layou valley the ignimbrites become thicker (reaching a maximum of 180 m in the upper Layou valley) and are lithified through out their exposed thickness. A 17 m section through these lithified deposits a few kilometers inland from the unlithified deposits described above suggest, based on density variations, that the maximum zone of lithification occurs 5 m above the lowest exposure of the section (i.e. approximately 15 m above the unlithified base of the deposit). Pumices in these lithified deposits do not appear to show any flattening or preferred orientation; rather the changes in density appear to be related to a decrease in the porosity of the matrix as a consequence of vapor-phase crystallization. Grain size studies on the unlithified facies suggest the Layou ignimbrite has lost more than 40% of its vitric material from the finer size fractions (< 1 mm). Whole rock array calculations suggest this vitric loss was caused by high gas flow through the deposit. These gases, which were probably dominantly heated groundwater would, according to recent experiments on the effect of water on welding, have coated the shards with sublimates. This would have inhibited sintering so that adhesion between clasts would have been principally by precipitation of sublimates in pore spaces, thus producing a sillar rather than a welded tuff. Thick lithified sequences are also associated with the other two ignimbrite sequences on Dominica and a comparison will be made between the Layou ignimbrite and these sequences as well as other non-lithified ignimbrites to better define the conditions of ignimbrite deposition and lithification in a wet tropical environment.

  9. Threading dislocations in gallium nitride epilayers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaolong

    Gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxial layers were deposited by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on (0001) sapphire. A new approach involving silicon nitride (Si3N4) interlayers deposited on as-grown nucleation layers (NLs) was demonstrated for reducing the density of threading dislocations (TDs). By inserting the Si3N4 interlayer, the metamorphosis of the NL upon thermal annealing was significantly changed as compared to that without the Si3N4 interlayer. Surface roughening upon thermal annealing produced a small number of protrusions from the NLs breaking through the Si3N4 interlayer. Initial GaN overgrowth could then be confined to the exposed protrusions, ensuring a selective area growth mode similar to the epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELOG) technique. This new technique is referred to as "in situ patterning ELOG". The TD density has been reduced by one to two orders of magnitude as compared to the two-step growth. The improvement of crystal quality was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction and photoluminescence measurements. A comprehensive investigation of morphology and microstructure evolution in GaN NLs and early stage GaN overgrowths was carried out in order to understand the mechanisms of generation and reduction of TDs. Annealed NLs in Si 3N4/GaN NL composites consist of discrete grains with very high density of basal plane stacking faults. The majority of edge dislocations (Burgers vector 1/3<11--20>) emerging from the exposed regions can be generated by reactions in which a Shockley partial dislocation bounding a stacking fault creates a perfect dislocation and another Shockley partial dislocation. These perfect dislocations can bend to form vertical dislocations (VDs) when vertical growth dominates then bend back to from horizontal dislocations (HDs) once lateral overgrowth dominates. Dislocation bending occurs as a result of glide and climb in the presence of stresses and point defects during the early stage of high temperature overgrowth. A significant portion of VDs with opposite Burgers vectors close on themselves by forming dislocation half-loops. During the initial 500nm overgrowth, most VDs are edge-type and bend to form HDs owing to strong stresses induced by enhanced lateral overgrowth. Most HDs terminate at micro-voids which formed near the interface during the early stage of overgrowth by a mechanism similar to ELOG. Wing-twist/tilt does not introduce subgram boundaries between initial growth patches due to early coalescence in this new technique. The screw component (Burgers vector component in <0001>) can be introduced in several ways: by direct propagation of dislocations that exist in NL grains, as a result of strain induced due to surface roughness or by coalescence of Frank partial dislocations in the basal planes.

  10. Vapor phase tri-methyl-indium seeding system suitable for high temperature spectroscopy and thermometry.

    PubMed

    Whiddon, R; Zhou, B; Borggren, J; Aldén, M; Li, Z S

    2015-09-01

    Tri-methyl-indium (TMI) is used as an indium transport molecule to introduce indium atoms to reactive hot gas flows/combustion environments for spectroscopic diagnostics. A seeding system was constructed to allow the addition of an inert TMI laden carrier gas into an air/fuel mixture burning consequently on a burner. The amount of the seeded TMI in the carrier gas can be readily varied by controlling the vapor pressure through the temperature of the container. The seeding process was calibrated using the fluorescent emission intensity from the indium 6(2)S1/2 ? 5(2)P1/2 and 6(2)S1/2 ? 5(2)P3/2 transitions as a function of the calculated TMI seeding concentration over a range of 2-45 ppm. The response was found to be linear over the range 3-22.5 ppm; at concentrations above 25 ppm there is a loss of linearity attributable to self-absorption or loss of saturation of TMI vapor pressure in the carrier gas flow. When TMI was introduced into a post-combustion environment via an inert carrier gas, molecular transition from InH and InOH radicals were observed in the flame emission spectrum. Combined laser-induced fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy were applied to detect indium atoms in the TMI seeded flame and the measured atomic indium concentration was found to be at the ppm level. This method of seeding organometallic vapor like TMI to a reactive gas flow demonstrates the feasibility for quantitative spectroscopic investigations that may be applicable in various fields, e.g., chemical vapor deposition applications or temperature measurement in flames with two-line atomic fluorescence. PMID:26429429

  11. Vapor phase tri-methyl-indium seeding system suitable for high temperature spectroscopy and thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiddon, R.; Zhou, B.; Borggren, J.; Aldén, M.; Li, Z. S.

    2015-09-01

    Tri-methyl-indium (TMI) is used as an indium transport molecule to introduce indium atoms to reactive hot gas flows/combustion environments for spectroscopic diagnostics. A seeding system was constructed to allow the addition of an inert TMI laden carrier gas into an air/fuel mixture burning consequently on a burner. The amount of the seeded TMI in the carrier gas can be readily varied by controlling the vapor pressure through the temperature of the container. The seeding process was calibrated using the fluorescent emission intensity from the indium 62S1/2 ? 52P1/2 and 62S1/2 ? 52P3/2 transitions as a function of the calculated TMI seeding concentration over a range of 2-45 ppm. The response was found to be linear over the range 3-22.5 ppm; at concentrations above 25 ppm there is a loss of linearity attributable to self-absorption or loss of saturation of TMI vapor pressure in the carrier gas flow. When TMI was introduced into a post-combustion environment via an inert carrier gas, molecular transition from InH and InOH radicals were observed in the flame emission spectrum. Combined laser-induced fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy were applied to detect indium atoms in the TMI seeded flame and the measured atomic indium concentration was found to be at the ppm level. This method of seeding organometallic vapor like TMI to a reactive gas flow demonstrates the feasibility for quantitative spectroscopic investigations that may be applicable in various fields, e.g., chemical vapor deposition applications or temperature measurement in flames with two-line atomic fluorescence.

  12. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a...tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes may be released from...

  13. 19 CFR 11.2a - Release from Customs custody without payment of tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. 11.2a Section 11.2a...tax on cigars, cigarettes and cigarette papers and tubes. Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes may be released from...

  14. Vapor-phase and particulate-associated pesticides and PCB concentrations in eastern North Dakota air samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hawthorne, S.B.; Miller, D.J.; Louie, P.K.K.

    1996-05-01

    Vapor-phase and suspended particulate (<50 {mu}m) samples were collected on polyurethane foam (PUF) and quartz fiber filters in rural North Dakota to determine the air concentrations of pesticides in an area where agriculture is a primary source of semivolatile pollutants. Samples were collected at two sites from 1992 to 1994 that were at least 0.4 km from the nearest farmed fields and known application of pesticides, and analyzed for 22 different organochlorine, triazine, and acid herbicide pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were found above the detection limits (typically <1 pg/m{sup 3}). Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were much lower (<50 pg/m{sup 3} in all cases) than many of the pesticides. These results demonstrate that pesticides are among the most prevalent chlorinated semivolatile pollutants present in rural North Dakota, that significant transport of pesticides occurs both in the vapor-phase and on suspended particulate matter, and that blown soil may be a significant mechanism for introducing pesticides into surface and ground waters. 32 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Phase transited and vapor-induced dual capsular system (DCS) for achieving delayed and osmotic release of cefadroxil.

    PubMed

    Philip, Anil K; Philip, Betty

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, an intestinal pH, disintegrating and non-disintegrating dual capsular system using formaldehyde vapor and phase transition technique, respectively, was developed to achieve delayed as well as improved osmotic flow for the model drug cefadroxil. Formaldehyde vapor was used to attain gastric resistance to the outer gelatin capsule, which disintegrated at the intestinal pH to give a non-disintegrating asymmetric membrane capsule (AMC). The AMC was prepared via dry phase inversion process. The effects of different formulation variables were studied based on 2³ factorial design, namely, level of osmogen, ethylcellulose, and pore former, apart from studying the effects of varying osmotic pressure, agitation intensity, and intentional defect on drug release. Scanning electron microscopy showed an outer dense non-porous and an inner lighter porous region for the prepared asymmetric membrane. Statistical test was applied for in-vitro drug release at P?>?0.05. The best formulation in the design closely corresponded to the extra design checkpoint formulation by a similarity (f?) value of 95.28. The drug release was independent of the agitation intensity and intentional defect of the film but dependent on the osmotic pressure of the dissolution medium. The release kinetics followed zero-order, and mechanism of release was Fickian diffusion. PMID:20482448

  16. Environmentally friendly method to grow wide-bandgap semiconductor aluminum nitride crystals: Elementary source vapor phase epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Wu, PeiTsen; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has attracted increasing interest as an optoelectronic material in the deep ultraviolet spectral range due to its wide bandgap of 6.0?eV (207?nm wavelength) at room temperature. Because AlN bulk single crystals are ideal device substrates for such applications, the crystal growth of bulky AlN has been extensively studied. Two growth methods seem especially promising: hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and sublimation. However, the former requires hazardous gases such as hydrochloric acid and ammonia, while the latter needs extremely high growth temperatures around 2000?°C. Herein we propose a novel vapor-phase-epitaxy-based growth method for AlN that does not use toxic materials; the source precursors are elementary aluminum and nitrogen gas. To prepare our AlN, we constructed a new growth apparatus, which realizes growth of AlN single crystals at a rate of ~18 ?m/h at 1550?°C using argon as the source transfer via the simple reaction Al?+?1/2N2 ? AlN. This growth rate is comparable to that by HVPE, and the growth temperature is much lower than that in sublimation. Thus, this study opens up a novel route to achieve environmentally friendly growth of AlN. PMID:26616203

  17. Environmentally friendly method to grow wide-bandgap semiconductor aluminum nitride crystals: Elementary source vapor phase epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Wu, PeiTsen; Funato, Mitsuru; Kawakami, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has attracted increasing interest as an optoelectronic material in the deep ultraviolet spectral range due to its wide bandgap of 6.0?eV (207?nm wavelength) at room temperature. Because AlN bulk single crystals are ideal device substrates for such applications, the crystal growth of bulky AlN has been extensively studied. Two growth methods seem especially promising: hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) and sublimation. However, the former requires hazardous gases such as hydrochloric acid and ammonia, while the latter needs extremely high growth temperatures around 2000?°C. Herein we propose a novel vapor-phase-epitaxy-based growth method for AlN that does not use toxic materials; the source precursors are elementary aluminum and nitrogen gas. To prepare our AlN, we constructed a new growth apparatus, which realizes growth of AlN single crystals at a rate of ~18 ?m/h at 1550?°C using argon as the source transfer via the simple reaction Al?+?1/2N2 ? AlN. This growth rate is comparable to that by HVPE, and the growth temperature is much lower than that in sublimation. Thus, this study opens up a novel route to achieve environmentally friendly growth of AlN. PMID:26616203

  18. Surface acoustic waves in semi-insulating Fe-doped GaN films grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yingmin; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Zhong, Haijian; Huang, Zengli; Zhang, Yumin; Wang, Jianfeng; Xu, Ke

    2014-08-01

    The propagation properties of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in semi-insulating Fe-doped GaN films grown on sapphire substrates by hydride vapor phase epitaxy are investigated. Compared with native n-type GaN, Fe-doped GaN exhibits a higher electromechanical coupling coefficient due to its high electrical resistivity. In addition, guided longitudinal leaky surface acoustic wave (LLSAW) was observed experimentally with a very high phase velocity (about 7890 m/s), and this mode was verified by numerical simulations. The small propagation attenuation of LLSAW along liquid/solid interfaces was demonstrated in glycerol solutions, which implies the potential applications in high-frequency chemical sensing.

  19. Significance of vapor phase chemical reactions on CVD rates predicted by chemically frozen and local thermochemical equilibrium boundary layer theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper investigates the role played by vapor-phase chemical reactions on CVD rates by comparing the results of two extreme theories developed to predict CVD mass transport rates in the absence of interfacial kinetic barrier: one based on chemically frozen boundary layer and the other based on local thermochemical equilibrium. Both theories consider laminar convective-diffusion boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers and include thermal (Soret) diffusion and variable property effects. As an example, Na2SO4 deposition was studied. It was found that gas phase reactions have no important role on Na2SO4 deposition rates and on the predictions of the theories. The implications of the predictions of the two theories to other CVD systems are discussed.

  20. “Smoking Revolution” A Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Retail Websites

    PubMed Central

    Grana, Rachel A.; Ling, Pamela M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been increasingly available and marketed in the U.S. since 2007. As patterns of product adoption are frequently driven and reinforced by marketing, it is important to understand the marketing claims encountered by consumers. Purpose To describe the main advertising claims made on branded e-cigarette retail websites. Methods Websites were retrieved from two major search engines in 2011 using iterative searches with the following terms: electronic cigarette, e-cigarette, e-cig, and personal vaporizer. Fifty-nine websites met inclusion criteria, and 13 marketing claims were coded for main marketing messages in 2012. Results Ninety-five percent of the websites made explicit or implicit health-related claims, 64% had a smoking cessation-related claim, 22% featured doctors, and 76% claimed that the product does not produce secondhand smoke. Comparisons to cigarettes included claims that e-cigarettes were cleaner (95%) and cheaper (93%). Eighty-eight percent stated that the product could be smoked anywhere and 71% mentioned using the product to circumvent clean air policies. Candy, fruit, and coffee flavors were offered on most sites. Youthful appeals included images or claims of modernity (73%), increased social status (44%), enhanced social activity (32%), romance (31%), and use by celebrities (22%). Conclusions Health claims and smoking cessation messages that are unsupported by current scientific evidence are frequently used to sell e-cigarettes. Implied and overt health claims, the presence of doctors on websites, celebrity endorsements, and the use of characterizing flavors should be prohibited. PMID:24650842

  1. Real-Time Optical Monitoring and Simulations of Gas Phase Kinetics in InN Vapor Phase Epitaxy at High Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Nikolaus; Woods, Vincent; McCall, Sonya D.; Bachmann, Klaus J.

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the kinetics of nucleation and coalescence of heteroepitaxial thin films is a crucial step in controlling a chemical vapor deposition process, since it defines the perfection of the heteroepitaxial film both in terms of extended defect formation and chemical integrity of the interface. The initial nucleation process also defines the film quality during the later stages of film growth. The growth of emerging new materials heterostructures such as InN or In-rich Ga(x)In(1-x)N require deposition methods operating at higher vapor densities due to the high thermal decomposition pressure in these materials. High nitrogen pressure has been demonstrated to suppress thermal decomposition of InN, but has not been applied yet in chemical vapor deposition or etching experiments. Because of the difficulty with maintaining stochiometry at elevated temperature, current knowledge regarding thermodynamic data for InN, e.g., its melting point, temperature-dependent heat capacity, heat and entropy of formation are known with far less accuracy than for InP, InAs and InSb. Also, no information exists regarding the partial pressures of nitrogen and phosphorus along the liquidus surfaces of mixed-anion alloys of InN, of which the InN(x)P(1-x) system is the most interesting option. A miscibility gap is expected for InN(x)P(1-x) pseudobinary solidus compositions, but its extent is not established at this point by experimental studies under near equilibrium conditions. The extension of chemical vapor deposition to elevated pressure is also necessary for retaining stoichiometric single phase surface composition for materials that are characterized by large thermal decomposition pressures at optimum processing temperatures.

  2. Laboratory studies of silicon vapor deposition, phase A. [feasibility of producing thin films for photovoltaic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, R. T.; Racette, G. W.; Stockhoff, E. H.

    1977-01-01

    A system is described capable of carrying out silicon vapor deposition experiments in the low 10 to the minus 10th power torr vacuum range. The system was assembled and tested for use in a program aimed at exploration of vacuum heteroepitaxy of silicon on several substrates of potential interest for photovoltaic applications. An experiment is described in which a silicon layer 2.5 microns thick was deposited on a pyrolytically cleaned tungsten substrate held at a temperature of 400 C. Using a resistance heated silicon source, thicker layers can be deposited in periods of hours by utilizing closer source to substrate distances.

  3. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plahutnik, F.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this program is to demonstrate that a dichlorosilane-based reductive chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process is capable of producing, at low cost, high quality polycrystalline silicon. Physical form and purity of this material will be consistent with LSA material requirements for use in the manufacture of high efficiency solar cells. Four polysilicon deposition runs were completed in an intermediate size reactor using dichlorosilane fed from 250 pound cylinders. Results from the intermediate size reactor are consistent with those obtained earlier with a small experimental reactor. Modifications of two intermediate size reactors were completed to interface with the dichlorosilane process demonstration unit (PDU).

  4. A flux induced crystal phase transition in the vapor-liquid-solid growth of indium-tin oxide nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Gang; Yanagida, Takeshi; Yoshida, Hideto; Nagashima, Kazuki; Kanai, Masaki; Zhuge, Fuwei; He, Yong; Klamchuen, Annop; Rahong, Sakon; Fang, Xiaodong; Takeda, Seiji; Kawai, Tomoji

    2014-05-01

    Single crystalline metal oxide nanowires formed via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) route provide a platform not only for studying fundamental nanoscale properties but also for exploring novel device applications. Although the crystal phase variation of metal oxides, which exhibits a variety of physical properties, is an interesting feature compared with conventional semiconductors, it has been difficult to control the crystal phase of metal oxides during the VLS nanowire growth. Here we show that a material flux critically determines the crystal phase of indium-tin oxide nanowires grown via the VLS route, although thermodynamical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, were previously believed to determine the crystal phase. The crystal phases of indium-tin oxide nanowires varied from the rutile structures (SnO2), the metastable fluorite structures (InxSnyO3.5) and the bixbyite structures (Sn-doped In2O3) when only the material flux was varied within an order of magnitude. This trend can be interpreted in terms of the material flux dependence of crystal phases (rutile SnO2 and bixbyite In2O3) on the critical nucleation at the liquid-solid (LS) interface. Thus, precisely controlling the material flux, which has been underestimated for VLS nanowire growths, allows us to design the crystal phase and properties in the VLS nanowire growth of multicomponent metal oxides.Single crystalline metal oxide nanowires formed via a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) route provide a platform not only for studying fundamental nanoscale properties but also for exploring novel device applications. Although the crystal phase variation of metal oxides, which exhibits a variety of physical properties, is an interesting feature compared with conventional semiconductors, it has been difficult to control the crystal phase of metal oxides during the VLS nanowire growth. Here we show that a material flux critically determines the crystal phase of indium-tin oxide nanowires grown via the VLS route, although thermodynamical parameters, such as temperature and pressure, were previously believed to determine the crystal phase. The crystal phases of indium-tin oxide nanowires varied from the rutile structures (SnO2), the metastable fluorite structures (InxSnyO3.5) and the bixbyite structures (Sn-doped In2O3) when only the material flux was varied within an order of magnitude. This trend can be interpreted in terms of the material flux dependence of crystal phases (rutile SnO2 and bixbyite In2O3) on the critical nucleation at the liquid-solid (LS) interface. Thus, precisely controlling the material flux, which has been underestimated for VLS nanowire growths, allows us to design the crystal phase and properties in the VLS nanowire growth of multicomponent metal oxides. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: STEM mapping of In and Sn in an ISO nanowire (Fig. S1) and homogeneity of a fluorite ISO phase at the full length of a nanowire (Fig. S2). See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01016g

  5. Vapor liquid solid-hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) growth of ultra-long defect-free GaAs nanowires: Ab initio simulations supporting center nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, Yamina; Lekhal, Kaddour; Hoggan, Philip; Avit, Geoffrey; Cadiz, Fabian; Rowe, Alistair; Paget, Daniel; Petit, Elodie; Leroux, Christine; Trassoudaine, Agnès; Réda Ramdani, M.; Monier, Guillaume; Colas, David; Ajib, Rabih; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne

    2014-05-01

    High aspect ratio, rod-like and single crystal phase GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown by gold catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). High resolution transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed polytypism-free zinc blende (ZB) NWs over lengths of several tens of micrometers for a mean diameter of 50 nm. Micro-photoluminescence studies of individual NWs showed linewidths smaller than those reported elsewhere which is consistent with the crystalline quality of the NWs. HVPE makes use of chloride growth precursors GaCl of which high decomposition frequency after adsorption onto the liquid droplet catalysts, favors a direct and rapid introduction of the Ga atoms from the vapor phase into the droplets. High influxes of Ga and As species then yield high axial growth rate of more than 100 ?m/h. The diffusion of the Ga atoms in the liquid droplet towards the interface between the liquid and the solid nanowire was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The diffusion coefficient of Ga atoms was estimated to be 3 × 10-9 m2/s. The fast diffusion of Ga in the droplet favors nucleation at the liquid-solid line interface at the center of the NW. This is further evidence, provided by an alternative epitaxial method with respect to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, of the current assumption which states that this type of nucleation should always lead to the formation of the ZB cubic phase.

  6. QCM gas phase detection with ceramic materials--VOCs and oil vapors.

    PubMed

    Latif, Usman; Rohrer, Andreas; Lieberzeit, Peter A; Dickert, Franz L

    2011-06-01

    Titanate sol-gel layers imprinted with carbonic acids were used as sensitive layers on quartz crystal microbalance. These functionalized ceramics enable us detection of volatile organic compounds such as ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, n-hexane, n-heptane, n-/iso-octane, and n-decane. Variation of the precursors (i.e., tetrabutoxy titanium, tetrapropoxy titanium, tetraethoxy titanium) allows us to tune the sensitivity of the material by a factor of 7. Sensitivity as a function of precursors leads to selective inclusion of n-butanol vapors down to 1 ppm. The selectivity of materials is optimized to differentiate between isomers, e.g., n- and iso-octane. The results can be rationalized by correlating the sensor effects of hydrocarbons with the Wiener index. A mass-sensitive sensor based on titanate layer was also developed for monitoring emanation of degraded engine oil. Heating the sensor by a meander avoids vapor condensation. Thus, a continuously working oil quality sensor was designed. PMID:21301823

  7. Vapor Phase Infrared Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Fundamental Anharmonic Frequencies of Ammonia Borane

    SciTech Connect

    Sams, R. L.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2012-03-29

    Infrared absorption spectra of ammonia borane vapor have been recorded between 3600 and 600 cm-1. Of the eleven infrared active modes, seven of the vibrational modes of NH3 11BH3 have been observed and four of the vibrational modes of NH3 10BH3 were observed. The spectra were recorded with sufficient resolution to observe the rotational structure of the bands, which allowed for preliminary least squares fitting of the band origins and rotational constants. First principals electronic structure calculations were performed to obtain anharmonic band origins and their intensities. The band assignments are discussed in relation to other spectroscopic techniques that have been used to study this molecule. A semi empirical estimate of the vapor pressure of ammonia borane at room temperature (22 °C) was made and found to be ~ 1 × 10-4 Torr. The assignment of the measured modes was aided by the calculated anharmonic frequencies and their infrared intensities. The combination of the CCSD(T) harmonic frequencies with the B3LYP anharmonicities, obtained from second order vibrational perturbation theory, was found to produce an overall best agreement with the measured band origins.

  8. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of ternary rhombohedral (Bi1-xSbx) 2 Se3 solid solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, P. I.; Yakushcheva, G. G.; Shchamkhalova, B. S.; Luzanov, V. A.; Temiryazev, A. G.; Jitov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of (Bi1-xSbx) 2Se3 solid solution films with a different Sb content on (001) Al2O3 substrates with thin ZnSe buffer layer in the range of temperatures 250-480 °C. As-grown films were studied by atom force and scanning electron microscopy (AFM and SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) techniques. To determine the elemental composition of the grown films, we used an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The dependencies of the crystal structure of films on the growth temperature and Sb content (0 ? x ? 1) were explored. At different growth temperatures we obtained the following bismuth compounds: the films grown at the temperature of 370 °C or lower consist of the pure Bi phase, whereas we got the Bi4Se3 phase at 380 °C, the phase BiSe at 430 °C and Bi2Se3 at the temperature of 460 °C or above. We found out that at the temperature of 480 °C the single-phase films of (Bi1-xSbx) 2Se3 with rhombohedral and orthorhombic lattices are realized when x is less than 0.25 and greater than 0.935, respectively. For 0.25 < x < 0.935 the grown films are composites of rhombohedral and orthorhombic phases. At the temperature of 440 °C we obtained films consisting of three rhombohedral phases (Bi1-xSbx) 4Se3, (Bi1-xSbx) Se and Bi. The room temperature transport properties of rhombohedral samples were characterized using the Van der Pauw technique.

  9. A low phase noise microwave frequency synthesis for a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock

    SciTech Connect

    François, B.; Boudot, R.; Calosso, C. E.; Danet, J. M.

    2014-09-15

    We report the development, absolute phase noise, and residual phase noise characterization of a 9.192?GHz microwave frequency synthesis chain devoted to be used as a local oscillator in a high-performance cesium vapor cell atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT). It is based on frequency multiplication of an ultra-low phase noise 100 MHz oven-controlled quartz crystal oscillator using a nonlinear transmission line-based chain. Absolute phase noise performances of the 9.192?GHz output signal are measured to be ?42, ?100, ?117 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz and ?129 dB?rad{sup 2}/Hz at 1 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. Compared to current results obtained in a state-of-the-art CPT-based frequency standard developed at LNE-SYRTE, this represents an improvement of 8 dB and 10 dB at f = 166 Hz and f = 10 kHz, respectively. With such performances, the expected Dick effect contribution to the atomic clock short term frequency stability is reported at a level of 6.2 × 10{sup ?14} at 1 s integration time, that is a factor 3 higher than the atomic clock shot noise limit. Main limitations are pointed out.

  10. Comment on "Tunable generation and adsorption of energetic compounds in the vapor phase at trace levels: A tool for testing and developing sensitive and selective substrates for explosive detection"

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Ewing, Robert G.; Atkinson, David A.

    2013-02-13

    The evaluation of developed technologies and research on new detection approaches require the ability to generate explosive vapors in the gas phase. In this correspondence, the authors comment on a technical note describing a vaopr generator, discuss safety issues associated with explosives for vapor generators, and provide a concise review of vapor generators for explosive compounds. Approaches to measuring or monitoring the output of a vapor generators are also discussed.

  11. Condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods instead of from vapor

    DOEpatents

    Geohegan, David B.; Seals, Roland D.; Puretzky, Alex A.; Fan, Xudong

    2005-08-02

    Compositions, systems and methods are described for condensed phase conversion and growth of nanorods and other materials. A method includes providing a condensed phase matrix material; and activating the condensed phase matrix material to produce a plurality of nanorods by condensed phase conversion and growth from the condensed chase matrix material instead of from vacor. The compositions are very strong. The compositions and methods provide advantages because they allow (1) formation rates of nanostructures necessary for reasonable production rates, and (2) the near net shaped production of component structures.

  12. Absolute integrated intensities of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H202) in the mid-infrared at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.; Burton, Sarah D.; Blake, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    We report quantitative broadband infrared spectra of vapor-phase hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) with all spectra pressure broadened to atmospheric pressure. The spectra were generated by flowing a concentrated solution (83 weight%) of H2O2 into a gently heated disseminator and diluting with a flow of pure nitrogen carrier gas. The water vapor lines were subtracted from the resulting spectra to yield the spectrum of pure H2O2. Comparison with previous results for the ?6 band strength (including hot bands) compares favorably with the results of Klee et al. [(1999) J. Mol. Spectr. 195, 154] as well as HITRAN. The present results are 433 and 467 cm-2 atm-1 (±8% and ±3% at 298 and 323 K, respectively) for the band strength, matching well the Klee value (S = 467 cm-2 atm-1 at 296 K) for the integrated band. Other bands in the 520-7500 cm-1 interval and their potential for atmospheric monitoring are discussed.

  13. The Validation of Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Microbial Reduction for Planetary Protection and a Proposed Vacuum Process Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Shirley; Barengoltz, Jack; Kern, Roger; Koukol, Robert; Cash, Howard

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in conjunction with the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, has selected the vapor phase hydrogen peroxide sterilization process for continued development as a NASA approved sterilization technique for spacecraft subsystems and systems. The goal is to include this technique, with an appropriate specification, in NPR 8020.12C as a low temperature complementary technique to the dry heat sterilization process.To meet microbial reduction requirements for all Mars in-situ life detection and sample return missions, various planetary spacecraft subsystems will have to be exposed to a qualified sterilization process. This process could be the elevated temperature dry heat sterilization process (115 C for 40 hours) which was used to sterilize the Viking lander spacecraft. However, with utilization of such elements as highly sophisticated electronics and sensors in modern spacecraft, this process presents significant materials challenges and is thus an undesirable bioburden reduction method to design engineers. The objective of this work is to introduce vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) as an alternative to dry heat microbial reduction to meet planetary protection requirements.The VHP process is widely used by the medical industry to sterilize surgical instruments and biomedical devices, but high doses of VHP may degrade the performance of flight hardware, or compromise material properties. Our goal for this study was to determine the minimum VHP process conditions to achieve microbial reduction levels acceptable for planetary protection.

  14. A Gas Lift Bioreactor for Removal of Contaminants from the Vapor Phase

    PubMed Central

    Ensley, B. D.; Kurisko, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    The cometabolic degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) as a vapor by two aromatic-metabolizing pseudomonads was evaluated in an airlift reactor. These microorganisms were able to degrade 90 to 95% of TCE in air at concentrations at the reactor inlet of 300 to 4,000 ?g/liter. Although exposure of the cells to high inlet concentrations of TCE (4 mg/liter) caused a decline in enzyme-specific activity and TCE removal efficiency, this loss in activity could be prevented or delayed by increasing the rate of cosubstrate addition. Under the appropriate operating conditions, the microorganisms were able to degrade even high concentrations of TCE and activity of the cells in the reactor could be maintained for periods of at least 2 weeks. PMID:16349158

  15. Hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN boules using high growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, E.; Zeimer, U.; Hagedorn, S.; Wagner, M.; Brunner, F.; Weyers, M.; Tränkle, G.

    2010-09-01

    The boule-like growth of GaN in a vertical AIXTRON HVPE reactor was studied. Extrinsic factors like properties of the starting substrate and fundamental growth parameters especially the vapor gas composition at the surface have crucial impact on the formation of inverse pyramidal defects. The partial pressure of GaCl strongly affects defect formation, in-plane strain, and crystalline quality. Optimized growth conditions resulted in growth rates of 300-500 ?m/h. GaN layers with thicknesses of 2.6 and of 5.8 mm were grown at rates above 300 ?m/h. The threading dislocation density reduces with an inverse proportionality to the GaN layer thickness. Thus, it is demonstrated that growth rates above 300 ?m/h are promising for GaN boule growth.

  16. Vacuum distillation/vapor filtration water recovery, phases 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honegger, R. J.; Remus, G. A.; Krug, E. K.

    1973-01-01

    The research is reported on the development of an evaporator for vacuum distillation/vapor filtration VD/VF water reclamation system for use on manned space flights. The design, fabrication, and tests of a six-man evaporator are described. It is concluded that: (1) A condenser with an internal rotating impeller and coolant surfaces directly opposite the condensing surfaces is an effective condenser. (2) The VD/VF evaporator, catalyst unit and condenser function satisfactorily based on thermal, mechanical and recovery performance during a 145-hour evaluation test. (3) The quality of recovered water, as measured by analyses for total organic carbon, pH, conductivity, turbidity, and viable bacteria density was within established limits for potability.

  17. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects

    PubMed Central

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Methods Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Results Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Conclusions Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data. PMID:24732161

  18. Glutathionylation and Reduction of Methacrolein in Tomato Plants Account for Its Absorption from the Vapor Phase.

    PubMed

    Muramoto, Shoko; Matsubara, Yayoi; Mwenda, Cynthia Mugo; Koeduka, Takao; Sakami, Takuya; Tani, Akira; Matsui, Kenji

    2015-11-01

    A large portion of the volatile organic compounds emitted by plants are oxygenated to yield reactive carbonyl species, which have a big impact on atmospheric chemistry. Deposition to vegetation driven by the absorption of reactive carbonyl species into plants plays a major role in cleansing the atmosphere, but the mechanisms supporting this absorption have been little examined. Here, we performed model experiments using methacrolein (MACR), one of the major reactive carbonyl species formed from isoprene, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Tomato shoots enclosed in a jar with MACR vapor efficiently absorbed MACR. The absorption efficiency was much higher than expected from the gas/liquid partition coefficient of MACR, indicating that MACR was likely metabolized in leaf tissues. Isobutyraldehyde, isobutyl alcohol, and methallyl alcohol (MAA) were detected in the headspace and inside tomato tissues treated with MACR vapor, suggesting that MACR was enzymatically reduced. Glutathione (GSH) conjugates of MACR (MACR-GSH) and MAA (MAA-GSH) were also detected. MACR-GSH was essentially formed through spontaneous conjugation between endogenous GSH and exogenous MACR, and reduction of MACR-GSH to MAA-GSH was likely catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent enzyme in tomato leaves. Glutathionylation was the metabolic pathway most responsible for the absorption of MACR, but when the amount of MACR exceeded the available GSH, MACR that accumulated reduced photosynthetic capacity. In an experiment simulating the natural environment using gas flow, MACR-GSH and MAA-GSH accumulation accounted for 30% to 40% of the MACR supplied. These results suggest that MACR metabolism, especially spontaneous glutathionylation, is an essential factor supporting MACR absorption from the atmosphere by tomato plants. PMID:26169680

  19. High-Quality (211)B CdTe on (211)Si Substrates Using Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, S. R.; Shintri, S. S.; Markunas, J. K.; Jacobs, R. N.; Bhat, I. B.

    2011-08-01

    High-quality (211)B CdTe buffer layers are required during Hg1- x Cd x Te heteroepitaxy on Si substrates. In this study, direct metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of (211)B CdTe on Si, as well as CdTe on Si using intermediate Ge and ZnTe layers, has been achieved. Tertiary butyl arsine was used as a precursor to enable As surfactant action during CdTe MOVPE on Si. The grown CdTe/Si films display a best x-ray diffraction rocking-curve full-width at half-maximum of 64 arc-s and a best Everson etch pit density of 3 × 105 cm-2. These values are the best reported for MOVPE-grown (211)B CdTe/Si and match state-of-the-art material grown using molecular-beam epitaxy.

  20. Postgrowth Annealing of CdTe Layers Grown on Si Substrates by Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, K.; Niraula, M.; Namba, S.; Kondo, T.; Muramatsu, S.; Yamashita, H.; Wajima, Y.; Agata, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Annealing conditions of CdTe layers grown on Si substrates by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy were studied. Typically, 3- ?m-thick n-type (211) CdTe layers were annealed for 60 s in flowing hydrogen at atmospheric pressure by covering their surfaces with bulk CdTe wafers. At annealing temperatures above 700°C, improvement of crystal quality was confirmed from full-width at half-maximum values of double-crystal rocking-curve measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements. Photoluminescence measurements revealed no deterioration of electrical properties in the annealed n-CdTe layers. Furthermore, annealing at 900°C improved the performance of radiation detectors with structure of p-like CdTe/ n-CdTe/ n +-Si substrate.

  1. Influence of growth temperature on the stoichiometry of InSb nanowires grown by vapor phase transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philipose, U.; Sapkota, Gopal; Salfi, J.; Ruda, Harry E.

    2010-07-01

    We report on the influence of growth parameters on the stoichiometry of indium antimonide nanowires grown by vapor phase transport. Using electron microscopy and composition analysis, we show that there is an optimum growth temperature window for growing stoichiometric indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires. The choice of the metal catalyst, evaporation and growth temperature are all critical parameters affecting the morphology and stoichiometry of the growing crystal. By controlling the growth temperature, it was possible to grow either stoichiometric InSb nanowires or In nanowires that contained no Sb within detectable limits. Electrical transport measurements of single InSb nanowires with two ohmic contacts demonstrate n-type conduction persisting from room temperature to 15 K.

  2. Vapor-phase etching of InP using anhydrous HCl and PH/sub 3/ gas

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, K.; Koide, Y.; Imai, K.; Yoshida, A.; Nakamura, T.; Yasuda, Y.; Nishinaga, T.

    1986-10-01

    In situ etching of the substrate surface for vapor-phase epitaxy is a useful technique for obtaining a smooth and damage-free surface prior to the growth. Previous work showed that the incorporation of in situ etching of InP substrate with anhydrous HCl gas resulted in a significant improvement in the surface morphologies for MOVPE-grown InGaAs/InP and InP epitaxial layers. However, the experiment on the HCl etching of the InP substrate for a wide temperature range has not been performed as yet. In this note, the authors describe the effect of the substrate temperature on the etching morphology of InP substrate by using the anhydrous HCl and PH/sub 3/ gases. In the experiment, they used a standard MOVPE horizontal system. A quartz reactor tube in a 60 mm ID, 60 cm long, was employed.

  3. Investigation of Growth Mechanism for InGaN by Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Using Computational Fluid Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deura, Momoko; Ichinohe, Fumitaka; Arai, Yu; Shiohama, Kenichi; Hirako, Akira; Ohkawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-08-01

    We investigated the mechanism of metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) growth for InGaN by comparing experimental and simulation results. The simulation results showed a similar trend to the experimental results. Therefore, the simulation system can be used to speculate on physical and chemical phenomena through the behavior of precursors. InGaN growth is largely affected by the amounts of both trimethylindium (TMIn) and NH3 supplied. This is because InN growth is dependent on the amount of NH2 physisorbed on a surface, which is generated by NH3. Moreover, the decomposition of crystallized InN and the desorption of these decomposed precursors of InN during growth cannot be ignored.

  4. In situ X-ray reflectivity of indium supplied on GaN templates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Guangxu; Fuchi, Shingo; Tabuchi, Masao; Takeda, Yoshikazu

    2013-09-01

    The indium supplied on c-plane GaN templates using Metal organic vapor phase epitaxy was studied by in situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) at 800 °C. The presence of liquid indium layers on the GaN (0001) surface was demonstrated using data-fitting of XRR measurements, ex situ atomic force microscope, auger electron spectroscopy, and cross-sectional scanning electron microscope. These measurements demonstrated that a liquid indium layer coexisted with indium droplets on top of the GaN (0001) surface at 800 °C. The liquid indium film thicknesses increased with increasing TMIn supply time and did not change during cooling from 800 °C to room temperature.

  5. Carbon doped GaAs grown in low pressure-metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using carbon tetrabromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, E.; Kurpas, P.; Gutsche, D.; Weyers, M.

    1995-11-01

    Carbon tetrabromide was used as carbon source for heavily p-doped GaAs in low pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The efficiency of carbon incorporation was investigated at temperatures between 550 and 670°C, at V/III ratios from 1 to 50 and carbon tetrabromide partial pressures from 0.01 to 0.03 Pa. Hole concentrations from 8 × 1017 to 5 × 1019 cm-3 in as-grown layers were obtained. After annealing in nitrogen atmosphere at 450°C, a maximum hole concentration of 9 × 1019 cm-3 and a mobility of 87 cm2/Vs was found. At growth temperatures below 600°C, traces of bromine were detected in the layers. Photoluminescence mapping revealed an excellent doping homogeneity. Thus, CBr4 is found to be a suitable carbon dopant source in MOVPE.

  6. Influence of Preparation Methods of Nano Au/MCM-41 Catalysts for Vapor Phase Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Vishwanathan, Venkataraman; Chary, V R

    2015-12-01

    The Au/MCM-41 nano catalysts were synthesized from four different methods, viz., homogeneous deposition-precipitation, micro-emulsion, impregnation and polyol and their catalytic activities were tested for the vapor phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. The physico-chemical properties of the catalysts were investigated by XRD, TEM, BET surface area, PSD, CO-chemisorption and XPS techniques. The effect of preparation methods, nature of the metal, support and the metal-support interaction in Au/MCM-41 catalysts were studied for the title reaction. The Au/MCM-41 catalysts synthesized from HDP method has shown higher and better catalytic activity as compared to the catalysts prepared by other methods. PMID:26682438

  7. Testing of Performance of a Scroll Pump in Support of Improved Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR) Mass Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Kraft, Thomas G.; Yee, Glenda F.; Jankovsky, Amy L.; Flynn, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the results of ground testing of a scroll pump with a potential of being a substitute for the current vacuum pump of the Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Reduction (VPCAR). Assessments of the pressure-time, pump-down time, pump power and the pump noise were made for three configurations of the pump the first of which was without the gas ballast, the second with the gas ballast installed but not operating and the third with the gas ballast operating. The tested scroll pump exhibited optimum characteristics given its mass and power requirements. The pump down time required to reach a pressure of 50 Torr ranged from 60 minutes without the ballast to about 120 minutes with the gas ballast operational. The noise emission and the pump power were assessed in this paper as well.

  8. ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cells prepared by vapor phase Zn doping

    DOEpatents

    Ramanathan, Kannan; Hasoon, Falah S.; Asher, Sarah E.; Dolan, James; Keane, James C.

    2007-02-20

    A process for making a thin film ZnO/Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 solar cell without depositing a buffer layer and by Zn doping from a vapor phase, comprising: depositing Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on a metal back contact deposited on a glass substrate; heating the Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 layer on the metal back contact on the glass substrate to a temperature range between about 100.degree. C. to about 250.degree. C.; subjecting the heated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2 to an evaporant species from a Zn compound; and sputter depositing ZnO on the Zn compound evaporant species treated layer of Cu(InGa)Se.sub.2.

  9. The gas phase emitter effect of lanthanum within ceramic metal halide lamps and its dependence on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhrmann, C.; Hoebing, T.; Bergner, A.; Groeger, S.; Denissen, C.; Suijker, J.; Awakowicz, P.; Mentel, J.

    2015-08-01

    The gas phase emitter effect increases the lamp lifetime by lowering the work function and, with it, the temperature of the tungsten electrodes of metal halide lamps especially for lamps in ceramic vessels due to their high rare earth pressures. It is generated by a monolayer on the electrode surface of electropositive atoms of certain emitter elements, which are inserted into the lamp bulb by metal iodide salts. They are vaporized, dissociated, ionized, and deposited by an emitter ion current onto the electrode surface within the cathodic phase of lamp operation with a switched-dc or ac-current. The gas phase emitter effect of La and the influence of Na on the emitter effect of La are studied by spatially and phase-resolved pyrometric measurements of the electrode tip temperature, La atom, and ion densities by optical emission spectroscopy as well as optical broadband absorption spectroscopy and arc attachment images by short time photography. An addition of Na to the lamp filling increases the La vapor pressure within the lamp considerably, resulting in an improved gas phase emitter effect of La. Furthermore, the La vapor pressure is raised by a heating of the cold spot. In this way, conditions depending on the La vapor pressure and operating frequency are identified, at which the temperature of the electrodes becomes a minimum.

  10. Decomposition, diffusion, and growth rate anisotropies in self-limited profiles during metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of seeded nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelucchi, E.; Dimastrodonato, V.; Rudra, A.; Leifer, K.; Kapon, E.; Bethke, L.; Zestanakis, P. A.; Vvedensky, D. D.

    2011-05-01

    We present a model for the interplay between the fundamental phenomena responsible for the formation of nanostructures by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on patterned (001)/(111)B GaAs substrates. Experiments have demonstrated that V-groove quantum wires and pyramidal quantum dots form as a consequence of a self-limiting profile that develops, respectively, at the bottom of V-grooves and inverted pyramids. Our model is based on a system of reaction-diffusion equations, one for each crystallographic facet that defines the pattern, and include the group III precursors, their decomposition and diffusion kinetics (for which we discuss the experimental evidence), and the subsequent diffusion and incorporation kinetics of the group-III atoms released by the precursors. This approach can be applied to any facet configuration, including pyramidal quantum dots, but we focus on the particular case of V-groove templates and offer an explanation for the self-limited profile and the Ga segregation observed in the V-groove. The explicit inclusion of the precursor decomposition kinetics and the diffusion of the atomic species revises and generalizes the earlier work of Biasiol [Biasiol , Phys. Rev. Lett.0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.81.2962 81, 2962 (1998); Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.65.205306 65, 205306 (2002)] and is shown to be essential for obtaining a complete description of self-limiting growth. The solution of the system of equations yields spatially resolved adatom concentrations, from which average facet growth rates are calculated. This provides the basis for determining the conditions that yield self-limiting growth. The foregoing scenario, previously used to account for the growth modes of vicinal GaAs(001) and the step-edge profiles on the ridges of vicinal surfaces patterned with V-grooves during metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy, can be used to describe the morphological evolution of any template composed of distinct facets.

  11. Solid- and vapor-phase antimicrobial activities of six essential oils: susceptibility of selected foodborne bacterial and fungal strains.

    PubMed

    López, P; Sánchez, C; Batlle, R; Nerín, C

    2005-08-24

    The antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) of cinnamon (Cinnamon zeylanicum), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), basil (Ocimum basillicum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), dill (Anethum graveolens), and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was evaluated over a range of concentrations in two types of contact tests (solid and vapor diffusion). The EOs were tested against an array of four Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), four Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Salmonella choleraesuis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and three fungi (a yeast, Candida albicans, and two molds, Penicillium islandicum and Aspergillus flavus). The rationale for this work was to test the possibility of creating a protective atmosphere by using natural compounds that could extend the shelf life of packaged foodstuffs while minimizing organoleptic alterations. In the solid diffusion tests, cinnamon and clove gave the strongest (and very similar) inhibition, followed by basil and rosemary, with dill and ginger giving the weakest inhibition. The fungi were the most sensitive microorganisms, followed by the Gram-positive bacterial strains. The Gram-negative strain P. aeruginosa was the least inhibited. The composition of the atmosphere generated by the EOs, and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), were determined using a disk volatilization method, in which no inhibition from rosemary or basil was observed. Cinnamon and clove, once again, gave similar results for every microorganism. As a general rule, MIC (fungi) < MIC (bacteria) with no clear differences between Gram-positive or -negative strains except for P. aeruginosa, which was not inhibited by any of the EOs in the vapor phase. The atmosphere generated from the EOs was analyzed by means of solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Differences among the volatiles in the EOs, which may be responsible for the differences in their antimicrobial performances, were found. PMID:16104824

  12. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  13. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, John R. (Denver, CO); Contreras, Miguel A. (Golden, CO); Noufi, Rommel (Golden, CO); Albin, David S. (Denver, CO)

    1994-01-01

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu.sub.w (In,Ga.sub.y)Se.sub.z for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu.sub.x Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu.sub.x Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300.degree.-600.degree. C., where the Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2 remains solid, while the excess Cu.sub.x Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu.sub.w (In,Ga).sub.y Se.sub.z can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500.degree.-600.degree. C., result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2, whereas lower temperatures, such as 300.degree.-400.degree. C., result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu.sub.z (In,Ga).sub.4 Se.sub.7 phase.

  14. Enhanced quality thin film Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] for semiconductor device applications by vapor-phase recrystallization

    DOEpatents

    Tuttle, J.R.; Contreras, M.A.; Noufi, R.; Albin, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    Enhanced quality thin films of Cu[sub w](In,Ga[sub y])Se[sub z] for semiconductor device applications are fabricated by initially forming a Cu-rich, phase-separated compound mixture comprising Cu(In,Ga):Cu[sub x]Se on a substrate to form a large-grain precursor and then converting the excess Cu[sub x]Se to Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] by exposing it to an activity of In and/or Ga, either in vapor In and/or Ga form or in solid (In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z]. Alternatively, the conversion can be made by sequential deposition of In and/or Ga and Se onto the phase-separated precursor. The conversion process is preferably performed in the temperature range of about 300--600 C, where the Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2] remains solid, while the excess Cu[sub x]Se is in a liquid flux. The characteristic of the resulting Cu[sub w](In,Ga)[sub y]Se[sub z] can be controlled by the temperature. Higher temperatures, such as 500--600 C, result in a nearly stoichiometric Cu(In,Ga)Se[sub 2], whereas lower temperatures, such as 300--400 C, result in a more Cu-poor compound, such as the Cu[sub z](In,Ga)[sub 4]Se[sub 7] phase. 7 figs.

  15. A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutations based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junqi; Fu, Rongxin; Xie, Liping; Li, Qi; Zhou, Wenhan; Wang, Ruliang; Ye, Jiancheng; Wang, Dong; Xue, Ning; Lin, Xue; Lu, Ying; Huang, Guoliang

    2015-10-01

    A smart device for label-free and real-time detection of gene point mutation-related diseases was developed based on the high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation. The main components of the device included a Peltier cooler and a mini PC board for image processing. Heat from the hot side of the Peltier cooler causes the fluid in a copper chamber to evaporate, and the vapor condenses on the surface of a microarray chip placed on the cold side of the cooler. The high dark phase contrast of vapor condensation relative to the analytes on the microarray chip was explored. Combined with rolling circle amplification, the device visualizes less-to-more hydrophilic transitions caused by gene trapping and DNA amplification. A lung cancer gene point mutation was analysed, proving the high selectivity and multiplex analysis capability of this low-cost device. PMID:26266399

  16. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy growth of ternary tetradymite Bi2Te3-xSex compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, P. I.; Yakushcheva, G. G.; Luzanov, V. A.; Temiryazev, A. G.; Shchamkhalova, B. S.; Jitov, V. A.; Sizov, V. E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on a metal organic vapor epitaxy (MOVPE) of Bi2Te3-xSex films over the entire range of compositions (0 ? x ? 3) for the first time. The films were grown on Al2O3(0001) substrates at 465 °C using trimethylbismuth (Bi2Me3), diethyltellurium (Et2Te) and diisopropylselenium (iPro2Se) as metalorganic sources. To realize the 2D growth mode and to grow films with flat surfaces and high crystalline quality, a thin ZnTe buffer layer was used. As-grown films were studied using optical and AFM microscopy techniques and X-ray diffraction. It was found that under steady growth conditions the composition of Bi2Te3-xSex films strongly depends on the film thickness. But a high rate of interdiffusion of chalcogens at the growth temperature rapidly leads to a homogeneous composition of the film in the growth direction. Dependence of the intensity of X-ray reflection (0012) on the composition of Bi2Te3-xSex films x has extremes near x=1 (Bi2Te2 Se) and x=2 (Bi2Se2 Te). The AFM micrographs and profiles show large (above 2 ?m) triangle-shaped atomically flat terraces with step height of a quintuple layer (0.90 nm) of the tetradymite-type compounds. The electronic properties of the grown films have been characterized via four probe magnetotransport measurements.

  17. SIMULTANEOUS QUANTIFICATION OF JASMONIC ACID AND SALICYLIC ACID IN PLANTS BY VAPOR PHASE EXTRACTION AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-CHEMICAL IONIZATION-MASS SPECTROMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jasmonic acid and salicylic acid represent important signaling compounds in plant defensive responses against other organisms. Here, we present a new method for the easy, sensitive and reproducible quantification of both compounds by vapor phase extraction and gas chromatography-positive ion chemic...

  18. Secondary phase formation and the microstructural evolution of surface layers during vapor phase alteration of the French SON 68 nuclear waste glass at 200{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, W.L.; Ewing, R.C.; Wang, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    The SON 68 inactive {open_quotes}R7T7{close_quotes} composition is the French reference glass for the LWR nuclear waste glass. Vapor phase alteration was used to accelerate the reaction progress of glass corrosion and to develop the characteristic suite of secondary, alteration phases. Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six inactive R7T7 waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200{degrees}C) for 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The AEM samples were examined in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered with a thin altered rind. The layer became thicker with time: 0.5 {mu}m for 22 days; 4 {mu}m for 91 days; 6 {mu}m for 241 days; 10 {mu}m for 908 days; 26 {mu}m for 1013 days; and <35 {mu}m for 1021 days. The composite alteration layer of the SON 68 samples is at least four time less thick than that of the SRL 131 glass composition. Six distinctive zones, based on phase chemistry and microstructure, were distinguished within the well-developed surface layers. Numerous crystalline phases such as analcime, tobermorite, apatite, and weeksite were identified on the surfaces of the reacted glasses as precipitates. Two crystalline phases, Ag{sub 2}TeO{sub 3} and (Ca,Sr)Mo{sub 3}O{sub 9}(OH){sub 2}, were found within the inner zones of surface layers, and they must have nucleated in situ, indicating that Ag, Te, Sr, and Mo can be retained within the surface layer. The majority of the surface layer volume is composed of two morphologically and chemically different structures: one consists of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates occurring along with cavities, the A-domain; and the other consists of poorly-crystallized regions containing needle-like smectite (montmorillonite) crystallites, a silica-rich amorphous matrix, and possibly ZrO{sub 2} particles, the B-domain.

  19. Comment on ‘The experimental liquid-vapor phase diagram of bulk nuclear matter’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnaukhov, V. A.; Botvina, A. S.

    2013-05-01

    This comment recalls the long story of the experimental evaluation of the critical temperature for the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition and emphasizes the importance of using different methods. The first reliable measurement of critical temperature was performed ten years ago in Dubna. It found the value 17±2 MeV by analysis of the cluster yield in multifragmentation.

  20. A lattice Boltzmann study of phase separation in liquid-vapor systems with gravity

    E-print Network

    A. Cristea; G. Gonnella; A. Lamura; V. Sofonea

    2009-07-16

    Phase separation of a two-dimensional van der Waals fluid subject to a gravitational force is studied by numerical simulations based on lattice Boltzmann methods (LBM) implemented with a finite difference scheme. A growth exponent $\\alpha=1$ is measured in the direction of the external force.

  1. NOVEL PROCESS FOR REMOVAL AND RECOVERY OF VAPOR-PHASE MERCURY

    SciTech Connect

    Craig S. Turchi

    2000-09-29

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of a regenerable sorbent for removing and recovering mercury from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The process is based on the sorption of mercury by noble metals and the thermal regeneration of the sorbent, recovering the desorbed mercury in a small volume for recycling or disposal. The project was carried out in two phases, covering five years. Phase I ran from September 1995 through September 1997 and involved development and testing of sorbent materials and field tests at a pilot coal-combustor. Phase II began in January 1998 and ended September 2000. Phase II culminated with pilot-scale testing at a coal-fired power plant. The use of regenerable sorbents holds the promise of capturing mercury in a small volume, suitable for either stable disposal or recycling. Unlike single-use injected sorbents such as activated carbon, there is no impact on the quality of the fly ash. During Phase II, tests were run with a 20-acfm pilot unit on coal-combustion flue gas at a 100 lb/hr pilot combustor and a utility boiler for four months and six months respectively. These studies, and subsequent laboratory comparisons, indicated that the sorbent capacity and life were detrimentally affected by the flue gas constituents. Sorbent capacity dropped by a factor of 20 to 35 during operations in flue gas versus air. Thus, a sorbent designed to last 24 hours between recycling lasted less than one hour. The effect resulted from an interaction between SO{sub 2} and either NO{sub 2} or HCl. When SO{sub 2} was combined with either of these two gases, total breakthrough was seen within one hour in flue gas. This behavior is similar to that reported by others with carbon adsorbents (Miller et al., 1998).

  2. Vapor-phase synthesis of a solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina through a catalytic decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, Tu Quang; Park, Kyun Young; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Cho, Sung Baek

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new solid precursor for {alpha}-alumina was prepared at about 200 Degree-Sign C from aluminum tri-isopropoxide vapor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained precursor was calcined at 1200 Degree-Sign C to form {alpha}-alumina particles, 75 nm in surface area equivalent diameter. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The weight loss of the precursor upon calcination was 24%, lower than that of Al(OH){sub 3}, a conventional alumina precursor. -- Abstract: A new solid precursor, hydrous aluminum oxide, for {alpha}-alumina nanoparticles was prepared by thermal decomposition of aluminum triisopropoxide (ATI) vapor in a 500 mL batch reactor at 170-250 Degree-Sign C with HCl as catalyst. The conversion of ATI increased with increasing temperature and catalyst content; it was nearly complete at 250 Degree-Sign C with the catalyst at 10 mol% of the ATI. The obtained precursor particles were amorphous, spherical and loosely agglomerated. The primary particle size is in the range 50-150 nm. The ignition loss of the precursor was 24%, considerably lower than 35% of Al(OH){sub 3}, the popular precursor for alumina particles. Upon calcination of the precursor at 1200 Degree-Sign C in the air with a heating rate of 10 Degree-Sign C/min and a holding time of 2 h, the phase was completely transformed into {alpha}. The spherical particles composing the precursor turned worm-like by the calcination probably due to sintering between neighboring particles. The surface area equivalent diameter of the resulting {alpha}-alumina was 75 nm.

  3. Organic-inorganic field effect transistor with SnI-based perovskite channel layer using vapor phase deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsushima, Toshinori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Fujita, Katsuhiko; Tsutsui, Tetsuo

    2003-11-01

    High field-effect hole mobility of (formula available in paper)and threshold voltage is -3.2 V) in organic-inorganic layered perovskite film (formula available in paper)prepared by a vapor phase deposition technique have been demonstrated through the octadecyltrichlorosilane treatment of substrate. Previously, the (formula available in paper)films prepared on the octadecyltrichlorosilane-covered substrates using a vapor evaporation showed not only intense exciton absorption and photoluminescence in the optical spectroscopy but also excellent crystallinity and large grain structure in X-ray and atomic force microscopic studies. Especially, the (formula available in paper)structure in the region below few nm closed to the surface of octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer was drastically improved in comparison with that on the non-covered substrate. Though our initial (formula available in paper)films via a same sequence of preparation of (formula available in paper)and octadecyltrichlorosilane monolayer did not show the field-effect properties because of a lack of spectral, structural, and morphological features. The unformation of favorable (formula available in paper)structure in the very thin region, that is very important for the field-effect transistors to transport electrons or holes, closed to the surface of non-covered (formula available in paper)dielectric layer was also one of the problems for no observation of them. By adding further optimization and development, such as deposition rate of perovskite, substrate heating during deposition, and tuning device architecture, with hydrophobic treatment, the vacuum-deposited (formula available in paper)have achieved above-described high performance in organic-inorganic hybrid transistors.

  4. Photoreflectance analysis of annealed vanadium-doped GaAs thin films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitouri, H.; Bilel, C.; Zaied, I.; Bchetnia, A.; Rebey, A.; El Jani, B.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the optical properties of annealed vanadium-doped GaAs films grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. The temperature dependence of the photoreflectance (PR) of as-grown GaAs:V films has been studied. We used the fit with Third-Derivative Functional Form model to evaluate the physical parameters. The temperature dependence of band gap and spin-orbit energies can be described by the Bose-Einstein statistical expression. The PR spectra of the samples are measured after thermal annealing in order to check any improvement in the optical quality of the material. The PR signal amplitude of GaAs:V samples decreased after thermal annealing. Degradation of the PR signal for annealing temperature at about 850 °C is observed revealing a poor quality of the layer surface states and an important density of the recombination centers. The lock-in phase analysis of PR spectra allows to determine the time constant for GaAs:V sample before and after thermal annealing.

  5. Effect of Mo Dispersion Size and Water Vapor on Oxidation of Two-Phase Directionally Solidified NiAl-9Mo In-Situ Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Michael P; Bei, Hongbin; Meisner, Roberta Ann; Lance, Michael J; Tortorelli, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of two-phase NiAl-9Mo eutectics with 3 different growth rates/2nd phase Mo dispersion sizes were investigated at 900 C in air and air with 10% water vapor. Good oxidation resistance via alumina formation was observed in dry air, with Mo volatilization loss minimized by fine submicron Mo dispersions. However, extensive Mo volatilization and in-place internal oxidation of prior Mo phase regions was observed in wet air oxidation. Ramifications of this phenomenon for the development of multi-phase high-temperature alloys are discussed

  6. Effect of cigarette menthol content on mainstream smoke emissions.

    PubMed

    Gordon, S M; Brinkman, M C; Meng, R Q; Anderson, G M; Chuang, J C; Kroeger, R R; Reyes, I L; Clark, P I

    2011-10-17

    The 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act empowered the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to study "the impact of the use of menthol in cigarettes on the public health, including such use among children, African Americans, Hispanics and other racial and ethnic minorities," and develop recommendations. Current scientific evidence comparing human exposures between menthol and nonmenthol smokers shows mixed results. This is largely because of the many differences between commercial menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes other than their menthol content. We conducted an innovative study using two types of test cigarettes: a commercial nonmenthol brand that we mentholated at four different levels, and Camel Crush, a commercial cigarette containing a small capsule in the filter that releases menthol solution into the filter when crushed. Cigarettes were machine-smoked at each of the menthol levels investigated, and the total particulate matter (TPM) was collected on a quartz fiber filter pad and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for menthol, nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), cotinine, and quinoline. The mainstream smoke was also monitored continuously in real time on a puff-by-puff basis for seven gas-phase constituents (acetaldehyde, acetonitrile, acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, and 2,5-dimethylfuran), using a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer. Average yields (in micrograms/cigarette) for the analytes were determined. Menthol in the TPM samples increased linearly with applied menthol concentration, but the amounts of nicotine along with the target TSNAs, PAHs, cotinine, and quinoline in the cigarettes remained essentially unchanged. Similarly, yields of the targeted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in whole smoke from the mentholated nonmenthol cigarettes that were measured in real-time were largely unaffected by their menthol levels. In the Camel Crush cigarettes, however, the VOC yields appeared to increase in the presence of menthol, especially in the gas phase. Although we succeeded in characterizing key mainstream smoke constituents in cigarettes that differ only in menthol content, further study is needed to definitively answer whether menthol affects exposure to selected cigarette constituents and thereby influences harm. PMID:21888394

  7. Chemical evaluation of electronic cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tianrong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence evaluating the chemicals in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Methods Systematic literature searches were conducted to identify research related to e-cigarettes and chemistry using 5 reference databases and 11 search terms. The search date range was January 2007 to September 2013. The search yielded 36 articles, of which 29 were deemed relevant for analysis. Results The levels of nicotine, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), aldehydes, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), flavours, solvent carriers and tobacco alkaloids in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emissions vary considerably. The delivery of nicotine and the release of TSNAs, aldehydes and metals are not consistent across products. Furthermore, the nicotine level listed on the labels of e-cigarette cartridges and refill solutions is often significantly different from measured values. Phenolic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs have also been reported in e-cigarette refill solutions, cartridges and aerosols. Varying results in particle size distributions of particular matter emissions from e-cigarettes across studies have been observed. Methods applied for the generation and chemical analyses of aerosols differ across studies. Performance characteristics of e-cigarette devices also vary across and within brands. Conclusions Additional studies based on knowledge of e-cigarette user behaviours and scientifically validated aerosol generation and chemical analysis methods would be helpful in generating reliable measures of chemical quantities. This would allow comparisons of e-cigarette aerosol and traditional smoke constituent levels and would inform an evaluation of the toxicity potential of e-cigarettes. PMID:24732157

  8. Treatment of Produced Waters Using a Surfactant Modified Zeolite/Vapor Phase Bioreactor System

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn E. Katz; Kerry A. Kinney; R. S. Bowman; E. J. Sullivan

    2004-09-11

    This report summarizes work performed on this project from April 2004 through September 2004. Our previous work demonstrated that a polyurethane foam biofilter could successfully biodegrade the BTEX contaminants found in the SMZ regeneration waste gas stream. However, establishing the biomass on the polyurethane foam packing was relatively time consuming and daily recirculation of a concentrated nutrient solution was required for efficient operation of the foam biofilter. To simplify the start up and operating requirements of the biofilter system, a simple, compost-based biofilter was investigated for its ability to treat the BTEX contaminants generated during the SMZ regeneration process. The investigation of the compost biofilter was divided into three experimental phases that spanned 180 days of biofilter operation. During Phase 1, the biofilter was continuously supplied a BTEX-contaminated waste gas stream. During Phase 2, a series of periodic shutdown tests were conducted to assess how the biofilter responded when the BTEX feed was discontinued for periods ranging from 1 day to 2.8 days. The Phase 3 experiments focused on determining how the biofilter would handle periodic spikes in inlet BTEX concentration as would be expected when it is coupled with an SMZ column. Results from the continuous feed (Phase 1) experiments demonstrated that the compost biofilter could maintain BTEX removals of greater than 98% within two weeks of startup. Results of the shutdown experiments indicated that benzene removal was the most sensitive to interruptions in the BTEX feed. Nevertheless, the BTEX removal efficiency exceeded 95% within 6 hours of reestablishing the BTEX feed to the biofilter. When the biofilter was subjected to periodic spikes in BTEX concentration (Phase 3), it was found that the total BTEX removal efficiency stabilized at approximately 75% despite the fact that the biofilter was only fed BTEX contaminants 8 hours per day. Finally, the effects of nutrient supply and EBCT on compost biofilter performance were also investigated. The bioreactor maintained greater than 95% removal efficiency for over 40 days without an additional supply of nutrients when a 10X concentrated HCMM was mixed with the compost packing at the beginning of the experiments. Results also suggest that an EBCT greater than 30 seconds is required to maintain high BTEX removal efficiencies in the compost biofilter system.

  9. Enhanced reflection via phase compensation from anomalous dispersion in atomic vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Junxiang; Zhou Haitao; Wang Dawei; Zhu Shiyao

    2011-05-15

    The phase compensation mechanism induced by anomalous dispersion in the reflection process of four-wave mixing (or reflection from a grating) in a three-level system is investigated, where the four wave vectors do not match in vacuum. An efficiency of the reflected signal of as high as 43% from a hot atomic cell of Cs is observed. The maximum reflection occurs when the frequency of the probe beam (and consequently the frequency of the reflected signal) is slightly red detuned from the transition frequency, which is attributed to the phase compensation from the steep anomalous dispersion accompanied with a strong probe absorption. The dependences of the efficiency on the angle between the coupling and probe lights, on the intensity of the coupling, field and on atomic density are studied. A theoretical model is presented and it is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  10. The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez Ruiz, Carlos A; Solano Reina, Segismundo; de Granda Orive, Jose Ignacio; Signes-Costa Minaya, Jaime; de Higes Martinez, Eva; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Altet Gómez, Neus; Lorza Blasco, Jose Javier; Barrueco Ferrero, Miguel; de Lucas Ramos, Pilar

    2014-08-01

    The electronic cigarette (EC) is a device formed by three basic elements: battery, atomizer and cartridge. When assembled, it looks like a cigarette. The cartridge contains different substances: propylene glycol, glycerine and, sometimes, nicotine. When the user "vapes", the battery is activated, the atomizer is heated and the liquid is drawn in and vaporized. The smoker inhales the mist produced. Various substances have been detected in this mist: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein and some heavy metals. Although these are found in lower concentrations than in cigarettes, they may still be harmful for the human body. Several surveys show that 3-10% of smokers regularly use e-cigarettes. A randomized study has shown that the efficacy of e-cigarettes for helping smokers to quit is similar to nicotine patches. Nevertheless, the study has relevant methodological limitations and reliable conclusions cannot be deduced. This report sets down the Position Statement of the Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes. This statement declares that e-cigarettes should be regulated as medicinal products. PMID:24684764

  11. Molecular simulation of water vapor-liquid phase interfaces using TIP4P/2005 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planková, Barbora; Vinš, Václav; Hrubý, Jan; Duška, Michal; N?mec, Tomáš; Celný, David

    2015-05-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations for water were run using the TIP4P/2005 model for temperatures ranging from 250 K to 600 K. The density profile, the surface tension and the thickness of the phase interface were calculated as preliminary results. The surface tension values matched nicely with the IAPWS correlation over wide range of temperatures. As a partial result, DL_POLY Classis was successfully used for tests of the new computing cluster in our institute.

  12. A study of the liquid-vapor phase change of mercury based on irreversible thermodynamics.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adt, R. R., Jr.; Hatsopoulos, G. N.; Bornhorst, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The object of this work is to determine the transport coefficients which appear in linear irreversible-thermodynamic rate equations of a phase change. An experiment which involves the steady-state evaporation of mercury was performed to measure the principal transport coefficient appearing in the mass-rate equation and the coupling transport coefficient appearing in both the mass-rate equation and the energy-rate equation. The principal transport coefficient sigma, usually termed the 'condensation' or 'evaporation' coefficient, is found to be approximately 0.9, which is higher than that measured previously in condensation-of-mercury experiments. The experimental value of the coupling coefficient K does not agree with the value predicted from Schrage's kinetic analysis of the phase change. A modified kinetic analysis in which the Onsager reciprocal law and the conservation laws are invoked is presented which removes this discrepancy but which shows that the use of Schrage's equation for predicting mass rates of phase change is a good approximation.

  13. Vapor-Phase Transport in the Near-Drift Environment at Yucca Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salve, R.; Kneafsey, T. J.

    2003-12-01

    Yucca Mountain, located 160 km north of Las Vegas, Nevada, is currently being assessed as a potential site for disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. A key issue regarding repository performance is the likelihood of precipitation percolating a vertical distance of ~300 m through unsaturated rock into drifts containing the waste packages. The amount of water that flows into drifts is thought to control the corrosion rates of waste packages, and the mobilization and transport of radionuclides. Subsequently, much effort has been directed towards estimating seepage from the near-drift environment into underground openings. While no naturally occurring seepage has been observed in the excavated tunnels and cavities at Yucca Mountain, numerical studies show that seepage can occur at steady-state percolation fluxes of tens of millimeters per year. However, under current conditions, the potential for seepage to occur naturally is greatly reduced, because of increased evaporation in the drifts resulting from ventilation. This presentation includes observations made over a period of four years along the terminal 944 m of a 2.7 km long tunnel within Yucca Mountain, commonly referred to as the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block which was initially excavated to study seepage into unventilated drifts. This initial objective was expanded to include an evaluation of the near-drift microclimates after large sections of the nonventilated drift were observed to be damp, or coated with beads of water, or even occasionally puddled. Observations from this effort indicate that fractures in the unsaturated zone can be primary paths for vapor flow in the immediate vicinity of emplacement drifts which is contrary to conceptual models of liquid traveling through fractures before seeping into the drifts. This work was supported by the Director, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, U.S. Department of Energy, through Memorandum Purchase Order EA9013MC5X between Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, and the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). The support is provided to Berkeley Lab through the U.S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098.

  14. Vapor liquid solid-hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) growth of ultra-long defect-free GaAs nanowires: Ab initio simulations supporting center nucleation

    SciTech Connect

    André, Yamina Lekhal, Kaddour; Hoggan, Philip; Avit, Geoffrey; Réda Ramdani, M.; Monier, Guillaume; Colas, David; Ajib, Rabih; Castelluci, Dominique; Gil, Evelyne; Cadiz, Fabian; Rowe, Alistair; Paget, Daniel; Petit, Elodie; Leroux, Christine; Trassoudaine, Agnès

    2014-05-21

    High aspect ratio, rod-like and single crystal phase GaAs nanowires (NWs) were grown by gold catalyst-assisted hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). High resolution transmission electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed polytypism-free zinc blende (ZB) NWs over lengths of several tens of micrometers for a mean diameter of 50 nm. Micro-photoluminescence studies of individual NWs showed linewidths smaller than those reported elsewhere which is consistent with the crystalline quality of the NWs. HVPE makes use of chloride growth precursors GaCl of which high decomposition frequency after adsorption onto the liquid droplet catalysts, favors a direct and rapid introduction of the Ga atoms from the vapor phase into the droplets. High influxes of Ga and As species then yield high axial growth rate of more than 100 ?m/h. The diffusion of the Ga atoms in the liquid droplet towards the interface between the liquid and the solid nanowire was investigated by using density functional theory calculations. The diffusion coefficient of Ga atoms was estimated to be 3 × 10{sup ?9} m{sup 2}/s. The fast diffusion of Ga in the droplet favors nucleation at the liquid-solid line interface at the center of the NW. This is further evidence, provided by an alternative epitaxial method with respect to metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and molecular beam epitaxy, of the current assumption which states that this type of nucleation should always lead to the formation of the ZB cubic phase.

  15. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. The studies concerning passive smoking or presenting the statistically insignificant side effects were excluded. Databases were searched using various combinations of the following terms: cigarette, smoking, smoking cessation, prevalence, history, side effects, and lung cancer by independent reviewers. All the 83 articles concerning the prevalence or side effects of the smoking habit in any Iranian population were selected. The prevalence rate of daily cigarette smoking and the 95% confidence interval as well as smoking health risk associated odds ratio (OR) were retrieved from the articles or calculated. Results: The reported prevalence rates of the included studies, the summary of smoking-related side effects and the ORs (95%CI) of smoking associated risks and the available data on smoking cessation in Iran have been shown in the article. Conclusion: Because of lack of certain data, special studies on local pattern of tobacco use in different districts, about the relationship between tobacco use and other diseases, especially non communicable diseases, and besides extension of smoking cessation strategies, studies on efficacy of these methods seems to be essential in this field. PMID:23113130

  16. A model for arsenic anti-site incorporation in GaAs grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, K. L.; Kuech, T. F.

    2014-12-28

    GaAs growth by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) has regained interest as a potential route to low cost, high efficiency thin film photovoltaics. In order to attain the highest efficiencies, deep level defect incorporation in these materials must be understood and controlled. The arsenic anti-site defect, As{sub Ga} or EL2, is the predominant deep level defect in HVPE-grown GaAs. In the present study, the relationships between HVPE growth conditions and incorporation of EL2 in GaAs epilayers were determined. Epitaxial n-GaAs layers were grown under a wide range of deposition temperatures (T{sub D}) and gallium chloride partial pressures (P{sub GaCl}), and the EL2 concentration, [EL2], was determined by deep level transient spectroscopy. [EL2] agreed with equilibrium thermodynamic predictions in layers grown under conditions in which the growth rate, R{sub G}, was controlled by conditions near thermodynamic equilibrium. [EL2] fell below equilibrium levels when R{sub G} was controlled by surface kinetic processes, with the disparity increasing as R{sub G} decreased. The surface chemical composition during growth was determined to have a strong influence on EL2 incorporation. Under thermodynamically limited growth conditions, e.g., high T{sub D} and/or low P{sub GaCl}, the surface vacancy concentration was high and the bulk crystal was close to equilibrium with the vapor phase. Under kinetically limited growth conditions, e.g., low T{sub D} and/or high P{sub GaCl}, the surface attained a high GaCl coverage, blocking As adsorption. This competitive adsorption process reduced the growth rate and also limited the amount of arsenic that incorporated as As{sub Ga}. A defect incorporation model which accounted for the surface concentration of arsenic as a function of the growth conditions, was developed. This model was used to identify optimal growth parameters for the growth of thin films for photovoltaics, conditions in which a high growth rate and low [EL2] could be attained.

  17. Geographic patterns of cigarette butt waste in the urban environment

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-01-01

    Background This reports the initial phase of a study to quantify the spatial pattern of cigarette butt waste in an urban environment. Methods Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to create a weighted overlay analysis model which was then applied to the locations of businesses where cigarettes are sold or are likely to be consumed and venues where higher concentrations of butts may be deposited. The model's utility was tested using a small-scale litter audit in three zip codes of San Diego, California. Results We found that cigarette butt waste is highly concentrated around businesses where cigarettes are sold or consumed. The mean number of butts for predicted high waste sites was 38.1 (SD 18.87), for predicted low waste sites mean 4.8 (SD 5.9), p<0.001. Conclusions Cigarette butt waste is not uniformly distributed in the urban environment, its distribution is linked to locations and patterns of sales and consumption. A GIS and weighted overlay model may be a useful tool in predicting urban locations of greater and lesser amounts of cigarette butt waste. These data can in turn be used to develop economic cost studies and plan mitigation strategies in urban communities. PMID:21504924

  18. Surface-initiated Ring-opening Metathesis Polymerization in the Vapor Phase: An Efficient Method for Grafting Cyclic Olefins of Low Strain Energies

    PubMed Central

    Lerum, Maria Felisa Z.; Chen, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Surface grafting of cyclic olefins with low strain energies, including cyclopentene (CP), 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD), cycloheptene (CHP), cis-cyclooctene (CO), cis,cis-1,5-cyclooctadiene (COD), 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene (COT), cyclododecene (CD), and trans,trans,cis-1,5,9-cyclododecatriene (CDT), were explored using ring-opening metathesis polymerization in the vapor phase. These monomers do not polymerize when SiROMP is carried out in solution due to pronounced chain transfer on surfaces where chains are in close proximities. In the vapor phase, however, chain transfer is suppressed at the solid-vapor interfaces, which permits the polymerization of most of these monomers. A minimal required strain energy of 2.2 kcal/mol was determined in this study, which is significantly lower than the estimated 13.3 kcal/mol for SiROMP carried out in solution, indicating that the enhancement in monomer polymerizability is significant using the vapor phase approach. A series of polyalkenamers with controlled fraction of unsaturation from 8% to 50% along the polymer backbone were grafted to solid substrates. It was observed that the logarithm of largest grafted layer thickness obtained before the removal of chain transfer products – which correlates with the extent of polymerization – scales with monomer strain energy. This confirms that the release of ring strain is the thermodynamic driving force for SiROMP. It was also found that although chain transfer is suppressed in the vapor phase, it is important in monomer/polymer systems where the fraction of unsaturated bonds is high. In these cases, grafted polymer thickness is dominated by chain transfer, rather than by monomer strain energy. A quantitative relationship is established for estimating graft thickness of a particular monomer using its strain energy and fraction of unsaturated bonds in the monomer. PMID:21469729

  19. Electronic Cigarettes: Vulnerability of Youth

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes have become popular and are heavily promoted as a safer cigarette and an aid to quit smoking. Although they may have value in reducing cigarette use among smokers, they are of limited value in smoking cessation and pose many problems, particularly in children. Nicotine is highly addictive and affects virtually all cells in the body. It is particularly harmful to developing brains and other organs. The electronic nicotine delivery systems are largely uncontrolled and safety risks are manifold. Initiating nicotine use and increasing dependence in the population may be linked with increased tobacco and other addictive substance abuse even if the individual electronic cigarette delivers less harm than a combustible cigarette does. PMID:25830075

  20. The physical chemistry of nucleation of sub-micrometer non-oxide ceramic powders via sub-oxide vapor-phase reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, A.

    1996-10-01

    Fine ceramic powders (< 500 nm) exhibit exceptional physical and mechanical properties in engineered structural ceramics. The production of fine powders, in particular the non-oxide ceramics, via a cheaper route than the organic solvent route has been rather elusive. This paper examines the physical chemistry of sub-oxide vapor-phase reduction reaction for the nucleation of non-oxide ceramic phase. Well known vapor species eg SiO and BO in the production of technical ceramic powders (SiC, BN) are particularly discussed for understanding the nucleation process of SiC and BN ceramic phases respectively. The regimes of partial pressures and temperatures are particularly identified. The calculated nucleation rate as a function of the temperature is compared with the experimental results on powder morphology. The production of amorphous and nanocrystalline h-BN powders is discussed in the context of substrate structure and thermodynamic parameters.

  1. A semi-empirical model for the complete orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy - Chloride VPE of GaAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidel-Salinas, L. K.; Jones, S. H.; Duva, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical model has been developed to determine the complete crystallographic orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Previous researchers have been able to determine this dependence for a limited range of orientations; however, our model yields relative growth rate information for any orientation. This model for diamond and zincblende structure materials is based on experimental growth rate data, gas phase diffusion, and surface reactions. Data for GaAs chloride VPE is used to illustrate the model. The resulting growth rate polar diagrams are used in conjunction with Wulff constructions to simulate epitaxial layer shapes as grown on patterned substrates. In general, this model can be applied to a variety of materials and vapor phase epitaxy systems.

  2. Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD) for efficient OLED manufacturing: the specific advantages and possibilities of carrier-gas enhanced vapor phase deposition for the manufacturing of organic thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreis, Juergen; Schwambera, Markus; Keiper, Dietmar; Gersdorff, Markus; Long, Michael; Heuken, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Being introduced more than 20 years ago, OLEDs have seen a strong push in particular in the last two years, mostly driven by key players in the flat panel display industry. The majority of OLEDs manufactured today are deposited by vacuum thermal evaporation (VTE). Whilst this approach enables the making of high-performance devices scaling up of this approach has met new challenges when substrate dimensions are exceeding the "proof-of-principle" dimensions of pilot lines. Total production costs are increasingly moving into the focus of consideration. With Organic Vapor Phase Deposition (OVPD), AIXTRON has commercialized the principle of utilizing inert carriergas for the transport and controlled condensation of small molecules. While the original concept had been proposed by Prof. Steven Forrest at Princeton University, AIXTRON added its expertise in scaling gas phase processes to make this technology applicable for high-throughput production. Combining the basic concept of OVPD with AIXTRON's comprehensive expertise in utilizing close coupled showerheads and the underlying scaling rules, the disruptive approach offers a number of significant advantages: 1) decoupling of evaporation source and deposition system: additional freedom and independent optimization of source design and deposition area; 2) Utilization of carrier-gas for a more efficient evaporation, potentially increasing process windows; 3) Close-coupled showerhead approach realizes high material utilization with homogeneity; 4) Control of deposition rates by carrier-gas flow instead of the evaporation temperature enables precise rates control, co-deposition of various materials at changing rates. This paper will discuss the most significant differences compared to VTE and explain how the approach addresses requirements for efficient scaling as well as enabling advanced structure designs.

  3. Liquid-vapor phase diagram and surface properties in oppositely charged colloids represented by a mixture of attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapela, Gustavo A.; del Río, Fernando; Alejandre, José

    2013-02-01

    The liquid-vapor phase diagrams of equal size diameter ? binary mixtures of screened potentials have been reported for several ranges of interaction using Monte Carlo simulation methods [J. B. Caballero, A. M. Puertas, A. Fer?andez-Barbero, F. J. de las Nieves, J. M. Romero-Enrique, and L. F. Rull, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054909 (2006), 10.1063/1.2159481; A. Fortini, A.-P. Hynninen, and M. Dijkstra, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094502 (2006), 10.1063/1.2335453]. Both works report controversial results about the stability of the phase diagram with the inverse Debye screening length ?. Caballero found stability for values of ?? up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for ?? up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for ?? ? 4. In this work a spinodal decomposition process where the liquid and vapor phases coexist through an interface in a slab geometry is used to obtain the phase equilibrium and surface properties using a discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations for mixtures of equal size particles carrying opposite charge and interacting with a mixture of attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials at different values of ??. An crude estimation of the triple point temperatures is also reported. The isothermal-isobaric method was also used to determine the phase stability using one phase simulations. We found that liquid-vapor coexistence is stable for values of ?? > 20 and that the critical temperatures have a maximum value at around ?? = 10, in agreement with Caballero et al. calculations. There also exists a controversy about the liquid-vapor envelope stability of the pure component attractive Yukawa model which is also discussed in the text. In addition, details about the equivalence between continuous and discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are given, in the Appendix, for Yukawa and Lennard-Jones potentials.

  4. Liquid-vapor phase diagram and surface properties in oppositely charged colloids represented by a mixture of attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials.

    PubMed

    Chapela, Gustavo A; del Río, Fernando; Alejandre, José

    2013-02-01

    The liquid-vapor phase diagrams of equal size diameter ? binary mixtures of screened potentials have been reported for several ranges of interaction using Monte Carlo simulation methods [J. B. Caballero, A. M. Puertas, A. Fern?andez-Barbero, F. J. de las Nieves, J. M. Romero-Enrique, and L. F. Rull, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 054909 (2006); A. Fortini, A.-P. Hynninen, and M. Dijkstra, J. Chem. Phys. 125, 094502 (2006)]. Both works report controversial results about the stability of the phase diagram with the inverse Debye screening length ?. Caballero found stability for values of ?? up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for ?? up to 20 while Fortini reported stability for ?? ? 4. In this work a spinodal decomposition process where the liquid and vapor phases coexist through an interface in a slab geometry is used to obtain the phase equilibrium and surface properties using a discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations for mixtures of equal size particles carrying opposite charge and interacting with a mixture of attractive and repulsive Yukawa potentials at different values of ??. An crude estimation of the triple point temperatures is also reported. The isothermal-isobaric method was also used to determine the phase stability using one phase simulations. We found that liquid-vapor coexistence is stable for values of ?? > 20 and that the critical temperatures have a maximum value at around ?? = 10, in agreement with Caballero et al. calculations. There also exists a controversy about the liquid-vapor envelope stability of the pure component attractive Yukawa model which is also discussed in the text. In addition, details about the equivalence between continuous and discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations are given, in the Appendix, for Yukawa and Lennard-Jones potentials. PMID:23406133

  5. Development of a water recovery subsystem based on Vapor Phase Catalytic Ammonia Removal (VPCAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budininkas, P.; Rasouli, F.; Wydeven, T.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated engineering breadboard subsystem for the recovery of potable water from untreated urine was designed, fabricated and tested. It was fabricated from commercially available components without emphasis on weight, volume and power requirement optimization. Optimizing these parameters would make this process competitive with other spacecraft water recovery systems. Unlike other phase change systems, this process is based on the catalytic oxidation at elevated temperatures of ammonia and volatile hydrocarbons to innocuous products; therefore, no urine pretreatment is required. The testing program consisted of parametric tests, one month of daily tests, and a continuous run of 165 hours. The recovered water is low in ammonia, hydrocarbons and conductivity and requires only adjustment of its pH to meet drinking water standards.

  6. Arctic Gas Phase Water Vapor Measurements from the NASA DC-8 During SOLVE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podolske, James; Sachse, Glen; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Langley / Ames Diode Laser Hygrometer (DLH) was flown aboard the NASA DC-8 during all three arctic deployments of the SOLVE campaign. The DLH measures gas phase H2O in the freestream air between the fuselage and the outer right engine cowling, essentially free from aircraft perturbations. It uses wavelength-modulated near-IR laser radiation at about 1.4 microns to detect the H2O absorption. Calibration is based on short path experiments in the laboratory using a NIST-traceable dewpoint hygrometer with carefully conditioned air at dewpoints between - 10 and + 10 degrees C. The theory of operation of the DLH instrument will be presented, along with a description of the calibration methodology. A simple climatology of H2O observations from SOLVE will be presented.

  7. Speciated fine-particle (<2.5 {micro}m aerodynamic diameter) and vapor-phase acid concentrations in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.A. Jr.; Stover, C.A.; Westerdahl, F.D.

    1998-12-31

    A fine-particle (<2.5 {micro}m aerodynamic diameter) and vapor-phase acid sampling network has been in operation among 12 communities in southern California since late 1993. The data from this network consists of concentrations of particulate matter <10 {micro}m in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), nitrogen dioxide, ozone, vapor-phase hydrochloric, nitric, acetic, and formic acids, particulate matter <2.5 {micro}m in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5), and the chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium components of PM2.5. These measurements are the basis of the exposure assessment estimates of the Children`s Health Study, a multi-year study, mainly of lung function development and respiratory illness, taking place in southern California. One of the goals of the Children`s Health Study is to utilize a cost-effective means of obtaining continuous fine-particle and vapor-phase acid data for a multi-year study with enough time resolution to allow seasonal estimates of exposure. A two-week sampler was developed to meet these needs. Four continuous years of vapor-phase acid and PM2.5 mass, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and ammonium data have been collected. During this time, the sampler has proven to be reliable. A decline in PM2.5 mass, nitrate, and ammonium ions in most of the communities from 1994 to 1997 was observed. In contrast, very little change in vapor-phase acids was observed. There has been increased interest at the national level in fine particles and their characteristics. The network provides a rich database that can be used to characterize southern California communities on the basis of their level of fine particles (and their components) and vapor-phase acids and should prove valuable with respect to both prospective and retrospective health studies. The database also provides a general characterization of the levels of PM2.5 affecting 25 million people in southern California.

  8. Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Growth of Embedded Gallium Nitride Nanocolumn for Reduction in Dislocation Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umeda, Shinya; Kato, Takahiro; Kitano, Tsukasa; Kondo, Toshiyuki; Matsubara, Hiroyuki; Kamiyama, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Tetsuya; Iwaya, Motoaki; Akasaki, Isamu

    2013-08-01

    The use of nanocolumn crystals is thought to be effective in producing a low-dislocation-density GaN layers. In this paper, we propose a metal-organic vapor phase epitaxial (MOVPE) growth method for producing uniform GaN nanocolumns using deep through-holes in a thick SiO2 selective growth mask. A SiO2 film with a thickness of 500 nm was deposited by sputtering on an AlN buffer layer/SiC substrate. A nanoimprinting technique was applied to produce dot openings. Then, dry etching with CF4 gas was carried out to form deep through-holes in the SiO2 film. In the second MOVPE growth, individual GaN nanocolumns coalesced into a planarized GaN layer, after thinning the SiO2 mask to 100 nm. A cathode-luminescence image of the GaN layer on a GaN nanocolumn template shows a low dislocation density of 1.3×108 cm-2, while that of a GaN layer directly grown on an AlN buffer layer shows a dislocation density of 9.4×108 cm-2.

  9. Fundamental models of the metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy of gallium nitride and their use in reactor design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlowski, R. P.; Theodoropoulos, C.; Salinger, A. G.; Mountziaris, T. J.; Moffat, H. K.; Shadid, J. N.; Thrush, E. J.

    2000-12-01

    A fundamental reaction-transport model describing the metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN from trimethyl-gallium (TMG) and ammonia has been developed. This model has been tested against experimental data from research-scale and industrial-scale reactors. A simplified version of the model that includes only transport phenomena and a unity sticking coefficient of the limiting film precursor (TMG) to the surface of the growing film was found to accurately capture observed film deposition variations in an early variant of the Thomas Swan close-coupled-showerhead 3×2? reactor. Modifications of the Thomas Swan reactor, in line with the findings suggested by this work, enabled state-of-the-art thickness uniformity to be achieved. The model has been used to develop performance diagrams for conceptual multi-aperture MOVPE reactors and for the Thomas Swan system. These performance diagrams identify regions of the parameter space of the reactor which correspond to minimal variations in film growth rate across large-area substrates.

  10. Determination of methyl mercury by aqueous phase Eehylation, followed by gas chromatographic separation with cold vapor atomic fluorescence detection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Wild, John F.; Olsen, Mark L.; Olund, Shane D.

    2002-01-01

    A recent national sampling of streams in the United States revealed low methyl mercury concentrations in surface waters. The resulting median and mean concentrations, calculated from 104 samples, were 0.06 nanograms per liter (ng/L) and 0.15 ng/L, respectively. This level of methyl mercury in surface water in the United States has created a need for analytical techniques capable of detecting sub-nanogram per liter concentrations. In an attempt to create a U.S. Geological Survey approved method, the Wisconsin District Mercury Laboratory has adapted a distillation/ethylation/ gas-phase separation method with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy detection for the determination of methyl mercury in filtered and unfiltered waters. This method is described in this report. Based on multiple analyses of surface water and ground-water samples, a method detection limit of 0.04 ng/L was established. Precision and accuracy were evaluated for the method using both spiked and unspiked ground-water and surface-water samples. The percent relative standard deviations ranged from 10.2 to 15.6 for all analyses at all concentrations. Average recoveries obtained for the spiked matrices ranged from 88.8 to 117 percent. The precision and accuracy ranges are within the acceptable method-performance limits. Considering the demonstrated detection limit, precision, and accuracy, the method is an effective means to quantify methyl mercury in waters at or below environmentally relevant concentrations

  11. Effect of gas flow on the selective area growth of gallium nitride via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodak, L. E.; Kasarla, K. R.; Korakakis, D.

    2007-08-01

    The effect of gas flow on the selective area growth (SAG) of gallium nitride (GaN) grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has been investigated. In this study, the SAG of GaN was carried out on a silicon dioxide striped pattern along the GaN <1 1¯ 0 0> direction. SAG was initiated with the striped pattern oriented parallel and normal to the incoming gas flow in a horizontal reactor. The orientation of the pattern did not impact cross section of the structure after re-growth as both orientations resulted in similar trapezoidal structures bounded by the (0 0 0 1) and {1 1 2¯ n} facets ( n?1.7-2.2). However, the growth rates were shown to depend on the orientation of the pattern as the normally oriented samples exhibited enhanced vertical and cross-sectional growth rates compared to the parallel oriented samples. All growths occurred under identical conditions and therefore the difference in growth rates must be attributed to a difference in mass transport of species.

  12. Impact of thermal annealing on bulk InGaAsSbN materials grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. W.; Kim, K.; Lee, J. J.; Kuech, T. F.; Mawst, L. J.; Wells, N. P.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Sin, Y.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Moss, S. C.

    2014-02-01

    Two different thermal annealing techniques (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and in-situ post-growth annealing in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) chamber) were employed to investigate their impact on the optical characteristics of double-heterostructures (DH) of InGaAsSbN/GaAs and on the performance of single-junction solar cell structures, all grown by MOVPE. We find that an optimized RTA procedure leads to a similar improvement in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity compared with material employing a multi-step optimized anneal within the MOVPE reactor. Time-resolved photoluminescence techniques at low temperature (LT) and room temperature (RT) were performed to characterize the carrier dynamics in bulk InGaAsSbN layers. Room temperature carrier lifetimes were found to be similar for both annealing methods, although the LT-PL (16 K) measurements of the MOVPE-annealed sample found longer lifetimes than the RTA-annealed sample (680 ps vs. 260 ps) for the PL measurement energy of 1.24 eV. InGaAsSbN-based single junction solar cells processed with the optimized RTA procedure exhibited an enhancement of the electrical performance, such as improvements in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and efficiency over solar cells subjected to the in-situ MOVPE annealing technique.

  13. Optical properties of C-doped bulk GaN wafers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Khromov, S.; Hemmingsson, C.; Monemar, B.; Hultman, L.; Pozina, G.

    2014-12-14

    Freestanding bulk C-doped GaN wafers grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy are studied by optical spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Significant changes of the near band gap (NBG) emission as well as an enhancement of yellow luminescence have been found with increasing C doping from 5 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup ?3} to 6 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3}. Cathodoluminescence mapping reveals hexagonal domain structures (pits) with high oxygen concentrations formed during the growth. NBG emission within the pits even at high C concentration is dominated by a rather broad line at ?3.47?eV typical for n-type GaN. In the area without pits, quenching of the donor bound exciton (DBE) spectrum at moderate C doping levels of 1–2 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup ?3} is observed along with the appearance of two acceptor bound exciton lines typical for Mg-doped GaN. The DBE ionization due to local electric fields in compensated GaN may explain the transformation of the NBG emission.

  14. Patterning and overgrowth of nanostructure quantum well wire arrays by LP-MOVPE (low pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy)

    SciTech Connect

    Karam, N.H.; Mastrovito, A.; Haven, V. ); Ismail, K. . Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Pennycook, S. ); Smith, H.I. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science)

    1990-06-01

    Nanometer scale GaAs Quantum Well Wire (QWW) arrays with lateral dimensions in the range of 10--70 nm and a period of 200 nm have been fabricated in the GaAs/AlGaAs system using x-ray nanolithography patterning and overgrowth by a low pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (LP-MOVPE) technique. The QWW structures were either fabricated by post-growth patterning of a thin GaAs film on a AlGaAs-coated substrate followed by AlGaAs deposition, or by continuous in-situ deposition of a GaAs/AlGaAs QWW structure on a prepatterned GaAs substrate. Although cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed no structural defects in either QWW fabrication process, photoluminescence (PL) was only observed in the in-situ-deposited structures. Strong polarization dependence of the PL peak with respect to wire orientation has been confirmed and evidence of lateral confinement was observed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents against four stored-product pests.

    PubMed

    Hymavathi, Atmakur; Devanand, Peta; Suresh Babu, Katragadda; Sreelatha, Thonthula; Pathipati, Usha Rani; Madhusudana Rao, Janaswamy

    2011-03-01

    The vapor-phase toxicity of Derris scandens Benth.-derived constituents was evaluated against four stored-product pests ( Callosobruchus chinensis L., Sitophilus oryzae L., Rhyzopertha dominica L., and Tribolium castaneum H.) using fumigation bioassays and compared to those of commonly used insecticides. The structures of all constituents of were characterized by spectroscopic analyses [nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and mass spectrometry]. The sensitivity of the test insect to compounds varied with exposure time, concentration, and insect species. Over 100% mortality after 24 h was achieved with the compounds osajin (2), scandinone (5), sphaerobioside (8), and genistein (9) against all of the test insects, while laxifolin (3) and lupalbigenin (4) showed 100% mortality after 72 h against T. csataneum and R. dominica . Scandenone (1), scandenin A (6), and scandenin (7) were less effective. Among the insects, C. chinensis , S. oryzae , and R. dominica were more susceptible to the treatments, whereas T. castaneum was less susceptible. The results of fumigation tests indicated that compounds from D. scandens whole plant extract are potential candidates to control stored-product pests. PMID:21314138

  16. Ar{sup +}-irradiation-induced damage in hydride vapor-phase epitaxy GaN films

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Yoshitaka Ogawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Keiji; Kawakami, Retsuo; Niibe, Masahito

    2015-07-15

    The authors have investigated the electrical characteristics of hydride vapor-phase epitaxy GaN films exposed to Ar{sup +} irradiation, employing Schottky barrier diodes. The Ar{sup +} irradiation tends to largely increase the effective carrier concentration in the near surface region of GaN up to ?25?nm, due to the generation of donor-type N vacancy defects, compared to the original value before the irradiation. More interestingly, acceptor-type deep-level defects are found to be formed at ?2.1, ?2.9, and ?3.2?eV below the conduction band in the subsequently deeper region, in which Ga vacancies introduced by the Ar{sup +} irradiation are considered to be in-diffused and immediately combined with hydrogen. These N vacancies and hydrogenated Ga vacancies formed are dominantly responsible for changing the depth profiles of the effective carrier concentration via the carrier generation, the carrier trapping, and/or carrier compensation.

  17. Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional GaSe Crystals with High Photoresponse

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xufan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Zhang, Huidong; Puretzky, Alexander A; Idrobo Tapia, Juan C; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Yoon, Mina; Rouleau, Christopher M; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Geohegan, David B; Xiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60 m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their atomic resolution structure were characterized. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7 A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors.

  18. Impact of thermal annealing on bulk InGaAsSbN materials grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, T. W.; Mawst, L. J.; Kim, K.; Lee, J. J.; Kuech, T. F.; Wells, N. P.; LaLumondiere, S. D.; Sin, Y.; Lotshaw, W. T.; Moss, S. C.

    2014-02-03

    Two different thermal annealing techniques (rapid thermal annealing (RTA) and in-situ post-growth annealing in the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) chamber) were employed to investigate their impact on the optical characteristics of double-heterostructures (DH) of InGaAsSbN/GaAs and on the performance of single-junction solar cell structures, all grown by MOVPE. We find that an optimized RTA procedure leads to a similar improvement in the photoluminescence (PL) intensity compared with material employing a multi-step optimized anneal within the MOVPE reactor. Time-resolved photoluminescence techniques at low temperature (LT) and room temperature (RT) were performed to characterize the carrier dynamics in bulk InGaAsSbN layers. Room temperature carrier lifetimes were found to be similar for both annealing methods, although the LT-PL (16?K) measurements of the MOVPE-annealed sample found longer lifetimes than the RTA-annealed sample (680?ps vs. 260?ps) for the PL measurement energy of 1.24?eV. InGaAsSbN-based single junction solar cells processed with the optimized RTA procedure exhibited an enhancement of the electrical performance, such as improvements in open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor, and efficiency over solar cells subjected to the in-situ MOVPE annealing technique.

  19. Electron Transport in a High Mobility Free-Standing GaN Substrate Grown by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, L.; Kurdak, C.; Yun, F.; Morkoc, H.; Rode, D. L.; Tsen, K. T.; Park, S. S.; Lee, K. Y.

    2001-03-01

    We studied electron transport properties in a high quality free-standing GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. The GaN, with a thickness of more than 200 ?m, was lifted off the sapphire substrate and mechanically polished. At room temperature the carrier density is 1.3x10^16cm-3 and the Hall mobility is 1200 cm^2/V-s, which is the highest reported electron mobility for GaN with a wurtzite structure. Transport properties are studied using a van der Pauw geometry in a temperature range of 20 to 300 K and in magnetic fields up to 8 Tesla. Electron mobility is found to increase at lower temperatures with a peak mobility of 7400 cm^2/V-s at 48 K. The carrier density decreases exponentially at temperatures below 80 K with an activation energy of 28 meV. The electron transport measurements were used to examine the contributions of different scattering mechanisms. Numerical solution of the Boltzmann transport equation was carried out, including non-parabolic conduction bands and wavefunction admixture, along with lattice scattering and ionized-impurity scattering. LO and TO phonon energies were determined by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Controlled Vapor Phase Growth of Single Crystalline, Two-Dimensional GaSe Crystals with High Photoresponse

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xufan; Lin, Ming-Wei; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Idrobo, Juan C.; Ma, Cheng; Chi, Miaofang; Yoon, Mina; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Geohegan, David B.; Xiao, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Compared with their bulk counterparts, atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) crystals exhibit new physical properties, and have the potential to enable next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices. However, controlled synthesis of large uniform monolayer and multi-layer 2D crystals is still challenging. Here, we report the controlled synthesis of 2D GaSe crystals on SiO2/Si substrates using a vapor phase deposition method. For the first time, uniform, large (up to ~60??m in lateral size), single-crystalline, triangular monolayer GaSe crystals were obtained and their structure and orientation were characterized from atomic scale to micrometer scale. The size, density, shape, thickness, and uniformity of the 2D GaSe crystals were shown to be controllable by growth duration, growth region, growth temperature, and argon carrier gas flow rate. The theoretical modeling of the electronic structure and Raman spectroscopy demonstrate a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition and progressive confinement-induced bandgap shifts for 2D GaSe crystals. The 2D GaSe crystals show p-type semiconductor characteristics and high photoresponsivity (~1.7?A/W under white light illumination) comparable to exfoliated GaSe nanosheets. These 2D GaSe crystals are potentially useful for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic devices such as photodetectors and field-effect transistors. PMID:24975226

  1. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  2. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34 Section 41.34 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at...

  3. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 41.34 Section 41.34 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at...

  4. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34 Section 41.34 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at...

  5. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34 Section 41.34 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at...

  6. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34 Section 41.34 Alcohol...IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at...

  7. Effects of transport gradients in a chemical vapor deposition reactor employing vapor-liquid-solid growth of ternary chalcogenide phase-change materials.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Derek C; Morris, Wesley D; Prieto, Amy L

    2010-04-23

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is employed to synthesize individual Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) nanowires with the ultimate goal of synthesizing a large scale nanowire array for universal memory storage. A consistent challenge encountered during the synthesis is a lack of control over the composition and morphology across the growth substrate. To better understand the challenges associated with the CVD synthesis of the ternary chalcogenide, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to quantify 3D thermal and momentum transients in the growth conditions. While these gradients are qualitatively known to exist, they have not been adequately quantified in both the axial and radial directions when under pressure and flow conditions indicative of VLS growth. These data are not easily acquired by conventional means for the axial direction under vacuum and are a considerable challenge to accurately measure radially. The simulation data shown here provide 3D insights into the gradients which ultimately dictate the region of controllable stoichiometry and morphology. These results help explain the observed inhomogeneity of the characterized ternary chalcogenide growth products at various growth substrate locations. PMID:20351405

  8. Effects of transport gradients in a chemical vapor deposition reactor employing vapor-liquid-solid growth of ternary chalcogenide phase-change materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Derek C.; Morris, Wesley D.; Prieto, Amy L.

    2010-04-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth is employed to synthesize individual Ge2Sb2Te5 nanowires with the ultimate goal of synthesizing a large scale nanowire array for universal memory storage. A consistent challenge encountered during the synthesis is a lack of control over the composition and morphology across the growth substrate. To better understand the challenges associated with the CVD synthesis of the ternary chalcogenide, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed to quantify 3D thermal and momentum transients in the growth conditions. While these gradients are qualitatively known to exist, they have not been adequately quantified in both the axial and radial directions when under pressure and flow conditions indicative of VLS growth. These data are not easily acquired by conventional means for the axial direction under vacuum and are a considerable challenge to accurately measure radially. The simulation data shown here provide 3D insights into the gradients which ultimately dictate the region of controllable stoichiometry and morphology. These results help explain the observed inhomogeneity of the characterized ternary chalcogenide growth products at various growth substrate locations.

  9. Thermodynamic Properties of Nitrogen Including Liquid and Vapor Phases from 63K to 2000K with Pressures to 10,000 Bar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, Richard T.; Stewart, Richard B.

    1973-01-01

    Tables of thermodynamic properties of nitrogen are presented for the liquid and vapor phases for temperatures from the freezing line to 2000K and pressures to 10,000 bar. The tables include values of density, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, isochoric heat capacity, isobaric heat capacity velocity of sound, the isotherm derivative, and the isochor derivative. The thermodynamic property tables are based on an equation of state, P=P (p,T), which accurately represents liquid and gaseous nitrogen for the range of pressures and temperatures covered by the tables. Comparisons of property values calculated from the equation of state with measured values for P-p-T, heat capacity, enthalpy, latent heat, and velocity of sound are included to illustrate the agreement between the experimental data and the tables of properties presented here. The coefficients of the equation of state were determined by a weighted least squares fit to selected P-p-T data and, simultaneously, to isochoric heat capacity data determined by corresponding states analysis from oxygen data, and to data which define the phase equilibrium criteria for the saturated liquid and the saturated vapor. The vapor pressure equation, melting curve equation, and an equation to represent the ideal gas heat capacity are also presented. Estimates of the accuracy of the equation of state, the vapor pressure equation, and the ideal gas heat capacity equation are given. The equation of state, derivatives of the equation, and the integral functions for calculating derived thermodynamic properties are included.

  10. Rapid vapor-phase fabrication of organic-inorganic hybrid superlattices with monolayer precision.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byoung H; Ryu, Min Ki; Choi, Sung-Yool; Lee, Kwang-H; Im, Seongil; Sung, Myung M

    2007-12-26

    We report a new layer-by-layer growth method of self-assembled organic multilayer thin films based on gas-phase reactions. In the present molecular layer deposition (MLD) process, alkylsiloxane self-assembled multilayers (SAMs) were grown under vacuum by repeated sequential adsorptions of C=C-terminated alkylsilane and titanium hydroxide. The MLD method is a self- limiting layer-by-layer growth process, and is perfectly compatible with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. The SAMs films prepared exhibited good thermal and mechanical stability, and various unique electrical properties. The MLD method, combined with ALD, was applied to the preparation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanolaminate films in the ALD chamber. The organic-inorganic hybrid superlattices were then used as active mediums for two-terminal electrical bistable devices. The advantages of the MLD method with ALD include accurate control of film thickness, large-scale uniformity, highly conformal layering, sharp interfaces, and a vast library of possible materials. The MLD method with ALD is an ideal fabrication technique for various organic-inorganic hybrid superlattices. PMID:18047337

  11. Hot wire chemical vapor deposition chemistry in the gas phase and on the catalyst surface with organosilicon compounds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yujun

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: Hot wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD), also referred to as catalytic CVD (Cat-CVD), has been used to produce Si-containing thin films, nanomaterials, and functional polymer coatings that have found wide applications in microelectronic and photovoltaic devices, in automobiles, and in biotechnology. The success of HWCVD is largely due to its various advantages, including high deposition rate, low substrate temperatures, lack of plasma-induced damage, and large-area uniformity. Film growth in HWCVD is induced by reactive species generated from primary decomposition on the metal wire or from secondary reactions in the gas phase. In order to achieve a rational and efficient optimization of the process, it is essential to identify the reactive species and to understand the chemical kinetics that govern the production of these precursor species for film growth. In this Account, we report recent progress in unraveling the complex gas-phase reaction chemistry in the HWCVD growth of silicon carbide thin films using organosilicon compounds as single-source precursors. We have demonstrated that laser ionization mass spectrometry is a powerful diagnostic tool for studying the gas-phase reaction chemistry when combined with the methods of isotope labeling and chemical trapping. The four methyl-substituted silane molecules, belonging to open-chain alkylsilanes, dissociatively adsorb on W and Ta filaments to produce methyl radical and H2 molecule. Under the typical deposition pressures, with increasing number of methyl substitution, the dominant chemistry occurring in the gas phase switches from silylene/silene reactions to free-radical short chain reactions. This change in dominant reaction intermediates from silylene/silene to methyl radicals explains the observation from thin film deposition that silicon carbide films become more C-rich with a decreasing number of Si-H bonds in the four precursor molecules. In the case of cyclic monosilacyclobutanes, we have shown that ring-opening reactions play a vital role in characterizing the reaction chemistry. On the other hand, exocyclic Si-H(CH3) bond cleavages are more important in the less-puckered disilacyclobutane molecules. Metal filaments are essential in HWCVD since they serve as catalysts to decompose precursor gases to reactive species, which initiate gas-phase reaction chemistry and thin film growth. We discuss the structural changes in metal filaments when exposed to various precursor gases. Depending on the nature of the radical intermediates formed from the hot-wire decomposition and subsequent gas-phase reactions, metal silicides and carbides can be formed. Overall, study of the gas-phase reaction chemistry in HWCVD provides important knowledge of the chemical species produced prior to their deposition on a substrate surface. This helps in identifying the major contributor to alloy formation on the filament itself and the film growth, and consequently, in determining the properties of the deposited films. An integrated knowledge of the gas-phase reaction chemistry, filament alloy formation, and thin film deposition is required for an efficient deposition of high-quality thin films and nanomaterials. PMID:25586211

  12. The functionalization of nanodiamonds (diamondoids) as a key parameter of their easily controlled self-assembly in micro- and nanocrystals from the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Maria A.; Poinsot, Didier; Domenichini, Bruno; Dirand, Céline; Chevalier, Sébastien; Fokin, Andrey A.; Schreiner, Peter R.; Hierso, Jean-Cyrille

    2015-01-01

    We detail herein readily accessible processes to control previously unobserved robust self-assemblies of nanodiamonds (diamondoids) in micro- and nanocrystals from their mild vapor deposition. The chemical functionalization of uniform and discernible nanodiamonds was found to be a key parameter, and depending on the type of functional group (hydroxy, fluorine, etc.) and its position on the diamondoid, the structure of the discrete deposits can vary dramatically. Thus, well-defined anisotropic structures such as rod, needle, triangle or truncated octahedron shapes can be obtained, and self-assembled edifices of sizes ranging from 20 nm to several hundred micrometers formed with conservation of a similar structure for a given diamondoid. Key thermodynamic data including sublimation enthalpy of diamondoid derivatives are reported, and the SEM of the self-assemblies coupled with EDX analyses and XRD attest the nature and purity of nanodiamond crystal deposits. This attractive method is simple and outperforms in terms of deposit quality dip-coating methods we used. This vapor phase deposition approach is expected to allow for an easy formation of diamondoid nanoobjects on different types of substrates.We detail herein readily accessible processes to control previously unobserved robust self-assemblies of nanodiamonds (diamondoids) in micro- and nanocrystals from their mild vapor deposition. The chemical functionalization of uniform and discernible nanodiamonds was found to be a key parameter, and depending on the type of functional group (hydroxy, fluorine, etc.) and its position on the diamondoid, the structure of the discrete deposits can vary dramatically. Thus, well-defined anisotropic structures such as rod, needle, triangle or truncated octahedron shapes can be obtained, and self-assembled edifices of sizes ranging from 20 nm to several hundred micrometers formed with conservation of a similar structure for a given diamondoid. Key thermodynamic data including sublimation enthalpy of diamondoid derivatives are reported, and the SEM of the self-assemblies coupled with EDX analyses and XRD attest the nature and purity of nanodiamond crystal deposits. This attractive method is simple and outperforms in terms of deposit quality dip-coating methods we used. This vapor phase deposition approach is expected to allow for an easy formation of diamondoid nanoobjects on different types of substrates. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Full details of vapor pressure measurements, vapor deposition of functionalized diamondoids, apparatus (including PVD) and all characterization for all functionalized diamondoids self-assemblies investigated from vapor phases and solution dip-coating. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04442h

  13. Predictors of Marijuana Relapse in the Human Laboratory: Robust Impact of Tobacco Cigarette Smoking Status

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D.; Glass, Andrew; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Foltin, Richard W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Few marijuana smokers in treatment achieve sustained abstinence, yet factors contributing to high relapse rates are unknown. Study 1: Methods Data from five inpatient laboratory studies assessing marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were combined to assess factors predicting the likelihood and severity of relapse. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (n=51; 10 ± 5 marijuana cigarettes/day) were enrolled. Results 49% of participants relapsed the first day active marijuana became available. Tobacco cigarette smokers (75%), who were not abstaining from cigarettes, were far more likely to relapse than non-cigarette smokers (OR=19, p<0.01). Individuals experiencing more positive subjective effects (i.e. feeling “high”) after marijuana administration and those with more negative affect and sleep disruption during marijuana withdrawal were more likely to have severe relapse episodes (p<0.05). Study 2: Methods To isolate the effects of cigarette smoking, marijuana intoxication, withdrawal and relapse were assessed in daily marijuana and cigarette smokers (n=15) under two within-subject, counter-balanced conditions: while smoking tobacco cigarettes as usual (SAU) and after at least 5 days without cigarettes (Quit). Results Most participants (87%) relapsed to marijuana whether in the SAU or Quit phase. Tobacco cigarette smoking did not significantly influence relapse, nor did it affect marijuana intoxication or most symptoms of withdrawal relative to tobacco cessation. Conclusions Daily marijuana smokers who also smoke cigarettes have high rates of marijuana relapse and cigarette smoking versus recent abstinence does not directly influence this association. These data indicate that current cigarette smoking is a clinically important marker for increased risk of marijuana relapse. PMID:22939992

  14. New developments in SPME, Part 1: The use of vapor-phase deprotonation and on-fiber derivatization with alkylchloroformates in the analysis of preparations containing amphetamines.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hayley; Kirkbride, K Paul; Pigou, Paul E; Walker, G Stewart

    2003-11-01

    Due to their high polarity and low vapor pressure, most amine salts of amphetamine-type drugs are not directly amenable to headspace recovery using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Described in this article is a simple vapor-phase procedure for the conversion of solid drug salt samples into their free bases by the use of triethylamine. This process can be conducted simultaneously with headspace SPME, the outcome being that solid drug salts can be sampled directly for GC-MS without the need for dissolution and chemical processing. Potential applications for this methodology include the noninvasive recovery of drug traces from objects such as banknotes and garments. This new process for recovery of amphetamine-type drugs has been combined with on-fiber derivatization using alkylchloroformates. This extra step was included to improve the chromatographic performance of analytes and allow for the resolution of drug enantiomers. PMID:14640265

  15. The Case in Favor of E-Cigarettes for Tobacco Harm Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Nitzkin, Joel L.

    2014-01-01

    A carefully structured Tobacco Harm Reduction (THR) initiative, with e-cigarettes as a prominent THR modality, added to current tobacco control programming, is the most feasible policy option likely to substantially reduce tobacco-attributable illness and death in the United States over the next 20 years. E-cigarettes and related vapor products are the most promising harm reduction modalities because of their acceptability to smokers. There are about 46 million smokers in the United States, and an estimated 480,000 deaths per year attributed to cigarette smoking. These numbers have been essentially stable since 2004. Currently recommended pharmaceutical smoking cessation protocols fail in about 90% of smokers who use them as directed, even under the best of study conditions, when results are measured at six to twelve months. E-cigarettes have not been attractive to non-smoking teens or adults. Limited numbers non-smokers have experimented with them, but hardly any have continued their use. The vast majority of e-cigarette use is by current smokers using them to cut down or quit cigarettes. E-cigarettes, even when used in no-smoking areas, pose no discernable risk to bystanders. Finally, addition of a THR component to current tobacco control programming will likely reduce costs by reducing the need for counseling and drugs. PMID:25003176

  16. A nitrogen-containing carbon film derived from vapor phase polymerized polypyrrole as a fast charging/discharging capability anode for lithium-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; He, Yu-Shi; Zhang, Weimin; Ma, Zi-Feng

    2015-12-15

    A nitrogen-containing carbon (N-C) film was synthesized by pyrolysis of vapor phase polymerized polypyrrole (PPy). This carbon film exhibits excellent rate capability and cyclability as a lithium-ion battery anode. The reversible capacities are 908.4, 825.7, 664.0, 531.6, 415.5 and 325.9 mA h g(-1) at 1C, 2C, 5C, 10C, 20C and 40C, respectively. PMID:26496974

  17. N-doped crumpled graphene derived from vapor phase deposition of PPy on graphene aerogel as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jiazhao; Hou, Yuyang; Shi, Dongqi; Wexler, David; Poynton, Simon D; Slade, Robert C T; Zhang, Weimin; Liu, Huakun; Chen, Jun

    2015-04-01

    Nitrogen-doped crumpled graphene (NCG) is successfully synthesized via vapor phase deposition of polypyrrole onto graphene aerogel followed by thermal treatment. The NCG was explored as an electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction, showing comparable electrocatalytic performance with the commercial Pt/C in alkaline membrane exchange fuel cells because of the well-regulated nitrogen doping and the robust micro-3D crumpled porous nanostructure. PMID:25804889

  18. Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures of Polyaromatic Heterocycles and Related Compounds

    E-print Network

    Chickos, James S.

    Hypothetical Thermodynamic Properties. Subcooled Vaporization Enthalpies and Vapor Pressures The vaporization enthalpies and vapor pressures of the liqiud phase from T ) 298.15 K to T ) 500 K of a series in the literature was measured on a hydrated form. Vapor pressures and normal boiling temperatures for the liquid

  19. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of vapor-phase pollutants in rat lung epithelial cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells grown on collagen gels

    SciTech Connect

    Zamora, P.O.; Benson, J.M.; Marshall, T.C.; Mokler, B.V.; Li, A.P.; Dahl, A.R.; Brooks, A.L.; McClellan, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    Lung epithelial cell (cell line designated LEC) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were grown on hydrated collagen gels and exposed directly to toxic vapor-phase pollutants. The cells were exposed to graded concentrations of phenol, formaldehyde, a volatile fraction of process stream material from an experimental coal gasifier, and the nonparticulate, vapor phase of diesel engine exhaust. During exposures, the cells were maintained at an air/collagen interface by removing the medium overlying the hydrated collagen gel. Morphological changes indicative of cell retraction were found in LEC cell cultures exposed to phenol, formaldehyde, or diesel exhaust. Damage following exposure to the toxicants was quantitated in LEC and CHO cells by Trypan blue dye exclusion, a measure of plasma membrane integrity. Clone-forming ability was also used to measure cell survival in CHO cells. When measured by Trypan blue dye exclusion, phenol (EC50 = 2.1 mg/l) caused membrane damage to LEC cells but not CHO cells, while formaldehyde (EC50 = 31 and 42 ..mu..g/l for LEC and CHO, respectively) and diesel exhaust (EC50 = 11 and 29% of tailpipe exhaust in LEC and CHO cells, respectively) caused damage to both cell types. No cytotoxicity was observed in LEC or CHO cells exposed to the fraction from the coal gasifier. Essentially no mutagenic activity was associated with the exposure of CHO cells to formaldehyde or the vapor phase of diesel exhaust. Mutagenic activity was found in CHO cells exposed to ethylene oxide, the positive control.

  20. Electronic cigarettes and thirdhand tobacco smoke: two emerging health care challenges for the primary care provider

    PubMed Central

    Kuschner, Ware G; Reddy, Sunayana; Mehrotra, Nidhi; Paintal, Harman S

    2011-01-01

    Primary care providers should be aware of two new developments in nicotine addiction and smoking cessation: 1) the emergence of a novel nicotine delivery system known as the electronic (e-) cigarette; and 2) new reports of residual environmental nicotine and other biopersistent toxicants found in cigarette smoke, recently described as “thirdhand smoke”. The purpose of this article is to provide a clinician-friendly introduction to these two emerging issues so that clinicians are well prepared to counsel smokers about newly recognized health concerns relevant to tobacco use. E-cigarettes are battery powered devices that convert nicotine into a vapor that can be inhaled. The World Health Organization has termed these devices electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). The vapors from ENDS are complex mixtures of chemicals, not pure nicotine. It is unknown whether inhalation of the complex mixture of chemicals found in ENDS vapors is safe. There is no evidence that e-cigarettes are effective treatment for nicotine addiction. ENDS are not approved as smoking cessation devices. Primary care givers should anticipate being questioned by patients about the advisability of using e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation device. The term thirdhand smoke first appeared in the medical literature in 2009 when investigators introduced the term to describe residual tobacco smoke contamination that remains after the cigarette is extinguished. Thirdhand smoke is a hazardous exposure resulting from cigarette smoke residue that accumulates in cars, homes, and other indoor spaces. Tobacco-derived toxicants can react to form potent cancer causing compounds. Exposure to thirdhand smoke can occur through the skin, by breathing, and by ingestion long after smoke has cleared from a room. Counseling patients about the hazards of thirdhand smoke may provide additional motivation to quit smoking. PMID:21475626

  1. The fire-safe cigarette.

    PubMed

    Botkin, J R

    1988-07-01

    Fires caused by cigarettes through the ignition of upholstered furniture and mattresses are a serious public health problem, accounting for more than 1500 deaths and 7000 serious injuries per year in the United States. Fire-resistant fabrics and stuffings, public education, and smoke detectors have had a limited impact on this problem. The federal government recently has completed a three-year study of possible modifications in cigarette design. The study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of product design changes that would substantially reduce the propensity of cigarettes to ignite fires. Legislation currently is pending in Congress and in three state legislatures to mandate a cigarette fire safety standard. This legislation deserves strong support by the medical profession. PMID:3290519

  2. E-Cigarettes and Marijuana

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... health news that matters to you Related MedlinePlus Health Topics E-Cigarettes Marijuana Smoking and Youth About ... Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page ...

  3. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Approaches for Drug Addiction Get this Publication Español PDF (591KB) Cite this article APA style citation National Institute on Drug Abuse. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Retrieved from http:// ...

  4. Growth of High-Quality Si-Doped AlGaN by Low-Pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimahara, Yuki; Miyake, Hideto; Hiramatsu, Kazumasa; Fukuyo, Fumitsugu; Okada, Tomoyuki; Takaoka, Hidetsugu; Yoshida, Harumasa

    2011-09-01

    In this paper we report the growth of Si-doped AlGaN on an AlN/sapphire substrate by low-pressure metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (LP-MOVPE) with an in situ monitoring system to fabricate a high-quality film with controlled thickness. The AlN mole fraction in AlGaN can be controlled by adjusting the growth temperature. We also discuss the quality and growth mechanism of AlGaN on AlN. GaN and AlGaN with an AlN mole fraction of 0.28 were free from stress because of the occurrence of three-dimensional (3D) growth. The lattice constant a of AlGaN with an AlN mole fraction of 0.40 was larger than that at an AlN mole fraction of 0.28 despite the two-dimensional (2D) growth mode. This indicates that the lattice mismatch between AlGaN and the underlying AlN adversely affects the crystal quality. AlGaN with an AlN mole fraction of over 0.60 was coherently grown on AlN owing to the fact that the AlN/sapphire template used in this work was subjected to compression. For this reason, in the samples with an AlN mole fraction of over 0.6, the crystal quality was high because of the coherent growth on the underlying AlN. Moreover, Si doping was performed for AlGaN. The carrier concentration increased linearly up to a Si concentration of 2 ×1018 cm-3, indicating that the activation rate was approximately 1.

  5. Characteristics of PCDD/F distributions in vapor and solid phases and emissions from the Waelz process

    SciTech Connect

    Kai Hsien Chi; Shu Hao Chang; Moo Been Chang

    2006-03-15

    The Waelz process is a classic method used for recovering zinc from electric arc furnace (EAF) dusts containing relatively high concentrations of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans) as well as volatile metals, such as Zn, Pb, and Cu, and chlorine. The EAF dust is mixed with coke (30%) and sand (20%) then fed into a rotary kiln. Significant PCDD/Fs are formed in the typical Waelz process, causing public concerns regarding PCDD/F emissions. In this study, flue gas and ash samplings are simultaneously conducted at different sampling points to evaluate the removal efficiency and the partitioning of PCDD/Fs between the vapor and solid phases in the Waelz plant investigated. With the environment (temperature window, sufficient retention time, chlorine, and catalysts available) conducive to PCDD/F formation in the dust settling chamber (DSC), a significantly high PCDD/F concentration (1223 ng TEQ/Nm{sup 3}) is measured in flue gas downstream from the DSC of the Waelz plant investigated. In addition, the cyclone and bag filter adopted in this facility can only remove 51.3% and 69.4%, respectively, of the PCDD/Fs in the flue gas, resulting in a high PCDD/F concentration (145 ng TEQ/Nm{sup 3}) measured in the stack gas of the Waelz plant investigated. On the basis of treating 1 ton of EAF dust, the total PCDD/F discharge (stack gas emission + ash discharge) is 840 ng TEQ/kg EAF dust of the Waelz plant investigated. Because of the lack of effective air pollutant control devices for PCDD/Fs, about 560 ng TEQ/kg EAF dust are discharged via stack gas in this facility. 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046

  7. Simulation of two-phase liquid-vapor flows using a high-order compact finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hejranfar, Kazem; Ezzatneshan, Eslam

    2015-11-01

    A high-order compact finite-difference lattice Boltzmann method (CFDLBM) is extended and applied to accurately simulate two-phase liquid-vapor flows with high density ratios. Herein, the He-Shan-Doolen-type lattice Boltzmann multiphase model is used and the spatial derivatives in the resulting equations are discretized by using the fourth-order compact finite-difference scheme and the temporal term is discretized with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme to provide an accurate and efficient two-phase flow solver. A high-order spectral-type low-pass compact nonlinear filter is used to regularize the numerical solution and remove spurious waves generated by flow nonlinearities in smooth regions and at the same time to remove the numerical oscillations in the interfacial region between the two phases. Three discontinuity-detecting sensors for properly switching between a second-order and a higher-order filter are applied and assessed. It is shown that the filtering technique used can be conveniently adopted to reduce the spurious numerical effects and improve the numerical stability of the CFDLBM implemented. A sensitivity study is also conducted to evaluate the effects of grid size and the filtering procedure implemented on the accuracy and performance of the solution. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed solution procedure based on the compact finite-difference LBM are examined by solving different two-phase systems. Five test cases considered herein for validating the results of the two-phase flows are an equilibrium state of a planar interface in a liquid-vapor system, a droplet suspended in the gaseous phase, a liquid droplet located between two parallel wettable surfaces, the coalescence of two droplets, and a phase separation in a liquid-vapor system at different conditions. Numerical results are also presented for the coexistence curve and the verification of the Laplace law. Results obtained are in good agreement with the analytical solutions and also the numerical results reported in the literature. The study shows that the present solution methodology is robust, efficient, and accurate for solving two-phase liquid-vapor flow problems even at high density ratios.

  8. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers. PMID:21624148

  9. Composition, diffusion, and antifungal activity of black mustard (Brassica nigra) essential oil when applied by direct addition or vapor phase contact.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Garibay, Beatriz; Palou, Enrique; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we characterized the essential oil (EO) of black mustard (Brassica nigra) and quantified its antimicrobial activity, when applied by direct contact into the liquid medium or by exposure in the vapor phase (in laboratory media or in a bread-type product), against the growth of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ochraceus, or Penicillium citrinum. Allyl-isothiocyanate (AITC) was identified as the major component of B. nigra EO with a concentration of 378.35 mg/ml. When B. nigra EO was applied by direct contact into the liquid medium, it inhibited the growth of A. ochraceus and P. citrinum when the concentration was 2 ?l/ml of liquid medium (MIC), while for A. niger, a MIC of B. nigra EO was 4 ?l/ml of liquid medium. Exposure of molds to B. nigra EO in vapor phase showed that 41.1 ?l of B. nigra EO per liter of air delayed the growth of P. citrinum and A. niger by 10 days, while A. ochraceus growth was delayed for 20 days. Exposure to concentrations ? 47 ?l of B. nigra EO per liter of air (MIC) inhibited the growth of tested molds by 30 days, and they were not able to recover after further incubation into an environment free of EO (fungicidal effect). Adsorbed AITC was quantified by exposing potato dextrose agar to B. nigra EO in a vapor phase, exhibiting that AITC was retained at least 5 days when testing EO at its MIC or with higher concentrations. Mustard EO MIC was also effective against the evaluated molds inhibiting their growth for 30 days in a bread-type product when exposed to EO by vapor contact, demonstrating its antifungal activity. PMID:25836415

  10. Perceptions of the Relative Harm of Cigarettes and E-cigarettes Among U.S. Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Bridget K.; Rostron, Brian L.; Johnson, Sarah E.; Portnoy, David B.; Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Kaufman, Annette R.; Choiniere, Conrad J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite progress in reducing youth smoking, adolescents remain highly susceptible to tobacco use. Of concern is whether youth perceive electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) as a preferable alternative to conventional cigarettes. Purpose To describe cigarette harm perception patterns among youth based on the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and examine the relative harm perceptions of conventional versus e-cigarettes, using data from a large, nationally representative sample of U.S. youth. Methods Data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey (N=24,658) were analyzed in 2013 to identify patterns of cigarette harm perceptions. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify associations between demographic and tobacco use characteristics and cigarette harm perception patterns. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationship between cigarette harm perceptions and the perception of e-cigarettes as less harmful than cigarettes for current, ever, and never cigarette smokers. Results The majority of youth (64.2%) perceived the harmfulness of cigarettes as dose-dependent. Approximately one in three students perceived e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Regardless of cigarette smoking status, ever users of e-cigarettes and those with “dose-dependent” cigarette harm perceptions consistently were more likely to perceive e-cigarettes as less harmful than conventional cigarettes. Conclusions Many youth perceive tobacco use on a continuum of harm. Youth who perceive gradations in harm—both by frequency and intensity of cigarette use and by type of product—may be particularly susceptible to e-cigarette use. PMID:25044196

  11. Scrambled and fried: Cigarette smoke exposure causes antral follicle destruction and oocyte dysfunction through oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Sobinoff, A.P.; Beckett, E.L.; Jarnicki, A.G.; Sutherland, J.M.; McCluskey, A.; Hansbro, P.M.; McLaughlin, E.A.

    2013-09-01

    Cigarette smoke is a reproductive hazard associated with pre-mature reproductive senescence and reduced clinical pregnancy rates in female smokers. Despite an increased awareness of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke exposure on systemic health, many women remain unaware of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on female fertility. This issue is compounded by our limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind cigarette smoke induced infertility. In this study we used a direct nasal exposure mouse model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to characterise mechanisms of cigarette-smoke induced ovotoxicity. Cigarette smoke exposure caused increased levels of primordial follicle depletion, antral follicle oocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress in exposed ovaries, resulting in fewer follicles available for ovulation. Evidence of oxidative stress also persisted in ovulated oocytes which escaped destruction, with increased levels of mitochondrial ROS and lipid peroxidation resulting in reduced fertilisation potential. Microarray analysis of ovarian tissue correlated these insults with a complex mechanism of ovotoxicity involving genes associated with detoxification, inflammation, follicular activation, immune cell mediated apoptosis and membrane organisation. In particular, the phase I detoxifying enzyme cyp2e1 was found to be significantly up-regulated in developing oocytes; an enzyme known to cause molecular bioactivation resulting in oxidative stress. Our results provide a preliminary model of cigarette smoke induced sub-fertility through cyp2e1 bioactivation and oxidative stress, resulting in developing follicle depletion and oocyte dysfunction. - Highlights: • Cigarette smoke exposure targets developing follicle oocytes. • The antral follicle oocyte is a primary site of ovarian cigarette smoke metabolism. • Cyp2e1 is a major enzyme involved in ameliorating smoke-induced ovotoxicity. • Cigarette smoke causes oocyte mitochondrial ROS, impairing fertilisation.

  12. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance...

  13. 19 CFR 11.3 - Package and notice requirements for cigars and cigarettes; package requirements for cigarette...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. 11.3 Section 11...package requirements for cigarette papers and tubes. Exemptions from tax on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes apply in accordance...

  14. E-Cigarette Awareness and Perceived Harmfulness

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Andy S.L.; Bigman, Cabral A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are increasingly advertised as replacements for regular cigarettes or cessation aids for smokers. Purpose To describe the prevalence and correlates of e-cigarette awareness and perceived harmfulness among U.S. adults and analyze whether these variables are associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts and intention to quit. Methods Data were obtained from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS 4 Cycle 2), conducted from October 2012 to January 2013. Data analyses were performed from June to August 2013. Results Overall, 77% of respondents were aware of e-cigarettes. Of these, 51% believed e-cigarettes were less harmful than cigarettes. Younger, white (compared with Hispanic), more educated respondents, and current or former smokers (compared with non-smokers) were more likely to be aware of e-cigarettes. Among those who were aware of e-cigarettes, younger, more educated respondents and current smokers (compared with former and non-smokers) were more likely to believe that e-cigarettes were less harmful. Awareness and perceived harm were not associated with smokers’ past year quit attempts or intention to quit. Conclusions Overall e-cigarette awareness increased while smokers’ perceived harm of e-cigarettes declined compared with earlier surveys. However, awareness and perceived harm of e-cigarettes did not show evidence of promoting smoking cessation at the population level. PMID:24794422

  15. Synthesis of narrow band-gap III-V semiconductors using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Smita

    The synthesis of narrow band gap materials in particular InAs, GaSb and InSb has been studied using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Typically, for device applications these materials are grown on SI GaAs substrates. The integration of these materials with GaAs substrates through direct epitaxial growth is plagued by the high density of defects that are formed due to the 7-14% lattice mismatch between these materials. The presence of high density of threading dislocations in the resultant films has necessitated the development of approaches that alter the primary mechanisms of defect introduction and propagation, consequently leading to a reduction in the overall threading dislocation density during lattice-mismatched growths. Selective area epitaxy on nano-patterned substrates generated using block copolymer lithography was employed to nucleate the growing epitaxial material within specific mask openings and lead to strain relaxation within small islands. A significant improvement in material properties was observed for GaSb films grown on nano-patterned GaAs substrates at a very early stage of film growth. The FWHM of the GaSb peak grown on nano-patterned GaAs substrates was reduced by a factor of two or more relative to the films grown to the same thickness on non-patterned GaAs substrates. Defect mitigation was achieved for InAs growth on nano-patterned GaAs templates however, the resultant films exhibited a very different growth behavior when compared to GaSb growth on GaAs templates. While 200 mn thick GaSb film on nano-patterned GaAs substrates yielded a smooth, planar morphology, large islands were observed for InAs growth on nano-patterned GaAs templates. The difference in surface morphology between these systems was attributed to the enhanced surface diffusion of the indium adatoms combined with the kinetics of strain-relaxation leading to a disparity in island growth rate. From this study, it was determined that a balance between surface transport and strain-derived non-uniformity in island growth must be reached through careful choice of growth parameters for obtaining films with planar morphologies during lattice-mismatched integration.

  16. Experimental and textural investigation of welding: effects of compaction, sintering, and vapor-phase crystallization in the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunder, Anita L.; Laporte, Didier; Druitt, Tim H.

    2005-04-01

    The abrupt changes in character of variably welded pyroclastic deposits have invited decades of investigation and classification. We conducted two series of experiments using ash from the nonwelded base of the rhyolitic Rattlesnake Tuff of Oregon, USA, to examine conditions of welding. One series of experiments was conducted at atmospheric pressure (1 At) in a muffle furnace with variable run times and temperature and another series was conducted at 5 MPa and 600 °C in a cold seal apparatus with variable run times and water contents. We compared the results to a suite of incipiently to densely welded, natural samples of the Rattlesnake Tuff. Experiments at 1 At required a temperature above 900 °C to produce welding, which is in excess of the estimated pre-eruptive magmatic temperature of the tuff. The experiments also yielded globular clast textures unlike the natural tuff. During the cold-seal experiments, the gold sample capsules collapsed in response to sample densification. Textures and densities that closely mimic the natural suite were produced at 5 MPa, 600 °C and 0.4 wt.% H 2O, over run durations of hours to 2 days. Clast deformation and development of foliation in 2-week runs were greater than in natural samples. Both more and less water reduced the degree of welding at otherwise constant run conditions. For 5 MPa experiments, changes in the degree of foliation of shards and of axial ratios of bubble shards and non-bubble (mainly platy) shards, are consistent with early densification related to compaction and partial rotation of shards into a foliation. Subsequent densification was associated with viscous deformation as indicated by more sintered contacts and deformation of shards. Sintering (local fusion of shard-shard contacts) was increasingly important with longer run times, higher temperatures, and greater pressures. During runs with high water concentrations, sintering was rare and adhesion between clasts was dominated by precipitation of sublimates in pore spaces. A few tenths wt.% H 2O in the rhyolite glass promote the development of welding by sharp reduction of glass viscosity. Large amounts of water inhibit welding by creating surface sublimates that interfere with sintering and may exert fluid pressure counter to lithostatic load if sintering and vapor-phase sublimates seal permeability in the tuff.

  17. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. 159.5 Section 159.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes....

  18. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes. 159.5 Section 159.5 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES General Provisions § 159.5 Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes....

  19. The Fight against the Cigarette Epidemic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzel, K. H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes progress in the fight against the "cigarette epidemic," presents evidence relating smoking to cancer, and provides suggestions for citizen action to curb cigarette-smoking and to prevent children from developing the habit. (LS)

  20. Metallic 1T phase source/drain electrodes for field effect transistors from chemical vapor deposited MoS{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Kappera, Rajesh; Voiry, Damien; Jen, Wesley; Acerce, Muharrem; Torrel, Sol; Chhowalla, Manish; Yalcin, Sibel Ebru; Branch, Brittany; Gupta, Gautam; Mohite, Aditya D.; Lei, Sidong; Chen, Weibing; Najmaei, Sina; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M.

    2014-09-01

    Two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDs) offer promise as opto-electronic materials due to their direct band gap and reasonably good mobility values. However, most metals form high resistance contacts on semiconducting TMDs such as MoS{sub 2}. The large contact resistance limits the performance of devices. Unlike bulk materials, low contact resistance cannot be stably achieved in 2D materials by doping. Here we build on our previous work in which we demonstrated that it is possible to achieve low contact resistance electrodes by phase transformation. We show that similar to the previously demonstrated mechanically exfoliated samples, it is possible to decrease the contact resistance and enhance the FET performance by locally inducing and patterning the metallic 1T phase of MoS{sub 2} on chemically vapor deposited material. The device properties are substantially improved with 1T phase source/drain electrodes.

  1. Cigarette Alternatives: Are they Safe?

    PubMed

    Shantakumari, Nisha; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary; John, Lisha Jenny; Sreedharan, Jayadevan

    2015-01-01

    In spite of limited data regarding the safety or effectiveness of electronic cigarette introduced into the market as a healthier alternative to tobacco smoking, its popularity has increased enormously. E-cigarettes have penetrated the market rapidly owing to the elaborate marketing network and attractive marketing strategies. Stated advantages include the claim that they help quit smoking and produce less exposure than conventional smoking. The list of disadvantages is even more elaborate. While the majority of the studies supporting health claims and efficacy for quitting smoking are not scientifically sound, they are also challenged by studies providing contradictory results. Owing to the limited evidence on the potential advantages and disadvantages of e-cigarettes, the debate on their safety continues. PMID:25921182

  2. Waterpipes and e-cigarettes: Impact of alternative smoking techniques on indoor air quality and health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, Hermann; Schober, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Waterpipe (WP) smoking is growing as an alternative to cigarette smoking, especially in younger age groups. E-cigarette use has also increased in recent years. A majority of smokers mistakenly believe that WP smoking is a social entertainment practice that leads to more social behavior and relaxation and that this type of smoking is safe or less harmful and less addictive than cigarette smoking. In reality, WP smokers are exposed to hundreds of toxic substances that include known carcinogens. High exposures to carbon monoxide and nicotine are major health threats. Persons exposed to secondhand WP smoke are also at risk. There is growing evidence that WP smoke causes adverse effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and is responsible for cancer. E-cigarettes are marketed as a smokeless and safe way to inhale nicotine without being exposed to the many toxic components of tobacco cigarettes, and as an aid to smoking cessation. In fact, consumers (vapers) and secondhand vapers can be exposed to substantial amounts of VOC, PAH or other potentially harmful substances. Of major health concern is the inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles formed from supersaturated 1,2-propanediol vapor. Such particles can be deposited in the deeper parts of the lung and may harm the respiratory system or increase the risk of acquiring asthma. More research on the safety of e-cigarettes needs to be conducted to ensure a high level of public health protection in the long-term.

  3. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351 Section 40.351 Alcohol...MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351...

  4. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351 Section 40.351 Alcohol...MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351...

  5. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351 Section 40.351 Alcohol...MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351...

  6. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351 Section 40.351 Alcohol...MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351...

  7. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette papers. 40.351 Section 40.351 Alcohol...MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351...

  8. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Results Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products’ ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Conclusions Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products’ impact on public health. PMID:24732160

  9. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Henningfield, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T.; Davis, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.?DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of relevant journal articles, other government publications, and presentations made at scientific conferences.?DATA SYNTHESIS—The role of nicotine in causing and sustaining tobacco use was evaluated to project the impact of a nicotine reduction strategy on initiation and maintenance of, and relapse to, tobacco use. A range of potential concerns and barriers was addressed, including the technical feasibility of reducing cigarette nicotine content to non-addictive levels, the possibility that compensatory smoking would reduce potential health benefits, and whether such an approach would foster illicit ("black market") tobacco sales. Education, treatment, and research needs to enable a nicotine reduction strategy were also addressed. The Council on Scientific Affairs came to the following conclusions: (a) gradually eliminating nicotine from cigarettes is technically feasible; (b) a nicotine reduction strategy holds great promise in preventing adolescent tobacco addiction and assisting the millions of current cigarette smokers in their efforts to quit using tobacco products; (c) potential problems such as compensatory over-smoking of denicotinised cigarettes and black market sales could be minimised by providing alternate forms of nicotine delivery with less or little risk to health, as part of expanded access to treatment; and (d) such a strategy would need to be accompanied by relevant research and increased efforts to educate consumers and health professionals about tobacco and health.?CONCLUSIONS—The council recommends the following: (a) that cessation of tobacco use should be the goal for all tobacco users; (b) that the American Medical Association continue to support FDA authority over tobacco products, and FDA classification of nicotine as a drug and tobacco products as drug-delivery devices; (c) that research be encouraged on cigarette modifications that may result in less addicting cigarettes; (d) that the FDA require that the addictiveness of cigarettes be reduced within 5-10 years; (e) expanded surveillance to monitor trends in the use of tobacco products and other nicotine-containing products; (f) expanded access to smoking cessation treatment, and strengthening of the treatment infrastructure; and (g) more accurate labelling of tobacco products, including a more meaningful and understandable indication of nicotine content.???Keywords: American Medical Association; addiction; nicotine; smoking cessation PMID:9825424

  10. Acetyl radical generation in cigarette smoke: Quantification and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-10-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10-150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commercial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass fiber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acetaldehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke.

  11. Acetyl Radical Generation in Cigarette Smoke: Quantification and Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Na; Green, Sarah A.

    2014-01-01

    Free radicals are present in cigarette smoke and can have a negative effect on human health. However, little is known about their formation mechanisms. Acetyl radicals were quantified in tobacco smoke and mechanisms for their generation were investigated by computer simulations. Acetyl radicals were trapped from the gas phase using 3-amino-2, 2, 5, 5-tetramethyl-proxyl (3AP) on solid support to form stable 3AP adducts for later analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry/tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS/MS) and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Simulations were performed using the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM). A range of 10–150 nmol/cigarette of acetyl radical was measured from gas phase tobacco smoke of both commerial and research cigarettes under several different smoking conditions. More radicals were detected from the puff smoking method compared to continuous flow sampling. Approximately twice as many acetyl radicals were trapped when a glass filber particle filter (GF/F specifications) was placed before the trapping zone. Simulations showed that NO/NO2 reacts with isoprene, initiating chain reactions to produce hydroxyl radical, which abstracts hydrogen from acealdehyde to generate acetyl radical. These mechanisms can account for the full amount of acetyl radical detected experimentally from cigarette smoke. Similar mechanisms may generate radicals in second hand smoke. PMID:25253993

  12. Determination of Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Monoxide, and Methane Concentrations in Cigarette Smoke by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, T. L.; Lebron, G. B.

    2012-01-01

    The integrated absorbance areas of vibrational bands of CO[subscript 2], CO, and CH[subscript 4] gases in cigarette smoke were measured from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra to derive the partial pressures of these gases at different smoke times. The quantity of the three gas-phase components of cigarette smoke at different smoke times…

  13. Impact of a Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy Environment on Silicon Substrates for III-V-on-Si Multijunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Tabarés, Elisa; García, Iván; Lelièvre, Jean-Francois; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio

    2012-10-01

    With the final goal of integrating III-V materials to silicon for tandem solar cells, the influence of the metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) environment on the minority carrier properties of silicon wafers has been evaluated. These properties will essentially determine the photovoltaic performance of the bottom cell in a III-V-on-Si tandem solar cell device. A comparison of the base minority carrier lifetimes obtained for different thermal processes carried out in a MOVPE reactor on Czochralski silicon wafers has been carried out. The effect of the formation of the emitter by phosphorus diffusion has also been evaluated.

  14. Ripening of InAs quantum dots on GaAs (0 0 1) investigated with in situ scanning tunneling microscopy in metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremzow, Raimund; Pristovsek, Markus; Kneissl, Michael

    2008-11-01

    We report on the first in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements showing Ostwald ripening of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on Si-doped (0 0 1) GaAs by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). During an annealing step in the reactor under arsenic overpressure immediately after QD growth at (475C) the change in QD density and size distribution could be observed directly in a sequence of in situ STM images over 50 min. The density of the InAs QDs decreases reciprocally during the annealing step, which agrees well with Ostwald ripening limited by indium attachment/detachment.

  15. Highly uniform and reproducible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy with in-situ reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, H.Q.; Choquette, K.D.; Hammons, B.E.; Breiland, W.G.; Geib, K.M.; Chui, H.C.

    1996-10-01

    Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) were grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Excellent uniformity of Fabry-Perot cavity wavelength for VCSEL materials of {+-}0.2% across a 3-in diameter wafer was achieved. This results in excellent uniformity of the lasing wavelength and threshold current of VCSEL devices. Employing pregrowth calibrations on growth rates periodically with an in situ reflectometer, the authors obtained a run-to-run wavelength reproducibility for 770- and 850-nm VCSELs of {+-}0.3% over the course of more than a hundred runs.

  16. Catalyst-Free Metal-Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy of ZnO and GaN Nanostructures for Visible Light-Emitting Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chul-Ho; Yi, Gyu-Chul

    In this chapter, we present a review of current research activities related to ZnO and GaN nanostructures and their heterostructures for visible light-emitting devices. For the preparation of high-quality nanostructures, catalyst-free metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy has been used because the catalyst-free method offers accurate doping and composition control required for optoelectronic device fabrication. Here, we discuss the catalyst-free growth mechanism, reliable and reproducible position control of ZnO and GaN nanostructures, and their visible light emitter applications.

  17. Tunable generation and adsorption of energetic compounds in the vapor phase at trace levels: a tool for testing and developing sensitive and selective substrates for explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Bonnot, Karine; Bernhardt, Pierre; Hassler, Dominique; Baras, Christian; Comet, Marc; Keller, Valérie; Spitzer, Denis

    2010-04-15

    Among various methods for landmine detection, as well as soil and water pollution monitoring, the detection of explosive compounds in air is becoming an important and inevitable challenge for homeland security applications, due to the threatening increase in terrorist explosive bombs used against civil populations. However, in the last case, there is a crucial need for the detection of vapor phase traces or subtraces (in the ppt range or even lower). A novel and innovative generator for explosive trace vapors was designed and developed. It allowed the generation of theoretical concentrations as low as 0.24 ppq for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in air according to Clapeyron equations. The accurate generation of explosive concentrations at subppt levels was verified for RDX and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) using a gas chromatograph coupled to an electron capture detector (GC-ECD). First, sensing material experiments were conducted on a nanostructured tungsten oxide. The sensing efficiency of this material determined as its adsorption capacity toward 54 ppb RDX was calculated to be five times higher than the sensing efficiency of a 54 ppb TNT vapor. The material sensing efficiency showed no dependence on the mass of material used. The results showed that the device allowed the calibration and discrimination between materials for highly sensitive and accurate sensing detection in air of low vapor pressure explosives such as TNT or RDX at subppb levels. The designed device and method showed promising features for nanosensing applications in the field of ultratrace explosive detection. The current perspectives are to decrease the testing scale and the detection levels to ppt or subppt concentration of explosives in air. PMID:20345122

  18. Factors Associated with E-Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Giovenco, Daniel P.; Lewis, M. Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Few national surveys document the prevalence of e-cigarette use in the U.S. The existing metric to assess current use likely identifies individuals who have recently tried an e-cigarette but do not continue to use the product. Purpose To document the prevalence of e-cigarette ever use, current use, and established use in a nationally representative survey of current and former cigarette smokers in the U.S. Methods A random sample of current and former cigarette smokers completed a web-based survey in June 2013 (n=2,136). Data were analyzed in November 2013. Multivariate logistic regression identified demographic and smoking-related factors associated with each use category. Point estimates with 95% CIs described e-cigarette use behaviors (e.g., preferred brand, purchasing patterns) for each group. Results Almost half of respondents had tried e-cigarettes (46.8%), but prevalence of established use remained low (3.8%). Although trial of e-cigarettes was highest among daily smokers, the odds of being an established e-cigarette user were greater for former smokers (OR=3.24, 95% CI=1.13, 9.30, p<0.05). Furthermore, e-cigarette preference and use patterns varied among ever, current, and established users. Established users reported using rechargeable e-cigarettes, having a regular brand, and using e-cigarettes at home and in the workplace at much higher levels than the “current use” metric captures. Conclusions Improved survey measures for e-cigarette use are needed. The identification of established e-cigarette users may provide insight to product features or other individual factors that are associated with sustained use of e-cigarettes. PMID:24880986

  19. Cigarette smoke blocks cross-linking of elastin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Laurent, P; Janoff, A; Kagan, H M

    1983-02-01

    Water-soluble components of the gas phase of filtered cigarette smoke inhibit formation of covalent desmosine cross-links during conversion of tropoelastin to elastin in vitro. These same smoke components also suppress lysyl-oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of lysine epsilon-amino groups in tropoelastin (the chemical step preceding formation of all elastin cross-links, including desmosine) in a dose-dependent fashion. However, gas phase smoke does not block the oxidation of diaminopentane by lysyl oxidase. Thus, gas phase cigarette smoke may possess substrate-directed (rather than enzyme-directed) inhibitory components capable of interfering with elastin cross-linking in vitro. Similar effects occurring in smokers' lungs could impede elastin repair and contribute to the development of pulmonary emphysema. PMID:6830036

  20. Volumetric Properties and Liquid-Vapor Phase Relations of CO2-H2O Fluids in Upper Crustal Contact-Metamorphic Aureoules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blencoe, J. G.; Anovitz, L. M.; Singh, J.; Seitz, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    Recent experimental measurements reveal the densities (? ), excess molar volumes (V ex), relative buoyancies (RB), and liquid-vapor phase relations of CO2-H2O fluids at 300-700 ° C, 5-200 MPa (RB = ? H2O/? , where ? H2O is the density of pure water, and ? is the density of the CO2-H2O mixture). At temperatures > 500° C, excess molar volumes for CO2-H2O fluids are relatively small (peak values ranging between approximately 1 and 20 cm3?mol-1) and nearly symmetric about the midpoint composition (0.4 <= X CO2 <= 0.6 at V ex(max)); consequently, volumetric properties are predicted with good accuracy by a largely empirical, modified Redlich-Kwong thermodynamic model (Kerrick and Jacobs, 1981). However, at T <= 500° C, excess molar volumes (i) increase sharply with decreasing temperature and pressure (down to P sat, the saturation vapor pressure of pure water) and (ii) become strongly asymmetric toward H2O; therefore, a more theoretically robust equation of state (e.g., the modified Lee-Kesler formulation developed by Duan et al. 1992a,b) is required to accurately represent volumetric properties and liquid-vapor phase relations. Reliable thermodynamic modeling is especially challenging for 300-400° C, P <= 50 MPa, as peak values for V ex (at a given temperature) range from approximately 50 to 270 cm3?mol-1 for fluids that contain < 30 mole % CO2. Due to this extreme thermodynamic nonideality, concentrations of dissolved CO2 as low as 3-5 mole percent will dramatically decrease fluid density. In addition, if the CO2 content of the fluid is sufficiently high (between approximately 1 and 25 mole % CO2, depending on the particular P-T conditions) at T < 374° C and P sat < P < P c (P c = the critical pressure in the CO2-H2O system at 265 < T < 374° C), a comparatively CO2-rich vapor phase---with a density far below that of pure H2O at the same P and T---will form. These results indicate that small amounts of CO2 can profoundly affect the rates and patterns of hydrothermal fluid flow in shallow contact-metamorphic aureoules, and other upper crustal, magmatic-hydrothermal systems. *Research sponsored by the Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed and operated by UT-Battelle, LLC.

  1. A simple approach for measuring emission patterns of vapor phase mercury under temperature-controlled conditions from soil.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jung, Myung-Chae; Oh, Jong-Min; Brown, Richard J C

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to study the possible effects of climate change on the behavior of atmospheric mercury (Hg), we built a temperature-controlled microchamber system to measure its emission from top soils. To this end, mercury vapour emission rates were investigated in the laboratory using top soil samples collected from an urban area. The emissions of Hg, when measured as a function of soil temperature (from ambient levels up to 70°C at increments of 10°C), showed a positive correlation with rising temperature. According to the continuous analyses of the Hg vapor given off by the identical soil samples, evasion rate diminished noticeably with increasing number of repetitions. The experimental results, if examined in terms of activation energy (Ea), showed highly contrasting patterns between the single and repetitive runs. Although the results of the former exhibited Ea values smaller than the vaporization energy of Hg (i.e., <14?Kcal?mol(-1)), those of the latter increased systematically with increasing number of repetitions. As such, it is proposed that changes in the magnitude of Ea values can be used as a highly sensitive criterion to discriminate the important role of vaporization from other diverse (biotic/abiotic) processes occurring in the soil layer. PMID:22927791

  2. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon. PMID:25353061

  3. CIGARETTE SMOKE AND LUNG CANCER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cigarette smoke has been implicated in a causal relationship with carcinoma of the lung. An intriguing feature of the disease is the site-selectivity with which bronchogenic cancer manifests itself; most cancers are detected in the main, lobar and segmental bronchi, perhaps speci...

  4. Menthol Cigarettes | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    What is menthol? Menthol is a substance naturally found in mint plants such as peppermint and spearmint. It gives a cooling sensation and is frequently used to relieve minor pain and irritation and to prevent infection [1]. Which tobacco products contain menthol? Menthol is found in cigarettes, cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco products, and tobacco rolling paper.

  5. Liquid chromatographic determination of benzo(a)pyrene in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkins, B.A.; Jenkins, R.A.; Griest, W.H.; Reagan, R.R.; Holladay, S.K.

    1985-09-01

    The benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) delivery of reference and commercially available tobacco cigarettes, as well as reference and placebo marijuana cigarettes, is determined using a sequential liquid chromatographic/liquid chromatographic procedure. The total particulate matter of sample cigarette smoke is collected using a Cambridge filter pad, which is ultrasonically extracted with acetone. The resulting extract is filtered, then fractionated using semipreparative-scale normal phase liquid chromatography (LC). Quantitative determination is achieved using analytical-scale reverse phase LC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The method is precise (+/- 10-15% relative standard deviation) and yields 85% or better BaP recovery at the ng/cig. level. A single pad may be analyzed in 8 person-hours, while a more typical lot of 12 pads (6 pads each for 2 cigarette brands) may be analyzed in 10 person-days.

  6. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?*

    PubMed Central

    Knorst, Marli Maria; Benedetto, Igor Gorski; Hoffmeister, Mariana Costa; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso

    2014-01-01

    The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use. PMID:25410845

  7. Nicotine Content of Domestic Cigarettes, Imported Cigarettes and Pipe Tobacco in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sahar; Khashyarmanesh, Zahra; Moalemzadeh-Haghighi, Hamideh; Nassirli, Hooriyeh; Eshraghi, Pyman; Jalali, Navid; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Background There are many different kinds of cigarettes and tobacco available in the market. Since nicotine content of various brands of cigarettes are very variable, therefore evaluation and comparison of nicotine content of different brands of cigarettes is important. The goal of the present study was to determine and compare nicotine content of various domestic and imported cigarettes available in the area. Methods Fourteen popular imported brands and nine popular domestic brands of cigarettes and three available brands of tobaccos were investigated for the amounts of nicotine content. Nicotine was extracted from each cigarette and tobacco samples and was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Findings The amount of nicotine in each cigarette was from 6.17 to 12.65 mg (1.23 ± 0.15 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) in domestic cigarettes. It was between 7.17-28.86 mg (1.80 ± 0.25 percent of tobacco weight in each cigarette) for imported cigarette, and between 30.08- 50.89 mg (3.82 ± 1.11 percent) for the pipe nicotine. There was significant difference in nicotine amount between imported and domestic brands of cigarettes. There was also no significant difference in nicotine content between light and normal cigarettes in imported brands. Conclusion Nicotine content of all tested cigarettes, imported and domestic brands, were higher than the international standard. PMID:24494133

  8. Role of Co-Vapors in Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang–Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-02-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers.

  9. Role of co-vapors in vapor deposition polymerization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang-Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers. PMID:25673422

  10. (abstract) Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Exchange Current at the Alkali Beta'-Alumina/Porous Electrode/Alkali Metal Vapor Three Phase Boundary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. M.; Jeffries-Nakamura, B.; Ryan, M. A.; Underwood, M. L.; O'Connor, D.; Kikkert, S.

    1993-01-01

    The microscopic mechanism of the alkali ion-electron recombination reaction at the three phase boundary zone formed by a porous metal electrode in the alkali vapor on the surface of an alkali beta'-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) ceramic has been studied by comparison of the expected rates for the three simplest reaction mechanisms with known temperature dependent rate data; and the physical parameters of typical porous metal electrode/BASE/alkali metal vapor reaction zones. The three simplest reactions are tunneling of electrons from the alkali coated electrode to a surface bound alkali metal ion; emission of an electron from the electrode with subsequent capture by a surface bound alkali metal ion; and thermal emission of an alkali cation from the BASE and its capture on the porous metal electrode surface where it may recombine with an electron. Only the first reaction adequately accounts for both the high observed rate and its temperature dependence. New results include crude modeling of simple, one step, three phase, solid/solid/gas electrochemical reaction.

  11. Illicit cigarette trade in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pavananunt, Pirudee

    2011-11-01

    The sale and consumption of illicit tobacco increases consumption, impacts public health, reduces tax revenue and provides an argument against tax increases. Thailand has some of the best tobacco control policies in Southeast Asia with one of the highest tobacco tax rates, but illicit trade has the potential to undermine these policies and needs investigating. Two approaches were used to assess illicit trade between 1991 and 2006: method 1, comparison of tobacco used based on tobacco taxes paid and survey data, and method 2, discrepancies between export data from countries exporting tobacco to Thailand and Thai official data regarding imports. A three year average was used to smooth differences due to lags between exports and imports. For 1991-2006, the estimated manufactured cigarette consumption from survey data was considerably lower than sales tax paid, so method 1 did not provide evidence of cigarette tax avoidance. Using method 2 the trade difference between reported imports and exports, indicates 10% of cigarettes consumed in Thailand (242 million packs per year) between 2004 and 2006 were illicit. The loss of revenue amounted to 4,508 million Baht (2002 prices) in the same year, that was 14% of the total cigarette tax revenue. Cigarette excise tax rates had a negative relationship with consumption trends but no relation with the level of illicit trade. There is a need for improved policies against smuggling to combat the rise in illicit tobacco consumption. Regional coordination and implementation of protocols on illicit trade would help reduce incentives for illegal tax avoidance. PMID:22299425

  12. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, B.; Calosso, C. E.; Abdel Hafiz, M.; Micalizio, S.; Boudot, R.

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad2/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10-14 for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10-14 for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10-15 level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards.

  13. Simple-design ultra-low phase noise microwave frequency synthesizers for high-performing Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    François, B; Calosso, C E; Abdel Hafiz, M; Micalizio, S; Boudot, R

    2015-09-01

    We report on the development and characterization of novel 4.596 GHz and 6.834 GHz microwave frequency synthesizers devoted to be used as local oscillators in high-performance Cs and Rb vapor-cell atomic clocks. The key element of the synthesizers is a custom module that integrates a high spectral purity 100 MHz oven controlled quartz crystal oscillator frequency-multiplied to 1.6 GHz with minor excess noise. Frequency multiplication, division, and mixing stages are then implemented to generate the exact output atomic resonance frequencies. Absolute phase noise performances of the output 4.596 GHz signal are measured to be -109 and -141 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz Fourier frequencies, respectively. The phase noise of the 6.834 GHz signal is -105 and -138 dB rad(2)/Hz at 100 Hz and 10 kHz offset frequencies, respectively. The performances of the synthesis chains contribute to the atomic clock short term fractional frequency stability at a level of 3.1 × 10(-14) for the Cs cell clock and 2 × 10(-14) for the Rb clock at 1 s averaging time. This value is comparable with the clock shot noise limit. We describe the residual phase noise measurements of key components and stages to identify the main limitations of the synthesis chains. The residual frequency stability of synthesis chains is measured to be at the 10(-15) level for 1 s integration time. Relevant advantages of the synthesis design, using only commercially available components, are to combine excellent phase noise performances, simple-architecture, low-cost, and to be easily customized for signal output generation at 4.596 GHz or 6.834 GHz for applications to Cs or Rb vapor-cell frequency standards. PMID:26429467

  14. Detection of the cytotoxicity of water-insoluble fraction of cigarette smoke by direct exposure to cultured cells at an air-liquid interface.

    PubMed

    Nara, Hidenori; Fukano, Yasuo; Nishino, Tomoki; Aufderheide, Michaela

    2013-07-01

    For the biological evaluation of cigarette smoke in vitro, the particulate phase (PP) and the gas vapor phase (GVP) of mainstream smoke have usually been collected individually and exposed to biological material such as cultured cells. Using this traditional method, the GVP is collected by bubbling in an aqueous solution such as phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In such a way the water-insoluble GVP fraction is excluded from the GVP, meaning that the toxic potential of the water-insoluble GVP fraction has hardly been investigated so far. In our experiments we used a direct exposure method to expose cells at the air-liquid interface (ALI) to the water-insoluble GVP fraction for demonstrating its toxicological/biological activity. In order to isolate the water-insoluble GVP fraction from mainstream smoke, the GVP was passed through 6 impingers connected in series with PBS. After direct exposure of Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO-K1) with the water-insoluble GVP fraction in the CULTEX(®) system its cytotoxicity was assayed by using the neutral red uptake assay. The water-insoluble GVP fraction was proven to be less cytotoxic than the water-soluble GVP fraction, but showed a significant effect in a dose-dependent manner. The results of this study showed that the direct exposure of cultivated cells at the air-liquid interface offers the possibility to analyze the biological and toxicological activities of all fractions of cigarette smoke including the water-insoluble GVP fraction. PMID:22999638

  15. Size-dependent phase diagram of nanoscale alloy drops used in vapor--liquid--solid growth of semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Eli A; Sutter, Peter W

    2010-08-24

    We use in situ observations during high-temperature transmission electron microscopy to quantify the exchange of semiconductor material between Au-Ge vapor--liquid--solid seed drops and Ge nanowires (NWs). By performing simultaneous measurements under identical conditions on arrays with systematic variations in NW diameter, we establish the nanoscale size dependence of the temperature-dependent equilibrium composition of the Au-Ge binary alloy. We find a significantly enhanced Ge solubility for drops on thin NWs compared to thicker ones. The controlled modification of the surface of the NW by an ordered carbon shell leads to drastic changes in the solubility. PMID:20731466

  16. Quantitative Infrared Intensity Studies of Vapor-Phase Glyoxal, Methylglyoxal, and 2,3-Butanedione (Diacetyl) with Vibrational Assignments

    SciTech Connect

    Profeta, Luisa T.; Sams, Robert L.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Williams, Stephen D.

    2011-09-08

    Glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) are all known biomass burning effluents and suspected aerosol precursors. Pressure-broadened quantitative infrared spectra of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and diacetyl vapors covering the 520–6500 cm?1 range are reported at 0.11 cm?1 resolution, each with a composite spectrum derived from a minimum of ten different sample pressures for the compound, representing some of the first quantitative data for these analytes. The ordinate corresponds to a 1 meter optical pathlength and a mixing ratio of 1ppmv at 296 K. Many vibrational assignments for methylglyoxal are reported for the first time, as are some near-IR and far-IR bands of glyoxal and diacetyl. To complete the vibrational assignments, the quantitative far-infrared spectra (25 to 600 cm-1) of all three vapors are also reported, methylglyoxal for the first time. Density functional theory and ab initio MP2 theory are used to help assign vibrational modes. Potential bands useful for atmospheric monitoring are discussed.

  17. Determination of methane concentrations in water in equilibrium with sI methane hydrate in the absence of a vapor phase by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most submarine gas hydrates are located within the two-phase equilibrium region of hydrate and interstitial water with pressures (P) ranging from 8 to 60 MPa and temperatures (T) from 275 to 293 K. However, current measurements of solubilities of methane in equilibrium with hydrate in the absence of a vapor phase are limited below 20 MPa and 283.15 K, and the differences among these data are up to 30%. When these data were extrapolated to other P-T conditions, it leads to large and poorly known uncertainties. In this study, in situ Raman spectroscopy was used to measure methane concentrations in pure water in equilibrium with sI (structure one) methane hydrate, in the absence of a vapor phase, at temperatures from 276.6 to 294.6 (??0.3) K and pressures at 10, 20, 30 and 40 (??0.4%) MPa. The relationship among concentration of methane in water in equilibrium with hydrate, in mole fraction [X(CH4)], the temperature in K, and pressure in MPa was derived as: X(CH4) = exp [11.0464 + 0.023267 P - (4886.0 + 8.0158 P)/T]. Both the standard enthalpy and entropy of hydrate dissolution at the studied T-P conditions increase slightly with increasing pressure, ranging from 41.29 to 43.29 kJ/mol and from 0.1272 to 0.1330 kJ/K ?? mol, respectively. When compared with traditional sampling and analytical methods, the advantages of our method include: (1) the use of in situ Raman signals for methane concentration measurements eliminates possible uncertainty caused by sampling and ex situ analysis, (2) it is simple and efficient, and (3) high-pressure data can be obtained safely. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative effects between electronic and cigarette smoke in human keratinocytes and epithelial lung cells

    PubMed Central

    Cervellati, Franco; Muresan, Ximena; Sticozzi, Claudia; Gambari, Roberto; Montagner, Giulia; Forman, Henry; Torricelli, Claudia; Maioli, Emanuela; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Background Information about the harmful effects of vaping is sparse and inconsistent, therefore, since the use of electronic cigarettes (e-CIGs) has become increasingly popular as a tool to limit tobacco smoking, it is urgent to establish the safety or the toxicity of the liquid vaporized by the atomizer of the commercial e-CIGs. Methods Skin (HaCaT) and lung (A549) cells, the main targets of cigarette smoke, were exposed to e-CIG vapor (e-CIG Mini Touch T-Fumo T-TEX) and cigarette smoke (UK research cigarette) in a smoke chamber in vitro. The cytotoxic effect of the exposure was analyzed in both cell types by ultrastructural morphology, Trypan Blue exclusion test and LDH assay. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in culture medium by the Bio-Plex cytokine assay kit. Results The cytotoxic components of e-CIG were restrained to the flavoring compound and, to a lesser extent, to nicotine and their effects were comparable to that of cigarette smoke. Humectants alone exhibited no cytotoxicity but induced the release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, mainly in keratinocytes. Conclusions Based on our results, we can state that e-CIG vapors exposure is not completely harmless, although far less toxic than CS. In fact, besides the deleterious effect of flavor and nicotine, even the humectants alone are able to evocate some adverse cellular events, such as enhanced cytokines release. This study will hopefully promote the development of truly innocuous e-CIGs to help people quit smoking. PMID:24809892

  19. Evaluation of preservative engine oil containing vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor and a simplified engine-preservation technique. Interim report, Jul 85-Sep 90

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, E.A.

    1990-12-01

    The objectives of this project were: (1) to determine the feasibility of adding a vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI) component to improve the preservation performance of MIL-L-21260 and (2) to evaluate a less complicated engine preservation procedure. A simultaneous two-phase approach was conducted. Phase 1 involved the formulation and evaluation of experimental VCI oils, while Phase 2 was the evaluation of a simplified engine preservation procedure. VCI oil formulation was conducted by Ronco Laboratory under subcontract. Compatibility of the experimental VCI oils with metal coupons, elastomers, and fuel filters was determined. Effectiveness of the experimental VCI oil was evaluated in a 3-year outdoor engine storage test. The engines were preserved using an experimental, simplified preservation procedure. The simplified engine preservation procedure proved to be acceptable as engines stored for 3 years in a very severe environment were judged to have been adequately preserved. Engine oil meeting specification MIL-L-21260 provided satisfactory protection during the 3-year storage test. The experimental VCI oil also provided satisfactory storage protection during this test; however, there was no observable advantage for the VCI oil. The VCI oil had acceptable compatibility with an elastomeric flex ring, metal coupons (except lead), and fuel filters.

  20. Quantum squeezing and entanglement from a two-mode phase-sensitive amplifier via four-wave mixing in rubidium vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yami; Jing, Jietai

    2015-02-01

    Phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) have been widely studied in fiber amplifiers, with remarkable recent advances. They have also been implemented in an SU(1,1) interferometer. In this paper, we study an experimental scheme for the implementation of a two-mode PSA based on a four-wave mixing process in rubidium vapor. With the process seeded by coherent probe and conjugate beams, quantum correlation including intensity difference/sum squeezing and quadrature entanglement between the output probe and conjugate fields are theoretically analyzed. Compared to previous related research, several new and interesting results are reported here. The maximal degree of intensity difference squeezing can be enhanced by nearly 3 dB compared to a phase-insensitive amplifier with the same gain. It is also possible to generate intensity sum squeezing between the probe and conjugate fields by choosing the specific phase of the input beams. Moreover, quadrature entanglement between the probe and conjugate beams, which can be manipulated by the phase of the input beams, is predicted. Our scheme may find a variety of applications in quantum metrology and quantum information processing owing to its ability of quantum squeezing and entanglement manipulation.

  1. Selective Growth of GaN Rods on the Apex of GaN Pyramids by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Wy Il; Jong Lee, Hyo; Shin, Kee Sam; Park, Jung Sik; Yu, Young Moon; Lee, Jeung Woo; Suok Lee, Gang; Ahn, Hyung Soo; Yang, Min

    2013-01-01

    We report on the growth and characterization of GaN rods selectively grown on the apex of hexagonal GaN pyramids. SiO2 near the apex of the hexagonal GaN pyramids was removed by an optimized photolithography process and subsequently subjected to Au deposition and selective growth of GaN rods by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). It was observed that there were preferred GaN rods orientations toward <1100> directions. The GaN rods had triangular cross section enclosed with (1122), (1122), and (0001) side facets. A particular feature was that each rod has sharp edge at its very end. We found that the GaN rods could be formed not by vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process but Ga-Au intermediate state. This work opens up new growth methods for position and density controlled III-nitride nano- and micro-structures which have potential use in high functional devices, such as field emitters and gas sensors.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: product characterisation and design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher J; Cheng, James M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available evidence regarding electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) product characterisation and design features in order to understand their potential impact on individual users and on public health. Methods Systematic literature searches in 10 reference databases were conducted through October 2013. A total of 14 articles and documents and 16 patents were included in this analysis. Results Numerous disposable and reusable e-cigarette product options exist, representing wide variation in product configuration and component functionality. Common e-cigarette components include an aerosol generator, a flow sensor, a battery and a nicotine-containing solution storage area. e-cigarettes currently include many interchangeable parts, enabling users to modify the character of the delivered aerosol and, therefore, the product's ‘effectiveness’ as a nicotine delivery product. Materials in e-cigarettes may include metals, rubber and ceramics. Some materials may be aerosolised and have adverse health effects. Several studies have described significant performance variability across and within e-cigarette brands. Patent applications include novel product features designed to influence aerosol properties and e-cigarette efficiency at delivering nicotine. Conclusions Although e-cigarettes share a basic design, engineering variations and user modifications result in differences in nicotine delivery and potential product risks. e-cigarette aerosols may include harmful and potentially harmful constituents. Battery explosions and the risks of exposure to the e-liquid (especially for children) are also concerns. Additional research will enhance the current understanding of basic e-cigarette design and operation, aerosol production and processing, and functionality. A standardised e-cigarette testing regime should be developed to allow product comparisons. PMID:24732162

  3. Determination of Activity Coefficients of di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid Dimer in Select Organic Solvents Using Vapor Phase Osmometry

    SciTech Connect

    Michael F. Gray; Peter Zalupski; Mikael Nilsson

    2013-08-01

    Effective models for solvent extraction require accurate characterization of the nonideality effects for each component, including the extractants. In this study, the nonideal behavior of the industrial extractant di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid has been investigated using vapor pressure osmometry (VPO). From the osmometry data, activity coefficients for the HDEHP dimer were obtained based on a formulation of the regular solution theory of Scatchard and Hildebrand, and the Margules two- and three-suffix equations. The results show similarity with a slope-analysis based relation from previous literature, although important differences are highlighted. The work points towards VPO as a useful technique for this type of study, but care must be taken with the choice of standard and method of analysis.

  4. Glutathionylation and Reduction of Methacrolein in Tomato Plants Account for Its Absorption from the Vapor Phase1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Muramoto, Shoko; Matsubara, Yayoi; Mwenda, Cynthia Mugo; Koeduka, Takao; Sakami, Takuya; Tani, Akira; Matsui, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    A large portion of the volatile organic compounds emitted by plants are oxygenated to yield reactive carbonyl species, which have a big impact on atmospheric chemistry. Deposition to vegetation driven by the absorption of reactive carbonyl species into plants plays a major role in cleansing the atmosphere, but the mechanisms supporting this absorption have been little examined. Here, we performed model experiments using methacrolein (MACR), one of the major reactive carbonyl species formed from isoprene, and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants. Tomato shoots enclosed in a jar with MACR vapor efficiently absorbed MACR. The absorption efficiency was much higher than expected from the gas/liquid partition coefficient of MACR, indicating that MACR was likely metabolized in leaf tissues. Isobutyraldehyde, isobutyl alcohol, and methallyl alcohol (MAA) were detected in the headspace and inside tomato tissues treated with MACR vapor, suggesting that MACR was enzymatically reduced. Glutathione (GSH) conjugates of MACR (MACR-GSH) and MAA (MAA-GSH) were also detected. MACR-GSH was essentially formed through spontaneous conjugation between endogenous GSH and exogenous MACR, and reduction of MACR-GSH to MAA-GSH was likely catalyzed by an NADPH-dependent enzyme in tomato leaves. Glutathionylation was the metabolic pathway most responsible for the absorption of MACR, but when the amount of MACR exceeded the available GSH, MACR that accumulated reduced photosynthetic capacity. In an experiment simulating the natural environment using gas flow, MACR-GSH and MAA-GSH accumulation accounted for 30% to 40% of the MACR supplied. These results suggest that MACR metabolism, especially spontaneous glutathionylation, is an essential factor supporting MACR absorption from the atmosphere by tomato plants. PMID:26169680

  5. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  6. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross?sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double?log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were ?0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) ?0.74 to ?0.17) and ?0.74 (95% CI ?1.13 to ?0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of ?0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of ?0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  7. Effect of High-Temperature Pregrowth Treatment on the Surface Morphology of GaInP Epilayers on Ge Grown by Metal-Organic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wei; Lu, Shulong; Dong, Jianrong; Zhao, Yongming; Yang, Hui

    2012-01-01

    Surface morphologies of GaInP films grown on germanium (Ge) by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) have been investigated for different pre-growth treatments. A high temperature pre-annealing to the Ge substrate results in a smooth surface of GaInP, while a surface degradation in the case of a low temperature annealing is obtained, which might come from an incomplete carbon and/or oxide desorption. An improved surface morphology of GaInP with silicon doping and with increasing Ge substrate misoriented angle was also observed, which indicates that the highly disordered GaInP film and the neat interface between Ge and GaInP were formed with the assistance of a high temperature pre-growth treatment.

  8. Recent Results on Growth of (211)B CdTe on (211)Si with Intermediate Ge and ZnTe Buffer Layers by Metalorganic Vapor-Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintri, Shashidhar; Rao, Sunil; Wijewarnasuriya, Priyalal; Trivedi, Sudhir; Bhat, Ishwara

    2012-10-01

    We report on the investigation of epitaxial cadmium telluride grown by metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on (211)Si, with particular emphasis on studying the effect of changing the reactor parameters and thermal annealing conditions on the epilayer quality. The CdTe films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD). The best CdTe films were observed when the Te/Cd precursor partial pressure ratio was close to 3.1. It was also observed that, though annealing improved the crystal quality, a slight increase in surface roughness was observed. Similar attempts were made to improve the growth conditions of ZnTe intermediate buffer layer, which showed similar trends with changes in precursor flows.

  9. Intersubband absorption saturation in AlN-based waveguide with GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Yang, Jung-Seung; Tanemura, Takuo; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2011-10-01

    Intersubband absorption saturation at 1.57 ?m wavelength was observed in a 400-?m long Si3N4-rib AlN-based waveguide with GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) fabricated by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The self-saturation measurement was employed using a 1.56-?m short pulse laser which has a temporal width of 0.4 ps (full-width at half-maximum) and a repetition rate of 63 MHz. An intersubband absorption saturation by 5 dB was achieved using a pulse energy of 115 pJ. We have demonstrated the capability of MOVPE-grown GaN/AlN MQWs for intersubband optical devices operated at communication wavelength.

  10. Small valence-band offset of In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, M.; Matsuyama, T.; Hashizume, T.; Hiroki, M.; Yamahata, S.; Shigekawa, N.

    2010-03-01

    The valence-band offset of a lattice-matched In0.17Al0.83N/GaN heterostructure grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) was investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy and angle-resolved XPS indicated that a thin In0.17Al0.83N (2.5 nm) layer was successfully grown by MOVPE on GaN. The XPS result showed that the valence band offset was 0.2±0.3 eV. This result indicates that the conduction-band offset at the In0.17Al0.83N/GaN interface is large, i.e., 0.9 to 1.0 eV, and occupies a large part of the entire band discontinuity.

  11. Strong charge-carrier localization in InAs/GaAs submonolayer stacks prepared by Sb-assisted metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quandt, D.; Schulze, J.-H.; Schliwa, A.; Diemer, Z.; Prohl, C.; Lenz, A.; Eisele, H.; Strittmatter, A.; Pohl, U. W.; Gschrey, M.; Rodt, S.; Reitzenstein, S.; Bimberg, D.; Lehmann, M.; Weyland, M.

    2015-06-01

    Stacks of InAs/GaAs submonolayer depositions forming small In-rich islands are interesting for efficient optoelectronic applications due to the high areal density of localization centers and their fast carrier relaxation. The electronic confinement of charge carriers in InAs/GaAs submonolayers can be influenced by adding Sb during growth. Eight-band k .p simulations show that electrons and holes experience a different localization depending on where the Sb is incorporated into the submonolayer stacks. Samples grown with metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy show sharp interfaces between InAs(Sb)/GaAs submonolayers and the surrounding matrix material in transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements. Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy shows the formation of In-rich agglomerations as well as a slight clustering of Sb atoms. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence and spatially resolved cathodoluminescence show evidence for strong electronic confinement whose depth is controlled by the Sb amount.

  12. Unraveling the Solid-Liquid-Vapor Phase Transition Dynamics at the Atomic Level with Ultrafast X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dorchies, F.; Goyon, C.; Descamps, D.; Fourment, C.; Harmand, M.; Hulin, S.; Leguay, P. M.; Petit, S.; Peyrusse, O.; Santos, J. J.; Levy, A.; Combis, P.

    2011-12-09

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) is a powerful probe of electronic and atomic structures in various media, ranging from molecules to condensed matter. We show how ultrafast time resolution opens new possibilities to investigate highly nonequilibrium states of matter including phase transitions. Based on a tabletop laser-plasma ultrafast x-ray source, we have performed a time-resolved ({approx}3 ps) XANES experiment that reveals the evolution of an aluminum foil at the atomic level, when undergoing ultrafast laser heating and ablation. X-ray absorption spectra highlight an ultrafast transition from the crystalline solid to the disordered liquid followed by a progressive transition of the delocalized valence electronic structure (metal) down to localized atomic orbitals (nonmetal--vapor), as the average distance between atoms increases.

  13. Effective reduction of bowing in free-standing GaN by N-face regrowth with hydride vapor-phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuei-Ming; Huang, Hsin-Hsiung; Kuo, Yi-Lin; Wu, Pei-Lun; Chu, Ting-Li; Yu, Hung-Wei; Lee, Wei-I.

    2009-05-01

    Free-standing GaN films prepared with hydride vapor-phase epitaxy (HVPE) technique usually show bowing resulting from the high densities of defects near the N-polar face after separation from the original substrates. To solve the problem, a simple technique has been developed. A GaN layer was regrown on the N-polar face of the free-standing GaN by HVPE. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) measurements were performed to compare the bowings among GaN films before laser lift-off (LLO), after LLO, and after regrowth. The apparent reductions of XRD full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), along with the increase of XRD peak intensity, after regrowth clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of this method to eliminate bowings of the free-standing GaN films.

  14. Progress and Continuing Challenges in GaSb-based III-V Alloys and Heterostructures Grown by Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    CA Wang

    2004-05-06

    This paper discusses progress in the preparation of mid-IR GaSb-based III-V materials grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The growth of these materials is complex, and fundamental and practical issues associated with their growth are outlined. Approaches that have been explored to further improve the properties and performance are briefly reviewed. Recent materials and device results on GaInAsSb bulk layers and GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterostructures, grown lattice matched to GaSb, are presented. State-of-the-art GaInAsSb materials and thermophotovoltaic devices have been achieved. This progress establishes the high potential of OMVPE for mid-IR GaSb-based devices.

  15. Effect of Calcination Temperature on La-Modified Al2O3 Catalysts for Vapor Phase Hydrofluorination of Acetylene to Vinyl Fluoride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Qing-yuan; Lu, Ji-qing; Xing, Li-qiong; Guo, Ming; Luo, Meng-fei

    2010-02-01

    A La-modified Al2O3 catalyst was prepared with deposition-precipitation method. The effect of calcination temperature on the reactivity for vapor phase hydrofluorination of acetylene to vinyl fluoride. The catalysts calcined at different temperatures were characterized using NH3-TPD, pyridine-FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and Raman techniques. It was found that the calcination process could not only change the structure of these catalysts but also modify the amount of surface acidity on the catalysts. The catalyst calcined at 400 °C exhibited the highest conversion of acetylene (94.6%) and highest selectivity to vinyl fluoride (83.4%) and lower coke deposition selectivity (0.72%). The highest activity was related to the largest amount of surface acidity on the catalyst, and the coke deposition was also related to the total amount of surface acidic sites.

  16. Edge dislocation induced self-assembly of InGaN nano-flower on GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Lai; Wang, Jiaxing; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi

    2011-07-01

    InGaN nano-flowers are self-assembled on GaN by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy photos show the nano-flower structure is formed through InGaN quantum dots aggregating around the exposure site of the edge dislocation extending to the surface. Calculation on the strain states indicates that the edge dislocation can generate lateral tensile and compressive strain regions on the surface, but the screw dislocation cannot. And the tensile strain regions are corresponding to the shape of the nano-flower. This is attributed to that the tensile GaN lattices on surface are easy to attract adatoms to form InGaN quantum dots.

  17. X-ray determination of threading dislocation densities in GaN/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) films grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Kopp, Viktor S. Kaganer, Vladimir M.; Baidakova, Marina V.; Lundin, Wsevolod V.; Nikolaev, Andrey E.; Verkhovtceva, Elena V.; Yagovkina, Maria A.; Cherkashin, Nikolay

    2014-02-21

    Densities of a- and a+c-type threading dislocations for a series of GaN films grown in different modes by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy are determined from the x-ray diffraction profiles in skew geometry. The reciprocal space maps are also studied. Theory of x-ray scattering from crystals with dislocations is extended in order to take into account contribution from both threading and misfit dislocations. The broadening of the reciprocal space maps along the surface normal and the rotation of the intensity distribution ellipse is attributed to misfit dislocations at the interface. We find that the presence of a sharp AlN/GaN interface leads to an ordering of misfit dislocations and reduces strain inhomogeneity in GaN films.

  18. Preparation of Ag Schottky contacts on n-type GaN bulk crystals grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere by the hydride vapor phase epitaxy technique

    SciTech Connect

    Stübner, R. Kolkovsky, Vl.; Weber, J.; Leibiger, Gunnar; Habel, Frank

    2014-10-14

    Electrical properties of Schottky contacts on n-type GaN grown in nitrogen rich atmosphere with different N/Ga ratios by hydride vapor phase epitaxy were investigated. We show that tunneling of electrons from the conduction band of GaN to the metal is dominant in our samples. The quality of Schottky contacts does not only depend on surface preparation but also on the growth conditions of the crystals. Schottky contacts on these crystals show an increasing deterioration when higher N/Ga growth ratios are used. We correlate our results with the presence of negatively charged gallium vacancies in the samples. These charges compensate the positively charged donors and lead to a significant increase in series resistance.

  19. Alternate methods of applying diffusants to silicon solar cells. [screen printing of thick-film paste materials and vapor phase transport from solid sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. W.; Field, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Low-melting phosphate and borate glasses were screen printed on silicon wafers and heated to form n and p junctions. Data on surface appearance, sheet resistance and junction depth are presented. Similar data are reported for vapor phase transport from sintered aluminum metaphosphate and boron-containing glass-ceramic solid sources. Simultaneous diffusion of an N(+) layer with screen-printed glass and a p(+) layer with screen-printed Al alloy paste was attempted. No p(+) back surface field formation was achieved. Some good cells were produced but the heating in an endless-belt furnace caused a large scatter in sheet resistance and junction depth for three separate lots of wafers.

  20. Substrate misorientation induced strong increase in the hole concentration in Mg doped GaN grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Suski, T.; Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Piotrzkowski, R.; Krysko, M.; Nowak, G.; Franssen, G.; Dmowski, L. H.; Lucznik, B.

    2008-10-27

    We demonstrate that relatively small GaN substrate misorientation can strongly change hole carrier concentration in Mg doped GaN layers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. In this work intentionally misoriented GaN substrates (up to 2 deg. with respect to ideal <0001> plane) were employed. An increase in the hole carrier concentration to the level above 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and a decrease in GaN:Mg resistivity below 1 {omega} cm were achieved. Using secondary ion mass spectroscopy we found that Mg incorporation does not change with varying misorientation angle. This finding suggests that the compensation rate, i.e., a decrease in unintentional donor density, is responsible for the observed increase in the hole concentration. Analysis of the temperature dependence of electrical transport confirms this interpretation.