Science.gov

Sample records for variable mass systems

  1. Dynamics of Variable Mass Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, Fidelis O.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the effects of mass loss on the attitude behavior of spinning bodies in flight. The principal goal is to determine whether there are circumstances under which the motion of variable mass systems can become unstable in the sense that their transverse angular velocities become unbounded. Obviously, results from a study of this kind would find immediate application in the aerospace field. The first part of this study features a complete and mathematically rigorous derivation of a set of equations that govern both the translational and rotational motions of general variable mass systems. The remainder of the study is then devoted to the application of the equations obtained to a systematic investigation of the effect of various mass loss scenarios on the dynamics of increasingly complex models of variable mass systems. It is found that mass loss can have a major impact on the dynamics of mechanical systems, including a possible change in the systems stability picture. Factors such as nozzle geometry, combustion chamber geometry, propellant's initial shape, size and relative mass, and propellant location can all have important influences on the system's dynamic behavior. The relative importance of these parameters on-system motion are quantified in a way that is useful for design purposes.

  2. On the generalized virial theorem for systems with variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganghoffer, Jean-François; Rahouadj, Rachid

    2015-05-01

    We presently extend the virial theorem for both discrete and continuous systems of material points with variable mass, relying on developments presented in Ganghoffer (Int J Solids Struct 47:1209-1220, 2010). The developed framework is applicable to describe physical systems at very different scales, from the evolution of a population of biological cells accounting for growth to mass ejection phenomena occurring within a collection of gravitating objects at the very large astrophysical scales. As a starting basis, the field equations in continuum mechanics are written to account for a mass source and a mass flux, leading to a formulation of the virial theorem accounting for non-constant mass within the considered system. The scalar and tensorial forms of the virial theorem are then written successively in both Lagrangian and Eulerian formats, incorporating the mass flux. As an illustration, the averaged stress tensor in accreting gravitating solid bodies is evaluated based on the generalized virial theorem.

  3. The third-order Lagrange equation for mechanical systems of variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shan-Jun; Ge, Wei-Guo; Huang, Pei-Tian

    2005-05-01

    In this paper, based on the third-order D'Alembert-Lagrange principle for mechanical systems of variable mass, the third-order Lagrange equations of mechanical systems of variable mass are obtained. From the equations the motion of mechanical systems of variable mass can be studied. In addition, the equations may enrich the theory of third-order differential equation.

  4. Atwood's Machine as a Tool to Introduce Variable Mass Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses an instructional strategy which explores eventual similarities and/or analogies between familiar problems and more sophisticated systems. In this context, the Atwood's machine problem is used to introduce students to more complex problems involving ropes and chains. The methodology proposed helps students to develop the…

  5. Dynamics of variable mass systems with application to the star 48 solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eke, F. O.

    1984-01-01

    Existing methods for the derivation of equations of motion of variable mass systems are reviewed and compared, the end product being a system of general dynamical equations for variable mass systems. These equations are used to study the lateral stability problem associated with the Star 48 solid rocket engine. It is shown that the shape of the combustion chamber could have a significant effect on the lateral stability of the rocket; specifically, a short and wide combustion chamber is destabilizing, while a long and narrow chamber is stabilizing.

  6. Falling Chains as Variable-Mass Systems: Theoretical Model and Experimental Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Sousa, Celia A.; Gordo, Paulo M.; Costa, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we revisit, theoretically and experimentally, the fall of a folded U-chain and of a pile-chain. The model calculation implies the division of the whole system into two subsystems of variable mass, allowing us to explore the role of tensional contact forces at the boundary of the subsystems. This justifies, for instance, that the…

  7. Deconstructed transverse mass variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Ahmed; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Virzi, Joseph S.; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2015-04-01

    Traditional searches for R-parity conserving natural supersymmetry (SUSY) require large transverse mass and missing energy cuts to separate the signal from large backgrounds. SUSY models with compressed spectra inherently produce signal events with small amounts of missing energy that are hard to explore. We use this difficulty to motivate the construction of "deconstructed" transverse mass variables which are designed preserve information on both the norm and direction of the missing momentum. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these variables in searches for the pair production of supersymmetric top-quark partners which subsequently decay into a final state with an isolated lepton, jets and missing energy. We show that the use of deconstructed transverse mass variables extends the accessible compressed spectra parameter space beyond the region probed by traditional methods. The parameter space can further be expanded to neutralino masses that are larger than the difference between the stop and top masses. In addition, we also discuss how these variables allow for novel searches of single stop production, in order to directly probe unconstrained stealth stops in the small stop- and neutralino-mass regime. We also demonstrate the utility of these variables for generic gluino and stop searches in all-hadronic final states. Overall, we demonstrate that deconstructed transverse variables are essential to any search wanting to maximize signal separation from the background when the signal has undetected particles in the final state.

  8. The dynamical mass of a classical Cepheid variable star in an eclipsing binary system.

    PubMed

    Pietrzy?ski, G; Thompson, I B; Gieren, W; Graczyk, D; Bono, G; Udalski, A; Soszy?ski, I; Minniti, D; Pilecki, B

    2010-11-25

    Stellar pulsation theory provides a means of determining the masses of pulsating classical Cepheid supergiants-it is the pulsation that causes their luminosity to vary. Such pulsational masses are found to be smaller than the masses derived from stellar evolution theory: this is the Cepheid mass discrepancy problem, for which a solution is missing. An independent, accurate dynamical mass determination for a classical Cepheid variable star (as opposed to type-II Cepheids, low-mass stars with a very different evolutionary history) in a binary system is needed in order to determine which is correct. The accuracy of previous efforts to establish a dynamical Cepheid mass from Galactic single-lined non-eclipsing binaries was typically about 15-30% (refs 6, 7), which is not good enough to resolve the mass discrepancy problem. In spite of many observational efforts, no firm detection of a classical Cepheid in an eclipsing double-lined binary has hitherto been reported. Here we report the discovery of a classical Cepheid in a well detached, double-lined eclipsing binary in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We determine the mass to a precision of 1% and show that it agrees with its pulsation mass, providing strong evidence that pulsation theory correctly and precisely predicts the masses of classical Cepheids. PMID:21107425

  9. Earth System Data Records of Mass Transport from Time-Variable Gravity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Talpe, M.; Nerem, R. S.; Landerer, F. W.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of time variable gravity have revolutionized the study of Earth, by measuring the ice losses of Greenland, Antarctica and land glaciers, changes in groundwater including unsustainable losses due to extraction of groundwater, the mass and currents of the oceans and their redistribution during El Niño events, among other findings. Satellite measurements of gravity have been made primarily by four techniques: satellite tracking from land stations using either lasers or Doppler radio systems, satellite positioning by GNSS/GPS, satellite to satellite tracking over distances of a few hundred km using microwaves, and through a gravity gradiometer (radar altimeters also measure the gravity field, but over the oceans only). We discuss the challenges in the measurement of gravity by different instruments, especially time-variable gravity. A special concern is how to bridge a possible gap in time between the end of life of the current GRACE satellite pair, launched in 2002, and a future GRACE Follow-On pair to be launched in 2017. One challenge in combining data from different measurement systems consists of their different spatial and temporal resolutions and the different ways in which they alias short time scale signals. Typically satellite measurements of gravity are expressed in spherical harmonic coefficients (although expansions in terms of 'mascons', the masses of small spherical caps, has certain advantages). Taking advantage of correlations among spherical harmonic coefficients described by empirical orthogonal functions and derived from GRACE data it is possible to localize the otherwise coarse spatial resolution of the laser and Doppler derived gravity models. This presentation discusses the issues facing a climate data record of time variable mass flux using these different data sources, including its validation.

  10. Variability of mass-size relationships in tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Leroy, Delphine; Delanoë, Julien; Dupuy, Régis; Lilie, Lyle; Strapp, Walter; Protat, Alain; Schwarzenböeck, Alfons

    2015-04-01

    The mass of individual ice hydrometeors in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) has been investigated in the past using different methods in order to retrieve power law type mass-size relationships m(D) with m = ? D^?. This study focuses on the variability of mass-size relationships in different types of MCS. Three types of tropical MCS were sampled during different airborne campaigns: (i) continental MCS during the West African monsoon (Megha-Tropique 2010), (ii) oceanic MCS over the Indian Ocean (Megha-Tropique 2011), and (iii) coastal MCS during the North-Australian monsoon (HAIC-HIWC). Mass-size relationships of ice hydrometeors are derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2D-array probes and associated reflectivity factors measured with a Doppler cloud radar (94GHz) on the same research aircraft. A theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3D and arbitrarily projected on a 2D plan allowed to constrain the exponent ? of the m(D) relationship as a function of the derived surface-diameter relationship S(D), which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent ? can be calculated along the flight trajectory. Then the pre-factor ? of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivity factor matching the measured reflectivity factor along the aircraft trajectory. Finally, the Condensed Water Content (CWC) is deduced from measured particle size distributions (PSD) and retrieved m(D) relationships along the flight trajectory. Solely for the HAIC-HIWC campaign (North Australian Monsoon) a bulk reference measurement (IKP instrument) of high CWC could be performed in order to compare with the above described CWC deduced from ice hydrometeor images and reflectivity factors. Both CWC are coherent. Mean profiles of m(D) coefficients, PSD, and CWC are calculated as a function of the temperature. For the three types of MCS, it is shown that the variability of m(D) coefficients is correlated with the variability of the temperature and that the mass of ice hydrometeors for a given size decreases with decreasing temperature. Finally, the vertical variability of m(D) and PSD will be further differentiated, when separating the dataset horizontally with respect to the convective core of the MCS using the definition of a convective index.

  11. On the separation of variables into relative and center of mass motion for two-body system in three-dimensional spaces of constant curvature

    E-print Network

    Yu. Kurochkin; Dz. Shoukavy; I. Boyarina

    2015-07-22

    Expressions for variables of the center of mass and relative motions for two-body system with different and equal masses in three-dimensional spaces of constant curvature are introduced in the terms of biquaternions. The problem of the separation of center mass and relative motion variables for action of two particles into biquaternionic form is formulated. We showed that the algebraic nature of these nonseparable variables follows from the fact that algebra of biquaternions is noncommutative. Some special cases of separation of center mass and relative motion variables are considered.

  12. The initial mass function of stars: evidence for uniformity in variable systems.

    PubMed

    Kroupa, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of stellar masses that form in one star formation event in a given volume of space is called the initial mass function (IMF). The IMF has been estimated from low-mass brown dwarfs to very massive stars. Combining IMF estimates for different populations in which the stars can be observed individually unveils an extraordinary uniformity of the IMF. This general insight appears to hold for populations including present-day star formation in small molecular clouds, rich and dense massive star-clusters forming in giant clouds, through to ancient and metal-poor exotic stellar populations that may be dominated by dark matter. This apparent universality of the IMF is a challenge for star formation theory, because elementary considerations suggest that the IMF ought to systematically vary with star-forming conditions. PMID:11778039

  13. DEEP, LOW MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XIII. DZ PISCIUM WITH INTRINSIC LIGHT VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Dai, H.-F.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2013-08-01

    New multi-color photometry for the eclipsing binary DZ Psc was performed in 2011 and 2012 using the 85 cm telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China. Using the updated Wilson-Devinney (W-D) code, we deduced two sets of photometric solutions. The overcontact degree is f = 89.7({+-} 1.0)%, identifying DZ Psc as a deep, low mass ratio overcontact binary. The asymmetric light curves (i.e., LC{sub 2} in 2012) were modeled by a hot spot on the primary star. Based on all of the available light minimum times, we discovered that the orbital period of DZ Psc may be undergoing a secular period increase with a cyclic variation. The modulated period and semi-amplitude of this oscillation are P{sub mod} = 11.89({+-} 0.19) yr and A = 0.0064({+-} 0.0006) days, which may be possibly attributed to either cyclic magnetic activity or light-time effect due to the third body. The long-term period increases at a rate of dP/dt=+7.43({+-}0.17) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted as conserved mass transfer from the less massive component to the more massive one. With mass transferring, DZ Psc will finally merge into a rapid-rotation single star when J{sub spin}/J{sub orb} > 1/3.

  14. Black hole mass and variability in quasars

    E-print Network

    M. Wold; M. S. Brotherton; Z. Shang

    2008-07-24

    We report on a study that finds a positive correlation between black hole mass and variability amplitude in quasars. Roughly 100 quasars at zBlack hole masses were estimated with the virial method using the broad Hbeta line, and variability was characterized from the QUEST1 light curves. The correlation between black hole mass and variability amplitude is significant at the 99% level or better and does not appear to be caused by obvious selection effects inherent to flux-limited samples. It is most evident for rest frame time lags of the order a few months up to the QUEST1 maximum temporal resolution of about 2 years. The correlation between black hole mass and variability amplitude means that the more massive black holes have larger percentage flux variations. Over 2-3 orders of magnitude in black hole mass, the amplitude increases by approximately 0.2 mag. A likely explanation for the correlation is that the more massive black holes are starving and produce larger flux variations because they do not have a steady inflow of gaseous fuel. Assuming that the variability arises from changes in the accretion rate Li & Cao [8] show that flux variations similar to those observed are expected as a consequence of the more massive black holes having cooler accretion disks.

  15. Comprehensive theory of the Deans' switch as a variable flow splitter: fluid mechanics, mass balance, and system behavior.

    PubMed

    Boeker, Peter; Leppert, Jan; Mysliwietz, Bodo; Lammers, Peter Schulze

    2013-10-01

    The Deans' switch is an effluent switching device based on controlling flows of carrier gas instead of mechanical valves in the analytical flow path. This technique offers high inertness and a wear-free operation. Recently new monolithic microfluidic devices have become available. In these devices the whole flow system is integrated into a small metal device with low thermal mass and leak-tight connections. In contrast to a mechanical valve-based system, a flow-controlled system is more difficult to calculate. Usually the Deans' switch is used to switch one inlet to one of two outlets, by means of two auxiliary flows. However, the Deans' switch can also be used to deliver the GC effluent with a specific split ratio to both outlets. The calculation of the split ratio of the inlet flow to the two outlets is challenging because of the asymmetries of the flow resistances. This is especially the case, if one of the outlets is a vacuum device, such as a mass spectrometer, and the other an atmospheric detector, e.g. a flame ionization detector (FID) or an olfactory (sniffing) port. The capillary flows in gas chromatography are calculated with the Hagen-Poiseuille equation of the laminar, isothermal and compressible flow in circular tubes. The flow resistances in the new microfluidic devices have to be calculated with the corresponding equation for rectangular cross-section microchannels. The Hagen-Poiseuille equation underestimates the flow to a vacuum outlet. A corrected equation originating from the theory of rarefied flows is presented. The calculation of pressures and flows of a Deans' switch based chromatographic system is done by the solution of mass balances. A specific challenge is the consideration of the antidiffusion resistor between the two auxiliary gas lines of the Deans' switch. A full solution for the calculation of the Deans' switch including this restrictor is presented. Results from validation measurements are in good accordance with the developed theories. A spreadsheet-based flow calculator is part of the Supporting Information. PMID:23980824

  16. White dwarf masses in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnen, T. P. G.; Zorotovic, M.; Schreiber, M. R.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The white dwarf (WD) mass distribution of cataclysmic variables (CVs) has recently been found to dramatically disagree with the predictions of the standard CV formation model. The high mean WD mass among CVs is not imprinted in the currently observed sample of CV progenitors and cannot be attributed to selection effects. Two possibilities have been put forward to solve this issue: either the WD grows in mass during CV evolution, or in a significant fraction of cases, CV formation is preceded by a (short) phase of thermal time-scale mass transfer (TTMT) in which the WD gains a sufficient amount of mass. Aims: Here we investigate if and under which conditions a phase of TTMT before CV formation or mass growth in CVs can bring theoretical predictions and observations into agreement. Methods: We employed binary population synthesis models using the binary_c/nucsyn code to simulate the present intrinsic CV population. To that end we incorporated aspects specific to CV evolution such as an appropriate mass-radius relation of the donor star and a more detailed prescription for the critical mass ratio for dynamically unstable mass transfer. We have also implemented a previously suggested wind from the surface of the WD during TTMT and tested the idea of WD mass growth during the CV phase by arbitrarily changing the accretion efficiency. We compare the model predictions of the TTMT and the mass growth model with the characteristics of CVs derived from observed samples. Results: We find that mass growth of the WDs in CVs fails to reproduce the observed WD mass distribution. In the case of TTMT, we are able to produce a large number of massive WDs if we assume significant mass loss from the surface of the WD during the TTMT phase. However, the model still produces too many CVs with helium WDs. Moreover, the donor stars are evolved in many of these post-TTMT CVs, which contradicts the observations. Conclusions: We conclude that in our current framework of CV evolution neither TTMT nor WD mass growth can fully explain either the observed WD mass or the period distribution in CVs.

  17. A control strategy for adaptive absorber based on variable mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qiang; Han, Ning; Zhao, Yanqing; Duan, Chendong; Wang, Wanqin

    2015-07-01

    The tuned vibration absorber (TVA) has been an effective tool for vibration control. However, the application of TVA can cause resonance of the primary system and increase its vibration when the absorber is mistuned. In this paper, a novel control strategy based on adaptive tuned vibration absorber (ATVA) of variable mass is proposed to reduce the resonance of the primary system. Unlike most ATVAs suggested by other researchers which adjust the absorber natural frequency by changing the stiffness, the variable mass ATVA varies its natural frequency by changing absorber mass to match the excitation frequency. Some simulations and experiments were conducted to test the performance of the control strategy. The results show that the proposed control plan can widen the frequency bandwidth of the absorber, as well as suppress the resonance of the primary system significantly. This implies that the work is useful for practical applications of ATVA.

  18. One dimensional Newton's equation with variable mass

    E-print Network

    S. Habib Mazharimousavi; M. Halilsoy

    2013-07-06

    We revisit Newton's equation of motion in one dimension when the moving particle has a variable mass m(x,t) depending both on position (x) and time (t). Geometrically the mass function is identified with one of the metric function in a 1+1-dimensional spacetime. As a reflection of the equivalence principle geodesics equation gives the Newton's law of motion leaving the right hand side to be supplemented by the external forces. The resulting equation involves the speed of light so that our equation of motion addresses a wider scope than the customary classical mechanics. In the limit of infinite light speed which amounts to instantaneous interaction we recover the classical results.

  19. One dimensional Newton's equation with variable mass

    E-print Network

    Mazharimousavi, S Habib

    2013-01-01

    We revisit Newton's equation of motion in one dimension when the moving particle has a variable mass m(x,t) depending both on position (x) and time (t). Geometrically the mass function is identified with one of the metric function in a 1+1-dimensional spacetime. As a reflection of the equivalence principle geodesics equation gives the Newton's law of motion leaving the right hand side to be supplemented by the external forces. The resulting equation involves the speed of light so that our equation of motion addresses a wider scope than the customary classical mechanics. In the limit of infinite light speed which amounts to instantaneous interaction we recover the classical results.

  20. Mass Storage Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranade, Sanjay; Schraeder, Jeff

    1991-01-01

    Presents an overview of the mass storage market and discusses mass storage systems as part of computer networks. Systems for personal computers, workstations, minicomputers, and mainframe computers are described; file servers are explained; system integration issues are raised; and future possibilities are suggested. (LRW)

  1. Investigation of the three-body-points problem with variable masses using the analytical calculation system ``Mathematica": Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minglibayev, M. Zh.; Mayemerova, G. M.

    2013-08-01

    The equations of motion of the investigated problem are obtained in the osculating elements of an aperiodic motion at the quasiconic section. Secular parts of the perturbing functions are calculated in terms of the osculating canonical elements with the use of the system ``Mathematica". Full first-order secular perturbations are obtained by the method of Picard.

  2. Ultra High Mass Range Mass Spectrometer System

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2005-12-06

    Applicant's present invention comprises mass spectrometer systems that operate in a mass range from 1 to 10.sup.16 DA. The mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system comprising an aerodynamic lens system, a reverse jet being a gas flux generated in an annulus moving in a reverse direction and a multipole ion guide; a digital ion trap; and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises a quadrupole mass spectrometer system comprising an inlet system having a quadrupole mass filter and a thermal vaporization/ionization detector system. Applicant's present invention further comprises an inlet system for use with a mass spectrometer system, a method for slowing energetic particles using an inlet system. Applicant's present invention also comprises a detector device and a method for detecting high mass charged particles.

  3. Mode Selection Techniques in Variable Mass Flexible Body Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiocho, Leslie J.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Frenkel, David; Huynh, An

    2010-01-01

    In developing a flexible body spacecraft simulation for the Launch Abort System of the Orion vehicle, when a rapid mass depletion takes place, the dynamics problem with time varying eigenmodes had to be addressed. Three different techniques were implemented, with different trade-offs made between performance and fidelity. A number of technical issues had to be solved in the process. This paper covers the background of the variable mass flexibility problem, the three approaches to simulating it, and the technical issues that were solved in formulating and implementing them.

  4. Variable Flow Chilled Water Systems 

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    Today, substantial savings can be achieved by converting constant flow-rate chilled water systems to variable flow-rate systems. This conversion is best suited for large, central plant chilled water systems where two or more chillers are utilized...

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Variable Mass, Flexible Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobbe, Patrick A.; Matras, Alex L.; Wilson, Heath E.

    2009-01-01

    The advent of the new Ares I launch vehicle has highlighted the need for advanced dynamic analysis tools for variable mass, flexible structures. This system is composed of interconnected flexible stages or components undergoing rapid mass depletion through the consumption of solid or liquid propellant. In addition to large rigid body configuration changes, the system simultaneously experiences elastic deformations. In most applications, the elastic deformations are compatible with linear strain-displacement relationships and are typically modeled using the assumed modes technique. The deformation of the system is approximated through the linear combination of the products of spatial shape functions and generalized time coordinates. Spatial shape functions are traditionally composed of normal mode shapes of the system or even constraint modes and static deformations derived from finite element models of the system. Equations of motion for systems undergoing coupled large rigid body motion and elastic deformation have previously been derived through a number of techniques [1]. However, in these derivations, the mode shapes or spatial shape functions of the system components were considered constant. But with the Ares I vehicle, the structural characteristics of the system are changing with the mass of the system. Previous approaches to solving this problem involve periodic updates to the spatial shape functions or interpolation between shape functions based on system mass or elapsed mission time. These solutions often introduce misleading or even unstable numerical transients into the system. Plus, interpolation on a shape function is not intuitive. This paper presents an approach in which the shape functions are held constant and operate on the changing mass and stiffness matrices of the vehicle components. Each vehicle stage or component finite element model is broken into dry structure and propellant models. A library of propellant models is used to describe the distribution of mass in the fuel tank or Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) case for various propellant levels. Based on the mass consumed by the liquid engine or SRB, the appropriate propellant model is coupled with the dry structure model for the stage. Then using vehicle configuration data, the integrated vehicle model is assembled and operated on by the constant system shape functions. The system mode shapes and frequencies can then be computed from the resulting generalized mass and stiffness matrices for that mass configuration. The rigid body mass properties of the vehicle are derived from the integrated vehicle model. The coupling terms between the vehicle rigid body motion and elastic deformation are also updated from the constant system shape functions and the integrated vehicle model. This approach was first used to analyze variable mass spinning beams and then prototyped into a generic dynamics simulation engine. The resulting code was tested against Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV-)class problems worked in the TREETOPS simulation package and by Wilson [2]. The Ares I System Integration Laboratory (SIL) is currently being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to test vehicle avionics hardware and software in a hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) environment and certify that the integrated system is prepared for flight. The Ares I SIL utilizes the Ares Real-Time Environment for Modeling, Integration, and Simulation (ARTEMIS) tool to simulate the launch vehicle and stimulate avionics hardware. Due to the presence of vehicle control system filters and the thrust oscillation suppression system, which are tuned to the structural characteristics of the vehicle, ARTEMIS must incorporate accurate structural models of the Ares I launch vehicle. The ARTEMIS core dynamics simulation models the highly coupled nature of the vehicle flexible body dynamics, propellant slosh, and vehicle nozzle inertia effects combined with mass and flexible body properties that vary significant with time during the flight. All forces that act on the vehicle during flight must be simulated,

  6. Variable stars in Stellar Systems

    E-print Network

    Giuseppe Bono; Silvia Petroni; Marcella Marconi

    2002-12-07

    We discuss in detail the pulsation properties of variable stars in globular clusters (GCs) and in Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies. Data available in the literature strongly support the evidence that we still lack a complete census of variable stars in these stellar systems. This selection bias is even more severe for small-amplitude variables such as Oscillating Blue Stragglers (OBSs) and new exotic groups of variable stars located in crowded cluster regions. The same outcome applies to large-amplitude, long-period variables as well as to RR Lyrae and Anomalous Cepheids in dwarf galaxies.

  7. Variable buoyancy system metric

    E-print Network

    Jensen, Harold Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, underwater vehicle technology has undergone drastic improvements, and vehicles are quickly gaining popularity as a tool for numerous oceanographic tasks. Systems used on the vehicle to alter buoyancy, ...

  8. Characterization and modeling of a novel electro-hydraulic variable two-terminal mass device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Liang, M.

    2012-02-01

    Much effort has been devoted to developing variable stiffness and variable damping devices for semi-active structural vibration control. However, little research has been done for variable inertial mass mainly caused by the mechanical terminal limit of the mass component. Based on the two-terminal mass scheme, we propose an electro-hydraulic approach to realizing a novel device with variable two-terminal mass. In this study, the flywheel that is traditionally handled by one physical terminal is manipulated by two terminals of a hydraulic cylinder-control-motor system. The transmission ratio of the system is adjusted using an electro-hydraulic proportional valve. Through modeling the ideal dynamic behavior, it is confirmed that the equivalent inertial mass between two terminals of the component can be made variable. To further understand its mechanical characteristics, a prototype device is developed and tested on a test rig. Triangular and sinusoidal excitation signals are employed respectively to identify the model parameters. The results show that the proposed model can describe the dynamic characteristics of the variable two-terminal mass device well. The proposed design and modeling schemes pave the way towards the semi-active variable inertial mass control of vibration systems.

  9. A variable acceleration calibration system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Thomas H.

    2011-12-01

    A variable acceleration calibration system that applies loads using gravitational and centripetal acceleration serves as an alternative, efficient and cost effective method for calibrating internal wind tunnel force balances. Two proof-of-concept variable acceleration calibration systems are designed, fabricated and tested. The NASA UT-36 force balance served as the test balance for the calibration experiments. The variable acceleration calibration systems are shown to be capable of performing three component calibration experiments with an approximate applied load error on the order of 1% of the full scale calibration loads. Sources of error are indentified using experimental design methods and a propagation of uncertainty analysis. Three types of uncertainty are indentified for the systems and are attributed to prediction error, calibration error and pure error. Angular velocity uncertainty is shown to be the largest indentified source of prediction error. The calibration uncertainties using a production variable acceleration based system are shown to be potentially equivalent to current methods. The production quality system can be realized using lighter materials and a more precise instrumentation. Further research is needed to account for balance deflection, forcing effects due to vibration, and large tare loads. A gyroscope measurement technique is shown to be capable of resolving the balance deflection angle calculation. Long term research objectives include a demonstration of a six degree of freedom calibration, and a large capacity balance calibration.

  10. Theories of Variable Mass Particles and Low Energy Nuclear Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Variable particle masses have sometimes been invoked to explain observed anomalies in low energy nuclear reactions (LENR). Such behavior has never been observed directly, and is not considered possible in theoretical nuclear physics. Nevertheless, there are covariant off-mass-shell theories of relativistic particle dynamics, based on works by Fock, Stueckelberg, Feynman, Greenberger, Horwitz, and others. We review some of these and we also consider virtual particles that arise in conventional Feynman diagrams in relativistic field theories. Effective Lagrangian models incorporating variable mass particle theories might be useful in describing anomalous nuclear reactions by combining mass shifts together with resonant tunneling and other effects. A detailed model for resonant fusion in a deuterium molecule with off-shell deuterons and electrons is presented as an example. Experimental means of observing such off-shell behavior directly, if it exists, is proposed and described. Brief explanations for elemental transmutation and formation of micro-craters are also given, and an alternative mechanism for the mass shift in the Widom-Larsen theory is presented. If variable mass theories were to find experimental support from LENR, then they would undoubtedly have important implications for the foundations of quantum mechanics, and practical applications may arise.

  11. Mass properties measurement system dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    The MPMS mechanism possess two revolute degrees-of-freedom and allows the user to measure the mass, center of gravity, and the inertia tensor of an unknown mass. The dynamics of the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS) from the Lagrangian approach to illustrate the dependency of the motion on the unknown parameters.

  12. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  13. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOEpatents

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  14. Near-infrared Variability in the 2MASS Calibration Fields: A Search for Planetary Transit Candidates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavchan, Peter; Jura, M.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Cutri, Roc M.; Gallagher, S. C.

    2008-01-01

    The Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) photometric calibration observations cover approximately 6 square degrees on the sky in 35 'calibration fields,' each sampled in nominal photometric conditions between 562 and 3692 times during the 4 years of the 2MASS mission. We compile a catalog of variables from the calibration observations to search for M dwarfs transited by extrasolar planets. We present our methods for measuring periodic and nonperiodic flux variability. From 7554 sources with apparent K(sub s) magnitudes between 5.6 and 16.1, we identify 247 variables, including extragalactic variables and 23 periodic variables. We have discovered three M dwarf eclipsing systems, including two candidates for transiting extrasolar planets.

  15. Guide to transverse projections and mass-constraining variables

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, A. J.; Khoo, T. J.; Lester, C. G.; Konar, P.; Kong, K.; Matchev, K. T.; Park, M.

    2011-11-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that many of the existing mass-measurement variables proposed for hadron colliders (m{sub T}, m{sub eff}, m{sub T2}, missing p-vector{sub T}, h{sub T}, {radical}(s-circumflex){sub min}, etc.) are far more closely related to each other than is widely appreciated, and indeed can all be viewed as a common mass-bound specialized for a variety of purposes. A consequence of this is that one may understand better the strengths and weaknesses of each variable, and the circumstances in which each can be used to best effect. In order to achieve this, we find it necessary first to revisit the seemingly empty and infertile wilderness populated by the subscript 'T' (as in 'pe{sub T}') in order to remind ourselves what this process of transversification actually means. We note that, far from being simple, transversification can mean quite different things to different people. Those readers who manage to battle through the barrage of transverse notation distinguishing 'T' from 'v' or or from 'o', and 'early projection' from 'late projection', will find their efforts rewarded towards the end of the paper with (i) a better understanding of how collider mass variables fit together, (ii) an appreciation of how these variables could be generalized to search for things more complicated than supersymmetry, (iii) will depart with an aversion to thoughtless or naieve use of the so-called 'transverse methods' of any of the popular computer Lorentz-vector libraries, and (iv) will take care in their subsequent papers to be explicit about which of the 61 identified variants of the 'transverse mass' they are employing.

  16. Guide to transverse projections and mass-constraining variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, A. J.; Khoo, T. J.; Konar, P.; Kong, K.; Lester, C. G.; Matchev, K. T.; Park, M.

    2011-11-01

    This paper seeks to demonstrate that many of the existing mass-measurement variables proposed for hadron colliders (mT, meff, mT2, missing p?T, hT, s^min?, etc.) are far more closely related to each other than is widely appreciated, and indeed can all be viewed as a common mass-bound specialized for a variety of purposes. A consequence of this is that one may understand better the strengths and weaknesses of each variable, and the circumstances in which each can be used to best effect. In order to achieve this, we find it necessary first to revisit the seemingly empty and infertile wilderness populated by the subscript “T” (as in “p?T”) in order to remind ourselves what this process of transversification actually means. We note that, far from being simple, transversification can mean quite different things to different people. Those readers who manage to battle through the barrage of transverse notation distinguishing “?” from “?” or from “?,” and “early projection” from “late projection,” will find their efforts rewarded towards the end of the paper with (i) a better understanding of how collider mass variables fit together, (ii) an appreciation of how these variables could be generalized to search for things more complicated than supersymmetry, (iii) will depart with an aversion to thoughtless or naïve use of the so-called transverse methods of any of the popular computer Lorentz-vector libraries, and (iv) will take care in their subsequent papers to be explicit about which of the 61 identified variants of the “transverse mass” they are employing.

  17. Movement simulation of the variable masses in the Gylden-Meshcherskii problem

    SciTech Connect

    Starinova, Olga L.; Salmin, Vadim V.

    2014-12-10

    The Gylden-Meshcherskii problem is used for various cases of dynamics of two points of the variable mass. For example, it describes of double star evolution due to mass loss at the photon expense and the corpuscular activity. Except, it is mathematical model for the movement of spacecraft with propulsion system. In the present work the mass variation laws, allowing a stationary form of the movement differential equations are considered. Movement simulation for all cases was conducted. The relative movement trajectories was constructed as for known Eddington-Jeans laws and for other mass variation laws.

  18. Blood pressure variability and left ventricular mass index in children.

    PubMed

    Bjelakovic, Bojko; Lukic, Stevo; Vukomanovic, Vladislav; Prijic, Sergej; Zivkovic, Nikola; Vasic, Karin; Ilic, Vladimir; Ilic, Stevan

    2013-12-01

    Clinical implications of blood pressure variability (BPV) on subclinical organ damage in children are unknown. The authors sought to explore the potential utility of two newly derived BPV indices: weighted standard deviation (wBPSD) and real average variability (ARV), as well as two standard ambulatory blood pressure indices: average 24-hour systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 24-hour SBP load, to identify children at high risk for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH). The study group consisted of 67 consecutive children who were referred to our institution for evaluation of suspected hypertension. LV mass was estimated by M-mode echocardiography using Devereux's formula according to the Penn convention and indexed for height(2.7) . We found a statistically significant, positive correlation between 24-hour wBPSD and LV mass index (LVMI) (?=0.389; P=.002) and no correlation between 24-hour ARV and LVMI (P>.05). However, partial correlation analysis of 24-hour wBPSD adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and LVMI showed only a weak correlation (?=0.3; P=.022). By using multiple linear regression analysis in a model with LVMI as a dependent variable and 24-hour wBPSD, 24-hour ARV, and BMI as independent variables, only BMI showed statistically significant independent positive associations with LVMI (P=.028). Results of our study showed that currently used BPV indices (24-hour wBPSD and 24-hour ARV) are not clinically reliable parameters to identify children at risk for LVH. Apparent contribution of the 24-hour wBPSD parameter to LVMI is negligible and is secondary to its close correlation with BMI (?=0.335 P=.009). PMID:24119053

  19. Development and Evaluation of a Variable-Temperature Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkits, David; Wiseman, Alex; Snead, Russell F.; Dows, Martina; Harge, Jasmine; Lamp, Jared A.; Gronert, Scott

    2015-10-01

    A new, variable-temperature mass spectrometer system is described. By applying polyimide heating tape to the end-cap electrodes of a Bruker (Bremen, Germany) Esquire ion trap, it is possible to vary the effective temperature of the system between 40 and 100°C. The modification does not impact the operation of the ion trap and the heater can be used for extended periods without degradation of the system. The accuracy of the ion trap temperatures was assessed by examining two gas-phase equilibrium processes with known thermochemistry. In each case, the variable-temperature ion trap provided data that were in good accord with literature data, indicating the effective temperature in the ion trap environment was being successfully modulated by the changes in the set-point temperatures on the end-cap electrodes. The new design offers a convenient and effective way to convert commercial ion trap mass spectrometers into variable-temperature instruments.

  20. Disambiguating Seesaw Models using Invariant Mass Variables at Hadron Colliders

    E-print Network

    P. S. Bhupal Dev; Doojin Kim; Rabindra N. Mohapatra

    2015-10-14

    We propose ways to distinguish between different mechanisms behind the collider signals of TeV-scale seesaw models for neutrino masses using kinematic endpoints of invariant mass variables. We particularly focus on two classes of such models widely discussed in literature: (i) Standard Model extended by the addition of singlet neutrinos and (ii) Left-Right Symmetric Models. Relevant scenarios involving the same "smoking-gun" collider signature of dilepton plus dijet with no missing transverse energy differ from one another by their event topology, resulting in distinctive relationships among the kinematic endpoints to be used for discerning them at hadron colliders. These kinematic endpoints are readily translated to the mass parameters of the on-shell particles through simple analytic expressions which can be used for measuring the masses of the new particles. A Monte Carlo simulation with detector effects is conducted to test the viability of the proposed strategy in a realistic environment. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of testing these scenarios at the $\\sqrt s=14$ and 100 TeV hadron colliders.

  1. High Mass X-ray Binaries: A Hunt for Optical Variability and Periodicity A study on BD+53 2262

    E-print Network

    Hart, Gus

    High Mass X-ray Binaries: A Hunt for Optical Variability and Periodicity A study on BD+53 2262 By. Hintz #12;Introduction: High mass X-ray binaries systems consist of a giant O or B spectral type star. The X-ray signatures on these systems come mostly from the accretion disk around the compact object

  2. Binary system parameters and the hibernation model of cataclysmic variables

    SciTech Connect

    Livio, M.; Shara, M.M.

    1987-08-01

    The hibernation model, in which nova systems spend most of the time between eruptions in a state of low mass transfer rate, is examined. The binary systems more likely to undergo hibernation are determined. The predictions of the hibernation scenario are shown to be consistent with available observational data. It is shown how the hibernation scenario provides links between classical novae, dwarf novae, and novalike variables, all of which represent different stages in the cyclic evolution of the same systems. 72 references.

  3. Short time-scale AGN X-ray variability with EXOSAT: black hole mass and normalized variability amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHardy, I. M.

    2013-03-01

    The old EXOSAT medium energy measurements of high-frequency (HF) active galactic nuclei (AGN) power spectral normalization are re-examined in the light of accurate black hole mass determinations which were not available when these data were first published by Green et al. It is found that the normalized variability amplitude (NVA), measured directly from the power spectrum, is proportional to M?, where ? ˜ -0.54 ± 0.08. As NVA is the square root of the power, these observations show that the normalization of the HF power spectrum for this sample of AGN varies very close to inversely with black hole mass. Almost the same value of ? is obtained whether the quasar 3C 273 is included in the sample or not, suggesting that the same process that drives X-ray variability in Seyfert galaxies applies also to 3C 273. These observations support the work of Gierli?ski et al. who show that an almost exactly linear anticorrelation is required if the normalizations of the HF power spectra of AGN and X-ray binary systems are to scale similarly. These observations are also consistent with a number of studies showing that the short time-scale variance of AGN X-ray light curves varies approximately inversely with mass.

  4. Interannual Variability of Patterns of Atmospheric Mass Distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenberth, Kevin E.; Stepaniak, David P.; Smith, Lesley

    2005-08-01

    Using the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) Re-Analysis (ERA-40) for 1958 to 2001, adjusted for bias over the southern oceans prior to 1979, an analysis is made of global patterns of monthly mean anomalies of atmospheric mass, which is approximately conserved globally. It differs from previous analyses of atmospheric circulation by effectively area weighting surface or sea level pressure that diminishes the role of high latitudes. To examine whether global patterns of behavior exist requires analysis of all seasons together (as opposite seasons occur in each hemisphere). Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, R-mode varimax-rotated EOF analysis, and cyclostationary EOF (CSEOF) analysis tools are used to explore patterns and variability on interannual and longer time scales. Clarification is given of varimax terminology and procedures that have been previously misinterpreted. The dominant global monthly variability overall is associated with the Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM), which is active in all months of the year. However, it is not very coherent from month to month and exhibits a great deal of natural unforced variability. The third most important pattern is the Northern Hemisphere annular mode (NAM) and associated North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which is the equivalent Northern Hemisphere expression. Neither of these is really a global mode, although they covary on long time scales in association with tropical or external forcing. For monthly data, the second mode is coherent with Niño-3.4 sea surface temperatures and thus corresponds to El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which is truly global in extent. It exhibits more coherent evolution with time and projects strongest onto the interannual variability, where it stands out by far as the dominant mode in the CSEOF analysis. The CSEOF analysis extracts the patterns phase locked with annual cycle and reveals their evolution throughout the year. Standard EOF and varimax analyses are not able to evolve with time of year unless the analysis is stratified by season. Varimax analysis is able to extract the SAM, NAM, and ENSO modes very well, however.

  5. Model atmospheres with periodic shocks. [pulsations and mass loss in variable stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, G. H.

    1989-01-01

    The pulsation of a long-period variable star generates shock waves which dramatically affect the structure of the star's atmosphere and produce conditions that lead to rapid mass loss. Numerical modeling of atmospheres with periodic shocks is being pursued to study the processes involved and the evolutionary consequences for the stars. It is characteristic of these complex dynamical systems that most effects result from the interaction of various time-dependent processes.

  6. Mass Market Demand Response and Variable Generation Integration Issues: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Mills, Andrew; Goldman, Charles; Wiser, Ryan; Eto, Joseph H.

    2011-09-10

    This scoping study focuses on the policy issues inherent in the claims made by some Smart Grid proponents that the demand response potential of mass market customers which is enabled by widespread implementation of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) through the Smart Grid could be the “silver bullet” for mitigating variable generation integration issues. In terms of approach, we will: identify key issues associated with integrating large amounts of variable generation into the bulk power system; identify demand response opportunities made more readily available to mass market customers through widespread deployment of AMI systems and how they can affect the bulk power system; assess the extent to which these mass market Demand Response (DR) opportunities can mitigate Variable Generation (VG) integration issues in the near-term and what electricity market structures and regulatory practices could be changed to further expand the ability for DR to mitigate VG integration issues over the long term; and provide a qualitative comparison of DR and other approaches to mitigate VG integration issues.

  7. Solar Forecasting System and Irradiance Variability Characterization

    E-print Network

    Solar Forecasting System and Irradiance Variability Characterization This report describes the HNEI solar forecasting system based on numerical weather prediction plus satellite and ground-based data of Hawai`i at Manoa #12;Development of a Solar Forecasting System and Characterization of Irradiance

  8. Mid-infrared Variability of the Low Mass Stellar Binary TWA 30 A and B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Aishwarya; Burgasser, Adam

    2014-03-01

    T Tauri stars represent the initial stages of stellar birth, characterized by jets, accretion, outflows and circumstellar disks. TWA 30 AB is one of the nearest (~42 pc) low mass (both masses ~ 0.12 Solar masses) binary T Tauris known, a well-separated (80'' on the sky) pair of mid-type M dwarfs in the ~ 10 Myr TW Hydrae Association. Both sources exhibit strong spectral signatures of accretion, jets and stellar winds, and mid-infrared excess indicating the presence of circumstellar disks. These disks are nearly edge-on but with slightly different geometries; TWA 30A, an optical transient, exhibits strong variable optical extinction (AV ~ 1-8) from outer disk absorption, while TWA 30B is seen in reflection with an additional (variable) thermal component likely from the inner disk. The existing optical and near-infrared data predicts low variability for TWA 30A and high variability for TWA 30B in the mid-infrared. However, a single day of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mid-infrared monitoring reveals the opposite behavior. To investigate this contradiction, we have observed this system over a 40-day period with the Spitzer Space Telescope's Infrared Array Camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns. We present preliminary analysis of the imaging data and examine their physical implications in the context of disk geometries and evolution in these two sources.

  9. Automated mass spectrometer analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettger, Heinz G. (Inventor); Giffin, Charles E. (Inventor); Dreyer, William J. (Inventor); Kuppermann, Aron (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automated mass spectrometer analysis system is disclosed, in which samples are automatically processed in a sample processor and converted into volatilizable samples, or their characteristic volatilizable derivatives. Each volatizable sample is sequentially volatilized and analyzed in a double focusing mass spectrometer, whose output is in the form of separate ion beams all of which are simultaneously focused in a focal plane. Each ion beam is indicative of a different sample component or different fragments of one or more sample components and the beam intensity is related to the relative abundance of the sample component. The system includes an electro-optical ion detector which automatically and simultaneously converts the ion beams, first into electron beams which in turn produce a related image which is transferred to the target of a vidicon unit. The latter converts the images into electrical signals which are supplied to a data processor, whose output is a list of the components of the analyzed sample and their abundances. The system is under the control of a master control unit, which in addition to monitoring and controlling various power sources, controls the automatic operation of the system under expected and some unexpected conditions and further protects various critical parts of the system from damage due to particularly abnormal conditions.

  10. Assessment of reservoir system variable forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistenmacher, Martin; Georgakakos, Aris P.

    2015-05-01

    Forecast ensembles are a convenient means to model water resources uncertainties and to inform planning and management processes. For multipurpose reservoir systems, forecast types include (i) forecasts of upcoming inflows and (ii) forecasts of system variables and outputs such as reservoir levels, releases, flood damage risks, hydropower production, water supply withdrawals, water quality conditions, navigation opportunities, and environmental flows, among others. Forecasts of system variables and outputs are conditional on forecasted inflows as well as on specific management policies and can provide useful information for decision-making processes. Unlike inflow forecasts (in ensemble or other forms), which have been the subject of many previous studies, reservoir system variable and output forecasts are not formally assessed in water resources management theory or practice. This article addresses this gap and develops methods to rectify potential reservoir system forecast inconsistencies and improve the quality of management-relevant information provided to stakeholders and managers. The overarching conclusion is that system variable and output forecast consistency is critical for robust reservoir management and needs to be routinely assessed for any management model used to inform planning and management processes. The above are demonstrated through an application from the Sacramento-American-San Joaquin reservoir system in northern California.

  11. White dwarf masses in magnetic cataclysmic variables - Multi-temperature FITS to GINGA data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cropper, Mark; Ramsay, Gavin; Wu, Kinwah

    1998-01-01

    One method of obtaining the mass of the white dwarf in magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs) is through their hard X-ray spectra. However, previous mass estimates using this method give lower limits because the temperature of the plasma in the post-shock region (where the hard X-rays are emitted) is lower than the temperature of the shock itself. In AM Her systems, the additional cooling of the post-shock plasma by cyclotron emission will further lower the derived mass. Here we present estimates of the masses of the white dwarf in 13 mCVs derived using Ginga data and a model in which X-rays are emitted from a multitemperature emission region with the appropriate temperature and density profile. We include in the model reflection from the surface of the white dwarf and a partially ionized absorber. We are able to achieve good fits to the data. We compare the derived masses with previous estimates and the masses for larger samples of isolated white dwarfs and those in CVs.

  12. Aggregation of Variables and System Decomposition: Applications

    E-print Network

    Stadler, Peter F.

    in economics (Simon and Ando 1961, Ando and Fisher 1963), computer science (Holland 1975) as physical chemistry Peter F. Stadler Bioinformatics Group, Dept. of Computer Science, University of Leipzig, Kreuzstrasse 7b that the aggregate variable descriptions of mutation-selection systems offer a potential formal definition of units

  13. Variable pressure power cycle and control system

    DOEpatents

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1984-11-27

    A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

  14. The winds of Luminous Blue Variables and the Mass of AG Car

    E-print Network

    Jorick S. Vink; Alex de Koter

    2002-07-15

    We present radiation-driven wind models for Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) and predict their mass-loss rates. A comparison between our predictions and the observations of AG Car shows that the variable mass loss behaviour of LBVs is due the recombination/ionisation of Fe IV/III and Fe III/II. We also derive a present-day mass of 35 Msun for AG Car.

  15. Temporal variability of mass transport across Canary Islands Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrero-Díaz, Ángeles; Rodríguez-Santana, Ángel; José Machín, Francisco; García-Weil, Luis; Sangrà, Pablo; Vélez-Belchí, Pedro; Fraile-Nuez, Eugenio

    2014-05-01

    The equatorward flowing Canary Current (CC) is the main feature of the circulation in the Canary Islands region. The CC flow perturbation by the Canary Islands originate the Canary Eddy Corridor which is the major pathway for long lived eddies in the subtropical North Atlantic (Sangrà et al., 2009, DSR). Therefore the variability of the CC passing through the Canary Archipelago will have both local and regional importance. Past studies on the CC variability trough the Canary Islands point out a clearly seasonal variability (Fraile-Nuez et al, 2010 (JGR); Hernández-Guerra et al, 2002 (DSR)). However those studies where focused on the eastern islands channels missing the variability through the western island channels which are the main source of long lived eddies. In order to fill this gap from November 2012 until September 2013 we conducted trimonthly surveys crossing the whole islands channels using opportunity ships (Naviera Armas Ferries). XBT and XCTD where launched along the cross channels transects. Additionally a closed box circling the Archipelago was performed on October 2013 as part of the cruise RAPROCAN-2013 (IEO) using also XBT and XCTD. Dynamical variables where derived inferring salinity from S(T,p) analytical relationships for the region updated with new XCTD data. High resolution, vertical sections of temperature, potential density, geostrophic velocity and transport where obtained. Our preliminary results suggest that the CC suffer a noticeable acceleration in those islands channels where eddy shedding is more frequent. They also indicate a clearly seasonal variability of the flows passing the islands channels. With this regard we observed significant differences on the obtained seasonal variability with respect the cited past studies on the eastern islands channel (Lanzarote / Fuerteventura - Africa coast). This work was co-funded by Canary Government (TRAMIC project: PROID20100092) and the European Union (FEDER).

  16. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  17. Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output*

    E-print Network

    Box, Jason E.

    1 Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output coherent regional patterns of Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance (SMB) change over a 17-year period suggests the overall ice sheet mass balance has been increasingly negative, given observed melt water

  18. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  19. A study of variable thrust, variable specific impulse trajectories for solar system exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, Tadashi

    A study has been performed to determine the advantages and disadvantages of variable thrust and variable Isp (specific impulse) trajectories for solar system exploration. There have been several numerical research efforts for variable thrust, variable Isp, power-limited trajectory optimization problems. All of these results conclude that variable thrust, variable Isp (variable specific impulse, or VSI) engines are superior to constant thrust, constant Isp (constant specific impulse; or CSI) engines. However, most of these research efforts assume a mission from Earth to Mars, and some of them further assume that these planets are circular and coplanar. Hence they still lack the generality. This research has been conducted to answer the following questions: (1) Is a VSI engine always better than a CSI engine or a high thrust engine for any mission to any planet with any time of flight considering lower propellant mass as the sole criterion? (2) If a planetary swing-by is used for a VSI trajectory, is the fuel savings of a VSI swing-by trajectory better than that of a CSI swing-by or high thrust swing-by trajectory? To support this research, an unique, new computer-based interplanetary trajectory calculation program has been created. This program utilizes a calculus of variations algorithm to perform overall optimization of thrust, Isp, and thrust vector direction along a trajectory that minimizes fuel consumption for interplanetary travel. It is assumed that the propulsion system is power-limited, and thus the compromise between thrust and Isp is a variable to be optimized along the flight path. This program is capable of optimizing not only variable thrust trajectories but also constant thrust trajectories in 3-D space using a planetary ephemeris database. It is also capable of conducting planetary swing-bys. Using this program, various Earth-originating trajectories have been investigated and the optimized results have been compared to traditional CSI and high thrust trajectory solutions. Results show that VSI rocket engines reduce fuel requirements for any mission compared to CSI rocket engines. Fuel can be saved by applying swing-by maneuvers for VSI engines; but the effects of swing-bys due to VSI engines are smaller than that of CSI or high thrust engines.

  20. Variable/Multispeed Rotorcraft Drive System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent studies for advanced rotorcraft have identified the need for variable, or multispeed-capable rotors. A speed change of up to 50 percent has been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve vehicle performance. Varying rotor speed during flight not only requires a rotor capable of performing effectively over the extended operation speed and load range, but also requires an advanced propulsion system to provide the required speed changes. A study has been completed, which investigated possible drive system arrangements to accommodate up to the 50 percent speed change. These concepts are presented. The most promising configurations are identified and will be developed for future validation testing.

  1. OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS By TAECHEOL KIM Master of Science Oklahoma May, 2001 #12;ii OPTIMUM DUCT DESIGN FOR VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS Thesis Approved Volume Systems ............................................. 5 1.2.2. Duct Design Methods

  2. Variable stars in the VVV globular clusters. I. 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-García, Javier; Dékány, István; Catelan, Márcio; Ramos, Rodrigo Contreras; Gran, Felipe; Leyton, Paul; Minniti, Dante; Amigo, Pía E-mail: idekany@astro.puc.cl E-mail: rcontrer@astro.puc.cl E-mail: pia.amigo@uv.cl E-mail: dante@astrofisica.cl

    2015-03-01

    The VISTA Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is opening a new window to study inner Galactic globular clusters (GCs) using their variable stars. These GCs have been neglected in the past due to the difficulties caused by the presence of elevated extinction and high field stellar densities in their lines of sight. However, the discovery and study of any present variables in these clusters, especially RR Lyrae stars, can help to greatly improve the accuracy of their physical parameters. It can also help to shed some light on the questions raised by the intriguing Oosterhoff dichotomy in the Galactic GC system. In a series of papers we plan to explore variable stars in the GCs falling inside the field of the VVV survey. In this first paper, we search for and study the variables present in two highly reddened, moderately metal-poor, faint, inner Galactic GCs: 2MASS-GC 02 and Terzan 10. We report the discovery of sizable populations of RR Lyrae stars in both GCs. We use near-infrared period–luminosity relations to determine the color excess of each RR Lyrae star, from which we obtain both accurate distances to the GCs and the ratios of the selective-to-total extinction in their directions. We find the extinction toward both clusters to be elevated, non-standard, and highly differential. We also find both clusters to be closer to the Galactic center than previously thought, with Terzan 10 being on the far side of the Galactic bulge. Finally, we discuss their Oosterhoff properties, and conclude that both clusters stand out from the dichotomy followed by most Galactic GCs.

  3. Dual output variable pitch turbofan actuation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griswold, R. H., Jr.; Broman, C. L. (inventors)

    1976-01-01

    An improved actuating mechanism was provided for a gas turbine engine incorporating fan blades of the variable pitch variety, the actuator adapted to rotate the individual fan blades within apertures in an associated fan disc. The actuator included means such as a pair of synchronizing ring gears, one on each side of the blade shanks, and adapted to engage pinions disposed thereon. Means were provided to impart rotation to the ring gears in opposite directions to effect rotation of the blade shanks in response to a predetermined input signal. In the event of system failure, a run-away actuator was prevented by an improved braking device which arrests the mechanism.

  4. NEREUS Nemertes : embedded mass spectrometer control system

    E-print Network

    Champy, Adam Samuel

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, I present Nemertes System, a software suite to control an embedded autonomous mass spectrometer. I first evaluate previous control systems for the hard- ware and evaluate a set of software design goals. The ...

  5. The water mass variability on the Romanian Black Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buga, Luminita; Mihailov, Maria-Emanuela; Malciu, Viorel; Stefan, Sabina

    2013-04-01

    The long-term trends in the water mass thermohaline structure and the effect of Danube River freshwater discharge into the western Black Sea during the last four decades (1971 - 2010) are analyzed using the data collected on the Romanian shelf (NIMRD data base). The variations of the temperature and salinity over the studied period are relatively small. The temperature data reveal a slightly warming trend for the upper mixed layer (UML) while for the shelf cold water (SCW) - identified by the 8?C upper isotherm depth - thermohaline structure remains practically constant. At the same time the salinity exhibits a decreasing trend in the entire water column.

  6. Variable temperature seat climate control system

    DOEpatents

    Karunasiri, Tissa R. (Van Nuys, CA); Gallup, David F. (Pasadena, CA); Noles, David R. (Glendale, CA); Gregory, Christian T. (Alhambra, CA)

    1997-05-06

    A temperature climate control system comprises a variable temperature seat, at least one heat pump, at least one heat pump temperature sensor, and a controller. Each heat pump comprises a number of Peltier thermoelectric modules for temperature conditioning the air in a main heat exchanger and a main exchanger fan for passing the conditioned air from the main exchanger to the variable temperature seat. The Peltier modules and each main fan may be manually adjusted via a control switch or a control signal. Additionally, the temperature climate control system may comprise a number of additional temperature sensors to monitor the temperature of the ambient air surrounding the occupant as well as the temperature of the conditioned air directed to the occupant. The controller is configured to automatically regulate the operation of the Peltier modules and/or each main fan according to a temperature climate control logic designed both to maximize occupant comfort during normal operation, and minimize possible equipment damage, occupant discomfort, or occupant injury in the event of a heat pump malfunction.

  7. AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS

    E-print Network

    Sheridan, Scott

    AN EVALUATION OF THE VARIABILITY OF AIR MASS CHARACTER BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL AREAS Scott C between urban and rural sites. Data are segregated by air mass and by season. Overall, the three "dry" air of the most intense urban/rural differentiations, with overnight temperatures typically 3° C or more above

  8. Wind Response Control of Building with Variable Stiffness Tuned Mass Damper Using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    E-print Network

    Nagarajaiah, Satish

    ; Stiffness; Buildings, high-rise; Australia. Introduction The effectiveness of tuned mass dampers TMDs Den is a proposed 76-story concrete office tower in Melbourne, Australia. It is a slender building 306 m tallWind Response Control of Building with Variable Stiffness Tuned Mass Damper Using Empirical Mode

  9. Variable acuity remote viewing system flight demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Variable Acuity Remote Viewing System (VARVS), originally developed under contract to the Navy (ONR) as a laboratory brassboard, was modified for flight demonstration. The VARVS system was originally conceived as a technique which could circumvent the acuity/field of view/bandwidth tradeoffs that exists in remote viewing to provide a nearly eye limited display in both field of view (160 deg) and resolution (2 min arc) while utilizing conventional TV sensing, transmission, and display equipment. The modifications for flight demonstration consisted of modifying the sensor so it could be installed and flow in a Piper PA20 aircraft, equipped for remote control and modifying the display equipment so it could be integrated with the NASA Research RPB (RPRV) remote control cockpit.

  10. Variability of dry mass as a fundamental biological property demonstrated for the case of Vaccinia virions.

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, G F; Foster, W D; Peters, D; Zeitler, E H

    1980-01-01

    The dry mass of individual vaccinia virions, as an example of a presumably uniform biological population, prepared in different lost at the Institute for Tropical Hygiene in Hamburg, was tested for variability by quantitative electron microscopy. A value of 5.26 X 10(-15) g for the median weight of the particle was calculated from 7,300 determinations. By assessing the variability of polystyrene latex spheres, which were used as mass standards, we demonstrated that the variability of dry mass of vaccinia virions is fivefold greater than the variability (standard) introduced by the method for determining mass. It was concluded that while genetic control in a presumably homozygous virion is strict with respect to quality, quantity of viral components (other than DNA) varies in fashion that can be aptly described by a log-normal distribution. It is recognized that this observation is empirically supported by the paradigm that any composite biological entity is subject to quantitative variability, the more so the heavier the individual representatives of a species are. In addition, the effects that extractions and staining have on the dry mass of vaccinia are reported, as well as is the median for the dry mass of other strains of pox viruses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 PMID:7260254

  11. Variability in a Young, L/T Transition Planetary-mass Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Beth A.; Vos, Johanna; Bonavita, Mariangela; Buenzli, Esther; Baxter, Claire; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Allers, Katelyn; Liu, Michael C.; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Deacon, Niall; Brandner, Wolfgang; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Dupuy, Trent; Kopytova, Taisiya; Manjavacas, Elena; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Henning, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    As part of our ongoing NTT SoFI survey for variability in young free-floating planets and low-mass brown dwarfs, we detect significant variability in the young, free-floating planetary-mass object PSO J318.5–22, likely due to rotational modulation of inhomogeneous cloud cover. A member of the 23 ± 3 Myr ? Pic moving group, PSO J318.5–22 has Teff = {1160}-40+30 K and a mass estimate of 8.3 ± 0.5 MJup for a 23 ± 3 Myr age. PSO J318.5–22 is intermediate in mass between 51 Eri b and ? Pic b, the two known exoplanet companions in the ? Pic moving group. With variability amplitudes from 7% to 10% in JS at two separate epochs over 3–5 hr observations, we constrain the rotational period of this object to >5 hr. In KS, we marginally detect a variability trend of up to 3% over a 3 hr observation. This is the first detection of weather on an extrasolar planetary-mass object. Among L dwarfs surveyed at high photometric precision (<3%), this is the highest amplitude variability detection. Given the low surface gravity of this object, the high amplitude preliminarily suggests that such objects may be more variable than their high-mass counterparts, although observations of a larger sample are necessary to confirm this. Measuring similar variability for directly imaged planetary companions is possible with instruments such as SPHERE and GPI and will provide important constraints on formation. Measuring variability at multiple wavelengths can help constrain cloud structure. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program ID 095.C-0590.

  12. Mid-infrared Variability and Mass Accretion Toward NGC 2264 Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terebey, Susan; cody, ann marie; rebull, luisa; stauffer, john

    2015-08-01

    Variable mass accretion has been suggested to be an important aspect of protostar formation. Mid-infrared wavelength observations trace variations in accretion luminosity and thus can probe mass accretion on sub-AU scales. We present results from the Spitzer YSOVAR campaign towards class I protostars in NGC 2264. The precise (0.02 mag) medium-cadence light curves at 3.6 and 4.5 microns show that young star variability is ubiquitous, with a variety of morphologies and time scales. A structure function analysis shows the light curves, on average, have a power-law behavior up to 30 days. The trend continues to longer timescales (years) for protostars (class I), in contrast with the smaller brightness changes displayed by T Tauri stars (class II). The power-law behavior suggests a stochastic process such as turbulent mass accretion drives the variability. We discuss theoretical models and the prospects for determining mass accretion rates from synoptic studies.

  13. MASS: An automated accountability system

    SciTech Connect

    Erkkila, B.H.; Kelso, F.

    1994-08-01

    All Department of Energy contractors who manage accountable quantities of nuclear materials are required to implement an accountability system that tracks, and records the activities associated with those materials. At Los Alamos, the automated accountability system allows data entry on computer terminals and data base updating as soon as the entry is made. It is also able to generate all required reports in a timely Fashion. Over the last several years, the hardware and software have been upgraded to provide the users with all the capability needed to manage a large variety of operations with a wide variety of nuclear materials. Enhancements to the system are implemented as the needs of the users are identified. The system has grown with the expanded needs of the user; and has survived several years of changing operations and activity. The user community served by this system includes processing, materials control and accountability, and nuclear material management personnel. In addition to serving the local users, the accountability system supports the national data base (NMMSS). This paper contains a discussion of several details of the system design and operation. After several years of successful operation, this system provides an operating example of how computer systems can be used to manage a very dynamic data management problem.

  14. Gas sampling system for a mass spectrometer

    DOEpatents

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to a gas sampling system, and specifically to a gas sampling system for transporting a hazardous process gas to a remotely located mass spectrometer. The gas sampling system includes a capillary tube having a predetermined capillary length and capillary diameter in communication with the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a flexible tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube intermediate the supply of process gas and the mass spectrometer, a heat transfer tube surrounding and coaxial with the capillary tube, and a heating device in communication the heat transfer tube for substantially preventing condensation of the process gas within the capillary tube.

  15. Mass Storage Performance Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuermann, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to develop a data warehouse to enable system administrators and their managers to gather information by querying the data logs of the MDSDS. Currently detailed logs capture the activity of the MDSDS internal to the different systems. The elements to be included in the data warehouse are requirements analysis, data cleansing, database design, database population, hardware/software acquisition, data transformation, query and report generation, and data mining.

  16. INFRARED VARIABILITY OF THE GLIESE 569B SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Scuderi, Louis J.

    2012-06-20

    Gliese 569B is a multiple brown dwarf system whose exact nature has been the subject of several investigations over the past few years. Interpretation has partially relied on infrared photometry and spectroscopy of the resolved components of the system. We present seeing-limited K{sub s} photometry over four nights, searching for variability in this young low-mass substellar system. Our photometry is consistent with other reported photometry, and we report the tentative detection of several periodic signals consistent with rotational modulation due to spots on their surfaces. The five significant periods range from 2.90 hr to 12.8 hr, with peak-to-peak variabilities from 28 mmag to 62 mmag in the K{sub s} band. If both components are rotating with the shortest periods, then their rotation axes are not parallel with each other, and the rotation axis of the Bb component is not perpendicular to the Ba-Bb orbital plane. If Bb has one of the longer rotational periods, then the Bb rotation axis is consistent with being parallel to the orbital axis of the Ba-Bb system.

  17. Asymmetric EPR entanglement in continuous variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Katherine; Janousek, Jiri; Armstrong, Seiji; Morizur, Jean-François; Lam, Ping Koy; Bachor, Hans-Albert

    2014-11-01

    Continuous variable entanglement can be produced in nonlinear systems or via the interference of squeezed states. In many optical systems such as parametric down conversion, the production of two perfectly symmetric subsystems is usually assumed when demonstrating the existence of entanglement. This symmetry simplifies the description of entanglement. However, asymmetry in entanglement may arise naturally in a real experiment, or be intentionally introduced in a given quantum information protocol. These asymmetries can emerge from having the output beams experience different losses and environmental contamination, or from the availability of non-identical input quantum states in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, we present a visualization of entanglement using quadrature amplitude plots of the twin beams. We quantitatively discuss the strength of asymmetric entanglement using EPR and inseparability criteria and theoretically show that the optimal beamsplitter ratio for entanglement is dependent on the asymmetries and may not be 50 : 50. To support this theory, we present experimental results showing one particular asymmetric entanglement where a 78 : 22 beamsplitter is optimal for observing entanglement.

  18. Variable mass theories in relativistic quantum mechanics as an explanation for anomalous low energy nuclear phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Mark

    2015-05-01

    A recent theoretical explanation for observed anomalous low energy nuclear phenomena which have puzzled physicists for many years is expanded on. Based on covariant relativistic quantum mechanics and historical time wave equations, it explains a large number of observed anomalous effects by supposing that nuclear masses can vary in “nuclear active environments” in condensed matter settings. The modified quantum wave equation originally introduced by Fock and Stueckelberg in the 1930s with significant enhancements up to the present by Horwitz and others prove that variable masses are compatible with the principles of both quantum mechanics and relativity. They can explain all of these effects by modifying the kinematic constraints of the reaction, enhancing electron screening and quantum tunneling rates, and allowing for resonant tunneling. Some previous results are recounted, and experimental evidence based on variable radioactive decay rates and other evidence for variable masses is presented which adds some new potential support for this theory.

  19. Comparative glacio-climatological analysis of mass balance variability along the geographical margin of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehoczky, Annamária; Kern, Zoltán; Pongrácz, Rita

    2014-05-01

    Glacio-climatological studies recognise glacier mass balance changes as high-confident climate indicators. The climatic sensitivity of a glacier does not simply depend on regional climate variability but also influenced via large- and mesoscale atmospheric circulation patterns. This study focuses on recent changes in the mass balance using records from three border regions of Europe, and investigates the relationships between the seasonal mass balance components, regional climatic conditions, and distant atmospheric forcing. Since glaciers in different macro-climatological conditions (i.e., mid-latitudes or high-latitudes, dry-continental or maritime regions) may present strongly diverse mass balance characteristics, the three analysed regions were selected from different glacierised macroregions (using the database of the World Glacier Monitoring Service). These regions belong to the Caucasus Mountains (Central Europe macroregion), the Polar Ural (Northern Asia macroregion), and Svalbard (Arctic Islands macroregion). The analysis focuses on winter, summer, and annual mass balance series of eight glaciers. The climatic variables (atmospheric pressure, air temperature, precipitation) and indices of teleconnection patterns (e.g., North Atlantic Oscillation, Pacific Decadal Oscillation) are used from the gridded databases of the University of East Anglia, Climatic Research Unit and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Center for Environmental Prediction. However, the period and length of available mass balance data in the selected regions vary greatly (the first full record is in 1958, Polar Ural; the last is in 2010, Caucasus Mountains), a comparative analysis can be carried out for the period of 1968-1981. Since glaciers from different regions respond to large- and mesoscale climatic forcings differently, and because the mass balance of glaciers within a region often co-vary, our specific objectives are (i) to examine the variability and the integrative climatic signal in the averaged mass balance records of the selected regions; (ii) to analyse the possible coupling between the mass balance and climatic variables, including the dominant patterns of Northern Hemisphere climate variability; and (iii) to compare the main characteristics of the three regions. Furthermore, (iv) a short discussion is given considering the significant decreasing trend of the cumulative annual mass balances in every region under the detected climatic changes in the second half of the 20th century. Preliminary results suggest that the strongest teleconnection links could be between winter mass balance and winter NAO for the Polar Ural (r=0.46, p<0.05), and between annual mass balance and PDO for Svalbard (r=-0.43, p<0.05). Neither seasonal, nor annual mass balance records showed significant correlation with any of the examined circulation indices for the Caucasus.

  20. Dynamical masses of a nova-like variable on the edge of the period gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Shahbaz, T.; Marsh, T. R.; Gänsicke, B. T.; Steeghs, D.; Long, K. S.; Martínez-Pais, I. G.; Armas Padilla, M.; Schwarz, R.; Schreiber, M. R.; Torres, M. A. P.; Koester, D.; Dhillon, V. S.; Castellano, J.; Rodríguez, D.

    2015-09-01

    We present the first dynamical determination of the binary parameters of an eclipsing SW Sextantis star in the 3-4 h orbital period range during a low state. We obtained time-resolved optical spectroscopy and photometry of HS 0220+0603 during its 2004-2005 low-brightness state, as revealed in the combined Small & Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System, IAC80 and M1 Group long-term optical light curve. The optical spectra taken during primary eclipse reveal a secondary star spectral type of M5.5 ± 0.5 as derived from molecular band-head indices. The spectra also provide the first detection of a DAB white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable. By modelling its optical spectrum we estimate a white dwarf temperature of 30 000 ± 5000 K. By combining the results of modelling the white dwarf eclipse from ULTRACAM light curves with those obtained by simultaneously fitting the emission- and absorption-line radial velocity curves and I-band ellipsoidal light curves, we measure the stellar masses to be M1 = 0.87 ± 0.09 M? and M2 = 0.47 ± 0.05 M? for the white dwarf and the M dwarf, respectively, and an inclination of the orbital plane of i ? 79°. A radius of 0.0103 ± 0.0007 R? is obtained for the white dwarf. The secondary star in HS 0220+0603 is likely too cool and undersized for its mass.

  1. Variability in a Young, L/T Transition Planetary-Mass Object

    E-print Network

    Biller, Beth A; Bonavita, Mariangela; Buenzli, Esther; Baxter, Claire; Crossfield, Ian J M; Allers, Katelyn; Liu, Michael C; Bonnefoy, Mickaël; Deacon, Niall; Brandner, Wolfgang; Schlieder, Joshua E; Dupuy, Trent; Kopytova, Taisiya; Manjavacas, Elena; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Henning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    As part of our ongoing NTT SoFI survey for variability in young free-floating planets and low mass brown dwarfs, we detect significant variability in the young, free-floating planetary mass object PSO J318.5-22, likely due to rotational modulation of inhomogeneous cloud cover. A member of the 23$\\pm$3 Myr $\\beta$ Pic moving group, PSO J318.5-22 has T$_\\mathrm{eff}$ = 1160$^{+30}_{-40}$ K and a mass estimate of 8.3$\\pm$0.5 M$_{Jup}$ for a 23$\\pm$3 Myr age. PSO J318.5-22 is intermediate in mass between 51 Eri b and $\\beta$ Pic b, the two known exoplanet companions in the $\\beta$ Pic moving group. With variability amplitudes from 7-10$\\%$ in J$_{S}$ at two separate epochs over 3-5 hour observations, we constrain the rotational period of this object to $>$5 hours. In K$_{S}$, we marginally detect a variability trend of up to 3$\\%$ over a 3 hour observation. This is the first detection of weather on an extrasolar planetary mass object. Among L dwarfs surveyed at high-photometric precision ($<$3$\\%$) this is the...

  2. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  3. Superintegrable systems with position dependent mass

    E-print Network

    A. G. Nikitin; T. M. Zasadko

    2015-03-27

    First order integrals of motion for Schr\\"odinger equations with position dependent masses are classified. Seventeen classes of such equations with non-equivalent symmetries are specified. They include integrable, superintegrable and maximally superintegrable systems. Among them is a system invariant with respect to the Lie algebra of Lorentz group and a system whose integrals of motion form algebra so(4). Three of the obtained systems are solved exactly.

  4. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140° C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  5. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling convertor stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  6. An analysis of space power system masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Barbara H.; Cull, Ronald C.; Kankam, M. David

    1990-01-01

    Various space electrical power system masses are analyzed with particular emphasis on the power management and distribution (PMAD) portion. The electrical power system (EPS) is divided into functional blocks: source, interconnection, storage, transmission, distribution, system control and load. The PMAD subsystem is defined as all the blocks between the source, storage and load, plus the power conditioning equipment required for the source, storage and load. The EPS mass of a wide range of spacecraft is then classified as source, storage or PMAD and tabulated in a database. The intent of the database is to serve as a reference source for PMAD masses of existing and in-design spacecraft. The PMAD masses in the database range from 40 kg/kW to 183 kg/kW across the spacecraft systems studied. Factors influencing the power system mass are identified. These include the total spacecraft power requirements, total amount of load capacity and physical size of the spacecraft. It is found that a new utility class of power systems, represented by Space Station Freedom, is evolving.

  7. System-Level Integration of Mass Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Mellstrom, Jeffrey; Wysocky, Terry

    2008-01-01

    A report discusses integrating multiple memory modules on the high-speed serial interconnect (IEEE 1393) that is used by a spacecraft?s inter-module communications in order to ease data congestion and provide for a scalable, strong, flexible system that can meet new system-level mass memory requirements.

  8. The influence of mass-transfer variability on the growth of white dwarfs, and the implications for Type Ia supernova rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, S.; Voss, R.; Knigge, C.

    2014-06-01

    White dwarfs (WDs) can increase their mass by accretion from companion stars, provided the mass-accretion rate is high enough to avoid nova eruptions. The accretion regimes that allow growth of the WDs are usually calculated assuming constant mass-transfer rates. However, it is possible that these systems are influenced by effects that cause the rate to fluctuate on various time-scales. We investigate how long-term mass-transfer variability affects accreting WDs systems. We show that, if such variability is present, it expands the parameter space of binaries where the WD can effectively increase its mass. Furthermore, we find that the Type Ia supernova (SNIa) rate is enhanced by a factor 2-2.5 to a rate that is comparable with the lower limit of the observed rates. The changes in the delay-time distribution allow for more SNIae in stellar populations with ages of a few Gyr. Thus, mass-transfer variability gives rise to a new formation channel of SNIa events that can significantly contribute to the SNIa rate. Mass-transfer variability is also likely to affect other binary populations through enhanced WD growth. For example, it may explain why WDs in cataclysmic variables are observed to be more massive than single WDs, on average.

  9. Supersingular mass distributions in gelling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikov, A. A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper considers the time evolution of disperse systems in which binary coagulation is so rapid that it leads to formation of gels during a finite but nonzero interval of time. Right before the transition point an algebraic particle mass spectrum forms whose behavior at small particle masses does not permit one to define the total particle mass concentration as ?0?gc(g,t)dg, because the integral diverges at low limit. This divergency prevents the formulation of an asymptotic self-similarity spectrum in its traditional form. This difficulty is avoided by introducing the second moment of the particle mass spectrum as a basic scale defining its behavior at the pregelation stage. The equations for the universality mass spectra are formulated. It is shown that these equations correctly reproduce the asymptotic form of the particle mass spectrum for the system with the product kernel. The postcritical behavior in this case is investigated. The time dependencies of the gel mass, the second moment, and particle number concentrations in the postcritical period are found.

  10. Alaska SAR Facility mass storage, current system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddy, David; Chu, Eugene; Bicknell, Tom

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the mass storage systems that are currently in place at the Alaska SAR Facility (SAF). The architecture of the facility will be presented including specifications of the mass storage media that are currently used and the performances that we have realized from the various media. The distribution formats and media are also discussed. Because the facility is expected to service future sensors, the new requirements and possible solutions to these requirements are also discussed.

  11. SEPARATION OF VARIABLES METHODS FOR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    E-print Network

    Miller, Willard

    SEPARATION OF VARIABLES METHODS FOR SYSTEMS OF DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS IN MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS E the technique of separation of variables and its (intrinsic) group­theoretic significance for some fundamental the proper definition of variable separation and its intrinsic significance are not yet clear. We report

  12. Dynamical limits on dark mass in the outer solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Hogg, D.W.; Quinlan, G.D.; Tremaine, S. MIT, Cambridge, MA )

    1991-06-01

    Simplified model solar systems with known observational errors are considered in conducting a dynamical search for dark mass and its minimum detectable amount, and in determining the significance of observed anomalies. The numerical analysis of the dynamical influence of dark mass on the orbits of outer planets and comets is presented in detail. Most conclusions presented are based on observations of the four giant planets where the observational errors in latitude and longitude are independent Gaussian variables with a standard deviation. Neptune's long orbital period cannot be predicted by modern ephemerides, and no evidence of dark mass is found in considering this planet. Studying the improvement in fit when observations are fitted to models that consider dark mass is found to be an efficient way to detect dark mass. Planet X must have a mass of more than about 10 times the minimum detectable mass to locate the hypothetical planet. It is suggested that the IRAS survey would have already located the Planet X if it is so massive and close that it dynamically influences the outer planets. Orbital residuals from comets are found to be more effective than those from planets in detecting the Kuiper belt. 35 refs.

  13. Apparent mass of the human body in the vertical direction: Inter-subject variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toward, Martin G. R.; Griffin, Michael J.

    2011-02-01

    The biodynamic responses of the seated human body to whole-body vibration vary considerably between people, but the reasons for the variability are not well understood. This study was designed to determine how the physical characteristics of people affect their apparent mass and whether inter-subject variability is influenced by the magnitude of vibration and the support of a seat backrest. The vertical apparent masses of 80 seated adults (41 males and 39 females aged 18-65) were measured at frequencies between 0.6 and 20 Hz with four backrest conditions (no backrest, upright rigid backrest, reclined rigid backrest, reclined foam backrest) and with three magnitudes of random vibration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m s -2 rms). Relationships between subject physical characteristics (age, gender, weight, and anthropometry) and subject apparent mass were investigated with multiple regression models. The strongest predictor of the modulus of the vertical apparent mass at 0.6 Hz, at resonance, and at 12 Hz was body weight, with other factors having only a marginal effect. After correction for other variables, the principal resonance frequency was most consistently associated with age and body mass index. As age increased from 18 to 65 years, the resonance frequency increased by up to 1.7 Hz, and when the body mass index was increased from 18 to 34 kg m -2 the resonance frequency decreased by up to 1.7 Hz. These changes were greater than the 0.9-Hz increase in resonance frequency between sitting without a backrest and sitting with a reclined rigid backrest, and greater than the 1.0-Hz reduction in resonance frequency when the magnitude of vibration increased from 0.5 to 1.5 m s -2 rms. It is concluded that the effects of age, body mass index, posture, vibration magnitude, and weight should be taken into account when defining the vertical apparent mass of the seated human body.

  14. Stronger steerability criterion for more uncertain continuous-variable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Priyanka; Pramanik, Tanumoy; Majumdar, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    We derive a fine-grained uncertainty relation for the measurement of two incompatible observables on a single quantum system of continuous variables, and show that continuous-variable systems are more uncertain than discrete-variable systems. Using the derived fine-grained uncertainty relation, we formulate a stronger steering criterion that is able to reveal the steerability of NOON states that has hitherto not been possible using other criteria. We further obtain a monogamy relation for our steering inequality which leads to an, in principle, improved lower bound on the secret key rate of a one-sided device independent quantum key distribution protocol for continuous variables.

  15. Stronger steerability criterion for more uncertain continuous variable systems

    E-print Network

    Priyanka Chowdhury; Tanumoy Pramanik; Archan S. Majumdar

    2015-10-16

    We derive a fine-grained uncertainty relation for the measurement of two incompatible observables on a single quantum system of continuous variables, and show that continuous variable systems are more uncertain than discrete variable systems. Using the derived fine-grained uncertainty relation, we formulate stronger steering criterion that is able to reveal the steerability of N00N states that has hitherto not been possible using other criteria. We further obtain a monogamy relation for our steering inequality which leads to an, in principle, improved lower bound on the secret key rate of a one-sided device independent quantum key distribution protocol for continuous variables.

  16. Minimal variability time scale - central black hole mass relation of the ?-ray loud blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vovk, Ievgen; Babi?, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Context. The variability time scales of the blazar ?-ray emission contain the imprints of the sizes of their emission zones and are generally expected to be larger than the light-crossing times of these zones. In several cases the time scales were found to be as short ~ 10 min, suggesting that the emission zone sizes are comparable with the sizes of the central supermassive black holes. Previously, these measurements also led to the suggestion of a possible connection between the observed minimal variability time scales and the masses of the corresponding black holes. This connection can be used to determine the location of the ?-ray emission site, which currently remains uncertain. Aims: The study aims to investigate the suggested "minimum time scale - black hole mass" relation using the blazars, detected in the TeV band. Methods: To obtain the tightest constraints on the variability time scales this work uses a compilation of observations by the Cherenkov telescopes HESS, MAGIC, and VERITAS. These measurements are compared to the blazar central black hole masses found in the literature. Results: The majority of the studied blazars show the variability time scales which are at least comparable to the period of rotation along the last stable orbit of the central black hole - and in some cases as short as its light-crossing time. For several sources the observed variability time scales are found to be smaller than the black hole light-crossing time. This suggests that the detected ?-ray variability originates, most probably, from the turbulence in the jet, sufficiently far from the central black hole.

  17. Toward Scalable Benchmarks for Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Ethan L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents guidelines for the design of a mass storage system benchmark suite, along with preliminary suggestions for programs to be included. The benchmarks will measure both peak and sustained performance of the system as well as predicting both short- and long-term behavior. These benchmarks should be both portable and scalable so they may be used on storage systems from tens of gigabytes to petabytes or more. By developing a standard set of benchmarks that reflect real user workload, we hope to encourage system designers and users to publish performance figures that can be compared with those of other systems. This will allow users to choose the system that best meets their needs and give designers a tool with which they can measure the performance effects of improvements to their systems.

  18. Evolution of the orbital-plane orientations in the two-protoplanet three-body problem with variable masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minglibayev, M. Zh.; Mayemerova, G. M.

    2014-09-01

    The three body problem with variable masses with two of the bodies being protoplanets is analyzed. The protoplanetary masses are assumed to be much less than the protosolar mass: m 1( t) ? m 0( t), m 2( t) ? m 0( t). The variations of the body masses over time are assumed to be known. The masses vary isotropically with different rates: ? 0/ m 0? ? 1/ m 1, ? 0/ m 0? ? 2/ m 2, ? 1/ m 1? ? 2/ m 2. The bodies are treated like material points. The problem is described by analogy to the second system of Poincaré elements, based on the equations of motion in a Jacobian coordinate system. Individual aperiodic motions in a quasi-conical cross section are used as the initial, unperturbed, intermediate motions. The expression for the perturbing function does not include terms proportional to third and higher powers of the small masses m 1 and m 2. A new analytical expression for the perturbing function analogous to the second system of the Poincaré variables is obtained in the formulation considered using a classical scheme. The analogs of the eccentricities e 1 and e 2 and the orbital inclinations i 1 and i 2 are considered to be small. The perturbing function accurate to within terms of second order in the small quantities e 1, e 2, i 1, and i 2 is calculated in a symbolic form using Mathematica package. The equations for the secular perturbations in this protoplanetary three-body problem, with the bodies treated as points with masses varying isotropically with different rates, are obtained. General rigorous analytical solutions to these equations for the secular perturbations describing the evolution of the orbital planes are derived for oblique elements, for arbitrary mass-variation laws. An analog of the Laplace theorem is proved for the orbital inclinations. Analytical formulas are obtained for the temporal variation of the longitudes of the ascending nodes and the inclinations for arbitrary mass variations with different rates. It is shown that the Jacobian node theorem, which is valid in the classical three-body problem with constantmasses, is violated in this problem, unless special initial conditions apply.

  19. Variable neural adaptive robust control: a switched system approach.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jianming; Hu, Jianghai; ?ak, Stanislaw H

    2015-05-01

    Variable neural adaptive robust control strategies are proposed for the output tracking control of a class of multiinput multioutput uncertain systems. The controllers incorporate a novel variable-structure radial basis function (RBF) network as the self-organizing approximator for unknown system dynamics. It can determine the network structure online dynamically by adding or removing RBFs according to the tracking performance. The structure variation is systematically considered in the stability analysis of the closed-loop system using a switched system approach with the piecewise quadratic Lyapunov function. The performance of the proposed variable neural adaptive robust controllers is illustrated with simulations. PMID:25881366

  20. High Temperature Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tarau, Calin; Walker, Kara L.; Anderson, William G.

    2009-03-16

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling converter provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) is under development to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. The status of the ongoing effort in developing this technology is presented in this paper. An earlier, preliminary design had a radiator outside the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) casing, used NaK as the working fluid, and had the reservoir located on the cold side adapter flange. The revised design has an internal radiator inside the casing, with the reservoir embedded inside the insulation. A large set of advantages are offered by this new design. In addition to reducing the overall size and mass of the VCHP, simplicity, compactness and easiness in assembling the VCHP with the ASRG are significantly enhanced. Also, the permanently elevated temperatures of the entire VCHP allows the change of the working fluid from a binary compound (NaK) to single compound (Na). The latter, by its properties, allows higher performance and further mass reduction of the system. Preliminary design and analysis shows an acceptable peak temperature of the ASRG case of 140 deg. C while the heat losses caused by the addition of the VCHP are 1.8 W.

  1. The Secondary Star in Cataclysmic Variables and Low Mass X-ray Binaries

    E-print Network

    D. A. Smith; V. S. Dhillon

    1998-08-20

    We critically re-examine the available data on the spectral types, masses and radii of the secondary stars in cataclysmic variables (CVs) and low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), using the new catalogue of Ritter & Kolb (1998) as a starting point. We find there are 55 reliable spectral type determinations and only 14 reliable mass determinations of CV secondary stars (10 and 5, respectively, in the case of LMXBs). We derive new spectral type-period, mass-radius, mass-period and radius-period relations, and compare them with theoretical predictions. We find that CV secondary stars with orbital periods shorter than 7-8 hours are, as a group, indistinguishable from main sequence stars in detached binaries. We find it is not valid, however, to estimate the mass from the spectral type of the secondary star in CVs or LMXBs. We find that LMXB secondary stars show some evidence for evolution, with secondary stars which are slightly too large for their mass. We show how the masses and radii of the secondary stars in CVs can be used to test the validity of the disrupted magnetic braking model of CV evolution, but we find that the currently available data are not sufficiently accurate or numerous to allow such an analysis. As well as considering secondary star masses, we also discuss the masses of the white dwarfs in CVs, and find mean values of M_1 = 0.69+/-0.13 M_sun below the period gap, and M_1 = 0.80+/-0.22 M_sun above the period gap.

  2. Neutral particle mass spectrometry with nanomechanical systems.

    PubMed

    Sage, Eric; Brenac, Ariel; Alava, Thomas; Morel, Robert; Dupré, Cécilia; Hanay, Mehmet Selim; Roukes, Michael L; Duraffourg, Laurent; Masselon, Christophe; Hentz, Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    Current approaches to mass spectrometry (MS) require ionization of the analytes of interest. For high-mass species, the resulting charge state distribution can be complex and difficult to interpret correctly. Here, using a setup comprising both conventional time-of-flight MS (TOF-MS) and nano-electromechanical systems-based MS (NEMS-MS) in situ, we show directly that NEMS-MS analysis is insensitive to charge state: the spectrum consists of a single peak whatever the species' charge state, making it significantly clearer than existing MS analysis. In subsequent tests, all the charged particles are electrostatically removed from the beam, and unlike TOF-MS, NEMS-MS can still measure masses. This demonstrates the possibility to measure mass spectra for neutral particles. Thus, it is possible to envisage MS-based studies of analytes that are incompatible with current ionization techniques and the way is now open for the development of cutting-edge system architectures with unique analytical capability. PMID:25753929

  3. Effective mass discontinuity and current oscillations in stratified systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halilov, S.; Mil’shtein, S.

    2015-11-01

    Tunnelling transport in modulated film, which occurs either stoichiometrically or due to a stress field, is analysed in terms of the variable carrier effective mass tensor. It is shown that the mass tensor discontinuity alone, i.e. with no actual potential barrier present, may lead to current oscillations versus the size of the modulated region. While both effects of mass discontinuity and the band offset upon the carrier flow are formally described in terms of wave mechanics, their mechanisms are quite distinct: the magnitude of the current oscillations due to mass disruption is determined by the differential mass across the interface, i.e. by change in the covalency due to structural modulation, whereas the band offset is generally an effect of the affinity change across the interface. Both effects are superimposed by the 3D kinematic coupling of the orthogonal transport, either constructively or destructively, leading to an oscillatory dependence of the current magnitude on the film dimension. As an illustration, the analysis is applied to a Si1?x Ge x /Si stratified structure to demonstrate the effect of quasi-bound states on the transport. The modelling is corroborated by a device simulation of a SiGe system in a heterojunction bipolar transistor setting. The findings can be used as a general method to control anisotropic tunnelling transport in stratified structures.

  4. Using System Mass (SM), Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM) or Life Cycle Mass (LCM) in Advanced Life Support (ALS) Reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Life Support (ALS) has used a single number, Equivalent System Mass (ESM), for both reporting progress and technology selection. ESM is the launch mass required to provide a space system. ESM indicates launch cost. ESM alone is inadequate for technology selection, which should include other metrics such as Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and also consider perfom.arxe 2nd risk. ESM has proven difficult to implement as a reporting metric, partly because it includes non-mass technology selection factors. Since it will not be used exclusively for technology selection, a new reporting metric can be made easier to compute and explain. Systems design trades-off performance, cost, and risk, but a risk weighted cost/benefit metric would be too complex to report. Since life support has fixed requirements, different systems usually have roughly equal performance. Risk is important since failure can harm the crew, but it is difficult to treat simply. Cost is not easy to estimate, but preliminary space system cost estimates are usually based on mass, which is better estimated than cost. Amass-based cost estimate, similar to ESM, would be a good single reporting metric. The paper defines and compares four mass-based cost estimates, Equivalent Mass (EM), Equivalent System Mass (ESM), Life Cycle Mass (LCM), and System Mass (SM). EM is traditional in life support and includes mass, volume, power, cooling and logistics. ESM is the specifically defined ALS metric, which adds crew time and possibly other cost factors to EM. LCM is a new metric, a mass-based estimate of LCC measured in mass units. SM includes only the factors of EM that are originally measured in mass, the hardware and logistics mass. All four mass-based metrics usually give similar comparisons. SM is by far the simplest to compute and easiest to explain.

  5. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin

    2008-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP turns on with a delta T of 30 C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator delta T was roughly 70 C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.

  6. Error response test system and method using test mask variable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gender, Thomas K. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An error response test system and method with increased functionality and improved performance is provided. The error response test system provides the ability to inject errors into the application under test to test the error response of the application under test in an automated and efficient manner. The error response system injects errors into the application through a test mask variable. The test mask variable is added to the application under test. During normal operation, the test mask variable is set to allow the application under test to operate normally. During testing, the error response test system can change the test mask variable to introduce an error into the application under test. The error response system can then monitor the application under test to determine whether the application has the correct response to the error.

  7. Expert overseer for mass spectrometer system

    DOEpatents

    Filby, Evan E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

    1991-01-01

    An expert overseer for the operation and real-time management of a mass spectrometer and associated laboratory equipment. The overseer is a computer-based expert diagnostic system implemented on a computer separate from the dedicated computer used to control the mass spectrometer and produce the analysis results. An interface links the overseer to components of the mass spectrometer, components of the laboratory support system, and the dedicated control computer. Periodically, the overseer polls these devices and as well as itself. These data are fed into an expert portion of the system for real-time evaluation. A knowledge base used for the evaluation includes both heuristic rules and precise operation parameters. The overseer also compares current readings to a long-term database to detect any developing trends using a combination of statistical and heuristic rules to evaluate the results. The overseer has the capability to alert lab personnel whenever questionable readings or trends are observed and provide a background review of the problem and suggest root causes and potential solutions, or appropriate additional tests that could be performed. The overseer can change the sequence or frequency of the polling to respond to an observation in the current data.

  8. Optimal Controlled Variables for Polynomial Systems Johannes Jaschke, Sigurd Skogestad

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Controlled Variables for Polynomial Systems Johannes J¨aschke, Sigurd Skogestad Department Abstract We present a method for finding optimal controlled variables, which are poly- nomial combinations of self-optimizing control; starting from the first-order necessary optimality conditions, any unknown

  9. A comparison of trajectory and air mass approaches to examine ozone variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Robert E.; Normile, Caroline P.; Sitka, Luke; Hondula, David M.; Knight, David B.; Gawtry, Stephen P.; Stenger, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Back trajectory analysis is a commonly-used tool for understanding how short-term variability in surface ozone depends on transport into a given location. Lesser-used but equally effective methods are air-mass based approaches that are primarily driven by changes in temperature and humidity conditions. We compare and combine these two fundamentally different approaches by evaluating daily near-surface afternoon warm-season ozone concentrations from 2001 to 2006 in and around the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia. Analysis of variance is used to compare summer afternoon ozone levels between air masses as identified by the Spatial Synoptic Classification to clusters of 72-h back trajectories estimated by the HYSPLIT model. Ozone concentrations vary significantly across both air masses and trajectory clusters at all ozone monitors. Concentrations are highest for air masses characterized by dry, warm conditions and for air originating from the north and west of the study area or circulating over the mid-Atlantic region. In many cases, the interaction between synoptic types and back trajectory clusters produce results not evident from the examination of simple trajectories or air masses alone. For example, ozone concentrations on Moist Moderate days are 30 ppb higher when air parcels travel moderate distances into the Shenandoah Valley from the west than when they travel longer distances from the north or northeast. Combining air mass and trajectory approaches provides a more useful characterization of air quality conditions than either method alone.

  10. The Properties of Low-Luminosity AGN: Variability, Accretion Rate, Black Hole Mass and Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleas, Juan; Podjed, Stephanie; Sarajedini, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    We present the results from a study of ~5000 Broad-Line selected AGN from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. Galaxy and AGN templates have been fit to the SDSS spectra to isolate the AGN component. The sources have absolute magnitudes in the range -23 < Mi < -18 and lie at redshifts less than z ~ 0.8. A variability analysis reveals that the anti-correlation between luminosity and variability amplitude continues to the faintest AGN in our sample (Gallastegui-Aizpun & Sarajedini 2014), though the underlying cause of the relation is still poorly understood. To address this, we further explore the connection between AGN luminosity and variability through measurement of the H? line width to determine black hole mass and accretion rate. We find that AGN with the highest variability amplitudes at a given luminosity appear to have lower accretion rates compared to low amplitude variables. We also investigate correlations with AGN color and accretion rate among these low-luminosity AGN.

  11. MASS ACTION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM WALTER J. FREEMAN

    E-print Network

    Freeman, Walter J.

    MASS ACTION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM in the nervous system. Bibliography: p. Includes indexes. Neurophysiologyâ??Mathematical models. Adaptation IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA #12; MASS ACTION IN THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Contents PREFACE

  12. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

  13. Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system

    DOEpatents

    Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

    1996-07-23

    A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

  14. Energy dependence of variability in low mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiele, Holger; Yu, Wenfei

    2015-08-01

    Black hole and neutron star X-ray binaries show variability on time-scales ranging from milliseconds to years. In the last two decades a detailed phenomenological picture of short-term variability in low-mass X-ray binaries has emerged mainly based on RXTE observations that cover energies above 3 keV. This picture comprises periodic or quasi-periodic variability, seen as spikes or humps in power density spectra, that are superposed on broad noise components. The overall shape of the noise components as well as the occurrence of quasi-periodic oscillations is known to vary with the state of the X-ray binary. We are accomplishing a comprehensive study of archival XMM-Newton observations in timing or burst mode of more than ten black hole and more than thirty neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries to investigate the variability properties of these sources at softer energies where the thermal disk component starts to emerge.Here we present the results of a comprehensive variability study of a sample of black hole X-ray binaries, including a discussion of the energy dependence of the overall power spectral shape and of the characteristic frequency and amplitude of the band-limited noise component. Furthermore, we present the results of our recently conducted thorough study of covariance spectra on different time scales for the sample of black hole X-ray binaries. We will discuss the implications of these findings for the picture of the accretion geometry in black hole X-ray binaries.

  15. Burner Designs and Controls for Variable Air Preheat Systems 

    E-print Network

    Lied, C. R.

    1981-01-01

    and batch type melting operations resulting in cyclic or variable air preheat temperatures will be discussed. Fuel savings relating to the use of recuperation and various types of fuel/air ratio systems will also be discussed....

  16. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, Joseph R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall mperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser.

  17. Re-interpreting the Oxbridge stransverse mass variable M T2 in general cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahbubani, Rakhi; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun

    2013-03-01

    We extend the range of possible applications of M T2 type analyses to decay chains with multiple invisible particles, as well as to asymmetric event topologies with different parent and/or different children particles. We advocate two possible approaches. In the first, we introduce suitably defined 3 + 1-dimensional analogues of the M T2 variable, which take into account all relevant on-shell kinematic constraints in a given event topology. The second approach utilizes the conventional M T2 variable, but its kinematic endpoint is suitably reinterpreted on a case by case basis, depending on the specific event topology at hand. We provide the general prescription for this reinterpretation, including the formulas relating the measured M T2 endpoint (as a function of the test masses of all the invisible particles) to the underlying physical mass spectrum. We also provide analytical formulas for the shape of the differential distribution of the doubly projected {M_{{T{2_{bot }}}}} variable for the ten possible event topologies with one visible particle and up to two invisible particles per decay chain. We illustrate our results with the example of leptonic chargino decays {{widetilde{?}}+}to {ell+}? {{widetilde{?}}^0} in supersymmetry.

  18. Mass Properties for Space Systems Standards Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Current Verbiage in S-120 Applies to Dry Mass. Mass Margin is difference between Required Mass and Predicted Mass. Performance Margin is difference between Predicted Performance and Required Performance. Performance estimates and corresponding margin should be based on Predicted Mass (and other inputs). Contractor Mass Margin reserved from Performance Margin. Remaining performance margin allocated according to mass partials. Compliance can be evaluated effectively by comparison of three areas (preferably on a single sheet). Basic and Predicted Mass (including historical trend). Aggregate potential changes (threats and opportunities) which gives Mass Forecast. Mass Maturity by category (Estimated/Calculated/Actual).

  19. Variable-Speed Wind System Design : Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lauw, Hinan K.; Weigand, Claus H.; Marckx, Dallas A.; Electronic Power Conditioning, Inc.

    1993-10-01

    Almost from the onset of the development of wind energy conversion systems (WECS), it was known that variable-speed operation of the turbine would maximize energy capture. This study was commissioned to assess the cost, efficiency gain, reduction of the cost of energy (COE), and other operating implications of converting the existing hardware of a modern fixed-speed wind energy conversion system to variable-speed operation. The purpose of this study was to develop a preliminary design for the hardware required to allow variable-speed operation using a doubly-fed generator with an existing fixed-speed wind turbine design. The turbine selected for this study is the AWT-26 designed and built by Advanced Wind Turbines Inc. of Redmond, Washington. The lowest projected COE using this variable-speed generation system is projected to be $0.0499/kWh, compared to the lowest possible COE with fixed-speed generation which is projected to be $0.0546/kWh. This translates into a 8.6% reduction of the COE using this variable-speed generation option. The preliminary system design has advanced to where the printed circuit boards can be physically laid out based on the schematics and the system software can be written based on the control flow-charts. The core of hardware and software has been proven to be successful in earlier versions of VSG systems. The body of this report presents the results of the VSWG system development. Operation under normal and fault conditions is described in detail, the system performance for variable-speed operation is estimated and compared to the original fixed-speed system performance, and specifications for all system components (generator, power electronic converter, and system controller) are given. Costs for all components are estimated, and incremental system cost is compared to incremental energy production. Finally, operational features of the VSWG which are not available in the existing FSWG system are outlined.

  20. A variable-collimation display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchko, Robert; Robinson, Sam; Schmidt, Jack; Graniela, Benito

    2014-03-01

    Two important human depth cues are accommodation and vergence. Normally, the eyes accommodate and converge or diverge in tandem; changes in viewing distance cause the eyes to simultaneously adjust both focus and orientation. However, ambiguity between accommodation and vergence cues is a well-known limitation in many stereoscopic display technologies. This limitation also arises in state-of-the-art full-flight simulator displays. In current full-flight simulators, the out-the-window (OTW) display (i.e., the front cockpit window display) employs a fixed collimated display technology which allows the pilot and copilot to perceive the OTW training scene without angular errors or distortions; however, accommodation and vergence cues are limited to fixed ranges (e.g., ~ 20 m). While this approach works well for long-range, the ambiguity of depth cues at shorter range hinders the pilot's ability to gauge distances in critical maneuvers such as vertical take-off and landing (VTOL). This is the first in a series of papers on a novel, variable-collimation display (VCD) technology that is being developed under NAVY SBIR Topic N121-041 funding. The proposed VCD will integrate with rotary-wing and vertical take-off and landing simulators and provide accurate accommodation and vergence cues for distances ranging from approximately 3 m outside the chin window to ~ 20 m. A display that offers dynamic accommodation and vergence could improve pilot safety and training, and impact other applications presently limited by lack of these depth cues.

  1. Design options and analysis of variable gravity systems in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penzo, Paul A.; Ionasescu, Rodica

    1989-01-01

    Design options for tethered systems which can produce a variable gravity living environment in space are discussed. Parameters of rotating systems are reviewed, and early studies of rotating systems are recalled. Artificial gravity configurations are shown and their individual advantages and disadvantages are examined.

  2. Surface Time-Variable Gravity Signals and Possible Sources Including Core Mass Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Kuang, Weijia

    2003-01-01

    Over two decades of geodetic satellite-laser-ranging (SLR) data show that the variation of the Earth's oblateness parameter J2 has a clear seasonal signal of amplitude of about 3e-10 and a secular decrease of about -2.8e-11/year, superimposed on some interesting interannual fluctuations. Physically, any change in mass distribution or/inside the Earth will be reflected in the time-variable gravity signal obtained outside the Earth, according to Newton s gravitational law. Therefore, such signal contains contributions from all geophysical sources that redistribute mass, on all temporal and spatial scales, including those from the core. Besides Earth rotation and geomagnetic field variations, the time-variable gravity also contains information linking Earth surface observations with internal core dynamical processes. The time scales of the gravity signal are critical in helping differentiate different contributions. The atmosphere and hydrosphere are responsible for the seasonal and much of the interannual and intraseasoanl fluctuations, while the secular trend is due mainly to the post-glacial rebound but possibly core mass flow. To estimate the latter effect, we use our MoSST (Modular, Scalable, Self-consistent, Three-dimensional) core dynamics model to forward simulate the core flow, and density variation due to the core convection. Our results suggest that, when upward continued to the surface, the J2 component of the core mass redistribution can reach an overall amplitude of e-11/year, approaching the SLR detectability and significant in geophysical terms. We also find a general westward drift of the mass flow, with a speed comparable to that of the geomagnetic westward drift.

  3. FTO genotype is associated with phenotypic variability of body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jian; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Powell, Joseph E.; Medland, Sarah E.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rose, Lynda M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Mägi, Reedik; Waite, Lindsay; Smith, Albert Vernon; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.; Monda, Keri L.; Hadley, David; Mahajan, Anubha; Li, Guo; Kapur, Karen; Vitart, Veronique; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Wang, Sophie R.; Palmer, Cameron; Esko, Tõnu; Fischer, Krista; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ay?e; Isaacs, Aaron; Feitosa, Mary F.; Luan, Jian’an; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; White, Charles; Jackson, Anne U.; Preuss, Michael; Ziegler, Andreas; Eriksson, Joel; Kutalik, Zoltán; Frau, Francesca; Nolte, Ilja M.; Van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Verweij, Niek; Goel, Anuj; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Estrada, Karol; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer Lynn; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Tyrer, Jonathan; Teumer, Alexander; Prokopenko, Inga; Mangino, Massimo; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Hui, Jennie; Beilby, John P.; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hall, Per; Haritunians, Talin; Zgaga, Lina; Kolcic, Ivana; Polasek, Ozren; Zemunik, Tatijana; Oostra, Ben A.; Junttila, M. Juhani; Grönberg, Henrik; Schreiber, Stefan; Peters, Annette; Hicks, Andrew A.; Stephens, Jonathan; Foad, Nicola S.; Laitinen, Jaana; Pouta, Anneli; Kaakinen, Marika; Willemsen, Gonneke; Vink, Jacqueline M.; Wild, Sarah H.; Navis, Gerjan; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Homuth, Georg; John, Ulrich; Iribarren, Carlos; Harris, Tamara; Launer, Lenore; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O’Connell, Jeffrey R.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cadby, Gemma; Palmer, Lyle J.; James, Alan L.; Musk, Arthur W.; Ingelsson, Erik; Psaty, Bruce M.; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Waeber, Gerard; Vollenweider, Peter; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F.; Rudan, Igor; Groop, Leif C.; Metspalu, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Province, Michael A.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Huikuri, Heikki V.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Atwood, Larry D.; Fox, Caroline S.; Boehnke, Michael; Collins, Francis S.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Hengstenberg, Christian; Stark, Klaus; Lorentzon, Mattias; Ohlsson, Claes; Cusi, Daniele; Staessen, Jan A.; Van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Jolley, Jennifer D.; Ripatti, Samuli; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Penninx, Brenda; Wilson, James F.; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen J.; van der Harst, Pim; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C.; Zillikens, M. Carola; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Zillikens, M. Carola; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Vermeulen, Sita H.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Schlessinger, David; Schipf, Sabine; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Spector, Tim D.; North, Kari E.; Lettre, Guillaume; McCarthy, Mark I.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; McKnight, Barbara; Strachan, David P.; Hill, William G.; Snieder, Harold; Ridker, Paul M.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Frayling, Timothy M.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Goddard, Michael E.; Visscher, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence across several species for genetic control of phenotypic variation of complex traits1–4, such that the variance among phenotypes is genotype dependent. Understanding genetic control of variability is important in evolutionary biology, agricultural selection programmes and human medicine, yet for complex traits, no individual genetic variants associated with variance, as opposed to the mean, have been identified. Here we perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of phenotypic variation using 170,000 samples on height and body mass index (BMI) in human populations. We report evidence that the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs7202116 at the FTO gene locus, which is known to be associated with obesity (as measured by mean BMI for each rs7202116 genotype)5–7, is also associated with phenotypic variability. We show that the results are not due to scale effects or other artefacts, and find no other experiment-wise significant evidence for effects on variability, either at loci other than FTO for BMI or at any locus for height. The difference in variance for BMI among individuals with opposite homozygous genotypes at the FTO locus is approximately 7%, corresponding to a difference of 0.5 kilograms in the standard deviation of weight. Our results indicate that genetic variants can be discovered that are associated with variability, and that between-person variability in obesity can partly be explained by the genotype at the FTO locus. The results are consistent with reported FTO by environment interactions for BMI8, possibly mediated by DNA methylation9,10. Our BMI results for other SNPs and our height results for all SNPs suggest that most genetic variants, including those that influence mean height or mean BMI, are not associated with phenotypic variance, or that their effects on variability are too small to detect even with samples sizes greater than 100,000. PMID:22982992

  4. Quantization of Masses in the Solar System

    E-print Network

    A. M. Ilyanok; I. A. Timoshchenko

    2002-01-28

    The hypothesis of quantization of masses of the solar system planets is considered. It is supposed that the solar system was bearing during the Protosun squeezing from the red giant to a yellow dwarf. According to mass and orbit redistribution of interior planets the condition of the origin of satellites of internal and external planets located in the ecliptic plane are found. It is shown, that the main source of substance for these satellites and majority of meteorites and asteroids in the solar system is mantle and bark of the Mars separated from it under influence of gravitation forces about 4 billion years ago, caused by squeezing of the sun and Jupiter. In these condition there is a probability of contamination of the Earth by DNA of living organisms from Mars. It is shown that Uranus and Neptune were formed as a result of protosaturn decay. It is found that from all external planets only Uranus has the large cavity inside. As a result there is no internal power source, and the considerable shift of a magnetic axis relative to rotate axis is observed.

  5. Variable emissivity laser thermal control system

    DOEpatents

    Milner, J.R.

    1994-10-25

    A laser thermal control system for a metal vapor laser maintains the wall temperature of the laser at a desired level by changing the effective emissivity of the water cooling jacket. This capability increases the overall efficiency of the laser. 8 figs.

  6. Variability in the 2MASS Calibration Fields: A Search for Transient Obscuration Events

    E-print Network

    Quillen, Alice C; Carlin, Jeffrey L; Meng, Zeyang; Bell, Cameron P M

    2014-01-01

    We searched the light curves of over 40000 stars in the 2MASS calibration database, spanning approximately 4 years, for objects that have significant day long dimming events. We also searched the multi-color light curves for red dimming events that could be due to transient extinction. In the color independent sigma-limited search, we found 46 previously unknown eclipsing binaries, 6 periodic variable stars likely to be intrinsic pulsators and 21 young stellar objects in the $\\rho$ Ophiucus star formation region previously studied by Parks et al. 2013. An additional 11 objects exhibited dimming events and most of these are unclassified. The search for red dimming events primarily reveals a population of low luminosity active galaxies that become bluer when they are brighter, and variable young stellar objects exhibiting high cross-correlation coefficients between color and brightness. The young stellar objects exhibit brightness and color variations in the direction of interstellar extinction whereas the acti...

  7. Improving the sensitivity of stop searches with on-shell constrained invariant mass variables

    E-print Network

    Won Sang Cho; James S. Gainer; Doojin Kim; Konstantin T. Matchev; Filip Moortgat; Luc Pape; Myeonghun Park

    2015-09-17

    The search for light stops is of paramount importance, both in general as a promising path to the discovery of beyond the standard model physics and more specifically as a way of evaluating the success of the naturalness paradigm. While the LHC experiments have ruled out much of the relevant parameter space, there are "stop gaps", i.e., values of sparticle masses for which existing LHC analyses have relatively little sensitivity to light stops. We point out that techniques involving on-shell constrained M_2 variables can do much to enhance sensitivity in this region and hence help close the stop gaps. We demonstrate the use of these variables for several benchmark points and describe the effect of realistic complications, such as detector effects and combinatorial backgrounds, in order to provide a useful toolkit for light stop searches in particular, and new physics searches at the LHC in general.

  8. Variability and mass loss in IA O-B-A supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schild, R. E.; Garrison, R. F.; Hiltner, W. A.

    1983-01-01

    Recently completed catalogs of MK spectral types and UBV photometry of 1227 OB stars in the southern Milky Way have been analyzed to investigate brightness and color variability among the Ia supergiants. It is found that brightness variability is common among the O9-B1 supergiants with typical amplitudes about 0.1 and time scales longer than a week and shorter than 1000 days. Among the A supergiants fluctuations in U-B color are found on similar time scales and with amplitude about 0.1. For many early Ia supergiants there is a poor correlation between Balmer jump and spectral type, as had been known previously. An attempt to correlate the Balmer jump deficiency with mass loss rate yielded uncertain results.

  9. THE MESON MASS SYSTEM PAOLO PALAZZI

    E-print Network

    and JPC , with slightly different mass units for each group. In certain groups the mass unit is spin-dependent. Also the mass units are linearly quantized, with highly structured correlation patterns. The baryon results on meson masses In several of the papers dealing with the 35 MeV/c2 mass unit, the evaluation

  10. A new line element derived from the variable rest mass in gravitational field

    E-print Network

    N. Ben-Amots

    2008-08-19

    This paper presents a new line element based on the assumption of the variable rest mass in gravitational field, and explores some its implications. This line element is not a vacuum solution of Einstein's equations, yet it is sufficiently close to Schwarzschild's line element to be compatible with all of the experimental and observational measurements made so far to confirm the three Einstein's predictions. The theory allows radiation and fast particles to escape from all massive bodies, even from those that in Einstein's general relativity framework will be black holes. The striking feature of this line element is the non-existence of black holes.

  11. Variability of local PM10 mass concentrations in connection with blocking air circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?tefan, Sabina; Roman, Iuliana

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the temporal variability of Particulate Matter mass concentrations in connection with air circulation, for eight rural sites situated in the Central and Eastern parts of Europe. The stations from Poland, Hungary and Romania are rural stations without sources of pollutants. The analysis covers four winters, between December 2004 and February 2008. The pollution episodes were selected to explain air circulation influence. The results show that the causes of pollution were local, due to high mean sea level pressure and the blocking, as air circulation on large scale, was dominant in the cases of enhanced pollution in the selected area.

  12. Southern Hemisphere water mass conversion linked with North Atlantic climate variability.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Katharina; Zahn, Rainer

    2005-03-18

    Intermediate water variability at multicentennial scales is documented by 340,000-year-long isotope time series from bottom-dwelling foraminifers at a mid-depth core site in the southwest Pacific. Periods of sudden increases in intermediate water production are linked with transient Southern Hemisphere warm episodes, which implies direct control of climate warming on intermediate water conversion at high southern latitudes. Coincidence with episodes of climate cooling and minimum or halted deepwater convection in the North Atlantic provides striking evidence for interdependence of water mass conversion in both hemispheres, with implications for interhemispheric forcing of ocean thermohaline circulation and climate instability. PMID:15774752

  13. Fractal variability: An emergent property of complex dissipative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seely, Andrew J. E.; Macklem, Peter

    2012-03-01

    The patterns of variation of physiologic parameters, such as heart and respiratory rate, and their alteration with age and illness have long been under investigation; however, the origin and significance of scale-invariant fractal temporal structures that characterize healthy biologic variability remain unknown. Quite independently, atmospheric and planetary scientists have led breakthroughs in the science of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, we aim to provide two novel hypotheses regarding the origin and etiology of both the degree of variability and its fractal properties. In a complex dissipative system, we hypothesize that the degree of variability reflects the adaptability of the system and is proportional to maximum work output possible divided by resting work output. Reductions in maximal work output (and oxygen consumption) or elevation in resting work output (or oxygen consumption) will thus reduce overall degree of variability. Second, we hypothesize that the fractal nature of variability is a self-organizing emergent property of complex dissipative systems, precisely because it enables the system's ability to optimally dissipate energy gradients and maximize entropy production. In physiologic terms, fractal patterns in space (e.g., fractal vasculature) or time (e.g., cardiopulmonary variability) optimize the ability to deliver oxygen and clear carbon dioxide and waste. Examples of falsifiability are discussed, along with the need to further define necessary boundary conditions. Last, as our focus is bedside utility, potential clinical applications of this understanding are briefly discussed. The hypotheses are clinically relevant and have potential widespread scientific relevance.

  14. Applications of internal translating mass technologies to smart weapons systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Jonathan

    The field of guided projectile research has continually grown over the past several decades. Guided projectiles, typically encompassing bullets, mortars, and artillery shells, incorporate some sort of guidance and control mechanism to generate trajectory alterations. This serves to increase accuracy and decrease collateral damage. Control mechanisms for smart weapons must be able to withstand extreme acceleration loads at launch while remaining simple to reduce cost and enhance reliability. Controllable internal moving masses can be incorporated into the design of smart weapons as a mechanism to directly apply control force, to actively alter static stability in flight, and to protect sensitive components within sensor packages. This dissertation examined techniques for using internal translating masses (ITM's) for smart weapon flight control. It was first shown that oscillating a mass orthogonal to the projectile axis of symmetry generates reasonable control force in statically-stable rounds. Trade studies examined the impact of mass size, mass offset from the center of gravity, and reductions in static stability on control authority. A more detailed analysis followed in which a physical internal translating mass control mechanism was designed that minimizes force and power required using a vibrating beam as the internal moving mass. Results showed that this relatively simple mechanism provides adequate control authority while requiring low on-board power. Trade studies revealed the affect of varying beam lengths, stiffness, and damping properties. Then, the topic of static margin control through mass center modification was explored. This is accomplished by translating a mass in flight along the projectile axis of symmetry. Results showed that this system allows for greater control authority and reduced throw-off error at launch. Finally, a nonlinear sliding mode controller was designed for a projectile equipped with an internal moving mass as well as for a projectile equipped with both an ITM and canard control mechanisms. Monte Carlo simulations that incorporated realistic uncertainty demonstrated the robust nature of the control system. These dispersion simulations examined the effect of ITM size and incorporation of a variable stability mechanism. It is shown that use of an ITM as a direct control mechanism can reduce circular error probable by nearly half, while coupling ITM control with canard control can reduce required canard area by approximately half as well. Overall, it was determined that direct ITM control generates modest control authority for practical systems. Therefore, it can be used to reduce dispersion error but not eliminate it to levels commensurate with sensor noise. Likewise, the ITM variable stability mechanism provides a limited control authority enhancement to guided projectiles controlled by other means. Thus, while the mechanism may not be useful for guided munitions that exhibit ample control authority, it provides a useful supplement to projectiles requiring slight control authority improvement.

  15. Variable Conductance Heat Pipes for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, William G.; Tarau, Calin

    2008-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the GPHS modules, to maintain the GPHS modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the Stirling engine stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, but also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) was designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling engine. A VCHP was designed for the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator, with a 850 °C heater head temperature. The VCHP turns on with a ?T of 30 °C, which is high enough to not risk standard ASRG operation but low enough to save most heater head life. This VCHP has a low mass, and low thermal losses for normal operation. In addition to the design, a proof-of-concept NaK VCHP was fabricated and tested. While NaK is normally not used in heat pipes, it has an advantage in that it is liquid at the reservoir operating temperature, while Na or K alone would freeze. The VCHP had two condensers, one simulating the heater head, and the other simulating the radiator. The experiments successfully demonstrated operation with the simulated heater head condenser off and on, while allowing the reservoir temperature to vary over 40 to 120 °C, the maximum range expected. In agreement with previous NaK heat pipe tests, the evaporator ?T was roughly 70 °C, due to distillation of the NaK in the evaporator.

  16. A VARIABLE FLOW CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION*

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important for an irrigation system to have a stable constant pressure to obtain efficient water management for crops. A simple mechanical flow control system with a pressure regulating valve was investigated for subsurface drip irrigation to maintain constant pressure under variable flow condi...

  17. Systems With Variable Composition: The Chemical Potential Chemistry 223

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    Systems With Variable Composition: The Chemical Potential Chemistry 223 David Ronis Mc or 2) by changing the composition through chemical reaction. Nonetheless, as far as state functions the composition of the system. For example, you may add compounds with different types of bonds

  18. Greenland Ice Sheet seasonal and spatial mass variability from model simulations and GRACE (2003-2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, P. M.; Tedesco, M.; Schlegel, N.-J.; Luthcke, S. B.; Fettweis, X.; Larour, E.

    2015-11-01

    Improving the ability of regional climate models (RCMs) and ice sheet models (ISMs) to simulate spatiotemporal variations in the mass of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is crucial for prediction of future sea level rise. While several studies have examined recent trends in GrIS mass loss, studies focusing on mass variations at sub-annual and sub-basin-wide scales are still lacking. Here, we examine spatiotemporal variations in mass over the GrIS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites for the 2003-2012 period using a "mascon" approach, with a nominal spatial resolution of 100 km, and a temporal resolution of 10 days. We compare GRACE-estimated mass variations against those simulated by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) RCM and the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM). In order to properly compare spatial and temporal variations in GrIS mass from GRACE with model outputs, we find it necessary to spatially and temporally filter model results to reproduce leakage of mass inherent in the GRACE solution. Both modeled and satellite-derived results point to a decline (of -179 and -240 Gt yr-1 respectively) in GrIS mass over the period examined, but the models appear to underestimate the rate of mass loss, especially in areas below 2000 m in elevation, where the majority of recent GrIS mass loss is occurring. On an ice-sheet wide scale, the timing of the modeled seasonal cycle of cumulative mass (driven by summer mass loss) agrees with the GRACE-derived seasonal cycle, within limits of uncertainty from the GRACE solution. However, on sub-ice-sheet-wide scales, there are significant differences in the timing of peaks in the annual cycle of mass change. At these scales, model biases, or unaccounted-for processes related to ice dynamics or hydrology may lead to the observed differences. This highlights the need for further evaluation of modelled processes at regional and seasonal scales, and further study of ice sheet processes not accounted for, such as the role of sub-glacial hydrology in variations in glacial flow.

  19. Modeling the Motion of an Increasing Mass System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunkel, William; Harrington, Randal

    2010-01-01

    Problems on the dynamics of changing mass systems often call for the more general form of Newton's second law Fnet = dp/dt. These problems usually involve situations where the mass of the system decreases, such as in rocket propulsion. In contrast, this experiment examines a system where the mass "increases" at a constant rate and the net force…

  20. Continuous variable tangle, monogamy inequality, and entanglement sharing in Gaussian states of continuous variable systems

    E-print Network

    Gerardo Adesso; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2006-02-02

    For continuous-variable systems, we introduce a measure of entanglement, the continuous variable tangle ({\\em contangle}), with the purpose of quantifying the distributed (shared) entanglement in multimode, multipartite Gaussian states. This is achieved by a proper convex roof extension of the squared logarithmic negativity. We prove that the contangle satisfies the Coffman-Kundu-Wootters monogamy inequality in all three--mode Gaussian states, and in all fully symmetric $N$--mode Gaussian states, for arbitrary $N$. For three--mode pure states we prove that the residual entanglement is a genuine tripartite entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication. We show that pure, symmetric three--mode Gaussian states allow a promiscuous entanglement sharing, having both maximum tripartite residual entanglement and maximum couplewise entanglement between any pair of modes. These states are thus simultaneous continuous-variable analogs of both the GHZ and the $W$ states of three qubits: in continuous-variable systems monogamy does not prevent promiscuity, and the inequivalence between different classes of maximally entangled states, holding for systems of three or more qubits, is removed.

  1. Luminous Blue Variables are Antisocial: Their Isolation Implies they are Kicked Mass Gainers in Binary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombleson, Ryan; Smith, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Based on their relatively isolated environments, we argue that luminous blue variables (LBVs) must be primarily the product of binary evolution, challenging the traditional single-star view wherein LBVs mark a brief transition between massive O-type stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. If the latter were true, then LBVs should be concentrated in young massive clusters like early O-type stars. This is decidedly not the case. Examining locations of LBVs in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds reveals that, with few exceptions, LBVs systematically avoid clusters of O-type stars. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, LBVs are statistically much more isolated than O-type stars, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even more isolated than WR stars. This makes it impossible for LBVs to be single 'massive stars in transition' to WR stars. Instead, we propose that massive stars and supernova (SN) subtypes are dominated by bifurcated evolutionary paths in interacting binaries, wherein most WR stars and SNe Ibc correspond to the mass donors, while LBVs (and their lower-mass analogs like B[e] supergiants, which are even more isolated) are the mass gainers. In this view, LBVs are evolved massive blue stragglers. Through binary mass transfer, rejuvinated mass gainers get enriched, spun up, and sometimes kicked far from their clustered birthsites by their companion's SN. This scenario agrees better with LBVs exploding as Type IIn SNe in isolation, and it predicts that many massive runaway stars may be rapid rotators. Mergers or Thorne-Zykow objects might also give rise to LBVs, but these scenarios may have a harder time explaining why LBVs avoid clusters.

  2. Seasonal variability of water masses and transport on the Antarctic continental shelf and slope in the southeastern Weddell Sea

    E-print Network

    Seasonal variability of water masses and transport on the Antarctic continental shelf and slope of water masses and transport on the Antarctic continental shelf and slope in the southeastern Weddell Sea transport of cold, fresh surface waters onto the continental shelf. Offshore, the warmer, saltier Warm Deep

  3. On the nature of the variability of the Martian thermospheric mass density: Results from electron reflectometry with Mars

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of the Martian thermospheric mass density: Results from electron reflectometry with Mars Global Surveyor, JOn the nature of the variability of the Martian thermospheric mass density: Results from electron reflectometry with Mars Global Surveyor Scott L. England1 and Robert J. Lillis1 Received 5 October 2011; revised

  4. Daily atmospheric variability in the South American monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamurthy, V.; Misra, Vasubandhu

    2011-08-01

    The space-time structure of the daily atmospheric variability in the South American monsoon system has been studied using multichannel singular spectrum analysis of daily outgoing longwave radiation. The three leading eigenmodes are found to have low-frequency variability while four other modes form higher frequency oscillations. The first mode has the same time variability as that of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and exhibits strong correlation with the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST). The second mode varies on a decadal time scale with significant correlation with the Atlantic SST suggesting an association with the Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). The third mode also has decadal variability but shows an association with the SST of the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). The fourth and fifth modes describe an oscillation that has a period of about 165 days and is associated with the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). The sixth and seventh modes describe an intraseasonal oscillation with a period of 52 days which shows strong relation with the Madden-Julian oscillation. There exists an important difference in the variability of convection between Amazon River Basin (ARB) and central-east South America (CESA). Both regions have similar variations due to ENSO though with higher magnitude in ARB. The AMO-related mode has almost identical variations in the two regions, whereas the PDO-related mode has opposite variations. The interseasonal NAO-related mode also has variations of opposite sign with comparable magnitudes in the two regions. The intraseasonal variability over the CESA is robust while it is very weak over the ARB region. The relative contributions from the low-frequency modes mainly determine the interannual variability of the seasonal mean monsoon although the interseasonal oscillation may contribute in a subtle way during certain years. The intraseasonal variability does not seem to influence the interannual variability in either region.

  5. Observations of the variability of shallow trade wind cumulus cloudiness and mass flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamer, K.; Kollias, P.; Nuijens, L.

    2015-06-01

    Two years of ground-based remote sensing observations are used to study the vertical structure of marine cumulus near the island of Barbados, including their cloud fraction and mass flux profile. Daily radar derived cloud fraction profiles peak at different height levels depending on the depth of the cumuli and thus the extent to which they precipitate. Nonprecipitating cumuli have a peak cloud fraction of about 5% near mean cloud base (700 m), whereas precipitating cumuli tend to have a peak of only 2% near cloud base. Nineteen percent of the precipitating cumuli are accompanied by large cloud fractions near the detrainment level of cumulus tops (~1700 m). Day-to-day variations in cloud fraction near cloud base are modest (~3%). Nonprecipitating cumuli have their largest reflectivities near cloud top and an ascending core surrounded by a subsiding shell. Precipitating cumuli with enhanced elevated cloudiness (stratiform outflow) are deeper and contain larger vertical gradients in reflectivity and Doppler velocity than precipitating cumuli without such outflow. Bulk (3 h) statistics reveal that nonprecipitating shallow cumuli are active and organized. They contain on average 79% in-cloud updrafts with 86% of them being organized in large coherent structures contributing to a maximum updraft mass flux of 8-36 gm-2 s-1 just above cloud base. Alternatively, downdrafts contribute insignificantly to the mass flux and show little vertical and temporal variability (0-7 gm-2 s-1). Complementary Raman lidar information suggests that updraft mass flux profile slope is inversely related to environmental relative humidity.

  6. Variability in Intermediate Water Mass Geometry in the Tropical W-Atlantic from LGM to Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggemann, D. W.; Nuernberg, D.; Hathorne, E. C.; Bruhn, I.; Reißig, S.; Frank, M.

    2014-12-01

    The oceanic intermediate depth response to periods of abrupt climatic cooling during the last deglaciation, namely the Younger Dryas (YD) and Heinrich 1 event (H1), has been the focus of several recent studies (e.g. Pahnke et al., 2008; Huang et al., 2014; Xie et al., 2014; Gebbie et al., 2014). Intermediate water dynamics, in particular the interaction between Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and North Atlantic Deepwater (NADW) during the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the Holocene and the connection with Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), however, are still debated widely. Several hypotheses suggest the short-term presence of AAIW in the subtropical Atlantic or N-Atlantic sourced intermediate water masses in the Florida Straits during deglacial cool periods when the AMOC was supposedly weak or collapsed (e.g. Xie et al., 2012). This study provides new water mass geometry information from the tropical W-Atlantic for the past 35 ka using a multiproxy approach. We analysed calcitic tests of benthic/planktonic foraminifera from various intermediate depth locations for Mg/Ca (temperature), Cdw (nutrients), ?18Osw (salinity), ?13C (ventilation), and ?Nd (water mass provenance and mixing) in order to improve our understanding of the intermediate water mass distribution and variability between 400 and 1500 m water depth on millennial time-scales. First results document the southward penetration of Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water (GNAIW) replacing the NADW during the LGM. Furthermore our data indicate a gradual shift from GNAIW influenced conditions during the LGM to AAIW dominated conditions throughout the Holocene.

  7. Parsing with logical variables (logic-based programming systems)

    SciTech Connect

    Finin, T.W.; Stone Palmer, M.

    1983-01-01

    Logic based programming systems have enjoyed an increasing popularity in applied AI work in the last few years. One of the contributions to computational linguistics made by the logic programming paradigm has been the definite clause grammar. In comparing DCGS with previous parsing mechanisms such as ATNS, certain clear advantages are seen. The authors feel that the most important of these advantages are due to the use of logical variables with unification as the fundamental operation on them. To illustrate the power of the logical variable, they have implemented an experimental atn system which treats atn registers as logical variables and provides a unification operation over them. They aim to simultaneously encourage the use of the powerful mechanisms available in DCGS and demonstrate that some of these techniques can be captured without reference to a resolution theorem prover. 14 references.

  8. Mass Uncertainty and Application For Space Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Expected development maturity under contract (spec) should correlate with Project/Program Approved MGA Depletion Schedule in Mass Properties Control Plan. If specification NTE, MGA is inclusive of Actual MGA (A5 & A6). If specification is not an NTE Actual MGA (e.g. nominal), then MGA values are reduced by A5 values and A5 is representative of remaining uncertainty. Basic Mass = Engineering Estimate based on design and construction principles with NO embedded margin MGA Mass = Basic Mass * assessed % from approved MGA schedule. Predicted Mass = Basic + MGA. Aggregate MGA % = (Aggregate Predicted - Aggregate Basic) /Aggregate Basic.

  9. Signs of Lorentz violation in electrodynamics: variable speed of light and the photon mass

    E-print Network

    R. Assumpcao

    2006-09-23

    Recent studies of spacetime anisotropy in the context of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) based on classical Michelson-Morley experiments, as well Kennedy-Thorndyke tests, pointed out the existence of terms first order in v/c and of angular signatures independent of v. This contribution replaces the Lorentz symmetry by a velocity gauge transformation following an argument centred on observability. Results show even and odd order terms and indicate that motion is always underestimated in the spatiotemporal platform. Though LLI is not recovered in exact special relativistic terms, the alternative looks compatible with the relational aspects of general relativity (GR) with variable speed of light models as well a nonzero photon mass. This raises the hypothesis that Einstein equivalence principle, and consequently LLI, is a cornerstone of GR, but not necessarily a fundamental one of SR

  10. Water mass variability in the Atlantic Subtropical Gyre reveals the mechanisms of recent Meridional Overturning changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwyn Evans, Dafydd; Toole, John; Forget, Gael; Zika, Jan; Nurser, A. George; Naveira Garabato, Alberto; Yu, Lisan

    2015-04-01

    Interannual variability in the volumetric water-mass distribution within the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (STG) is described in relation to the recent reported changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Using an Argo based gridded climatology and a high-resolution ocean state estimate (ECCO), we project the ocean into thermohaline coordinates as volumes of water defined by their temperature and salinity. We compare monthly time-series of the volumetric distribution to the volume changes implied by the water mass transformations due to air/sea fluxes of heat and freshwater over the STG, and the divergence of advective transports across the latitudinal boundaries of the STG. Coinciding with the reported AMOC changes during the winters of 2009/10 and 2010/11, in both the observations and the state estimate, the total STG volume above the thermocline decreases while the volume below increases in compensation. During the winter of 2009/10, this redistribution is equivalent to a transport of 25 Sv (1 Sv==106 m3s-1) over 3 months. A comparison to two air-sea flux re-analyses products shows that this variability cannot be explained by anomalous cooling over the STG, which suggests the volumetric redistribution is caused by changes in the transport divergence between 26 and 45°N. In ECCO, we see a reduction in the zonal circulation of the STG and divergence of transport above the thermocline. Below the thermocline we see an increase in the southward transport at 45°N and a decrease at 26°N. Using two wind-stress products, we present evidence that the observed changes are a barotropic response to anomalous wind-stress curl over the STG.

  11. Variable-Rate Lime Application for Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. Variable rate (VR) application of lime and fertilizers is one area in which significant advantages may be realized. A seri...

  12. Variable Rate Lime Application in Louisiana Sugarcane Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precision agriculture may offer sugarcane growers a management system that decreases costs and maximizes profits, while minimizing any potential negative environmental impact. The utility of variable-rate (VR) lime application in the initial production year (plant cane) of a 3-yr sugarcane crop cyc...

  13. Field Assessment of A Variable-rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several experiments were conducted to evaluate the system response of a variable-rate aerial application controller to changing flow rates. The research is collaboration between the USDA, ARS, APTRU and Houma Avionics, USA, manufacturer of a widely used flow controller designed for agricultural airc...

  14. Performance evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) for center pivots offers potential to match specific application rates to non-uniform soil conditions along the length of the lateral. The benefit of such systems is influenced by the areal extent of these variations and the smallest scale to which the irrigation syste...

  15. Secular dynamics in hierarchical three-body systems with mass loss and mass transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2014-10-20

    Recent studies have shown that secular evolution of triple systems can play a major role in the evolution and interaction of their inner binaries. Very few studies explored the stellar evolution of triple systems, and in particular the mass-loss phase of the evolving stellar components. Here we study the dynamical secular evolution of hierarchical triple systems undergoing mass loss. We use the secular evolution equations and include the effects of mass loss and mass transfer, as well as general relativistic effects. We present various evolutionary channels taking place in such evolving triples, and discuss both the effects of mass loss and mass transfer in the inner binary system, as well as the effects of mass loss/transfer from an outer third companion. We discuss several distinct types/regimes of triple secular evolution, where the specific behavior of a triple system can sensitively depend on its hierarchy and the relative importance of classical and general relativistic effects. We show that the orbital changes due to mass-loss and/or mass-transfer processes can effectively transfer a triple system from one dynamical regime to another. In particular, mass loss/transfer can both induce and quench high-amplitude (Lidov-Kozai) variations in the eccentricity and inclination of the inner binaries of evolving triples. They can also change the system dynamics from an orderly periodic behavior to a chaotic one, and vice versa.

  16. Mass spectrometric investigation of molecular variability of grass pollen group 1 allergens.

    PubMed

    Fenaille, François; Nony, Emmanuel; Chabre, Henri; Lautrette, Aurélie; Couret, Marie-Noëlle; Batard, Thierry; Moingeon, Philippe; Ezan, Eric

    2009-08-01

    Natural grass pollen allergens exhibit a wide variety of isoforms. Precise characterization of such microheterogeneity is essential to improve diagnosis and design appropriate immunotherapies. Moreover, standardization of allergen vaccine production is a prerequisite for product safety and efficiency. Both qualitative and quantitative analytical methods are thus required to monitor and control the huge natural variability of pollens, as well as final product quality. A proteomic approach has been set up to investigate in depth the structural variability of five group 1 allergens originating from distinct grass species (Ant o 1, Dac g 1, Lol p 1, Phl p 1, and Poa p 1). Whereas group 1 is the most conserved grass pollen allergen, great variations were shown between the various isoforms found in these five species using mass spectrometry, with many amino acid exchanges, as well as variations in proline hydroxylation level and in main N-glycan motifs. The presence of O-linked pentose residues was also demonstrated, with up to three consecutive units on the first hydroxyproline of Ant o 1. In addition, species-specific peptides were identified that might be used for product authentication or individual allergen quantification. Lastly, natural or process-induced modifications (deamidation, oxidation, glycation) were evidenced, which might constitute useful indicators of product degradation. PMID:19572759

  17. Factorial Experimental Designs Elucidate Significant Variables Affecting Data Acquisition on a Quadrupole Orbitrap Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Shan M.; Cardasis, Helene L.; Muddiman, David C.

    2013-10-01

    Instrument parameter values for a quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometer were optimized for performing global proteomic analyses. Fourteen factors were evaluated for their influence on data-dependent acquisition with an emphasis on both the rate of sequencing and spectral quality by maximizing two individually tested response variables (unique peptides and protein groups). Of the 14 factors, 12 factors were assigned significant contrast values ( P < 0.05) for both response variables. Fundamentally, when optimizing parameters, a balance between spectral quality and duty cycle needs to be reached in order to maximize proteome coverage. This is especially true when using a data-dependent approach for sequencing complex proteomes. For example, maximum ion injection time, automatic gain control settings, and minimum threshold settings for triggering MS/MS isolation and activation all heavily influence ion signal, the number of spectra collected, and spectral quality. To better assess the effect these parameters have on data acquisition, all MS/MS data were parsed according to ion abundance by calculating the percent of the AGC target reached for each MS/MS event and then compared with successful peptide-spectrum matches. This proved to be an effective approach for understanding the effect of ion abundance on successful peptide-spectrum matches and establishing minimum ion abundance thresholds for triggering MS/MS isolation and activation.

  18. Time-Variable Gravity Signal Due to Extratropic Pacific Water Mass Redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.; Au, A. Y.; Cox, C. M.

    2002-01-01

    Cox and Chao [2002] reported the detection of a large anomaly in the form of a positive "jump" in the time series of Earth's lowest-degree gravity harmonic J2, or the dynamic oblateness, during 1998. This prompted us to examine the mass redistribution in the global oceans. We report here a seesaw of the sea-surface height (SSH) in the extratropic north + south Pacific basins -- the leading (nonseasonal) EOF/PC mode in SSH derived from the 10-year TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry data in the extratropic Pacific region. The mode underwent a step-like jump with time evolution that match remarkably well with the observed J2 anomaly. However, the magnitude is several times too small to explain the observed J2, even if assuming the SSH jump was all mass-induced (as opposed to any steric effect which causes no time-variable gravity signal). If one accepts the notion that this extratropic Pacific seesaw is part of the geophysical process that produced the observed 1998 J2 anomaly, then this finding suggests strong geophysical connection of the interannual-to-decadal variation of J2 with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), as the time series of the above EOF/PC mode is actually a formally defined PDO Index series.

  19. A Black Hole Mass-Variability Timescale Correlation at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bower, Geoffrey C.; Dexter, Jason; Markoff, Sera; Gurwell, Mark A.; Rao, Ramprasad; McHardy, Ian

    2015-09-01

    We analyze the light curves of 413 radio sources at submillimeter wavelengths using data from the Submillimeter Array calibrator database. The database includes more than 20,000 observations at 1.3 and 0.8 mm that span 13 years. We model the light curves as a damped random walk and determine a characteristic timescale ? at which the variability amplitude saturates. For the vast majority of sources, primarily blazars and BL Lac objects, we find only lower limits on ?. For two nearby low-luminosity active galactic nuclei, M81 and M87, however, we measure ? ={1.6}-0.9+3.0 {days} and ? ={45}-24+61 {days}, respectively (2? errors). Including the previously measured ? =0.33+/- 0.16 {days} for Sgr A*, we show an approximately linear correlation between ? and black hole mass for these nearby low-luminosity AGNs (LLAGNs). Other LLAGNs with spectra that peak in the submillimeter are expected to follow this correlation. These characteristic timescales are comparable to the minimum timescale for emission processes close to an event horizon and suggest that the underlying physics may be independent of black hole mass, accretion rate, and jet luminosity.

  20. Annual and interannual variability of the Barents Sea water masses and polar front: 1980-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oziel, Laurent; Sirven, Jerome; Gascard, Jean-Claude

    2015-04-01

    The Barents Sea (BS) is a transition area between the warm and saline Atlantic Waters (AW) and the cold and fresh Arctic Waters (ArW). The BS is characterized by a polar front structure separating AW from ArW. The mixing and cooling of these two water mass generates dense waters in winter. Dense waters are of prior importance because they cascade into the Arctic Ocean to form the Artic Intermediate Waters. This study will use a new hydrographic data set fulfilled by recent stations in the Russian area and a 3D model coupled with atmosphere and ice as a back up to investigate the link between fronts and water masses, as well as their variability over the last 30 years. This study suggests that the polar front structure is composed of two branches and that the dense waters are found in between. The BS, especially in the East, is experiencing an "Atlantification" accompanied with a drastic sea ice decline. These changes, amplified during the last decade, shift the southern branch of the polar front structure in the Norh-East direction and affect negatively the dense water formation. This could have major impacts on the Arctic Ocean ventilation and primary production.

  1. Direct measurement of sub-surface mass change using the variable-baseline gravity gradient method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Jeffrey; Ferré, Ty P. A.; Güntner, Andreas; Abe, Maiko; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Time-lapse gravity data provide a direct, non-destructive method to monitor mass changes at scales from cm to km. But, the effectively infinite spatial sensitivity of gravity measurements can make it difficult to isolate the signal of interest. The variable-baseline gravity gradient method, based on the difference of measurements between two gravimeters, is an alternative to the conventional approach of individually modeling all sources of mass and elevation change. This approach can improve the signal-to-noise ratio for many applications by removing the contributions of Earth tides, loading, and other signals that have the same effect on both gravimeters. At the same time, this approach can focus the support volume within a relatively small user-defined region of the subsurface. The method is demonstrated using paired superconducting gravimeters to make for the first time a large-scale, non-invasive measurement of infiltration wetting front velocity and change in water content above the wetting front.

  2. Nutrient characteristics of the water masses and their seasonal variability in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Sardessai, S; Shetye, Suhas; Maya, M V; Mangala, K R; Prasanna Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Nutrient characteristics of four water masses in the light of their thermohaline properties are examined in the eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean during winter, spring and summer monsoon. The presence of low salinity water mass with "Surface enrichments" of inorganic nutrients was observed relative to 20 m in the mixed layer. Lowest oxygen levels of 19 microM at 3 degrees N in the euphotic zone indicate mixing of low oxygen high salinity Arabian Sea waters with the equatorial Indian Ocean. The seasonal variability of nutrients was regulated by seasonally varying physical processes like thermocline elevation, meridional and zonal transport, the equatorial undercurrent and biological processes of uptake and remineralization. Circulation of Arabian Sea high salinity waters with nitrate deficit could also be seen from low N/P ratio with a minimum of 8.9 in spring and a maximum of 13.6 in winter. This large deviation from Redfield N/P ratio indicates the presence of denitrified high salinity waters with a seasonal nitrate deficit ranging from -4.85 to 1.52 in the Eastern Equatorial Indian Ocean. PMID:20547419

  3. Constraining aerosol optical models using ground-based, collocated particle size and mass measurements in variable air mass regimes during the 7-SEAS/Dongsha experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2013-10-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment (? = 550 nm) for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulfate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Achieving full optical closure is hampered by limitations in accounting for the role of water vapor in the system, uncertainties in the instruments and the need for further knowledge in the source apportionment of the model's major chemical components. Nonetheless, our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulfate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an important link for advancing remote sensing and climate research studies in dynamic aerosol-rich environments like Dongsha.

  4. Synchronization between variable time delayed systems and cryptography

    E-print Network

    Dibakar Ghosh; Santo Banerjee; A. Roy Chowdhury

    2008-02-06

    In this letter we consider a prototype model which is described as an autonomous continuous time delayed differential equation with just one variable. The chaos has been investigated with variable delay time and the synchronization phenomenon is examined both numerically and analytically using the Krasovskii-Lyapunov functions. We have applied adaptive coupling law for synchronization,where the coupling equation also contains delay with modulated time. We also studied the effect of cryptography for this coupled system and the message extraction procedure is illustrated with the help of simulated results.

  5. Variable stiffness and damping suspension system for train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuaishuai; Deng, Huaxia; Li, Weihua

    2014-03-01

    As the vibration of high speed train becomes fierce when the train runs at high speed, it is crucial to develop a novel suspension system to negotiate train's vibration. This paper presents a novel suspension based on Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) damper and MRF based smart air spring. The MRF damper is used to generate variable damping while the smart air spring is used to generate field-dependent stiffness. In this paper, the two kind smart devices, MRF dampers and smart air spring, are developed firstly. Then the dynamic performances of these two devices are tested by MTS. Based on the testing results, the two devices are equipped to a high speed train which is built in ADAMS. The skyhook control algorithm is employed to control the novel suspension. In order to compare the vibration suppression capability of the novel suspension with other kind suspensions, three other different suspension systems are also considered and simulated in this paper. The other three kind suspensions are variable damping with fixed stiffness suspension, variable stiffness with fixed damping suspension and passive suspension. The simulation results indicate that the variable damping and stiffness suspension suppresses the vibration of high speed train better than the other three suspension systems.

  6. Development and characterization of a variable turbulence generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, A.; Venkateswaran, P.; Noble, D.; Seitzman, J.; Lieuwen, T.

    2011-09-01

    Experimental turbulent combustion studies require systems that can simulate the turbulence intensities [ u'/ U 0 ~ 20-30% (Koutmos and McGuirk in Exp Fluids 7(5):344-354, 1989)] and operating conditions of real systems. Furthermore, it is important to have systems where turbulence intensity can be varied independently of mean flow velocity, as quantities such as turbulent flame speed and turbulent flame brush thickness exhibit complex and not yet fully understood dependencies upon both U 0 and u'. Finally, high pressure operation in a highly pre-heated environment requires systems that can be sealed, withstand high gas temperatures, and have remotely variable turbulence intensity that does not require system shut down and disassembly. This paper describes the development and characterization of a variable turbulence generation system for turbulent combustion studies. The system is capable of a wide range of turbulence intensities (10-30%) and turbulent Reynolds numbers (140-2,200) over a range of flow velocities. An important aspect of this system is the ability to vary the turbulence intensity remotely, without changing the mean flow velocity. This system is similar to the turbulence generators described by Videto and Santavicca (Combust Sci Technol 76(1):159-164, 1991) and Coppola and Gomez (Exp Therm Fluid Sci 33(7):1037-1048, 2009), where variable blockage ratio slots are located upstream of a contoured nozzle. Vortical structures from the slots impinge on the walls of the contoured nozzle to produce fine-scale turbulence. The flow field was characterized for two nozzle diameters using three-component Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and hotwire anemometry for mean flow velocities from 4 to 50 m/s. This paper describes the key design features of the system, as well as the variation of mean and RMS velocity, integral length scales, and spectra with nozzle diameter, flow velocity, and turbulence generator blockage ratio.

  7. Earth System Science Education Centered on Natural Climate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, P. C.; Ladochy, S.; Patzert, W. C.; Willis, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    Several new courses and many educational activities related to climate change are available to teachers and students of all grade levels. However, not all new discoveries in climate research have reached the science education community. In particular, effective learning tools explaining natural climate change are scarce. For example, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a main cause of natural climate variability spanning decades. While most educators are familiar with the shorter-temporal events impacting climate, El Niño and La Niña, very little has trickled into the climate change curriculum on the PDO. We have developed two online educational modules, using an Earth system science approach, on the PDO and its role in climate change and variability. The first concentrates on the discovery of the PDO through records of salmon catch in the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. We present the connection between salmon abundance in the North Pacific to changing sea surface temperature patterns associated with the PDO. The connection between sea surface temperatures and salmon abundance led to the discovery of the PDO. Our activity also lets students explore the role of salmon in the economy and culture of the Pacific Northwest and Alaska and the environmental requirements for salmon survival. The second module is based on the climate of southern California and how changes in the Pacific Ocean , such as the PDO and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation), influence regional climate variability. PDO and ENSO signals are evident in the long-term temperature and precipitation record of southern California. Students are guided in the module to discover the relationships between Pacific Ocean conditions and southern California climate variability. The module also provides information establishing the relationship between climate change and variability and the state's water, energy, agriculture, wildfires and forestry, air quality and health issues. Both modules will be reviewed for inclusion on the ESSEA (Earth Systems Science Education Alliance) course module list. ESSEA is a NSF-funded organization dedicated to K-12 online Earth system science education.

  8. Confirmation of mass-independent Ni isotopic variability in iron meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Robert C. J.; Elliott, Tim; Coath, Christopher D.; Regelous, Marcel

    2011-12-01

    We report high-precision analyses of internally-normalised Ni isotope ratios in 12 bulk iron meteorites. Our measurements of 60Ni/ 61Ni, 62Ni/ 61Ni and 64Ni/ 61Ni normalised to 58Ni/ 61Ni and expressed in parts per ten thousand (?) relative to NIST SRM 986 as ?60Ni,?62Ni and ?64Ni, vary by 0.146, 0.228 and 0.687, respectively. The precision on a typical analysis is 0.03?, 0.05? and 0.08? for ?60Ni, ?62Ni and ?64Ni, respectively, which is comparable to our sample reproducibility. We show that this 'mass-independent' Ni isotope variability cannot be ascribed to interferences, inaccurate correction of instrumental or natural mass-dependent fractionation, fractionation controlled by nuclear field shift effects, nor the influence of cosmic ray spallation. These results thus document the presence of mass-independent Ni isotopic heterogeneity in bulk meteoritic samples, as previously proposed by Regelous et al. (2008) (EPSL 272, 330-338), but our new analyses are more precise and include determination of 64Ni. Intriguingly, we find that terrestrial materials do not yield homogenous internally-normalised Ni isotope compositions, which, as pointed out by Young et al. (2002) (GCA 66, 1095-1104), may be the expected result of using the exponential (kinetic) law and atomic masses to normalise all fractionation processes. The certified Ni isotope reference material NIST SRM 986 defines zero in this study, while appropriate ratios for the bulk silicate Earth are given by the peridotites JP-1 and DTS-2 and, relative to NIST SRM 986, yield deviations in ?60Ni, ?62Ni and ?64Ni of -0.006?, 0.036? and 0.119?, respectively. There is a strong positive correlation between ?64Ni and ?62Ni in iron meteorites analyses, with a slope of 3.03 ± 0.71. The variations of Ni isotope anomalies in iron meteorites are consistent with heterogeneous distribution of a nucleosynthetic component from a type Ia supernova into the proto-solar nebula.

  9. Analysis of X-ray spectral variability and black hole mass determination of the NLS1 galaxy Mrk 766

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacchè, S.; Gilli, R.; Titarchuk, L.

    2014-02-01

    We present an XMM-Newton time-resolved spectral analysis of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 766. We analysed eight available observations taken between May 2000 and June 2005 with the EPIC-pn camera in order to investigate the X-ray spectral variability produced by changes in the mass accretion rate. The 0.2 - 10 keV spectra are extracted in time bins longer than 3 ks to have at least 3 × 104 net counts in each bin and then accurately trace the variations of the best-fit parameters of our adopted Comptonization spectral model. We tested a bulk-motion Comptonization (BMC) model which is in general applicable to any physical system powered by accretion onto a compact object, and assumes that soft seed photons are efficiently up-scattered via inverse Compton scattering in a hot and dense electron corona. The Comptonized spectrum has a characteristic power law shape, whose slope was found to increase for large values of the normalization of the seed component, which is proportional to the mass accretion rate ? (in Eddington units). Our baseline spectral model also includes a warm absorber lying on the line of sight and radiation reprocessing from the accretion disc or from outflowing matter in proximity to the central compact object. Our study reveals that the normalization-slope correlation, observed in Galactic black hole sources (GBHs), also holds for Mrk 766: variations of the photon index in the range ? ~ 1.9-2.4 are indeed likely to be related to the variations of ?, as observed in X-ray binary systems. We finally applied a scaling technique based on the observed correlation to estimate the BH mass in Mrk 766. This technique is commonly and successfully applied to measure masses of GBHs, and this is the first time it has been applied in detail to estimate the BH mass in an AGN. We obtained a value of MBH = 1.26-0.77+1.00×106 M?, which is in very good agreement with that estimated by the reverberation mapping. Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Analysis of X-ray spectral variability and black hole mass determination of the NLS1 galaxy Mrk 766

    E-print Network

    Giacche`, S; Titarchuk, L

    2013-01-01

    We present an XMM-Newton time-resolved spectral analysis of the NLS1 galaxy Mrk 766. We analyse eight available observations of the EPIC-pn camera taken between May 2000 and June 2005 to investigate the X-ray spectral variability as produced by changes in the mass accretion rate. The 0.2-10 keV spectra are extracted in time bins longer than 3 ks to accurately trace the variations of the best fit parameters of our adopted Comptonisation spectral model. We test a bulk-motion Comptonisation (BMC) model which is in general applicable to any physical system powered by accretion onto a compact object, and assumes that soft seed photons are efficiently up-scattered via inverse Compton scattering in a hot and dense electron corona. The Comptonised spectrum has a characteristic power-law shape, whose slope was found to increase for large values of the normalisation of the seed component, that is proportional to the mass accretion rate (in Eddington units). Our baseline spectral model also includes a warm absorber lyin...

  11. Parsing interindividual drug variability: an emerging role for systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Richard M; Park, B Kevin; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2015-01-01

    There is notable interindividual heterogeneity in drug response, affecting both drug efficacy and toxicity, resulting in patient harm and the inefficient utilization of limited healthcare resources. Pharmacogenomics is at the forefront of research to understand interindividual drug response variability, but although many genotype-drug response associations have been identified, translation of pharmacogenomic associations into clinical practice has been hampered by inconsistent findings and inadequate predictive values. These limitations are in part due to the complex interplay between drug-specific, human body and environmental factors influencing drug response and therefore pharmacogenomics, whilst intrinsically necessary, is by itself unlikely to adequately parse drug variability. The emergent, interdisciplinary and rapidly developing field of systems pharmacology, which incorporates but goes beyond pharmacogenomics, holds significant potential to further parse interindividual drug variability. Systems pharmacology broadly encompasses two distinct research efforts, pharmacologically-orientated systems biology and pharmacometrics. Pharmacologically-orientated systems biology utilizes high throughput omics technologies, including next-generation sequencing, transcriptomics and proteomics, to identify factors associated with differential drug response within the different levels of biological organization in the hierarchical human body. Increasingly complex pharmacometric models are being developed that quantitatively integrate factors associated with drug response. Although distinct, these research areas complement one another and continual development can be facilitated by iterating between dynamic experimental and computational findings. Ultimately, quantitative data-derived models of sufficient detail will be required to help realize the goal of precision medicine. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2015, 7:221–241. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1302 PMID:25950758

  12. Dramatic variability of the carbonate system of the coastal ocean is regulated by physical and biogeochemical processes on multiple timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Z. I.; Hunt, D.

    2013-12-01

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments with potentially dramatic implications for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, at the same time there is substantial spatial and temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already exceed long term projected pH changes, suggesting that short-term variability is an important layer of complexity on top of long term acidification. Thus, in order to develop predictions of future climate change impacts including ocean acidification, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and variability of the marine CO2 system and the mechanisms responsible for this variability. Here we examine pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) variability at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year in a dynamic coastal marine system to quantify variability of the carbon system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variability of the carbon system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency variability (hours to days) is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides) and stochastic events (e.g. storms). Both annual variability (~0.3 units) and diurnal variability (~0.1 units) in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to long term projections associated with increasing atmospheric CO2 and their drivers highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system (and not just pH). Short term variability of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and complexity, including extreme values, on top of long term trends in ocean acidification.

  13. The Research about the Derivation and the Applicability of the Aircraft Four Control Variables Point Mass Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imado, Fumiaki; Heike, Yuki; Kinoshita, Takuya

    A new point mass model of the air vehicle has been developed in our laboratory. This model employs angle-of-attack, side slip angle, bank angle and thrust, as four control variables. The existent three control variables point mass model cannot introduce the winds and active side slip angle control, while this new model can introduce them. This paper explains about the model at first. The model is applied to the YF-16 aircraft and simulations are conducted for two maneuvers as typical examples, which show the effectiveness and the preciseness of this model.

  14. Managing variability in the IO performance of petascale storage systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Matthew; Zheng, Fang; Klasky, Scott; Schwan, Karsten; Oldfield, Ron A.; Lofstead, Gerald Fredrick, II; Liu, Qing; Kordenbrock, Todd

    2010-11-01

    Significant challenges exist for achieving peak or even consistent levels of performance when using IO systems at scale. They stem from sharing IO system resources across the processes of single large-scale applications and/or multiple simultaneous programs causing internal and external interference, which in turn, causes substantial reductions in IO performance. This paper presents interference effects measurements for two different file systems at multiple supercomputing sites. These measurements motivate developing a 'managed' IO approach using adaptive algorithms varying the IO system workload based on current levels and use areas. An implementation of these methods deployed for the shared, general scratch storage system on Oak Ridge National Laboratory machines achieves higher overall performance and less variability in both a typical usage environment and with artificially introduced levels of 'noise'. The latter serving to clearly delineate and illustrate potential problems arising from shared system usage and the advantages derived from actively managing it.

  15. Effect of variable body mass on plantar foot pressure and off-loading device efficacy.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Kelly; McGuire, James; Meyr, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    An increasing body of evidence has implicated obesity as having a negative effect on the development, treatment, and outcome of lower extremity pathologic entities, including diabetic foot disease. The objective of the present study was to increase the body of knowledge with respect to the effects of obesity on foot function. Specifically, we attempted to (1) describe the relationship between an increasing body mass index (BMI) on plantar foot pressures during gait, and (2) evaluate the efficacy of commonly prescribed off-loading devices with an increasing BMI. A repeated measures design was used to compare the peak plantar foot pressures under multiple test conditions, with the volunteers acting as their own controls. The primary outcome measure was the mean peak plantar pressure in the heel, midfoot, forefoot, and first metatarsal, and the 2 variables were modification of patient weight (from "normal" BMI to "overweight," "obese," and "morbidly obese") and footwear (from an athletic sneaker to a surgical shoe, controlled ankle motion walker, and total contact cast). Statistically significant increases in the peak plantar pressures were observed with increasing volunteer BMI weight class, regardless of the off-loading device used. The present investigation has provided unique and specific data with respect to the changes that occur in the peak plantar pressures with variable BMIs across different anatomic levels and with commonly used off-loading devices. From our results, we have concluded that although the plantar pressures increase with increasing weight, it appears that at least some reduction in pressure can be achieved with an off-loading device, most effectively with the total contact cast, regardless of the patient's BMI. PMID:24735742

  16. Electron mass shift in nonthermal systems

    E-print Network

    Peter L Hagelstein; Irfan U Chaudhary

    2008-01-24

    The electron mass is known to be sensitive to local fluctuations in the electromagnetic field, and undergoes a small shift in a thermal field. It was claimed recently that a very large electron mass shift should be expected near the surface of a metal hydride [{\\it Eur. Phys. J. C}, {\\bf 46} 107 (2006)]. We examine the shift using a formulation based on the Coulomb gauge, which leads to a much smaller shift. The maximization of the electron mass shift under nonequilibrium conditions seems nonetheless to be an interesting problem. We consider a scheme in which a current in a hollow wire produces a large vector potential in the wire center. Fluctuations in an LC circuit with nearly matched loss and gain can produce large current fluctuations; and these can increase the electron mass shift by orders of magnitude over its room temperature value.

  17. Effect of environmental variables on body size evolution of crinoids between periods of mass extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jani, T.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2013-12-01

    Body size plays a major role in determining whether or not an organism can sustain in its local environment. The ecosystem of an animal has a major effect on the fitness of organisms, and it would be interesting to note the degree to which various environmental factors alter body size. In my project, I identify three environmental factors that seem to affect body size of crinoids, marine invertebrates from phylum Echinodermata, and explore how these variables play out in the intervals between the five mass extinctions. The particular factors I study include atmospheric CO2 concentration (proxy for temperature), O2 concentration, and sea level. Although the r and p values for all of these factors were statistically insignificant to definitively make any correlation, there was a visual correlation. For O2, I noted a generally positive correlation with body size over time. CO2 trends suggested a negative correlation until the K-T boundary, but a positive correlation afterwards. Correlation with sea level was a little more complicated: correlation was positive from the start of the Phanerozoic to the Permian extinction; it turned negative until the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; afterwards, it again became positive. However, for all three variables, statistical values are too low to say definitively mark any correlation. Out of all three factors, CO2 levels had the highest correlation and lowest p-values in the most time intervals: from the start of the Phanerozoic to Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, from the Late Devonian to the Permian Extinction, and from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary to the present. When considering first differences, CO2 levels also had the highest correlation from the Permian Extinction to Triassic-Jurassic Extinction and from the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction to Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Using PaleoTS, I found that body size evolution patterns either seemed to follow either an unbiased random walk (URW) or stasis in the intervals between mass extinctions. Put together, these results suggest that environmental factors may have an effect of body size, but it may be the consequence of several environmental factors in conjunction. That is a correlation between body size and an individual environmental factor is hard to determine, but several biotic and abiotic factors may work interdependently to alter body size of crinoids.

  18. Mediastinal masses: a system for diagnosis based on computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Feigin, D.S.; Padua, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    A revised system for mediastinal mass differentiation has been developed and used at the Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, and University Hospital of the University of California, San Diego. Contrast medium infusion or bolus computed tomography of the entire mediastinum is obtained, except when the mass is probably a thyroid mass (123I scan then obtained first) or an esophageal mass (barium swallow evaluation then obtained first). Next computed tomography density is determined, and only subsequently are masses of similar density subdivided by location. Further differentiation is based on computed tomography imaging parameters. A new algorithm for evaluation of mediastinal masses has resulted from use of this system. The system has been shown to increase specificity of differential diagnosis and to result in increased efficiency of evaluation of patients with mediastinal masses.

  19. Quantification and scaling of multipartite entanglement in continuous variable systems.

    PubMed

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-11-26

    We present a theoretical method to determine the multipartite entanglement between different partitions of multimode, fully or partially symmetric Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For such states, we determine the exact expression of the logarithmic negativity and show that it coincides with that of equivalent two-mode Gaussian states. Exploiting this reduction, we demonstrate the scaling of the multipartite entanglement with the number of modes and its reliable experimental estimate by direct measurements of the global and local purities. PMID:15601075

  20. Detection of bound entanglement in continuous-variable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Chengjie; Nha, Hyunchul; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo Guangcan

    2010-09-15

    We present several entanglement conditions in order to detect bound entangled states in continuous-variable systems. Specifically, Werner and Wolf [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3658 (2001)] and Horodecki and Lewenstein [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2657 (2000)] have proposed examples of a bound entangled Gaussian state and a bound entangled non-Gaussian state, respectively, of which entanglement can be detected by using our entanglement conditions.

  1. Time-variable ice mass redistribution and consequences for solid Earth geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivins, E. R.; Wu, X.; James, T. S.

    2009-05-01

    Long wavelength gravity changes associated with imbalance of the cryosphere and other interannual and secular processes are now being mapped from space using GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) mission data. The gravity changes are supplemented by constraints that come from bounds on Earth rotation and the drift between the Earth's center-of-mass and center-of-figure. Although the main features of northern hemispheric post-glacial rebound are clearly recovered from GRACE, there is much to be gained from improving the modeled hydrology and ocean tides. In addition, a great deal of uncertainty exists in the forward ice models that are responsible for driving predictions of the present-day signatures arising from viscoelastic relaxation of the Earth's mantle. There is a link between the uncertainties associated with glacial isostasy and the extraction of present-day ice mass changes in Greenland, the Devon Ice Cap and land ice of Canada's Arctic archipelago from space-borne gravity observations. For example, model gravity changes associated with the long-wavelength components of the collapse of the Laurentide forebulge have far greater uncertainty in the northeastern Canadian Arctic archipelago than south of Hudson Bay. This spatially variable uncertainty can now be quantified with increasing confidence, in part, due to constraints that come from tide gauge and GPS measurements. Here we examine and discuss the implications of uncertainties in the timing and size of ice sheet collapse in eastern Canada and we quantify the errors caused in estimating ice loss in Greenland and the Canadian Arctic. The uncertainty is a sensitive function of ice dome size, location, collapse history, lithospheric thickness and mantle viscosity structure.

  2. 2MASS J17112318-2724315: A DEEPLY EMBEDDED LOW-MASS PROTOSTELLAR SYSTEM IN THE B59 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Riaz, B.; Martin, E. L.; Bouy, H.; Tata, R.

    2009-08-01

    We present near-infrared observations of the low-mass deeply embedded Class 0/I system 2MASS J17112318-2724315 (2M171123) in the B59 molecular cloud. Bright scattered light nebulosity is observed toward this source in the K{sub s} images, that seems to trace the edges of an outflow cavity. We report the detection of a low-luminosity protostar 2M17112255-27243448 (2M17112255) that lies {approx}8'' ({approx}1000 AU) from 2M171123. This is a Class I system, as indicated by its 2-8 {mu}m slope and Infrared Array Camera colors, with an estimated internal luminosity of {approx}0.3 L{sub sun}. We estimate a mass of {approx}0.12-0.25 M{sub sun} for this source, at an age of 0.1-1 Myr. Also presented is detailed modeling of the 2M171123 system. The best-fit parameters indicate a large envelope density of the order of {approx}10{sup -13} g cm{sup -3}, and an intermediate inclination between 53 deg. and 59 deg. The observed K{sub s} -band variability for this system could be explained by slight variability in the mass infall rate between 2.5E-5 and 1.8E-5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. The protostar 2M171123 exhibits a rarely observed absorption feature near 11.3 {mu}m within its 10 {mu}m silicate band. We find a strong correlation between the strength in this 11.3 {mu}m 'edge' and the H{sub 2}O-ice column density, indicating the origin of this feature in the thickness of the ice mantle over the silicate grains.

  3. Performance of Thermal Mass Flow Meters in a Variable Gravitational Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, John E.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2004-01-01

    The performance of five thermal mass flow meters, MKS Instruments 179A and 258C, Unit Instruments UFM-8100, Sierra Instruments 830L, and Hastings Instruments HFM-200, were tested on the KC-135 Reduced Gravity Aircraft in orthogonal, coparallel, and counterparallel orientations relative to gravity. Data was taken throughout the parabolic trajectory where the g-level varied from 0.01 to 1.8 times normal gravity. Each meter was calibrated in normal gravity in the orthogonal position prior to flight followed by ground testing at seven different flow conditions to establish a baseline operation. During the tests, the actual flow rate was measured independently using choked-flow orifices. Gravitational acceleration and attitude had a unique effect on the performance of each meter. All meters operated within acceptable limits at all gravity levels in the calibrated orthogonal position. However, when operated in other orientations, the deviations from the reference flow became substantial for several of the flow meters. Data analysis indicated that the greatest source of error was the effect of orientation, followed by the gravity level. This work emphasized that when operating thermal flow meters in a variable gravity environment, it is critical to orient the meter in the same direction relative to gravity in which it was calibrated. Unfortunately, there was no test in normal gravity that could predict the performance of a meter in reduced gravity. When operating in reduced gravity, all meters indicated within 5 percent of the full scale reading at all flow conditions and orientations.

  4. Dynamical masses of a nova-like variable on the edge of the period gap

    E-print Network

    Rodríguez-Gil, P; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, B T; Steeghs, D; Long, K S; Martínez-Pais, I G; Padilla, M Armas; Schwarz, R; Schreiber, M R; Torres, M A P; Koester, D; Dhillon, V S; Castellano, J; Rodríguez, D

    2015-01-01

    We present the first dynamical determination of the binary parameters of an eclipsing SW Sextantis star in the 3-4 hour orbital period range during a low state. We obtained time-resolved optical spectroscopy and photometry of HS 0220+0603 during its 2004-2005 low brightness state, as revealed in the combined SMARTS, IAC80 and M1 Group long-term optical light curve. The optical spectra taken during primary eclipse reveal a secondary star spectral type of M5.5 $\\pm$ 0.5 as derived from molecular band-head indices. The spectra also provide the first detection of a DAB white dwarf in a cataclysmic variable. By modelling its optical spectrum we estimate a white dwarf temperature of 30000 $\\pm$ 5000 K. By combining the results of modelling the white dwarf eclipse from ULTRACAM light curves with those obtained by simultaneously fitting the emission- and absorption-line radial velocity curves and I-band ellipsoidal light curves, we measure the stellar masses to be M$_1 = 0.87 \\pm 0.09$ M$_\\odot$ and M$_2 = 0.47 \\pm 0...

  5. Quantifying Interannual Variability for Photovoltaic Systems in PVWatts

    SciTech Connect

    Ryberg, David Severin; Freeman, Janine; Blair, Nate

    2015-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) PVWatts is a relatively simple tool used by industry and individuals alike to easily estimate the amount of energy a photovoltaic (PV) system will produce throughout the course of a typical year. PVWatts Version 5 has previously been shown to be able to reasonably represent an operating system's output when provided with concurrent weather data, however this type of data is not available when estimating system output during future time frames. For this purpose PVWatts uses weather data from typical meteorological year (TMY) datasets which are available on the NREL website. The TMY files represent a statistically 'typical' year which by definition excludes anomalous weather patterns and as a result may not provide sufficient quantification of project risk to the financial community. It was therefore desired to quantify the interannual variability associated with TMY files in order to improve the understanding of risk associated with these projects. To begin to understand the interannual variability of a PV project, we simulated two archetypal PV system designs, which are common in the PV industry, in PVWatts using the NSRDB's 1961-1990 historical dataset. This dataset contains measured hourly weather data and spans the thirty years from 1961-1990 for 239 locations in the United States. To note, this historical dataset was used to compose the TMY2 dataset. Using the results of these simulations we computed several statistical metrics which may be of interest to the financial community and normalized the results with respect to the TMY energy prediction at each location, so that these results could be easily translated to similar systems. This report briefly describes the simulation process used and the statistical methodology employed for this project, but otherwise focuses mainly on a sample of our results. A short discussion of these results is also provided. It is our hope that this quantification of the interannual variability of PV systems will provide a starting point for variability considerations in future PV system designs and investigations. however this type of data is not available when estimating system output during future time frames.

  6. Mass balance and exergy analysis of a fast pyrolysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mass balance closure and exergetic efficiency is evaluated for a bench scale fast pyrolysis system. The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has developed this system for processing energy crops and agricultural residues for bio-oil (pyrolysis oil or pyrolysis liquids) production. Mass balance c...

  7. Nutrients and water masses in the Gulf of MaineGeorges Bank region: Variability and importance to blooms of the

    E-print Network

    Townsend, David W.

    Nutrients and water masses in the Gulf of Maine­Georges Bank region: Variability and importance fundyense Gulf of Maine Georges Bank T­S diagrams Slope waters Shelf waters Phosphate limitation Ammonium. Nutrients are supplied to continental shelf waters of the Gulf of Maine­Georges Bank region by inflows

  8. Extremal entanglement and mixedness in continuous variable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adesso, Gerardo; Serafini, Alessio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-08-01

    We investigate the relationship between mixedness and entanglement for Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. We introduce generalized entropies based on Schatten p norms to quantify the mixedness of a state and derive their explicit expressions in terms of symplectic spectra. We compare the hierarchies of mixedness provided by such measures with the one provided by the purity (defined as tr {rho}{sup 2} for the state {rho}) for generic n-mode states. We then review the analysis proving the existence of both maximally and minimally entangled states at given global and marginal purities, with the entanglement quantified by the logarithmic negativity. Based on these results, we extend such an analysis to generalized entropies, introducing and fully characterizing maximally and minimally entangled states for given global and local generalized entropies. We compare the different roles played by the purity and by the generalized p entropies in quantifying the entanglement and the mixedness of continuous variable systems. We introduce the concept of average logarithmic negativity, showing that it allows a reliable quantitative estimate of continuous variable entanglement by direct measurements of global and marginal generalized p entropies.

  9. Realtime Multichannel System for Beat to Beat QT Interval Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starc, Vito; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The measurement of beat-to-beat QT interval variability (QTV) shows clinical promise for identifying several types of cardiac pathology. However, until now, there has been no device capable of displaying, in real time on a beattobeat basis, changes in QTV in all 12 conventional leads in a continuously monitored patient. While several software programs have been designed to analyze QTV, heretofore, such programs have all involved only a few channels (at most) and/or have required laborious user interaction or offline calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. This paper describes a PC-based ECG software program that in real time, acquires, analyzes and displays QTV and also PQ interval variability (PQV) in each of the eight independent channels that constitute the 12lead conventional ECG. The system also processes certain related signals that are derived from singular value decomposition and that help to reduce the overall effects of noise on the realtime QTV and PQV results.

  10. Association of Body Mass Index with Depression, Anxiety and Suicide—An Instrumental Variable Analysis of the HUNT Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørngaard, Johan Håkon; Carslake, David; Lund Nilsen, Tom Ivar; Linthorst, Astrid C. E.; Davey Smith, George; Gunnell, David; Romundstad, Pål Richard

    2015-01-01

    Objective While high body mass index is associated with an increased risk of depression and anxiety, cumulative evidence indicates that it is a protective factor for suicide. The associations from conventional observational studies of body mass index with mental health outcomes are likely to be influenced by reverse causality or confounding by ill-health. In the present study, we investigated the associations between offspring body mass index and parental anxiety, depression and suicide in order to avoid problems with reverse causality and confounding by ill-health. Methods We used data from 32,457 mother-offspring and 27,753 father-offspring pairs from the Norwegian HUNT-study. Anxiety and depression were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and suicide death from national registers. Associations between offspring and own body mass index and symptoms of anxiety and depression and suicide mortality were estimated using logistic and Cox regression. Causal effect estimates were estimated with a two sample instrument variable approach using offspring body mass index as an instrument for parental body mass index. Results Both own and offspring body mass index were positively associated with depression, while the results did not indicate any substantial association between body mass index and anxiety. Although precision was low, suicide mortality was inversely associated with own body mass index and the results from the analysis using offspring body mass index supported these results. Adjusted odds ratios per standard deviation body mass index from the instrumental variable analysis were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.43) for depression, 1.10 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.27) for anxiety, and the instrumental variable estimated hazard ratios for suicide was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.30, 1.63). Conclusion The present study’s results indicate that suicide mortality is inversely associated with body mass index. We also found support for a positive association between body mass index and depression, but not for anxiety. PMID:26167892

  11. MEASURING THE MASS OF SOLAR SYSTEM PLANETS USING PULSAR TIMING

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, D. J.; Hobbs, G. B.; Manchester, R. N.; Edwards, R. T.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Sarkissian, J. M.; Backer, D. C.; Bailes, M.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Van Straten, W.; Coles, W.; Demorest, P. B.; Ferdman, R. D.; Purver, M. B.; Folkner, W. M.; Hotan, A. W.; Kramer, M.; Lommen, A. N.; Nice, D. J.; Stairs, I. H.

    2010-09-10

    High-precision pulsar timing relies on a solar system ephemeris in order to convert times of arrival (TOAs) of pulses measured at an observatory to the solar system barycenter. Any error in the conversion to the barycentric TOAs leads to a systematic variation in the observed timing residuals; specifically, an incorrect planetary mass leads to a predominantly sinusoidal variation having a period and phase associated with the planet's orbital motion about the Sun. By using an array of pulsars (PSRs J0437-4715, J1744-1134, J1857+0943, J1909-3744), the masses of the planetary systems from Mercury to Saturn have been determined. These masses are consistent with the best-known masses determined by spacecraft observations, with the mass of the Jovian system, 9.547921(2) x10{sup -4} M {sub sun}, being significantly more accurate than the mass determined from the Pioneer and Voyager spacecraft, and consistent with but less accurate than the value from the Galileo spacecraft. While spacecraft are likely to produce the most accurate measurements for individual solar system bodies, the pulsar technique is sensitive to planetary system masses and has the potential to provide the most accurate values of these masses for some planets.

  12. Ethambutol Pharmacokinetic Variability Is Linked to Body Mass in Overweight, Obese, and Extremely Obese People

    PubMed Central

    Swancutt, Mark A.; Meek, Claudia; Leff, Richard D.; Gumbo, Tawanda

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study of 18 adult volunteers (male-to-female ratio of 1) whose body mass index fell into categories of <25, 25 to 40, or >40 kg/m2, who received a single oral dose of 1,600 mg ethambutol. Only individuals with normal renal function were recruited. The minimum body mass (M) was 45.6 kg, the median was 90.8 kg, and the maximum weight was 160.4 kg. Ethambutol pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model. Inclusion of weight as a covariate dramatically improved the model, with a relative likelihood approaching infinity. The typical clearance was 42.6 liters/h. Ethambutol systemic clearance was proportional to (M/45.6)3/4 and thus obeyed fractal geometry-based laws. This means that the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) actually decreased for obese patients compared to that for leaner patients, reducing chances of concentration-dependent toxicity. On the other hand, such reduced AUCs could lead to therapy failure. Thus, new and individualized ethambutol dosing regimens need to be designed for obese and extremely obese patients. PMID:22155817

  13. Time-Variable Gravity Signal due to Extratropic Pacific Water Mass Redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, B. F.; Boy, J. -P.; Cox, C. M.; Au, A. Y.

    2003-01-01

    Using the satellite-laser-ranging (SLR) data, Cox and Chao [2002] reported the detection of a large post-1998 anomaly (in the form of a positive jump) in the time series of Earth s lowest-degree gravity harmonic 52, or the dynamic oblateness. Among several groups now examining the mass redistribution in the global geophysical fluids in search of the cause(s), we report here a temporally coinciding anomalies found in the extratropic north + south Pacific basins. Clearly seen in the leading EOFPC mode for extratropic Pacific, these anomalies occurred in sea-surface height, sea-surface temperature, and temperature- and salinity-depth profiles. We based our analysis on two different data sources: TOPEX/Poseidon altimetry, and the ECCO ocean general circulation model output assimilating T/P data. The magnitude of these changes, when converted to equivalent J2 change, appears to be a few times too small to explain the observed J2 directly. These findings, and the fact that the anomalies occurred following the strong 1997-98 El Nino, suggest strong geophysical connection of the interannual-to-decadal variation of 52 with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) and the ultimate global-change processes that cause PDO. More work is underway, and additional independent data sources are examined, paying close attention to the fact that the J2 anomaly has been reversing back to normal since 2001. These include: (1) cryospheric contributions (melting of glaciers and ice sheets); (2) land hydrological contributions; (3) polar sea influences ( e g , via deep flow); (4) fluid flow in Earth's core; (5) time-variable gravity signals from SLR in higher harmonic degree/order, including J3,J4, (2,1), and (2,2) coefficients, considering their lower signal-to-noise ratios; (6) Earth rotation data in terms of length-of-day and polar motion.

  14. Year-to-year variability in haemoglobin mass response to two altitude training camps

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Kemp, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Aim To quantify the year-to-year variability of altitude-induced changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in elite team-sport athletes. Methods 12 Australian-Footballers completed a 19-day (ALT1) and 18-day (ALT2) moderate altitude (?2100?m), training camp separated by 12?months. An additional 20 participants completed only one of the two training camps (ALT1 additional n=9, ALT2 additional n=11). Total Hbmass was assessed using carbon monoxide rebreathing before (PRE), after (POST1) and 4?weeks after each camp. The typical error of Hbmass for the pooled data of all 32 participants was 2.6%. A contemporary statistics analysis was used with the smallest worthwhile change set to 2% for Hbmass. Results POST1 Hbmass was very likely increased in ALT1 (3.6±1.6%, n=19; mean±?90 CL) as well as ALT2 (4.4±1.3%, n=23) with an individual responsiveness of 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. There was a small correlation between ALT1 and ALT2 (R=0.21, p=0.59) for a change in Hbmass, but a moderately inverse relationship between the change in Hbmass and initial relative Hbmass (g/kg (R=?0.51, p=0.04)). Conclusions Two preseason moderate altitude camps 1?year apart yielded a similar (4%) mean increase in Hbmass of elite footballers, with an individual responsiveness of approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. Nevertheless, the same individuals generally did not change their Hbmass consistently from year to year. Thus, a ‘responder’ or ‘non-responder’ to altitude for Hbmass does not appear to be a fixed trait. PMID:24282208

  15. Design of a variable-focal-length optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, D.; Shannon, R. R.

    1984-01-01

    Requirements to place an entire optical system with a variable focal length ranging from 20 to 200 cm within a overall length somewhat less than 100 cm placed severe restrictions on the design of a zoom lens suitable for use on a comet explorer. The requirements of a wavelength range of 0.4 to 1.0 microns produced even greater limitations on the possibilities for a design that included a catadioptric (using mirrors and glass) front and followed by a zooming refractive portion. Capabilities available commercial zoom lenses as well as patents of optical systems are reviewed. Preliminary designs of the refractive optics zoom lens and the catadioptric system are presented and evaluated. Of the two, the latter probably has the best chance of success, so long as the shortest focal lengths are not really needed.

  16. Seasonal variability in the Kuroshio extension current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Lan; Long, Xu; Peifang, Guo

    2003-10-01

    Based on the GDEM hydrographic data with a resolution of 0.5°×0.5°, the current system (Kuroshio south of Japan and Kuroshio Extension east of Japan) is determined by using the P-Vector Method, and its seasonal variability is investigated. The Kuroshio Meander south of Japan, the two lee-wave meanders in the Kuroshio Extension and the bifurcation of the Kuroshio Extension are properly presented. The path of the Kuroshio Meander, the position of the second (east) meander in the Kuroshio Extension and the bifurcation of the Kuroshio Extension display evident seasonal variation.

  17. Updating Esa's Earth System Model of the Time-Variable Gravity Field for Future Mission Simulation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobslaw, H.; Bergmann-Wolf, I.; Dill, R.; Klemann, V.; Kusche, J.; Sasgen, I.; Thomas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The ability of any satellite gravity mission concept to monitor mass transport processes in the Earth system is typically tested well ahead of its implementation by means of detailed simulation studies. Those studies often extend from the simulation of realistic orbits and instrumental data all the way down to the retrieval of global gravity field solution time-series, thereby requiring realistic representations of the spatio-temporal mass variability in the different sub-systems of the Earth as a source model for the orbit computations. For such simulations, a suitable source model is required to (i) represent rapid mass motions in for example the atmosphere and oceans, in order to realistically include the effects of temporal aliasing due to non-tidal high-frequency mass variability into the retrieved gravity fields. Moreover, (ii) low-frequency variability needs to present at realistic amplitudes and frequencies at in particular small spatial scales, in order to assess to what extent a new mission concept might provide further insight into physical processes not observed by a satellite system before. The new source model presented in this study attempts to fulfill both requirements: Based on ECMWF's recent atmospheric reanalysis ERA Interim and corresponding simulations from numerical models of the other Earth system components, it offers spherical harmonic coefficients of the mass variability in atmosphere, oceans, the terrestrial hydrosphere including the ice-sheets and glaciers, as well as the solid Earth with high temporal (6 hours) and spatial (d/o 180) resolution for a period of 12 years. Together with the source model, a corresponding de-aliasing model for atmospheric and oceanic high-frequency variability that is augmented by realistic errors is available for the gravity field retrieval process. Several features of this new dataset will be highlighted in this presentation in order to provide guidance for its application in upcoming future mission simulation studies.

  18. Balloon borne optical disk mass storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanek, M. D.; Jennings, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    An on-board data recording system for balloon-borne interferometer using a vacuum operable, ruggedized WORM optical drive is presented. This system, as presently under development, provides 320 Mbytes of data storage (or approximately 11 hrs at the 64 kbits/sec telemetry rate of the experiment). It has the capability of recording the unmodified telemetry bit system as transmitted or doing some preprocessing of the data onboard. The system is compact and requires less than 28 watts of battery power to operate.

  19. Low-Mass Inflation Systems for Inflatable Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thunnissen, Daniel P.; Webster, Mark S.; Engelbrecht, Carl S.

    1995-01-01

    The use of inflatable space structures has often been proposed for aerospace and planetary applications. Communication, power generation, and very-long-baseline interferometry are just three potential applications of inflatable technology. The success of inflatable structures depends on the development of an applications of inflatable technology. This paper describes two design studies performed to develop a low mass inflation system. The first study takes advantage of existing onboard propulsion gases to reduce the overall system mass. The second study assumes that there is no onboard propulsion system. Both studies employ advanced components developed for the Pluto fast flyby spacecraft to further reduce mass. The study examined four different types of systems: hydrazine, nitrogen and water, nitrogen, and xenon. This study shows that all of these systems can be built for a small space structure with masses lower than 0.5 kilograms.

  20. Multiple reaction mass and isolation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, N. F.

    1972-01-01

    System allows measurement of damping and stiffness with the desired uncoupling of measurement fixture and permits testing of large structures without need for costly foundation or base. System is designed to permit horizontal loading to be conveniently superimposed on vibratory loads.

  1. Satellite-based global-ocean mass balance estimates of interannual variability and emerging trends in continental freshwater discharge

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Chambers, Don P.; Willis, Josh K.; Hilburn, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater discharge from the continents is a key component of Earth’s water cycle that sustains human life and ecosystem health. Surprisingly, owing to a number of socioeconomic and political obstacles, a comprehensive global river discharge observing system does not yet exist. Here we use 13 years (1994–2006) of satellite precipitation, evaporation, and sea level data in an ocean mass balance to estimate freshwater discharge into the global ocean. Results indicate that global freshwater discharge averaged 36,055 km3/y for the study period while exhibiting significant interannual variability driven primarily by El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles. The method described here can ultimately be used to estimate long-term global discharge trends as the records of sea level rise and ocean temperature lengthen. For the relatively short 13-year period studied here, global discharge increased by 540 km3/y2, which was largely attributed to an increase of global-ocean evaporation (768 km3/y2). Sustained growth of these flux rates into long-term trends would provide evidence for increasing intensity of the hydrologic cycle. PMID:20921364

  2. The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow 

    E-print Network

    Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Control Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-1 The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow Jinping LIU Yuebang MAI Xuefeng... LIU Associate professor Graduate student Instructor College of Electric Power, South China University of Technology Guangzhou. China Email: mpjpliu@scut.edu.cn Abstract: At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency...

  3. Mass properties measurement system: Dynamics and statics measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, Keith L.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents and interprets experimental data obtained from the Mass Properties Measurement System (MPMS). Statics measurements yield the center-of-gravity of an unknown mass and dynamics measurements yield its inertia matrix. Observations of the MPMS performance has lead us to specific design criteria and an understanding of MPMS limitations.

  4. GROUNDWATER MASS TRANSPORT AND EQUILIBRIUM CHEMISTRY MODEL FOR MULTICOMPONENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mass transport model, TRANQL, for a multicomponent solution system has been developed. The equilibrium interaction chemistry is posed independently of the mass transport equations which leads to a set of algebraic equations for the chemistry coupled to a set of differential equ...

  5. Variability in the Cardiac Venous System of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Krešáková, Lenka; Purzyc, Halina; Schusterová, Ingrid; Fulton, Benjamin; Maloveská, Marcela; Vdoviaková, Katarina; Kravcová, Zuzanna; Boldižár, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Rats are often used as animal models in experimental cardiology for studying myocardial infarctions and various cardiologic procedures. Currently the cardiac venous system is a target for the delivery of drugs, gene vectors, angiogenetic growth factors, stem cells, and cardioprotective reagents. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomic configuration and variability of the cardiac venous system in Wistar rats, by using the corrosion cast method and perfusion of colored latex. The distribution of veins in the rat heart disagrees with prior descriptions for other mammals, except mice, which have a similar pattern. Coronary venous drainage in the 36 rats examined consistently involved the left cardiac, left conal, major caudal, right cardiac, and right conal veins. Other veins involved inconsistently included the cranial cardiac vein (58.3% of cases), minor caudal veins (16.7%), conoanastomotic vein (66.7%), and left atrial vein (75%). In 4 cases (11.1%), the collateral veins were located between the left conal and left cardiac veins. In this study, high morphologic variability between cases was manifested by differences in the arrangement, size, mode of opening, and formation of the common root and affected all regions of the heart but primarily the right ventricle. PMID:25651085

  6. NASA Langley Research Center's distributed mass storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pao, Juliet Z.; Humes, D. Creig

    1993-01-01

    There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at NASA LaRC is building such a system and expects to put it into production use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in its development and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: (1) workstation class file servers running UniTree software; (2) third party I/O; (3) HIPPI network; (4) HIPPI/IPI3 disk array systems; (5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; (6) CRAY Research Incorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; (7) file server redundancy provision; and (8) a transition mechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.

  7. Concepts for Variable/Multi-Speed Rotorcraft Drive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2008-01-01

    In several recent studies and on-going developments for advanced rotorcraft, the need for variable or multi-speed capable rotors has been raised. A speed change of up to 50 percent has been proposed for future rotorcraft to improve overall vehicle performance. Accomplishing rotor speed changes during operation requires both a rotor that can perform effectively over the operation speed/load range, and a propulsion system that can enable these speed changes. A study has been completed to investigate possible drive system arrangements that can accommodate up to the 50 percent speed change. Several concepts will be presented and evaluated. The most promising configurations will be identified and developed for future testing in a sub-scaled test facility to validate operational capability.

  8. Luminous Blue Variables, Cool Hypergiants, and Supernova Impostors: The Role of Episodic Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehner, A.; de Wit, W. J.; Baade, D.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Davidson, K.; Groh, J.; Humphreys, R. M.; Martayan, C.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Rivinius, T.; Selman, F.; Steffen, W.

    2015-12-01

    The role of mass loss, especially episodic mass loss, in evolved massive stars is one of the outstanding questions in stellar evolution theory. IFU observations can provide superb information on the recent mass-loss history and the evolutionary stages. With VLT MUSE we have observed a representative sample of massive stars from different evolved stellar classes that underwent episodic mass loss, which gave rise to extended nebulae. The structural inhomogeneities and associated velocity differences in the nebulae are tracers of the mass-loss history. The simultaneous observation of all lines at each position in the nebulae provides very accurate line ratios for physical diagnostics.

  9. Mass storage system reference model, Version 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sam (editor); Miller, Steve (editor)

    1993-01-01

    The high-level abstractions that underlie modern storage systems are identified. The information to generate the model was collected from major practitioners who have built and operated large storage facilities, and represents a distillation of the wisdom they have acquired over the years. The model provides a common terminology and set of concepts to allow existing systems to be examined and new systems to be discussed and built. It is intended that the model and the interfaces identified from it will allow and encourage vendors to develop mutually-compatible storage components that can be combined to form integrated storage systems and services. The reference model presents an abstract view of the concepts and organization of storage systems. From this abstraction will come the identification of the interfaces and modules that will be used in IEEE storage system standards. The model is not yet suitable as a standard; it does not contain implementation decisions, such as how abstract objects should be broken up into software modules or how software modules should be mapped to hosts; it does not give policy specifications, such as when files should be migrated; does not describe how the abstract objects should be used or connected; and does not refer to specific hardware components. In particular, it does not fully specify the interfaces.

  10. A variable-resolution optical profile measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tung-Hsien; Fan, Kuang-Chao; Mou, Jong-I.

    2002-02-01

    In this study, a variable-resolution optical measurement system (VROPMS) based on triangulation measurement technology is proposed. The VROPMS optical scanning probe is composed of dual CCD cameras fitted with zoom lenses and a line laser diode projector. A flexible and novel calibration procedure for VROPMS is developed to acquire the system parameters quickly and accurately. The central position of the reflected laser image is calculated using Gaussian function least-squares fitting of the beam intensity. Subpixel resolution can thus be acquired. Experimental calibration results show that the higher the lens magnification, the finer the derived system resolution. The best accuracy at the zoomed focus position is about 0.02 mm. This system can flexibly zoom in or out to measure a 3D object profile in sections according to the approximate surface profile. Varied mesh images taken from different zoom positions by VROPMS can be patched using the image matching technique to reconstruct the entire profile. A human sculpture with a complex surface profile is measured using VROPMS as a practical illustration of the effectiveness of the system.

  11. Mesoscale and severe storms (Mass) data management and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.; Karitani, S.; Dickerson, M.

    1984-01-01

    Progress on the Mesoscale and Severe Storms (MASS) data management and analysis system is described. An interactive atmospheric data base management software package to convert four types of data (Sounding, Single Level, Grid, Image) into standard random access formats is implemented and integrated with the MASS AVE80 Series general purpose plotting and graphics display data analysis software package. An interactive analysis and display graphics software package (AVE80) to analyze large volumes of conventional and satellite derived meteorological data is enhanced to provide imaging/color graphics display utilizing color video hardware integrated into the MASS computer system. Local and remote smart-terminal capability is provided by installing APPLE III computer systems within individual scientist offices and integrated with the MASS system, thus providing color video display, graphics, and characters display of the four data types.

  12. Model-Based Systems Engineering Approach to Managing Mass Margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Seung H.; Bayer, Todd J.; Cole, Bjorn; Cooke, Brian; Dekens, Frank; Delp, Christopher; Lam, Doris

    2012-01-01

    When designing a flight system from concept through implementation, one of the fundamental systems engineering tasks ismanaging the mass margin and a mass equipment list (MEL) of the flight system. While generating a MEL and computing a mass margin is conceptually a trivial task, maintaining consistent and correct MELs and mass margins can be challenging due to the current practices of maintaining duplicate information in various forms, such as diagrams and tables, and in various media, such as files and emails. We have overcome this challenge through a model-based systems engineering (MBSE) approach within which we allow only a single-source-of-truth. In this paper we describe the modeling patternsused to capture the single-source-of-truth and the views that have been developed for the Europa Habitability Mission (EHM) project, a mission concept study, at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  13. First Order Chemical Reaction Effects on Exponentially Accelerated Vertical Plate with Variable Mass Diffusion in the Presence of Thermal Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthucumaraswamy, R.; Lakshmi, C. S.

    2015-05-01

    Effects of transfer of mass and free convection on the flow field of an incompressible viscous fluid past an exponentially accelerated vertical plate with variable surface temperature and mass diffusion are studied. Results for velocity, concentration, temperature are obtained by solving governing equations using the Laplace transform technique. It is observed that the velocity increases with decreasing values of the chemical reaction parameter or radiation parameter. But the trend is just reversed with respect to the time parameter. The skin friction is also studied.

  14. Exploring The Mass-Loss History and The Dust Content in Circumstellar Nebulae Around Luminous Blue Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliozzo, C.

    2015-12-01

    The physical mechanism responsible for high mass-loss in luminous blue variable stars (LBVs) is still poorly understood. The possibility that it is independent of metallicity is of paramount importance to LBVs in the metal-poor Universe. Our approach to investigate this possibility is to study LBVs in different environments and to use multiwavelength observations to resolve their nebulae. These contain the fingerprints of their mass-loss, as shown here by the galactic example G79.29+0.46. I also present our pilot study of objects in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs), where a paucity of data existed so far.

  15. Building a mass storage system for physics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, H.; Loken, S.

    1991-03-01

    The IEEE Mass Storage Reference Model and forthcoming standards based on it provide a standardized architecture to facilitate designing and building mass storage systems, and standard interfaces so that hardware and software from different vendors can interoperate in providing mass storage capabilities. A key concept of this architecture is the separation of control and data flows. This separation allows a smaller machine to provide control functions, while the data can flow directly between high-performance channels. Another key concept is the layering of the file system and the storage functions. This layering allows the designers of the mass storage system to focus on storage functions, which can support a variety of file systems, such as the Network File System, the Andrew File System, and others. The mass storage system provides location-independent file naming, essential if files are to be migrated to different storage devices without requiring changes in application programs. Physics data analysis applications are particularly challenging for mass storage systems because they stream vast amounts of data through analysis applications. Special mechanisms are required, to handle the high data rates and to avoid upsetting the caching mechanisms commonly used for smaller, repetitive-use files. High data rates are facilitated by direct channel connections, where, for example, a dual-ported drive will be positioned by the mass storage controller on one channel, then the data will flow on a second channel directly into the user machine, or directly to a high capacity network, greatly reducing the I/O capacity required in the mass storage control computer. Intelligent storage allocation can be used to bypass the cache devices entirely when large files are being moved.

  16. Exoplanetary System Dynamics: Planetary Multiplicity and Mass Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isoe, Mari; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Turner, Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Recently numerous systems consisting of multiple exoplanets have been discovered. Using a dataset of 375 systems (500 planets) discovered by the radial velocity method and 365 systems (899 planets) containing planet candidates found by the Kepler Mission, we investigate the dependence of the dynamical structure of planetary systems on their multiplicity and the masses of the member planets. We classify the planetary system by three parameters: planetary multiplicity, planetary mass, and the evolutionary stage of the central star. We normalize planetary masses by the mass of the central star and divide the planets into small and large categories by a cut at $10^{-4}$. The central star is classified into main-sequence or giant according to its evolutionary stage. We focus on the angular momentum deficit (AMD) of the systems and the orbital separation between adjacent planets normalized by their Hill radii. We find that in all categories the system AMD decreases with increasing multiplicity. This suggests that in order for multiple systems to be stable, each planet's orbit must be relatively circular. In addition, we find that the distribution of orbital eccentricities of the massive planets and low-mass planets differs. In particular, only high-mass planets have eccentricities larger than 0.4. In the low-mass systems around main sequence stars, we find that the orbital separation decreases with increasing multiplicity. In addition, the orbital separation around main-sequence stars is wider than that around giants. Furthermore, the minimum orbital separation is about 6.4 for non-resonant pairs. This paper presents the statistical properties of the dynamical structure of multiple planetary systems and discusses their formation.

  17. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, M.L.; Davis, J.C.

    1993-02-23

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and [sup 3]He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  18. Small system for tritium accelerator mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, Mark L. (Livermore, CA); Davis, Jay C. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    Apparatus for ionizing and accelerating a sample containing isotopes of hydrogen and detecting the ratios of hydrogen isotopes contained in the sample is disclosed. An ion source generates a substantially linear ion beam including ions of tritium from the sample. A radio-frequency quadrupole accelerator is directly coupled to and axially aligned with the source at an angle of substantially zero degrees. The accelerator accelerates species of the sample having different mass to different energy levels along the same axis as the ion beam. A spectrometer is used to detect the concentration of tritium ions in the sample. In one form of the invention, an energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a foil to block the passage of hydrogen, deuterium and .sup.3 He ions, and a surface barrier or scintillation detector to detect the concentration of tritium ions. In another form of the invention, a combined momentum/energy loss spectrometer is used which includes a magnet to separate the ion beams, with Faraday cups to measure the hydrogen and deuterium and a surface barrier or scintillation detector for the tritium ions.

  19. Aerosol mass spectrometry systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Fergenson, David P.; Gard, Eric E.

    2013-08-20

    A system according to one embodiment includes a particle accelerator that directs a succession of polydisperse aerosol particles along a predetermined particle path; multiple tracking lasers for generating beams of light across the particle path; an optical detector positioned adjacent the particle path for detecting impingement of the beams of light on individual particles; a desorption laser for generating a beam of desorbing light across the particle path about coaxial with a beam of light produced by one of the tracking lasers; and a controller, responsive to detection of a signal produced by the optical detector, that controls the desorption laser to generate the beam of desorbing light. Additional systems and methods are also disclosed.

  20. Determination of the System Mass and the Individual Masses of the Pluto System from New Horizons Radio Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Matthias; Pätzold, Martin; Andert, Tom; Bird, Michael K.; Tyler, Leonard G.; Linscott, Ivan; Hinson, Dave P.; Stern, Alan; Weaver, Hal; Olkin, Cathrin; Young, Leslie; Ennico, Kimberly

    2015-11-01

    One objective of the New Horizons Radio Science Experiment REX is the determination of the system mass and the individual masses of Pluto and Charon. About four weeks of two-way radio tracking centered around the closest approach of New Horizons to the Pluto system were processed. Major problems during the processing were caused by the small net forces of the spacecraft thruster activity, which produce extra ?v on the spacecraft motion superposed onto the continuously perturbed motion caused by the attracting forces of the Pluto system. The times of spacecraft thruster activity are known but the applied ?v needs to be specifically adjusted. No two-way tracking was available for the day of the flyby, but slots of REX one-way uplink tracking are used to cover the most important times near closest approach, e.g. during occultation entries and exits. This will help to separate the individual masses of Pluto and Charon from the system mass.

  1. New scenarios for classical and quantum mechanical systems with position dependent mass

    E-print Network

    J. R. Morris

    2015-07-18

    An inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein compactification to four dimensions, followed by a conformal transformation, results in a system with position dependent mass (PDM). This origin of a PDM is quite different from the condensed matter one. A substantial generalization of a previously studied nonlinear oscillator with variable mass is obtained, wherein the position dependence of the mass of a nonrelativistic particle is due to a dilatonic coupling function emerging from the extra dimension. Previously obtained solutions for such systems can be extended and reinterpreted as nonrelativistic particles interacting with dilaton fields, which, themselves, can have interesting structures. An application is presented for the nonlinear oscillator, where within the new scenario the particle is coupled to a dilatonic string.

  2. Associations between circulating components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and left ventricular mass.

    PubMed Central

    Schunkert, H.; Hense, H. W.; Muscholl, M.; Luchner, A.; Kürzinger, S.; Danser, A. H.; Riegger, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Cardiac growth may be modulated in part by the trophic effects of neurohormones. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between the basal activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and left ventricular mass. DESIGN: A population based sample of 615 middle-age subjects was studied by standardised echocardiography; anthropometric measurements; and biochemical quantification of renin, pro-renin, angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), and aldosterone. RESULTS: Echocardiographic left ventricular mass index correlated significantly with arterial blood pressure, age, and body mass index. In addition, in men ACE activity was significantly related to left ventricular mass index in univariate (P = 0.0007) and multivariate analyses (P = 0.008). Men with left ventricular hypertrophy presented with significantly higher serum ACE concentrations than those with normal left ventricular mass index (P = 0.002). In both men and women serum aldosterone was strongly related to septal and posterior wall thickness. Furthermore, in women serum aldosterone was positively and independently associated with left ventricular mass index (P = 0.0001). This effect was most prominent in hypertensive women. Finally, women with left ventricular hypertrophy presented with significantly higher serum aldosterone (P = 0.01). No significant associations with left ventricular mass index were observed for angiotensinogen, renin, or pro-renin. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the variability of serum ACE or aldosterone, as occurred in this large population based sample, may contribute to the modulation of left ventricular mass. Images PMID:9038690

  3. Entanglement in continuous variable systems: Recent advances and current perspectives

    E-print Network

    Adesso, G; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-01-01

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures, and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization, and the scaling o...

  4. Electromagnetic variable degrees of freedom actuator systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C. (Pleasanton, CA); Trumper, David L. (Plaistow, NH); Kirtley, Jr., James L. (Brookline, MA)

    2009-02-17

    The present invention provides a variable reluctance actuator system and method that can be adapted for simultaneous rotation and translation of a moving element by applying a normal-direction magnetic flux on the moving element. In a beneficial example arrangement, the moving element includes a swing arm that carries a cutting tool at a set radius from an axis of rotation so as to produce a rotary fast tool servo that provides a tool motion in a direction substantially parallel to the surface-normal of a workpiece at the point of contact between the cutting tool and workpiece. An actuator rotates a swing arm such that a cutting tool moves toward and away from a mounted rotating workpiece in a controlled manner in order to machine the workpiece. Position sensors provide rotation and displacement information for a swing arm to a control system. A control system commands and coordinates motion of the fast tool servo with the motion of a spindle, rotating table, cross-feed slide, and in feed slide of a precision lathe.

  5. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, Lance G

    2014-07-07

    A variable phase turbine assembly will be designed and manufactured having a turbine, operable with transcritical, two-phase or vapor flow, and a generator – on the same shaft supported by process lubricated bearings. The assembly will be hermetically sealed and the generator cooled by the refrigerant. A compact plate-fin heat exchanger or tube and shell heat exchanger will be used to transfer heat from the geothermal fluid to the refrigerant. The demonstration turbine will be operated separately with two-phase flow and with vapor flow to demonstrate performance and applicability to the entire range of low temperature geothermal resources. The vapor leaving the turbine is condensed in a plate-fin refrigerant condenser. The heat exchanger, variable phase turbine assembly and condenser are all mounted on single skids to enable factory assembly and checkout and minimize installation costs. The system will be demonstrated using low temperature (237F) well flow from an existing large geothermal field. The net power generated, 1 megawatt, will be fed into the existing power system at the demonstration site. The system will demonstrate reliable generation of inexpensive power from low temperature resources. The system will be designed for mass manufacturing and factory assembly and should cost less than $1,200/kWe installed, when manufactured in large quantities. The estimated cost of power for 300F resources is predicted to be less than 5 cents/kWh. This should enable a substantial increase in power generated from low temperature geothermal resources.

  6. On the relationship between climatic variables and pressure systems over Saudi Arabia in the winter season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanean, H. M.; Basset, H. Abdel; Hussein, M. A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The synoptic circulation over Saudi Arabia is complicated and frequently governed by the effect of large-scale pressure systems. In this work, we used NCEP-NCAR global data to illustrate the relationship between climatic variables and the main pressure systems that affect the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia, and also to investigate the influence of these pressure systems on surface air temperature (SAT) and rainfall over the region in the winter season. It was found that there are two primary patterns of pressure that influence the weather and climate of Saudi Arabia. The first occurs in cases of a strengthening Subtropical High (SubH), a weakening Siberian High (SibH), a deepening of the Icelandic Low (IceL), or a weakening of the Sudanese Low (SudL). During this pattern, the SubH combines with the SibH and an obvious increase of sea level pressure (SLP) occurs over southern European, the Mediterranean, North Africa, and the Middle East. This belt of high pressure prevents interaction between midlatitude and extratropical systems, which leads to a decrease in the SAT, relative humidity (RH) and rainfall over Saudi Arabia. The second pattern occurs in association with a weakening of the SubH, a strengthening of the SibH, a weakening of the IceL, or a deepening of the SudL. The pattern arising in this case leads to an interaction between two different air masses: the first (cold moist) air mass is associated with the Mediterranean depression travelling from west to east, while the second (warm moist) air mass is associated with the northward oscillation of the SudL and its inverted V-shape trough. The interaction between these two air masses increases the SAT, RH and the probability of rainfall over Saudi Arabia, especially over the northwest and northeast regions.

  7. Characterizing the atmospheric controls on ablation variability on Brewster Glacier, New Zealand using a distributed energy and mass balance model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cullen, Nicolas J.; Mölg, Thomas; Gillet, Sarah; Fitzsimons, Sean J.; Anderson, Brian; Mackintosh, Andrew; Hendrikx, Jordy

    2010-05-01

    Understanding the response of temperate glaciers to climate variability is important in improving our current knowledge of global climate change. Temperate glaciers, including those in New Zealand, are sensitive indicators of climate change and though their contribution to global sea level rise may not be as significant as cold polar and subpolar glaciers and ice caps in the future their retreat will continue to be an important source of terrestrial water to our oceans. Though complete loss of all glacial ice in New Zealand would only have a minor impact on global sea level rise, understanding the links between glacier behaviour in the Southern Alps and climate is critical in efforts to unravel past patterns of Southern Hemisphere climate and in developing tools to predict future trends. The Southern Alps of New Zealand are surrounded by vast areas of ocean and are strongly influenced by the interaction of subtropical and polar air masses, as well as acting as a barrier against prevailing westerly airflow. The exceptional precipitation and ablation rates that are common on the maritime glaciers of New Zealand result in them having a very high mass balance sensitivity, making them extremely useful indicators of climate variability. Using recently obtained micrometeorological data collected over two summer periods in the ablation zone of the Brewster Glacier, New Zealand we explore in detail the influence of climate variability on ablation using a distributed energy and mass balance model. In particular, we focus on the spatial and temporal variability of the energy balance terms during the summer seasons to identify the main drivers of ablation, and to characterize quantitatively what atmospheric events control large or extreme ablation episodes. This work provides us with a platform to develop present understanding of the linkages between physical processes controlling glacier fluctuation and atmospheric circulation over the Southern Alps.

  8. Hydrodynamics of Mass Transfer in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toupin, S.; Braun, K.; Siess, L.; Jorissen, A.; Price, D.

    2015-08-01

    No analytic formulation is currently available to correctly treat the exchange of mass and angular momentum between an AGB star and its low-mass main-sequence companion. The goal of our research is to derive prescriptions for the rates of mass and angular-momentum transfer by wind in long-period binary systems, based on 3D SPH simulations. In this poster, we present the first steps towards a consistent modeling of such mass transfer. Special attention is paid to the physics of mass loss by the giant star. One of the major achievements of our approach is the ability to fully reproduce, for the first time in 3D, the standard dust-driven wind model developed by Bowen.

  9. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional discussion topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing (file, granule, data set, or some similar object) as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  10. Building and managing high performance, scalable, commodity mass storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekashman, John

    1998-01-01

    The NAS Systems Division has recently embarked on a significant new way of handling the mass storage problem. One of the basic goals of this new development are to build systems at very large capacity and high performance, yet have the advantages of commodity products. The central design philosophy is to build storage systems the way the Internet was built. Competitive, survivable, expandable, and wide open. The thrust of this paper is to describe the motivation for this effort, what we mean by commodity mass storage, what the implications are for a facility that performs such an action, and where we think it will lead.

  11. Design and Manufacturing of Extremely Low Mass Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    Extremely small flight systems pose some unusual design and manufacturing challenges. The small size of the components that make up the system generally must be built with extremely tight tolerances to maintain the functionality of the assembled item. Additionally, the total mass of the system is extremely sensitive to what would be considered small perturbations in a larger flight system. The MUSES C mission, designed, built, and operated by Japan, has a small rover provided by NASA that falls into this small flight system category. This NASA-provided rover is used as a case study of an extremely small flight system design. The issues that were encountered with the rover portion of the MUSES C program are discussed and conclusions about the recommended mass margins at different stages of a small flight system project are presented.

  12. Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Ben (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor)

    1993-01-01

    Copies of nearly all of the technical papers and viewgraphs presented at the Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies held in Sep. 1992 are included. The conference served as an informational exchange forum for topics primarily relating to the ingestion and management of massive amounts of data and the attendant problems (data ingestion rates now approach the order of terabytes per day). Discussion topics include the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model, data archiving standards, high-performance storage devices, magnetic and magneto-optic storage systems, magnetic and optical recording technologies, high-performance helical scan recording systems, and low end helical scan tape drives. Additional topics addressed the evolution of the identifiable unit for processing purposes as data ingestion rates increase dramatically, and the present state of the art in mass storage technology.

  13. Specialized Gas Chromatography--Mass Spectrometry Systems for Clinical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gochman, Nathan; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)

  14. Stability of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic systems with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Song

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the robust exponential stabilization of uncertain impulsive complex-variable chaotic delayed systems is considered with parameters perturbation and delayed impulses. It is assumed that the considered complex-variable chaotic systems have bounded parametric uncertainties together with the state variables on the impulses related to the time-varying delays. Based on the theories of adaptive control and impulsive control, some less conservative and easily verified stability criteria are established for a class of complex-variable chaotic delayed systems with delayed impulses. Some numerical simulations are given to validate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria of impulsive stabilization for uncertain complex-variable chaotic delayed systems. PMID:26096956

  15. Assessing the precision on the determination of the Martian CO2 seasonal mass budget from time-variable gravity observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblatt, P.; Marty, J.; Le Maistre, S.; Dehant, V. M.; Karatekin, O.

    2009-12-01

    A relative large amount of the CO2 of the atmosphere of Mars is seasonally exchanged with the surface through the condensation/sublimation process at the polar caps. The associated mass redistribution at planetary scale generates a fine seasonal variation of the gravity field of Mars, allowing for the estimation of the mass budget of the CO2 seasonal cycle at the polar caps. However, to derive this mass budget, the knowledge of the extent and of the CO2 deposit density of the caps is needed in addition to the determination of the time variable gravity field. In this study, the time variable gravity solution is obtained from the Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), Mars Odyssey (ODY), and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft. All tracking data from the beginning of the nominal mission up to the most recent available extended phases for each spacecraft have been taken into account, thus covering about 5 Martian years. From this dataset, the seasonal variations of the lumped zonal harmonics of degree two and three have been obtained, using the GINS software developed by the CNES and further adapted by Royal Observatory of Belgium for planetary geodesy applications. The extent of the polar caps has been modeled on the basis of the MGS/TES dataset. In addition, the effect of compaction on the volume density of the polar CO2 deposits has been taken into account. Both the time variable gravity solution (i.e. lumped zonal harmonics) and the polar caps model have been compared with outputs of Global Circulation Model (GCM), and with the estimation derived from the HEND data onboard Mars Odyssey, in order to assess the precision on the current estimation of the polar cap CO2 mass budget.

  16. Implications of the X-ray Variability for the Mass of MCG-6-30-15

    E-print Network

    Michael A. Nowak; James Chiang

    2000-01-14

    The bright Seyfert 1 galaxy \\mcg shows large variability on a variety of time scales. We study the $\\aproxlt 3$ day time scale variability using a set of simultaneous archival observations that were obtained from \\rxte and the {\\it Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics} (\\asca). The \\rxte\\ observations span nearly $10^6$ sec and indicate that the X-ray Fourier Power Spectral Density has an rms variability of 16%, is flat from approximately 10^{-6} - 10^{-5} Hz, and then steepens into a power law $\\propto f^{-\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha\\aproxgt 1$. A further steepening to $\\alpha \\approx 2$ occurs between 10^{-4}-10^{-3} Hz. The shape and rms amplitude are comparable to what has been observed in \

  17. Arctic mass, freshwater and heat fluxes: methods and modelled seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Sheldon; Aksenov, Yevgeny; Fawcett, Stephen; Madec, Gurvan

    2015-10-13

    Considering the Arctic Ocean (including sea ice) as a defined volume, we develop equations describing the time-varying fluxes of mass, heat and freshwater (FW) into, and storage of those quantities within, that volume. The seasonal cycles of fluxes and storage of mass, heat and FW are quantified and illustrated using output from a numerical model. The meanings of 'reference values' and FW fluxes are discussed, and the potential for error through the use of arbitrary reference values is examined. PMID:26347537

  18. Influence of system mass on the emission of intermediate mass fragments

    E-print Network

    Sukhjit Kaur; Supriya Goyal; Rajeev K. Puri

    2011-02-19

    In the present study, we have simulated the central reactions of nearly symmetric and asymmetric systems over the entire periodic table for different values of energies using QMD model as event generator. These reactions are simulated for the different equations of state, nn cross-sections and different widths of Gaussians. We have observed that the multiplicity of IMFs shows a rise and fall with increase in beam energy in the center-of-mass frame as already predicted experimentally/theoretically. We have also studied the mass dependence of peak Ec.m. and peak . It has been observed that peak Ec.m. increases linearly with system mass whereas a power law dependence has been observed for peak IMFs with tau \\approx 1.0. Our calculations using hard EoS along with cugnon cross-section and MSTB method are in good agreement with experimental data. Similar power law dependence is also observed for various fragments.

  19. Satellite masses in the Uranus and Neptune systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, R.

    1984-10-01

    Satellite masses are derivation with emphasis on implications for bulk densities and albedos is reviewed. In the Uranian system the inner satellites have lower densities and/or higher albedos than the outer ones. However, uncertainties are great enough that all five satellites may have nearly equal densities. In such a case the albedo would decrease with semimajor axis. A more severe constraint is placed on Miranda's mass, and hence on its density and albedo. The recent radiometric value for Triton's diameter, combined with mass determinations, yields a density greater than 4 gm/cm3.

  20. Sodium Variable Conductance Heat Pipe for Radioisotope Stirling Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarau, Calin; Anderson, William G.; Walker, Kara

    2009-01-01

    In a Stirling radioisotope system, heat must continually be removed from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules to maintain the modules and surrounding insulation at acceptable temperatures. Normally, the Stirling convertor provides this cooling. If the converter stops in the current system, the insulation is designed to spoil, preventing damage to the GPHS, and also ending the mission. An alkali-metal Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP) has been designed to allow multiple stops and restarts of the Stirling convertor in an Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG). When the Stirling convertor is turned off, the VCHP will activate when the temperatures rises 30 C above the setpoint temperature. A prototype VCHP with sodium as the working fluid was fabricated and tested in both gravity aided and against gravity conditions for a nominal heater head temperature of 790 C. The results show very good agreement with the predictions and validate the model. The gas front was located at the exit of the reservoir when heater head temperature was 790 C while cooling was ON, simulating an operating Advanced Stirling Converter (ASC). When cooling stopped, the temperature increased by 30 C, allowing the gas front to move past the radiator, which transferred the heat to the case. After resuming the cooling flow, the front returned at the initial location turning OFF the VCHP. The against gravity working conditions showed a colder reservoir and faster transients.

  1. Variable-Tension-Cord Suspension/Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villemarette, Mark L.; Boston, Joshua; RInks, Judith; Felice, Pat; Stein, Tim; Payne, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    A system for mechanical suspension and vibration isolation of a machine or instrument is based on the use of Kevlar (or equivalent aromatic polyamide) cord held in variable tension between the machine or instrument and a surrounding frame. The basic concept of such a tensioned-cord suspension system (including one in which the cords are made of aromatic polyamide fibers) is not new by itself; what is new here is the additional provision for adjusting the tension during operation to optimize vibration- isolation properties. In the original application for which this system was conceived, the objective is to suspend a reciprocating cryocooler aboard a space shuttle and to prevent both (1) transmission of launch vibrations to the cryocooler and (2) transmission of vibrations from the cryocooler to samples in a chamber cooled by the cryocooler. The basic mechanical principle of this system can also be expected to be applicable to a variety of other systems in which there are requirements for cord suspension and vibration isolation. The reciprocating cryocooler of the original application is a generally axisymmetric object, and the surrounding frame is a generally axisymmetric object with windows (see figure). Two cords are threaded into a spoke-like pattern between attachment rings on the cryocooler, holes in the cage, and cord-tension- adjusting assemblies. Initially, the cord tensions are adjusted to at least the level necessary to suspend the cryocooler against gravitation. Accelerometers for measuring vibrations are mounted (1) on the cold tip of the cryocooler and (2) adjacent to the cage, on a structure that supports the cage. During operation, a technician observes the accelerometer outputs on an oscilloscope while manually adjusting the cord tensions in an effort to minimize the amount of vibration transmitted to and/or from the cryocooler. A contemplated future version of the system would include a microprocessor-based control subsystem that would include cord-tension actuators. This control subsystem would continually adjust the cord tension in response to accelerometer feedback to optimize vibration-isolation properties as required for various operating conditions. The control system could also adjust cord tensions (including setting the two cords to different tensions) to suppress resonances. Other future enhancements could include optimizing the cord material, thickness, and braid; optimizing the spoke patterns; and adding longitudinal cords for applications in which longitudinal stiffness and vibration suppression are required.

  2. Performance evaluation of mass storage systems for scientific databases

    SciTech Connect

    Segev, A. |; Seshadri, S.; Rotem, D.

    1994-09-01

    Mass storage systems for computers are the solution to economic storage of vast volumes of data. These systems evolved from the traditional tape libraries manned by operating personnel and the automation of the storage and retrieval function has led to significant improvement in performance. But in contrast to traditional computer systems, little work has been done to characterize performance in terms of the design parameters. The design and performance analysis of mass storage systems is complicated due to several reasons. A major reason for the complexity is the time lags that may occur in retrieving parts of the information meant for the same query. The usual queuing models used for analyzing disk performance are not directly applicable, because there is greater scope for working in parallel in mass storage systems such as robotic libraries, which help mitigate these shortcomings. In this note, robotic libraries are modeled as queueing systems and explicit results related to performance are obtained. The physical model corresponds to a mass storage system, where the information is stored in cassettes, which are retrieved by robots to be read using one or two read heads. The results pertain to the effect of file splitting on cassettes, and optimal configuration and control of robots that perform the retrieval and storage functions.

  3. The Pisgah Automated Survey: A Photometric Search for Low-mass Detached Eclipsing Binaries and Other Variable Stars

    E-print Network

    M. Lopez-Morales; J. Christopher Clemens

    2003-10-22

    The Pisgah Survey, located at the facilities of the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute in Rosman NC, is a low cost project to acquire fully-automated I band photometry of selected areas of the sky. The survey collects multiple images of about 16.5 sq. deg. of sky per night, searching for variability in stars with apparent magnitudes brighter than I = 15. The main scientific goal of this project is to discover new low-mass detached eclipsing binaries to provide precise constraints to the mass-radius relation for the lower main sequence. In this paper we present a technical description of the project, including the software routines to automate the collection and analysis of the data, and a description of our variable identification strategy. We prove the feasibility of our technique by showing the successful detection of the previously known M-dwarf detached eclipsing binary GJ 2069A, and we present the results of the analysis of the first set of fields imaged by the survey, in which 15 new variables have been discovered among 8,201 stars monitored. The paper concludes with an outline of the project's prospects.

  4. Australian water mass variations from GRACE data linked to Indo-Pacific climate variability

    E-print Network

    Ummenhofer, Caroline C.

    -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), respectively. From 1989, positive (negative) IOD phases, large parts of Australia have suffered severe drought conditions, particularly in the southern tropical modes of variability, namely the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole

  5. An assessment of the evidence from ATLAS3D for a variable initial mass function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clauwens, Bart; Schaye, Joop; Franx, Marijn

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS3D Survey has reported evidence for a non-universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) for early-type galaxies (ETGs). The IMF was constrained by comparing stellar mass measurements from kinematic data with those from spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting. Here, we investigate possible effects of scatter in the reported stellar mass measurements and their potential impact on the IMF determination. We find that a trend of the IMF mismatch parameter with the kinematic mass-to-light ratio, comparable to the trend observed by Cappellari et al., could arise if the Gaussian errors of the kinematic mass determination are typically 30 per cent. Without additional data, it is hard to separate between the option that the IMF has a true large intrinsic variation or the option that the errors in the determination are larger than anticipated. A correlation of the IMF with other properties would help to make this distinction, but no strong correlation has been found yet. The strongest correlation is with velocity dispersion. However, it has a large scatter and the correlation depends on sample selection and distance measurements. The correlation with velocity dispersion could be partly caused by the colour-dependent calibration of the surface brightness fluctuation distances of Tonry et al. We find that the K-band luminosity-limited ATLAS3D Survey is incomplete for the highest M/L galaxies below 1010.3 M?. There is a significant IMF-velocity dispersion trend for galaxies with SED masses above this limit, but no trend for galaxies with kinematic masses above this limit. We also find an IMF trend with distance, but no correlation between nearest neighbour ETGs, which excludes a large environmental dependence. Our findings do not rule out the reported IMF variations, but they suggest that further study is needed.

  6. THE HD 192263 SYSTEM: PLANETARY ORBITAL PERIOD AND STELLAR VARIABILITY DISENTANGLED

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir, Diana; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Kane, Stephen R.; Ciardi, David R.; Von Braun, Kaspar; Henry, Gregory W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Howard, Andrew W.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Laughlin, Gregory

    2012-07-20

    As part of the Transit Ephemeris Refinement and Monitoring Survey, we present new radial velocities and photometry of the HD 192263 system. Our analysis of the already available Keck-HIRES and CORALIE radial velocity measurements together with the five new Keck measurements we report in this paper results in improved orbital parameters for the system. We derive constraints on the size and phase location of the transit window for HD 192263b, a Jupiter-mass planet with a period of 24.3587 {+-} 0.0022 days. We use 10 years of Automated Photoelectric Telescope photometry to analyze the stellar variability and search for planetary transits. We find continuing evidence of spot activity with periods near 23.4 days. The shape of the corresponding photometric variations changes over time, giving rise to not one but several Fourier peaks near this value. However, none of these frequencies coincides with the planet's orbital period and thus we find no evidence of star-planet interactions in the system. We attribute the {approx}23 day variability to stellar rotation. There are also indications of spot variations on longer (8 years) timescales. Finally, we use the photometric data to exclude transits for a planet with the predicted radius of 1.09 R{sub J} , and as small as 0.79 R{sub J} .

  7. Ionic Current Variability and Functional Stability in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Golowasch, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Identified neurons in different animals express ionic currents at highly variable levels (population variability). If neuronal identity is associated with stereotypical function, as is the case in genetically identical neurons or in unambiguously identified individual neurons, this variability poses a conundrum: How is activity the same if the components that generate it—ionic current levels—are different? In some cases, ionic current variability across similar neurons generates an output gradient. However, many neurons produce very similar output activity, despite substantial variability in ionic conductances. It appears that, in many such cells, conductance levels of one ionic current vary in proportion to the conductance levels of another current. As a result, in a population of neurons, these conductances appear to be correlated. Here, I review theoretical and experimental work that suggests that neuronal ionic current correlation can reduce the global ionic current variability and can contribute to functional stability. PMID:26069342

  8. Study of the triple-mass Tethered Satellite System under aerodynamic drag and J2 perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzaghi, Pourya; Assadian, Nima

    2015-11-01

    The dynamics of multi-tethered satellite formations consisting of three masses are studied in this paper. The triple-mass triple-tethered satellite system is modeled under the low Earth orbit perturbations of drag and Earth's oblateness and its equilibrium conditions are derived. It is modeled as three equal end-masses connected by a uniform-mass straight tether. The lengths of tethers are supposed to be constant and in this manner the angles of the plane consisting the masses are taken as the state variables of the system. The governing equations of motion are derived using Lagrangian approach. The aerodynamic drag perturbation is expressed as an external non-conservative force and the Earth oblateness (J2 perturbation) is considered as a term of potential energy. The equilibrium conditions of this system are found and their stability is investigated through the linear stability theory. Then, the results are verified by using a nonlinear simulation for three types of equilibrium conditions.

  9. Targeted Multiplex Imaging Mass Spectrometry with Single Chain Fragment Variable (scfv) Recombinant Antibodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiery, Gwendoline; Mernaugh, Ray L.; Yan, Heping; Spraggins, Jeffrey M.; Yang, Junhai; Parl, Fritz F.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2012-10-01

    Recombinant scfv antibodies specific for CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 P450 enzymes were combined with targeted imaging mass spectrometry to simultaneously detect the P450 enzymes present in archived, paraffin-embedded, human breast cancer tissue sections. By using CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 specific scfv, each coupled to a unique reporter molecule (i.e., a mass tag) it was possible to simultaneously detect multiple antigens within a single tissue sample with high sensitivity and specificity using mass spectrometry. The capability of imaging multiple antigens at the same time is a significant advance that overcomes technical barriers encountered when using present day approaches to develop assays that can simultaneously detect more than a single antigen in the same tissue sample.

  10. Comparison of energy efficiency between variable refrigerant flow systems and ground source heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tainzhen; Liu, Xaiobing

    2009-11-01

    With the current movement toward net zero energy buildings, many technologies are promoted with emphasis on their superior energy efficiency. The variable refrigerant flow (VRF) and ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are probably the most competitive technologies among these. However, there are few studies reporting the energy efficiency of VRF systems compared with GSHP systems. In this article, a preliminary comparison of energy efficiency between the air-source VRF and GSHP systems is presented. The computer simulation results show that GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRF system for conditioning a small office building in two selected US climates. In general, GSHP system is more energy efficient than the air-source VRV system, especially when the building has significant heating loads. For buildings with less heating loads, the GSHP system could still perform better than the air-source VRF system in terms of energy efficiency, but the resulting energy savings may be marginal.

  11. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-08-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  12. Heat and mass transfer considerations in advanced heat pump systems

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, C.B.; Bell, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    Advanced heat-pump cycles are being investigated for various applications. However, the working media and associated thermal design aspects require new concepts for maintaining high thermal effectiveness and phase equilibrium for achieving maximum possible thermodynamic advantages. In the present study, the heat- and mass-transfer processes in two heat-pump systems -- those based on absorption processes, and those using refrigerant mixtures -- are analyzed. The major technical barriers for achieving the ideal performance predicted by thermodynamic analysis are identified. The analysis provides general guidelines for the development of heat- and mass-transfer equipment for advanced heat-pump systems.

  13. Fermilab's multi-petabyte scalable mass storage system

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, Gene; Alcorn, Bonnie; Baisley, Wayne; Bakken, Jon; Berg, David; Berman, Eileen; Huang, Chih-Hao; Jones, Terry; Kennedy, Robert D.; Kulyavtsev, Alexander; Moibenko, Alexander; Perelmutov, Timur; Petravick, Don; Podstavkov, Vladimir; Szmuksta, George; Zalokar, Michael; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    Fermilab provides a multi-Petabyte scale mass storage system for High Energy Physics (HEP) Experiments and other scientific endeavors. We describe the scalability aspects of the hardware and software architecture that were designed into the Mass Storage System to permit us to scale to multiple petabytes of storage capacity, manage tens of terabytes per day in data transfers, support hundreds of users, and maintain data integrity. We discuss in detail how we scale the system over time to meet the ever-increasing needs of the scientific community, and relate our experiences with many of the technical and economic issues related to scaling the system. Since the 2003 MSST conference, the experiments at Fermilab have generated more than 1.9 PB of additional data. We present results on how this system has scaled and performed for the Fermilab CDF and D0 Run II experiments as well as other HEP experiments and scientific endeavors.

  14. Entanglement in continuous variable systems: Recent advances and current perspectives

    E-print Network

    Gerardo Adesso; Fabrizio Illuminati

    2007-06-27

    We review the theory of continuous-variable entanglement with special emphasis on foundational aspects, conceptual structures, and mathematical methods. Much attention is devoted to the discussion of separability criteria and entanglement properties of Gaussian states, for their great practical relevance in applications to quantum optics and quantum information, as well as for the very clean framework that they allow for the study of the structure of nonlocal correlations. We give a self-contained introduction to phase-space and symplectic methods in the study of Gaussian states of infinite-dimensional bosonic systems. We review the most important results on the separability and distillability of Gaussian states and discuss the main properties of bipartite entanglement. These include the extremal entanglement, minimal and maximal, of two-mode mixed Gaussian states, the ordering of two-mode Gaussian states according to different measures of entanglement, the unitary (reversible) localization, and the scaling of bipartite entanglement in multimode Gaussian states. We then discuss recent advances in the understanding of entanglement sharing in multimode Gaussian states, including the proof of the monogamy inequality of distributed entanglement for all Gaussian states, and its consequences for the characterization of multipartite entanglement. We finally review recent advances and discuss possible perspectives on the qualification and quantification of entanglement in non Gaussian states, a field of research that is to a large extent yet to be explored.

  15. Short term mass variability in Greenland, from GRACE Isabella Velicogna,1

    E-print Network

    Huybrechts, Philippe

    , and hydrology in ice-free regions. The discrepancy is smaller, but still significant, for south Greenland alone/yr or larger [Krabill et al., 2000]. Changes in Greenland mass are caused mainly by differ- ences between is meltwater that flows from land to the ocean. It can come from melting snow or ice anywhere on the ice sheet

  16. CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS AS A MECHANISM FOR PRODUCING IR VARIABILITY IN DEBRIS DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Osten, Rachel; Livio, Mario; Lubow, Steve; Pringle, J. E.; Soderblom, David; Valenti, Jeff

    2013-03-10

    Motivated by recent observations of short-timescale variations in the infrared emission of circumstellar disks, we propose that coronal mass ejections can remove dust grains on timescales as short as a few days. Continuous monitoring of stellar activity, coupled with infrared observations, can place meaningful constraints on the proposed mechanism.

  17. Uinta Ground Squirrel Demography: Is Body Mass a Better Categorical Variable Than Age?

    E-print Network

    Sauer, John R.; Slade, Norman A.

    1987-06-01

    better predictor of survival than was age, and was nearly as good a predictor of litter size. Mass-based stage transition matrices provided results similar to age-based transition matrices, but also indicated that larger and subsequently more fecund young...

  18. VARIABLE BOUND-SITE CHARGING CONTRIBUTIONS TO SURFACE COMPLEXATION MASS ACTION EXPRESSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One and two pK models of surface complexation reactions between reactive surface sites (>SOH) and the proton (H+) use mass action expressions of the form: Ka={[>SOHn-1z-1]g>SOH(0-1)aH+EXP(-xeY/kT)}/{[>SOHnz]g>SOH(n)} where Ka=the acidity constant, [ ]=reactive species concentrati...

  19. A MacCormack-TVD finite difference method to simulate the mass flow in mountainous terrain with variable computational domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Chaojun; He, Siming; Xu, Qiang; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Wencheng

    2013-03-01

    A two-dimensional mountainous mass flow dynamic procedure solver (Massflow-2D) using the MacCormack-TVD finite difference scheme is proposed. The solver is implemented in Matlab on structured meshes with variable computational domain. To verify the model, a variety of numerical test scenarios, namely, the classical one-dimensional and two-dimensional dam break, the landslide in Hong Kong in 1993 and the Nora debris flow in the Italian Alps in 2000, are executed, and the model outputs are compared with published results. It is established that the model predictions agree well with both the analytical solution as well as the field observations.

  20. Impact of Climatic Variability on Atmospheric Mass Distribution and GRACE-Derived Gravity Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salstein, David A.; Rosen, Richard D.; Ponte, Rui M.; Frey, Herbert (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    During the period we calculated the atmospheric data sets related to its mass and angular momentum distribution. For mass, we determined the various harmonics from the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis, especially the low-order harmonics that are useful in studying the gravitation distribution as will be determined from the GRACE mission. Atmospheric mass is also related to the atmospheric loading on the solid Earth; we cooperated with scientists who needed the atmospheric mass information for understanding its contributions to the overall loading, necessary for vertical and horizontal coordinate estimation. We calculated atmospheric angular momentum from the NCEP-NCAR reanalyses and 4 operational meteorological centers, based on the motion (wind) terms and the mass (surface pressure) terms. These are associated with motions of the planet, including its axial component causing changes in the length of day, more related to the winds, and the equatorial component related to motions of the pole, more related to the mass. Tasks related to the ocean mass and angular momentum were added to the project as well. For these we have noted the ocean impact on motions of the pole as well as the torque mechanisms that relate the transfer of angular momentum between oceans and solid earth. The activities of the project may be summarized in the following first manuscript written in December 2002, for a symposium that Dr. Salstein attended on Geodynamics. We have continued to assess ocean angular momentum (OAM) quantities derived from bottom pressure and velocity fields estimated with our finite-difference barotropic (single layer) model. Three years of output (1993-95) from a run without any data constraints was compared to output from a corresponding run that was constrained by altimeter data using a Kalman filter and smoother scheme. Respective OAM time series were combined with corresponding atmospheric series and compared to observed polar motion. The constrained OAM series provided slightly better variance reduction than the unconstrained series. Analysis provided a check on the estimation scheme and pointed to further work to improve the determination of OAM using this method. A significant effort was also devoted to quantifying effects of uncertainties in high frequency winds on the mean and seasonal momentum exchange between atmosphere and oceans.

  1. High Frequency Effects of Variable Frequency Drives (VFD) on Electrical Submersible Pump (ESP) Systems 

    E-print Network

    Ozkentli, Esra

    2012-10-19

    Variable frequency drives (VFD) and subsea (umbilical) cables are frequently used in electrical submersible pump (ESP) systems for offshore platforms. There are two basic system configurations for ESP systems; VFD can be installed on the platform...

  2. Mass transfer dynamics in double degenerate binary systems

    E-print Network

    M. Dan; S. Rosswog; M. Brüggen

    2008-11-10

    We present a numerical study of the mass transfer dynamics prior to the gravitational wave-driven merger of a double white dwarf system. Recently, there has been some discussion about the dynamics of these last stages, different methods seemed to provide qualitatively different results. While earlier SPH simulations indicated a very quick disruption of the binary on roughly the orbital time scale, more recent grid-based calculations find long-lived mass transfer for many orbital periods. Here we demonstrate how sensitive the dynamics of this last stage is to the exact initial conditions. We show that, after a careful preparation of the initial conditions, the reportedly short-lived systems undergo mass transfer for many dozens of orbits. The reported numbers of orbits are resolution-biased and therefore represent only lower limits to what is realized in nature. Nevertheless, the study shows convincingly the convergence of different methods to very similar results.

  3. DETECTION OF LOW-MASS-RATIO STELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gullikson, Kevin; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    O- and B-type stars are often found in binary systems, but the low binary mass-ratio regime is relatively unexplored due to observational difficulties. Binary systems with low mass ratios may have formed through fragmentation of the circumstellar disk rather than molecular cloud core fragmentation. We describe a new technique sensitive to G- and K-type companions to early B stars, a mass ratio of roughly 0.1, using high-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra. We apply this technique to a sample of archived VLT/CRIRES observations of nearby B stars in the CO bandhead near 2300 nm. While there are no unambiguous binary detections in our sample, we identify HIP 92855 and HIP 26713 as binary candidates warranting follow-up observations. We use our non-detections to determine upper limits to the frequency of FGK stars orbiting early B-type primaries.

  4. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  5. Characteristics, processes, and causes of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ronghui; Chen, Jilong; Wang, Lin; Lin, Zhongda

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in the study of the characteristics, processes, and causes of spatio-temporal variabilities of the East Asian monsoon (EAM) system are reviewed in this paper. The understanding of the EAM system has improved in many aspects: the basic characteristics of horizontal and vertical structures, the annual cycle of the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) system and the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) system, the characteristics of the spatio-temporal variabilities of the EASM system and the EAWM system, and especially the multiple modes of the EAM system and their spatio-temporal variabilities. Some new results have also been achieved in understanding the atmosphere-ocean interaction and atmosphere-land interaction processes that affect the variability of the EAM system. Based on recent studies, the EAM system can be seen as more than a circulation system, it can be viewed as an atmosphere-ocean-land coupled system, namely, the EAM climate system. In addition, further progress has been made in diagnosing the internal physical mechanisms of EAM climate system variability, especially regarding the characteristics and properties of the East Asia-Pacific (EAP) teleconnection over East Asia and the North Pacific, the "Silk Road" teleconnection along the westerly jet stream in the upper troposphere over the Asian continent, and the dynamical effects of quasi-stationary planetary wave activity on EAM system variability. At the end of the paper, some scientific problems regarding understanding the EAM system variability are proposed for further study.

  6. Accurate Prediction of the Ammonia Probes of a Variable Proton-to-Electron Mass Ratio

    E-print Network

    Owens, Alec; Thiel, Walter; Špirko, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive study of the mass sensitivity of the vibration-rotation-inversion transitions of $^{14}$NH$_3$, $^{15}$NH$_3$, $^{14}$ND$_3$, and $^{15}$ND$_3$ is carried out variationally using the TROVE approach. Variational calculations are robust and accurate, offering a new way to compute sensitivity coefficients. Particular attention is paid to the $\\Delta k=\\pm 3$ transitions between the accidentally coinciding rotation-inversion energy levels of the $\

  7. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    SciTech Connect

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G.; Mukadam, A.S.; García-Berro, E.; Corti, M.A. E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: anjum@astro.washington.edu E-mail: isern@ice.cat E-mail: mariela@fcaglp.fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar

    2012-12-01

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time (.?)) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theoretical .?) values to the corresponding empirical rate of change of period with time of R548 to discern the presence of axion cooling. We found that if the dominant period at 213.13 s in R548 is associated with a pulsation mode trapped in the hydrogen envelope, our models indicate the existence of additional cooling in this pulsating white dwarf, consistent with axions of mass m{sub a}cos {sup 2}? ? 17.1 meV at a 2? confidence level. This determination is in agreement with the value inferred from another well-studied DAV, G117-B15A. We now have two independent and consistent estimates of the mass of the axion obtained from DAVs, although additional studies of other pulsating white dwarfs are needed to confirm this value of the axion mass.

  8. An independent limit on the axion mass from the variable white dwarf star R548

    E-print Network

    Alejandro H. Córsico; Leandro G. Althaus; Alejandra D. Romero; Anjum S. Mukadam; Enrique García--Berro; Jordi Isern; S. O. Kepler; Mariela A. Corti

    2012-11-14

    Pulsating white dwarfs with hydrogen-rich atmospheres, also known as DAV stars, can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of fundamental particles like axions. Comparing the measured cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for sources of additional cooling due to the emission of weakly interacting particles. In this paper, we present an independent inference of the mass of the axion using the recent determination of the evolutionary cooling rate of R548, the DAV class prototype. We employ a state-of-the-art code which allows us to perform a detailed asteroseismological fit based on fully evolutionary sequences. Stellar cooling is the solely responsible of the rates of change of period with time ($\\dot\\Pi$) for the DAV class. Thus, the inclusion of axion emission in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DAV stars. This allows us to compare the theoretical $\\dot\\Pi$ values to the corresponding empirical rate of change of period with time of R548 to discern the presence of axion cooling. We found that if the dominant period at 213.13 s in R548 is associated with a pulsation mode trapped in the hydrogen envelope, our models indicate the existence of additional cooling in this pulsating white dwarf, consistent with axions of mass $m_{\\rm a} \\cos^2 \\beta \\sim 17.1$ meV at a 2$\\sigma$ confidence level. This determination is in agreement with the value inferred from another well-studied DAV, G117$-$B15A. We now have two independent and consistent estimates of the mass of the axion obtained from DAVs, although additional studies of other pulsating white dwarfs are needed to confirm this value of the axion mass.

  9. Advanced Life Support Equivalent System Mass Guidelines Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levri, Julie; Fisher, John W.; Jones, Harry W.; Drysdale, Alan E.; Ewert, Michael K.; Hanford, Anthony J.; Hogan, John A.; Joshi, Jitendri, A.; Vaccari, David A.

    2003-01-01

    This document is a viewgraph presentation which provides guidelines for performing an Equivalent System Mass (ESM) evaluation for trade study purposes. The document: 1) Defines ESM; 2) Explains how to calculate ESM; 3) Discusses interpretation of ESM results. The document is designed to provide detailed instructive material for researchers who are performing ESM evaluations for the first time.

  10. A common mass scaling for satellite systems of gaseous planets.

    PubMed

    Canup, Robin M; Ward, William R

    2006-06-15

    The Solar System's outer planets that contain hydrogen gas all host systems of multiple moons, which notably each contain a similar fraction of their respective planet's mass (approximately 10(-4)). This mass fraction is two to three orders of magnitude smaller than that of the largest satellites of the solid planets (such as the Earth's Moon), and its common value for gas planets has been puzzling. Here we model satellite growth and loss as a forming giant planet accumulates gas and rock-ice solids from solar orbit. We find that the mass fraction of its satellite system is regulated to approximately 10(-4) by a balance of two competing processes: the supply of inflowing material to the satellites, and satellite loss through orbital decay driven by the gas. We show that the overall properties of the satellite systems of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus arise naturally, and suggest that similar processes could limit the largest moons of extrasolar Jupiter-mass planets to Moon-to-Mars size. PMID:16778883

  11. Fast Simulation of Mass-Spring Systems Tiantian Liu

    E-print Network

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    for subsequent Newton's iteration. CR Categories: I.3.7 [Computer Graphics]: Three-Dimensional Graphics: Time integration, implicit Euler method, mass-spring systems. Links: DL PDF VIDEO WEB 1 Introduction.g., games) and slows production work flows in off-line settings (e.g., film and visual effects

  12. Continuous-variables entanglement purification with atomic systems

    E-print Network

    Stojan Rebic; Stefano Mancini; Giovanna Morigi; David Vitali

    2010-05-28

    We present a proposal for entanglement purification of the continuous-variable quantum state of two propagating optical fields. The scheme is based on letting each field interact with a local node, an atomic ensemble, whose internal collective excitation plays the role of an ancillary continuous variable resource. Entanglement purification is achieved by a dichotomic measurement, representing the required non-Gaussian element, and which consists in detecting the presence or absence of collective excitations in the atomic ensemble. This scheme can be extended to networks, where the nodes are single trapped atoms, and constitutes an important building block for the implementation of a continuous-variable quantum repeater.

  13. Simulating variably-saturated reactive transport of selenium and nitrogen in agricultural groundwater systems.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Ryan T; Gates, Timothy K; Halvorson, Ardell D

    2013-06-01

    Selenium (Se) contamination in environmental systems has become a major issue in many regions world-wide during the previous decades, with both elevated and deficient Se concentrations in groundwater, surface water, soils and associated cultivated crops reported. To provide a tool that can assess baseline conditions and explore remediation strategies, this paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the reactive transport of Se species in large-scale variably-saturated groundwater systems influenced by agricultural practices. Developed by incorporating a Se reaction module into the multi-species, variably-saturated reactive transport model UZF-RT3D, model features include near-surface Se cycling due to agricultural practices, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the inclusion of a nitrogen (N) cycle and reaction module due to the dependence of Se transformation and speciation on the presence of nitrate (NO?). Although the primary motivation is applying the model to large-scale systems, this paper presents applications to agricultural soil profile systems to corroborate the near-surface module processes that are vital in estimating mass loadings to the saturated zone in large-scale fate and transport studies. The first application jointly tests the Se and N modules for corn test plots receiving varying loadings of fertilizer, whereas the second application tests the N module for fertilized and unfertilized test plots. Results indicate that the model is successful in reproducing observed measurements of Se and NO? concentrations, particularly in lower soil layers and hence in regards to leaching. For the first application, the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is used to condition model parameters, demonstrating the usefulness of the EnKF in real-world reactive transport systems. PMID:23584456

  14. Simulating variably-saturated reactive transport of selenium and nitrogen in agricultural groundwater systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Ryan T.; Gates, Timothy K.; Halvorson, Ardell D.

    2013-06-01

    Selenium (Se) contamination in environmental systems has become a major issue in many regions world-wide during the previous decades, with both elevated and deficient Se concentrations in groundwater, surface water, soils and associated cultivated crops reported. To provide a tool that can assess baseline conditions and explore remediation strategies, this paper presents a numerical model capable of simulating the reactive transport of Se species in large-scale variably-saturated groundwater systems influenced by agricultural practices. Developed by incorporating a Se reaction module into the multi-species, variably-saturated reactive transport model UZF-RT3D, model features include near-surface Se cycling due to agricultural practices, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the inclusion of a nitrogen (N) cycle and reaction module due to the dependence of Se transformation and speciation on the presence of nitrate (NO3). Although the primary motivation is applying the model to large-scale systems, this paper presents applications to agricultural soil profile systems to corroborate the near-surface module processes that are vital in estimating mass loadings to the saturated zone in large-scale fate and transport studies. The first application jointly tests the Se and N modules for corn test plots receiving varying loadings of fertilizer, whereas the second application tests the N module for fertilized and unfertilized test plots. Results indicate that the model is successful in reproducing observed measurements of Se and NO3 concentrations, particularly in lower soil layers and hence in regards to leaching. For the first application, the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is used to condition model parameters, demonstrating the usefulness of the EnKF in real-world reactive transport systems.

  15. Mechanism studies of seasonal variability of dissolved oxygen in Mass Bay: A multi-scale FVCOM/UG-RCA application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Pengfei; Chen, Changsheng; Qi, Jianhua; Beardsley, Robert C.; Tian, Rucheng; Zhao, Liuzhi; Lin, Huichan

    2014-03-01

    Long-term (1992-2010) water quality monitoring records reveal that the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in Mass Bay exhibits a well-defined seasonal cycle, highest in March-April and lowest in October. This pattern persists in all years with insignificant interannual variability. A multi-domain-nested coupled physical-biogeochemical model was developed and applied to simulate the DO field over the 16-year period 1995-2010. The model-computed DO and nitrogen concentrations were in good agreement with observations. An EOF analysis of the modeled DO field indicates that DO in Mass Bay features both well-defined seasonal and spatial modes. The magnitude and phase of the DO seasonal cycle vary more significantly in the southern bay than in the northern bay. Horizontal advection, which is connected to the western Gulf of Maine coastal currents, plays a dominant role in the DO variability in the northern bay. The southern bay features a well-defined local retention mechanism with a longer residence time. In this region, the DO variation is controlled predominantly by local biogeochemical processes. Since the photosynthetic minus respiration production of DO is always balanced to a large degree by the oxidation of organic matters, reaeration becomes a major driver for the seasonal cycle of DO.

  16. Annual variation of coastal uplift in Greenland as an indicator of variable and accelerating ice mass loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qian; Wdowinski, Shimon; Dixon, Timothy H.

    2013-05-01

    Seasonal melting of the coastal part of the Greenland ice sheet is investigated using GPS vertical displacement data from coastal stations, combined with data on atmospheric and ocean temperatures. Using a high pass filter and cubic spline models, we estimate five variables describing seasonal uplift, a proxy for proximal mass loss, including duration of the melt season and the amount of summer uplift. Our analysis shows both temporal and spatial variations of uplift. Southern coastal Greenland experienced anomalously large uplift in summer 2010, implying significant melting that year. However, the northwest coast did not experience significant change in uplift at that time. Our data suggest that a combination of warm summer air temperature and warm sub-surface ocean water temperature drove the large mass losses in 2010. Using the uplift pattern of 2008-2010, and comparing to atmospheric data and ocean water temperature data, we show that warm Irminger Water (IW) exerted significant influence on coastal melting in southeastern, southern and southwestern Greenland, reaching about 69°N in 2010. North of this, IW did not exert significant influence, in effect defining the northward limit of the sub-polar gyre for that year. Thus, short-term variability in the coastal GPS uplift signal can be used to infer an oceanographic parameter that has a critical influence on Greenland ice sheet health.

  17. An Infinite Order Discrete Variable Representation of an Effective Mass Hamiltonian: Application to Exciton Wave Functions in Quantum Confined Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Kaledin, Alexey L; Lian, Tianquan; Hill, Craig L; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2014-08-12

    We describe an extension of the conventional Fourier grid discrete variable representation (DVR) to the bound state problem of a particle with a position-dependent mass. An infinite order DVR, derived for a variable mass kinetic energy operator, coupled with an efficient grid contraction scheme yields essentially exact eigenvalues for a chosen grid spacing. Implementation of the method is shown to be very practical due to the fact that in a DVR no integral evaluation is necessary and that the resultant kinetic energy matrix is sparse. Numerical calculations are presented for exciton states of spherical, cylindrical, and toric Type I (CdSe/ZnS) core-shell quantum dots. In these examples, electron-hole interaction is treated explicitly by solving a self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson equation on a contracted DVR grid. Prospective applications of the developed approach to calculating electron transfer rates between adsorbed molecular acceptors and quantum confined nanocrystals of generic shape, dimensionality, and composition are also discussed. PMID:26588309

  18. System and method of modulating electrical signals using photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductors as variable resistors

    DOEpatents

    Harris, John Richardson; Caporaso, George J; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for producing modulated electrical signals. The system uses a variable resistor having a photoconductive wide bandgap semiconductor material construction whose conduction response to changes in amplitude of incident radiation is substantially linear throughout a non-saturation region to enable operation in non-avalanche mode. The system also includes a modulated radiation source, such as a modulated laser, for producing amplitude-modulated radiation with which to direct upon the variable resistor and modulate its conduction response. A voltage source and an output port, are both operably connected to the variable resistor so that an electrical signal may be produced at the output port by way of the variable resistor, either generated by activation of the variable resistor or propagating through the variable resistor. In this manner, the electrical signal is modulated by the variable resistor so as to have a waveform substantially similar to the amplitude-modulated radiation.

  19. Nevada Monitoring System to Assess Climate Variability and Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devitt, D. A.; Arnone, J.; Biondi, F.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Saito, L.; Young, M.; Riddle, B.; Strachan, S. D.; Bird, B.; McCurdy, G.; Lyles, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Nevada System of Higher Education (University of Nevada Las Vegas, University of Nevada Reno and the Desert Research Institute) was awarded a multiyear NSF EPSCoR grant to support infrastructure associated with regional climate change research. The overall project is comprised of 5 components: education, cyberinfrastructure, policy, climate modeling and water/ecology. The water and ecology components are using their infrastructure funding for the assessment of climate variability and change on ecosystem function and hydrologic services. A series of 10 m tall towers are under construction and are being equipped with a wide array of sensors to monitor atmospheric, soil and plant parameters over time. The towers are located within the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts in two transects; the Mojave Desert transect is located in the southern Nevada Sheep Mountain Range and the Great Basin transect is located in the east central Nevada Snake Mountain Range. The towers are centrally positioned in well-defined vegetation zones. In southern Nevada these zones are represented by the following plant species: Creosote/Bursage (Creosotebush scrub zone); Blackbrush/Joshua Tree (Blackbrush zone); Pinyon/ Juniper (pygmy conifer zone), Ponderosa Pine (montane zone) and Bristlecone Pine (subalpine zone). The Snake Mountain transect incorporates the eastern and western valleys on both sides of the mountain range. The vegetation zones are represented by: Greasewood and mixed shrub (salt desert zone); Big Sage (sagebrush zone); Pinyon/Juniper (pygmy conifer zone); White/Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine and Aspen (montane zone); and Bristlecone/Limber Pine and Engelmann Spruce (subalpine zone). We are currently in the third year of funding with a goal of having the majority of towers fully operational by winter 2010. In close collaboration with our cyberinfrastructure component team, all data acquired from the transect monitoring stations will be made available to other researchers and the public in Nevada and elsewhere, cooperating agencies and organizations, and State of Nevada land managers.

  20. High-performance mass storage system for workstations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, T.; Tang, Y.; Gupta, L.; Cooperman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations and Personnel Computers (PC) are very popular tools for office automation, command and control, scientific analysis, database management, and many other applications. However, when using Input/Output (I/O) intensive applications, the RISC workstations and PC's are often overburdened with the tasks of collecting, staging, storing, and distributing data. Also, by using standard high-performance peripherals and storage devices, the I/O function can still be a common bottleneck process. Therefore, the high-performance mass storage system, developed by Loral AeroSys' Independent Research and Development (IR&D) engineers, can offload a RISC workstation of I/O related functions and provide high-performance I/O functions and external interfaces. The high-performance mass storage system has the capabilities to ingest high-speed real-time data, perform signal or image processing, and stage, archive, and distribute the data. This mass storage system uses a hierarchical storage structure, thus reducing the total data storage cost, while maintaining high-I/O performance. The high-performance mass storage system is a network of low-cost parallel processors and storage devices. The nodes in the network have special I/O functions such as: SCSI controller, Ethernet controller, gateway controller, RS232 controller, IEEE488 controller, and digital/analog converter. The nodes are interconnected through high-speed direct memory access links to form a network. The topology of the network is easily reconfigurable to maximize system throughput for various applications. This high-performance mass storage system takes advantage of a 'busless' architecture for maximum expandability. The mass storage system consists of magnetic disks, a WORM optical disk jukebox, and an 8mm helical scan tape to form a hierarchical storage structure. Commonly used files are kept in the magnetic disk for fast retrieval. The optical disks are used as archive media, and the tapes are used as backup media. The storage system is managed by the IEEE mass storage reference model-based UniTree software package. UniTree software will keep track of all files in the system, will automatically migrate the lesser used files to archive media, and will stage the files when needed by the system. The user can access the files without knowledge of their physical location. The high-performance mass storage system developed by Loral AeroSys will significantly boost the system I/O performance and reduce the overall data storage cost. This storage system provides a highly flexible and cost-effective architecture for a variety of applications (e.g., realtime data acquisition with a signal and image processing requirement, long-term data archiving and distribution, and image analysis and enhancement).

  1. The young low-mass star ISO-Oph-50: extreme variability induced by a clumpy, evolving circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Alexander; Muži?, Koraljka; Geers, Vincent

    2015-07-01

    ISO-Oph-50 is a young low-mass object in the ˜1 Myr old Ophiuchus star-forming region undergoing dramatic changes in its optical/near/mid-infrared brightness by 2-4 mag. We present new multi-band photometry and near-infrared spectra, combined with a synopsis of the existing literature data. Based on the spectroscopy, the source is confirmed as a mid-M dwarf, with evidence for ongoing accretion. The near-infrared light curves show large-scale variations, with 2-4 mag amplitude in the bands IJHK, with the object generally being bluer when faint. Near its brightest state, the object shows colour changes consistent with variable extinction of ?AV ˜ 7 mag. High-cadence monitoring at 3.6 ?m reveals quasi-periodic variations with a typical time-scale of 1-2 weeks. The best explanation for these characteristics is a low-mass star seen through circumstellar matter, whose complex variability is caused by changing inhomogeneities in the inner parts of the disc. When faint, the direct stellar emission is blocked; the near-infrared radiation is dominated by scattered light. When bright, the emission is consistent with a photosphere strongly reddened by circumstellar dust. Based on the available constraints, the inhomogeneities have to be located at or beyond ˜0.1 au distance from the star. If this scenario turns out to be correct, a major portion of the inner disc has to be clumpy, structured, and/or in turmoil. In its observational characteristics, this object resembles other types of young stellar objects with variability caused in the inner disc. Compared to other objects, however, ISO-Oph-50 is clearly an extreme case, given the large amplitude of the brightness and colour changes combined with the erratic behaviour. ISO-Oph-50 has been near its brightest state since 2013; further monitoring is highly encouraged.

  2. Luminous blue variables are antisocial: their isolation implies that they are kicked mass gainers in binary evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan; Tombleson, Ryan

    2015-02-01

    Based on their relatively isolated environments, we argue that luminous blue variables (LBVs) must be primarily the product of binary evolution, challenging the traditional single-star view wherein LBVs mark a brief transition between massive O-type stars and Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. If the latter were true, then LBVs should be concentrated in young massive clusters like early O-type stars. This is decidedly not the case. Examining locations of LBVs in our Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds reveals that, with only a few exceptions, LBVs systematically avoid clusters of O-type stars. In the Large Magellanic Cloud, LBVs are statistically much more isolated than O-type stars, and (perhaps most surprisingly) even more isolated than WR stars. This makes it impossible for LBVs to be single `massive stars in transition' to WR stars. Instead, we propose that massive stars and supernova (SN) subtypes are dominated by bifurcated evolutionary paths in interacting binaries, wherein most WR stars and Type Ibc supernovae (SNe Ibc) correspond to the mass donors, while LBVs (and their lower mass analogues like B[e] supergiants, which are even more isolated) are the mass gainers. In this view, LBVs are evolved massive blue stragglers. Through binary mass transfer, rejuvinated mass gainers get enriched, spun up, and sometimes kicked far from their clustered birth sites by their companion's SN. This scenario agrees better with LBVs exploding as SNe IIn in isolation, and it predicts that many massive runaway stars may be rapid rotators. Mergers or blue Thorne-Zytkow-like objects might also give rise to LBVs, but these scenarios may have a harder time explaining why LBVs avoid clusters.

  3. Effects of amlodipine and fosinopril on heart rate variability and left ventricular mass in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bilge, A K; Atilgan, D; Tükek, T; Ozcan, M; Ozben, B; Koylan, N; Meriç, M

    2005-03-01

    The differences between long-acting dihydropyridines and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors with regard to their long-term effects on 24-h heart rate variability (HRV) and left ventricular (LV) mass are less clear in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. We studied the long-term effects of amlodipine and fosinopril on 24-h HRV and LV mass in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. In this study, 27 patients with never treated mild-to-moderate essential hypertension were randomised to receive either amlodipine or fosinopril once daily as monotherapy. At baseline and at the end of the third and sixth months, each of the patients underwent 24-h HRV and ambulatory systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure analysis. LV mass index was calculated from echocardiographic examination at baseline and at the end of the sixth month. In amlodipine group (n = 14), 24-h SBP/DBP (mmHg) decreased from 144 +/- 8/94 +/- 4 to 128 +/- 6/83 +/- 3 at the end of the third month and to 125 +/- 5/81 +/- 2 at the end of the sixth month (p < 0.0001). In fosinopril group (n = 13), the respective changes were 143 +/- 9/97 +/- 7, 132 +/- 6/87 +/- 5 and 127 +/- 6/82 +/- 3 (p < 0.0001). At the end of the sixth month, LV mass index (g/m(2)) decreased from 122 +/- 26 to 105 +/- 21 in amlodipine group (p < 0.0001) and from 118 +/- 23 to 101 +/- 14 in fosinopril group (p < 0.0001). There were no significant changes in HRV parameters in both the groups. It was concluded that both drugs caused significant decrease in SBP and DBP, and LV mass in patients with mild-to-moderate essential hypertension did not have significant long-term effects of either amlodipine or fosinopril on 24-h HRV parameters reflecting sympathetic or parasympathetic activity in these patients. PMID:15857327

  4. The HD 5980 multiple system: Masses and evolutionary status

    SciTech Connect

    Koenigsberger, Gloria; Gamen, Roberto; Barbá, Rodolfo E-mail: nmorrell@lco.edu E-mail: rgamen@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar E-mail: ngonzalez@astro.uni-bonn.de E-mail: rbarba@dfuls.cl

    2014-10-01

    New spectroscopic observations of the LBV/WR multiple system HD 5980 in the Small Magellanic Cloud are used to address the question of the masses and evolutionary status of the two very luminous stars in the 19.3 day eclipsing binary system. Two distinct components of the N V 4944 Å line are detected in emission and their radial velocity variations are used to derive masses of 61 and 66 M {sub ?}, under the assumption that binary interaction effects on this atomic transition are negligible. We propose that this binary system is the product of quasi-chemically homogeneous evolution with little or no mass transfer. Thus, both of these binary stars may be candidates for gamma-ray burst progenitors or even pair instability supernovae. Analysis of the photospheric absorption lines belonging to the third-light object in the system confirm that it consists of an O-type star in a 96.56 day eccentric orbit (e = 0.82) around an unseen companion. The 5:1 period ratio and high eccentricities of the two binaries suggest that they may constitute a hierarchical quadruple system.

  5. ANGULAR MOMENTUM AND GALAXY FORMATION REVISITED: EFFECTS OF VARIABLE MASS-TO-LIGHT RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Fall, S. Michael; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2013-06-01

    We rederive the relation between the specific angular momentum j {sub *} and the mass M {sub *} of the stellar matter in galaxies of different morphological types. This is a revision of the j {sub *}-M {sub *} diagram presented in our recent comprehensive study of galactic angular momentum. In that work, we estimated j {sub *} from kinematic and photometric data that extended to large radii and M {sub *} from near-infrared luminosities L{sub K} with an assumed universal mass-to-light ratio M {sub *}/L{sub K} . However, recent stellar population models show large variations in M {sub *}/L{sub K} correlated with B – V color. In the present work, we use this correlation to estimate M {sub *}/L{sub K} and hence M {sub *} from the measured B – V and L{sub K} . Our revised j {sub *}-M {sub *} diagram is similar to our previous one; both disk-dominated and elliptical galaxies follow nearly parallel sequences with j{sub ?}?M{sub ?}{sup ?} and ? = 0.6 ± 0.1. However, the offset between the sequences is now a factor of about 5, some 30% larger than before (and close to the offset found by Fall in 1983). Thus, our new results place even tighter constraints on the loss of specific angular momentum by galactic disks over their lifetimes.

  6. Angular Momentum and Galaxy Formation Revisited: Effects of Variable Mass-to-light Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fall, S. Michael; Romanowsky, Aaron J.

    2013-06-01

    We rederive the relation between the specific angular momentum j sstarf and the mass M sstarf of the stellar matter in galaxies of different morphological types. This is a revision of the j sstarf-M sstarf diagram presented in our recent comprehensive study of galactic angular momentum. In that work, we estimated j sstarf from kinematic and photometric data that extended to large radii and M sstarf from near-infrared luminosities LK with an assumed universal mass-to-light ratio M sstarf/LK . However, recent stellar population models show large variations in M sstarf/LK correlated with B - V color. In the present work, we use this correlation to estimate M sstarf/LK and hence M sstarf from the measured B - V and LK . Our revised j sstarf-M sstarf diagram is similar to our previous one; both disk-dominated and elliptical galaxies follow nearly parallel sequences with j_\\star \\propto M_{\\star }^{\\alpha } and ? = 0.6 ± 0.1. However, the offset between the sequences is now a factor of about 5, some 30% larger than before (and close to the offset found by Fall in 1983). Thus, our new results place even tighter constraints on the loss of specific angular momentum by galactic disks over their lifetimes.

  7. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-12-03

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  8. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2014-05-13

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  9. Mass independent kinetic energy reducing inlet system for vacuum environment

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-12-14

    A particle inlet system comprises a first chamber having a limiting orifice for an incoming gas stream and a micrometer controlled expansion slit. Lateral components of the momentum of the particles are substantially cancelled due to symmetry of the configuration once the laminar flow converges at the expansion slit. The particles and flow into a second chamber, which is maintained at a lower pressure than the first chamber, and then moves into a third chamber including multipole guides for electromagnetically confining the particle. The vertical momentum of the particles descending through the center of the third chamber is minimized as an upward stream of gases reduces the downward momentum of the particles. The translational kinetic energy of the particles is near-zero irrespective of the mass of the particles at an exit opening of the third chamber, which may be advantageously employed to provide enhanced mass resolution in mass spectrometry.

  10. Constraining Aerosol Optical Models Using Ground-Based, Collocated Particle Size and Mass Measurements in Variable Air Mass Regimes During the 7-SEAS/Dongsha Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Shaun W.; Hansell, Richard A.; Chow, Judith C.; Tsay, Si-Chee; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Ji, Qiang; Li, Can; Watson, John G.; Khlystov, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    During the spring of 2010, NASA Goddard's COMMIT ground-based mobile laboratory was stationed on Dongsha Island off the southwest coast of Taiwan, in preparation for the upcoming 2012 7-SEAS field campaign. The measurement period offered a unique opportunity for conducting detailed investigations of the optical properties of aerosols associated with different air mass regimes including background maritime and those contaminated by anthropogenic air pollution and mineral dust. What appears to be the first time for this region, a shortwave optical closure experiment for both scattering and absorption was attempted over a 12-day period during which aerosols exhibited the most change. Constraints to the optical model included combined SMPS and APS number concentration data for a continuum of fine and coarse-mode particle sizes up to PM2.5. We also take advantage of an IMPROVE chemical sampler to help constrain aerosol composition and mass partitioning of key elemental species including sea-salt, particulate organic matter, soil, non sea-salt sulphate, nitrate, and elemental carbon. Our results demonstrate that the observed aerosol scattering and absorption for these diverse air masses are reasonably captured by the model, where peak aerosol events and transitions between key aerosols types are evident. Signatures of heavy polluted aerosol composed mostly of ammonium and non sea-salt sulphate mixed with some dust with transitions to background sea-salt conditions are apparent in the absorption data, which is particularly reassuring owing to the large variability in the imaginary component of the refractive indices. Extinctive features at significantly smaller time scales than the one-day sample period of IMPROVE are more difficult to reproduce, as this requires further knowledge concerning the source apportionment of major chemical components in the model. Consistency between the measured and modeled optical parameters serves as an important link for advancing remote sensing and climate research studies in dynamic aerosol-rich environments like Dongsha.

  11. Factors influencing variability in the infiltration of PM2.5 mass and its components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeill, M.; Wallace, L.; Kearney, J.; Allen, R. W.; Van Ryswyk, K.; Judek, S.; Xu, X.; Wheeler, A.

    2012-12-01

    The infiltration of particles into homes can vary seasonally, between homes in a community and between communities. However, few studies have examined the day to day variability across multiple homes. We used continuous data collected from a 2-year (2005-2006) personal exposure study conducted in Windsor, ON to estimate daily infiltration factors (Finf) for fine particulate matter (PM2.5), Black Carbon (BC), and ultrafine particles (UFP) as well as the ambient personal exposure factor (Fpex) for PM2.5. In addition, the daily ambient and non-ambient generated components of indoor and personal concentrations were estimated. Median daily Finf estimates ranged from 0.26 to 0.36 across seasons for PM2.5; from 0.28 to 0.59 for BC; and from 0.15 to 0.26 for UFP. Median daily Fpex estimates ranged from 0.24 to 0.31 across seasons. Daily PM2.5 and UFP Finf and Fpex estimates were higher in summer than winter, although BC showed the opposite trend. Predictors of daily infiltration were typically related to window-opening behaviours, air conditioning, meteorological variables, and home age. In addition, use of electrostatic precipitators and stand alone air cleaners was associated with significantly reduced infiltration factors, indicating that these devices may provide a cost effective mechanism of reducing human exposures to particles of ambient origin. The majority of indoor PM2.5 (median 57-73%) and indoor BC (median 90-100%) was of ambient origin across seasons, while both personal PM2.5 and indoor UFPs had significant non-ambient contributions (median 60-65%). Factors that were found to increase non-ambient particle concentrations were typically related to cooking, candle use, supplemental heating, cleaning, and number of people in the home. Factors that were found to decrease non-ambient particle concentrations were open windows, and air cleaner use. This work has several implications to both epidemiologic studies and risk management. A better understanding of the factors influencing Finf and Fpex can improve exposure assessment and contribute to reduced exposure misclassification in epidemiologic studies. Furthermore, by increasing our knowledge of non-ambient and ambient exposures, risk associated with PM exposure can be managed more effectively.

  12. Noise Levels Associated With New York City's Mass Transit Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gershon, Robyn R. M.; Zeltser, Marina; Canton, Allison; Akram, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We measured noise levels associated with various forms of mass transit and compared them to exposure guidelines designed to protect against noise-induced hearing loss. Methods. We used noise dosimetry to measure time-integrated noise levels in a representative sample of New York City mass transit systems (subways, buses, ferries, tramway, and commuter railways) aboard transit vehicles and at vehicle boarding platforms or terminals during June and July 2007. Results. Of the transit types evaluated, subway cars and platforms had the highest associated equivalent continuous average (Leq) and maximum noise levels. All transit types had Leq levels appreciably above 70 A-weighted decibels, the threshold at which noise-induced hearing loss is considered possible. Conclusions. Mass transit noise exposure has the potential to exceed limits recommended by the World Health Organization and the US Environmental Protection Agency and thus cause noise-induced hearing loss among riders of all forms of mass transit given sufficient exposure durations. Environmental noise–control efforts in mass transit and, in cases in which controls are infeasible, the use of personal hearing protection would benefit the ridership's hearing health. PMID:19542046

  13. Scalability and Performance Improvements in the Fermilab Mass Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Matt; Dumitrescu, Catalin; Litvintsev, Dmitry; Moibenko, Alexander; Oleynik, Gene

    2012-12-01

    By 2009 the Fermilab Mass Storage System had encountered two major challenges: the required amount of data stored and accessed in both tiers of the system (dCache and Enstore) had significantly increased and the number of clients accessing Mass Storage System had increased from tens to hundreds of nodes and from hundreds to thousands of parallel requests. To address these challenges Enstore and the SRM part of dCache were modified to scale for performance, access rates, and capacity. This work increased the amount of simultaneously processed requests in a single Enstore Library instance from about 1000 to 30000. The rates of incoming requests to Enstore increased from tens to hundreds per second. Fermilab is invested in LTO4 tape technology and we have investigated both LTO5 and Oracle T10000C to cope with the increasing needs in capacity. We have decided to adopt T10000C, mainly due to its large capacity, which allows us to scale up the existing robotic storage space by a factor 6. This paper describes the modifications and investigations that allowed us to meet these scalability and performance challenges and provided some perspectives of Fermilab Mass Storage System.

  14. Design challenges of variable magnification/variable object distance (VMODO) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Steven H.; Alexay, Christopher C.; Palmer, Troy A.; Pollica, Naomi J.

    2014-06-01

    There are many applications for zoom systems which operate through a range of working distances while at the same time allowing multiple zoom levels or a smoothly varying magnification range. The problems involved in creating a system to support such applications are greater than either a fixed focal length system or a zoom system operating with an image at infinity. In this paper we will explore some of the optical and mechanical issues involved in such efforts, the tradeoffs between high optical performance and simple mechanical designs, and provide some of the solutions we've developed to address these issues.

  15. Decadal variability in coupled sea-ice-thermohaline circulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Neelin, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    An interdecadal oscillation in a coupled ocean-ice system was identified in a previous study. This paper extends that study to further examine the stability of the oscillation and the sensitivity of its frequency to various parameters and forcing fields. Three models are used: (i) an analytical box model; (ii) a two-dimensional model for the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) coupled to a thermodynamic ice model, as in the authors` previous study; and (iii) a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (OGCM) coupled to a similar ice model. The box model is used to elucidate the essential feedbacks that give rise to this oscillation and to identify the most important parameters and processes that determine the period. The counted model becomes more stable toward low coupling, greater diffusion, and weaker THC feedback. Nonlinear effects in the sea-ice model become important in the higher ocean-ice coupling regime where the effective sea-ice damping associated with this nonlinearity stabilizes the model. The 3D OGCM is used to test this coupled ocean-ice mechanism in a more realistic model setting. This model generates an interdecadal oscillation whose characteristics and phase relations among the model variables are similar to the oscillation obtained in the 2D models. The major difference is that the oscillation frequency is considerably lower. The difference can be explained in terms of the analytical box model solution in which the period of oscillation depends on the rate of anomalous density production by melting/cooling of sea ice per SST anomaly, times the rate of warming/cooling by anomalous THC heat advection per change in density anomaly. The 3D model has a smaller THC response to high-latitude density perturbations than the 2D model, and anomalous velocities in the 3D case tend to follow the mean isotherms so anomalous heat advection is reduced. This slows the ocean-ice feedback process, leading to the longer oscillation period. 36 refs., 27 figs.

  16. Variable gearing during locomotion in the human musculoskeletal system.

    PubMed

    Carrier, D R; Heglund, N C; Earls, K D

    1994-07-29

    Human feet and toes provide a mechanism for changing the gear ratio of the ankle extensor muscles during a running step. A variable gear ratio could enhance muscle performance during constant-speed running by applying a more effective prestretch during landing, while maintaining the muscles near the high-efficiency or high-power portion of the force-velocity curve during takeoff. Furthermore, during acceleration, variable gearing may allow muscle contractile properties to remain optimized despite rapid changes in running speed. Forceplate and kinematic analyses of running steps show low gear ratios at touchdown that increase throughout the contact phase. PMID:8036513

  17. A Body Shape Index and Heart Rate Variability in Healthy Indians with Low Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, Ankalmadagu Venkatsubbareddy; Sucharita, Sambashivaiah

    2014-01-01

    Background. One third of Indian population is said to be suffering from chronic energy deficiency (CED), with increased risk of developing chronic diseases. A new anthropometric measure called A Body Shape Index (ABSI) is said to be a better index in predicting risks for premature mortality. ABSI is also in part said to be a surrogate of visceral fat. Objective. The present study aimed to explore the association between indices of HRV (heart rate variability), BMI, WC, and ABSI in healthy Indian males with low BMI (BMI < 18.5?kg/m2) and to compare with normal BMI group (BMI 18.5 to 24.9?kg/m2). Methodology. ABSI and BMI were derived from anthropometric parameters, namely, height, weight, and waist circumference in 178 males aged 18 to 78 years. Subjects were categorized into two groups based on their BMI. Results and Conclusions. Power spectral analysis of HRV demonstrated a significant negative correlation between Log HF (high frequency) and ABSI in both low BMI [?24.2 (9.4), P < 0.05] and normal BMI group [?23.41 (10.1), P < 0.05] even after controlling for age. Thus even with slight increase in BMI among low BMI individuals, there could be a greater risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25371818

  18. On the Inversion for Mass (Re)Distribution from Global (Time-Variable) Gravity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    2004-01-01

    The well-known non-uniqueness of the gravitational inverse problem states the following: The external gravity field, even if completely and exactly known, cannot Uniquely determine the density distribution of the body that produces the gravity field. This is an intrinsic property of a field that obeys the Laplace equation, as already treated in mathematical as well as geophysical literature. In this paper we provide conceptual insight by examining the problem in terms of spherical harmonic expansion of the global gravity field. By comparing the multipoles and the moments of the density function, we show that in 3-S the degree of knowledge deficiency in trying to inversely recover the density distribution from external gravity field is (n+l)(n+2)/2 - (2n+l) = n(n-1)/2 for each harmonic degree n. On the other hand, on a 2-D spherical shell we show via a simple relationship that the inverse solution of the surface density distribution is unique. The latter applies quite readily in the inversion of time-variable gravity signals (such as those observed by the GRACE space mission) where the sources over a wide range of the scales largely come from the Earth's Surface.

  19. Saponification reaction system: a detailed mass transfer coefficient determination.

    PubMed

    Pe?ar, Darja; Goršek, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The saponification of an aromatic ester with an aqueous sodium hydroxide was studied within a heterogeneous reaction medium in order to determine the overall kinetics of the selected system. The extended thermo-kinetic model was developed compared to the previously used simple one. The reaction rate within a heterogeneous liquid-liquid system incorporates a chemical kinetics term as well as mass transfer between both phases. Chemical rate constant was obtained from experiments within a homogeneous medium, whilst the mass-transfer coefficient was determined separately. The measured thermal profiles were then the bases for determining the overall reaction-rate. This study presents the development of an extended kinetic model for considering mass transfer regarding the saponification of ethyl benzoate with sodium hydroxide within a heterogeneous reaction medium. The time-dependences are presented for the mass transfer coefficient and the interfacial areas at different heterogeneous stages and temperatures. The results indicated an important role of reliable kinetic model, as significant difference in k(L)a product was obtained with extended and simple approach. PMID:25830982

  20. Simplified Simulation of Mass Transfer in Double White Dwarf Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannah, Sara; Frank, Juhan

    2016-01-01

    The behavior both stable and unstable mass transfer in semi-detached double white dwarfs triggers a cornucopia of astrophysical phenomena including Type Ia supernovae and AM CVn stars. Current 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution these systems following the mass transfer, binary orbital parameters, and the self-consistent gravitational field over several tens of orbital periods have produced a wealth of data. However, these simulations can take weeks to months in high-performance computing platforms to execute. To help with the interpretation of results of such large scale simulations, and to enable a quick exploration of binary parameter space, we have developed a Mathematica code that integrates forward in time a system of 5 ODEs describing the orbit-averaged evolution of the binary separation as well as the radius, mass, and spin angular momentum of both components of the binary. By adjusting a few parameters describing the mass transfer as a function of the Roche-lobe overflow and the strength of the tidal coupling between the orbit and component spins we are able to obtain approximate fits to previously run hydrodynamic simulations. This simplified simulation is able to run simulations similar to the hydrodynamic versions in a matter of seconds on a dual-core PC or Mac computer.

  1. Steps Toward Accommodating Variable Position Tracking Accuracy in a Mobile Augmented Reality System

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Steps Toward Accommodating Variable Position Tracking Accuracy in a Mobile Augmented Reality System. This is es- pecially problematic for mobile augmented reality systems, which ideally require extremely level of accuracy. While it is possible to ignore variable positional accuracy in an augmented reality

  2. Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement Techniques

    E-print Network

    Crone, Timothy J.

    black smoker hydrothermal vents. The first technique I develop is based on passive acoustic measurementsTidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models and Measurement of Washington Abstract Tidally-Forced Flow Variability Within Mid-Ocean Ridge Hydrothermal Systems: Models

  3. Variable Speed Drive (VSD) Applications in Dual-Duct Constant Volume Systems 

    E-print Network

    Joo, I.; Liu, M.; Conger, K.; Wang, G.

    2002-01-01

    Models have been developed for static pressure and potential supply fan energy savings by using variable speed drive (VSD) in dual-duct constant volume systems. Experiments have been performed using a full size dual-duct constant volume system...

  4. Predictive and Corrective Scheduling in Electric Energy Systems with Variable Resources 

    E-print Network

    Gu, Yingzhong

    2014-11-05

    real-time power system operations. This dissertation focuses on introducing and testing advanced scheduling algorithms for electric power systems with high penetration of variable resources. A novel predictive and optimal corrective look-ahead dispatch...

  5. Four-wheel-driving system having a continuously variable sub-transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Morisawa, K.

    1988-12-27

    A four-wheel-driving system is described which consists of: a continuously variable sub-transmission coupled to one of the two axles; a viscous coupling coupled to one of the two axles, the viscous coupling transmitting torque is accordance with a rotational speed difference between an input and an output of the viscous coupling; and control means for variably controlling the ratio of the driving torque distributed between the front and rear wheels by controlling a change gear ratio of the continuously variable sub-transmission and for increasing a continuously variable main transmission ratio while decreasing the continuously variable sub-transmission ratio.

  6. Fourth NASA Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor)

    1994-01-01

    This report contains copies of all those technical papers received in time for publication just prior to the Fourth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage and Technologies, held March 28-30, 1995, at the University of Maryland, University College Conference Center, in College Park, Maryland. This series of conferences continues to serve as a unique medium for the exchange of information on topics relating to the ingestion and management of substantial amounts of data and the attendant problems involved. This year's discussion topics include new storage technology, stability of recorded media, performance studies, storage system solutions, the National Information infrastructure (Infobahn), the future for storage technology, and lessons learned from various projects. There also will be an update on the IEEE Mass Storage System Reference Model Version 5, on which the final vote was taken in July 1994.

  7. Functional penetration of variability of motor neuron spike timing through a modulated neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Brezina, Vladimir

    2007-06-01

    Variability of the neuronal spike pattern is usually thought of in terms of the information that the different interspike intervals might be encoding. However, the very presence of the variability can have other kinds of functional significance. Here we consider the example of the B15/B16-ARC neuromuscular system of Aplysia, a model system for the study of neuromuscular modulation and control. We show that variability of motor neuron spike timing at the input to the system penetrates throughout the system, affecting all downstream variables including modulator release, modulator concentrations, modulatory actions, and the contraction of the muscle. Furthermore, not only does the variability penetrate through the system, but it is actually instrumental in maintaining its modulation and contractions at a robust, physiological level. PMID:18516210

  8. Functional penetration of variability of motor neuron spike timing through a modulated neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Brezina, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    Variability of the neuronal spike pattern is usually thought of in terms of the information that the different interspike intervals might be encoding. However, the very presence of the variability can have other kinds of functional significance. Here we consider the example of the B15/B16-ARC neuromuscular system of Aplysia, a model system for the study of neuromuscular modulation and control. We show that variability of motor neuron spike timing at the input to the system penetrates throughout the system, affecting all downstream variables including modulator release, modulator concentrations, modulatory actions, and the contraction of the muscle. Furthermore, not only does the variability penetrate through the system, but it is actually instrumental in maintaining its modulation and contractions at a robust, physiological level. PMID:18516210

  9. Adoption of site-specific variable rate sprinkler irrigation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    More than twenty years of private and public research on site-specific variable-rate sprinkler irrigation (SS-VRI) technology has resulted in limited commercial adoption of the technology. Competing patents, liability and proprietary software have affected industry’s willingness to move into a new t...

  10. Grand challenges in mass storage: A system integrator's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mintz, Dan; Lee, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The grand challenges are the following: to develop more innovation in approach; to expand the I/O barrier; to achieve increased volumetric efficiency and incremental cost improvements; to reinforce the 'weakest link' software; to implement improved architectures; and to minimize the impact of self-destructing technologies. Mass storage is defined as any type of storage system exceeding 100 GBytes in total size, under the control of a centralized file management scheme. The topics covered are presented in viewgraph form.

  11. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Andrew A. (1034 Hillside Ave., Madison, WI 53705)

    1984-01-01

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine.

  12. Control system and method for a power delivery system having a continuously variable ratio transmission

    DOEpatents

    Frank, A.A.

    1984-07-10

    A control system and method for a power delivery system, such as in an automotive vehicle, having an engine coupled to a continuously variable ratio transmission (CVT). Totally independent control of engine and transmission enable the engine to precisely follow a desired operating characteristic, such as the ideal operating line for minimum fuel consumption. CVT ratio is controlled as a function of commanded power or torque and measured load, while engine fuel requirements (e.g., throttle position) are strictly a function of measured engine speed. Fuel requirements are therefore precisely adjusted in accordance with the ideal characteristic for any load placed on the engine. 4 figs.

  13. Eighth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in Cooperation with the Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Eighth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Seventeenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland University College Inn and Conference Center March 27-30, 2000. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, future of current technology, new technology with a special emphasis on holographic storage, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on stability of optical media, disk subsystem performance evaluation, I/O and storage tuning, functionality and performance evaluation of file systems for storage area networks.

  14. Mass-Flow-Meter Leak-Testing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, Eric B.; Polidori, Andre V.; Heman, Joe R.; Dresser, Holland L.; Hellum, John

    1996-01-01

    Improved leak-testing system incorporates mass-flow meter as primary sensor for measurement of leakage rate. System easier to use and more reliable and enables leak tests to be completed in less time. Produces test data more plentiful, more accurate, and better suited to leak detection and diagnosis. Operates over range of test conditions, including pressures from atmospheric to 1,000 psi, temperatures from 50 to 120 degrees F and volumes from less than 1 in.(sup3) to 22 in.(sup3). Sensitive enough to measure absorbed gas seeping from O-ring seals after test pressure released.

  15. 23 CFR 810.308 - Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit... PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway Public Mass Transit Projects § 810.308 Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit...

  16. 23 CFR 810.308 - Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit... PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway Public Mass Transit Projects § 810.308 Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit...

  17. 23 CFR 810.308 - Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit... PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway Public Mass Transit Projects § 810.308 Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit...

  18. 23 CFR 810.308 - Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit... PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway Public Mass Transit Projects § 810.308 Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit...

  19. 23 CFR 810.308 - Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit... PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION MASS TRANSIT AND SPECIAL USE HIGHWAY PROJECTS Federal-Aid Urban System Nonhighway Public Mass Transit Projects § 810.308 Approval of urban system nonhighway public mass transit...

  20. Vibration control of two degrees of freedom system using variable inertia vibration absorbers: Modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megahed, S. M.; Abd El-Razik, A. Kh.

    2010-11-01

    Variable inertia vibration absorbers (VIVA) are previously used for the vibration control of single degree of freedom (dof) primary systems. The performance of such absorbers is studied in many investigations. This paper presents the dynamic modeling and simulation of a proposed modified design of such VIVA's for the vibration control of two dof primary systems. Lagrange formulation is used to obtain its dynamic model in an analytical form. This model, which is highly nonlinear, is used to develop a computational algorithm to study the absorber performance characteristics. This algorithm is programmed and simulated in Matlab. The obtained results are numerically verified using SAMS2000 software. The effect of mass and stiffness of the proposed VIVA on its performance and tuning is discussed. An optimization algorithm is developed to select the best absorber parameters for vibration suppression of a specific primary system. The obtained results show a good agreement with those obtained using similar techniques. In addition, a linearized model of VIVA dynamics is developed, tested and simulated for the same data used in its nonlinear model. The relative deviation between results of the linear and nonlinear models is less than 1%, which confirms the realistic use of this linearized model. The experimental testing and verification of the simulation results of the proposed VIVA is the subject of another paper.

  1. The Stability of the Orbits of Earth-mass Planets in and near the Habitable Zones of Known Exoplanetary Systems

    E-print Network

    Barrie W Jones; David R Underwood; P Nick Sleep

    2003-05-27

    We have shown that Earth-mass planets could survive in variously restricted regions of the habitable zones (HZs) of most of a sample of nine of the 93 main-sequence exoplanetary systems confirmed by May 2003. In a preliminary extrapolation of our results to the other systems, we estimate that roughly a third of the 93 systems might be able to have Earth-mass planets in stable, confined orbits somewhere in their HZs. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list for exploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached this conclusion by launching putative Earth-mass planets in various orbits and following their fate with a mixed-variable symplectic integrator.

  2. Interannual to decadal oxygen variability in the mid-depth water masses of the eastern North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendardo, Ilaria; Kieke, Dagmar; Rhein, Monika; Gruber, Nicolas; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    The detection of multi-decadal trends in the oceanic oxygen content and its possible attribution to global warming is protracted by the presence of a substantial amount of interannual to decadal variability, which hitherto is poorly known and characterized. Here we address this gap by studying interannual to decadal changes of the oxygen concentration in the Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW), the Intermediate Water (IW) and the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) in the eastern North Atlantic. We use data from a hydrographic section located in the eastern North Atlantic at about 48°N repeated 12 times over a period of 19 years from 1993 through 2011, with a nearly annual resolution up to 2005. Despite a substantial amount of year-to-year variability, we observe a long-term decrease in the oxygen concentration of all three water masses, with the largest changes occurring from 1993 to 2002. During that time period, the trends were mainly caused by a contraction of the subpolar gyre associated with a northwestward shift of the Subpolar Front (SPF) in the eastern North Atlantic. This caused SPMW to be ventilated at lighter densities and its original density range being invaded by subtropical waters with substantially lower oxygen concentrations. The contraction of the subpolar gyre reduced also the penetration of IW of subpolar origin into the region in favor of an increased northward transport of IW of subtropical origin, which is also lower in oxygen. The long-term oxygen changes in the MOW were mainly affected by the interplay between circulation and solubility changes. Besides the long-term signals, mesoscale variability leaves a substantial imprint as well, affecting the water column over at least the upper 1000 m and laterally by more than 400 km. Mesoscale eddies induced changes in the oxygen concentration of a magnitude that can substantially alias analyses of long-term changes based on repeat hydrographic data that are being collected at intervals of typically 10 years.

  3. Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three-dimensional terrain I. Coulomb mixture theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Denlinger, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Rock avalanches, debris flows, and related phenomena consist of grain-fluid mixtures that move across three-dimensional terrain. In all these phenomena the same basic forces, govern motion, but differing mixture compositions, initial conditions, and boundary conditions yield varied dynamics and deposits. To predict motion of diverse grain-fluid masses from initiation to deposition, we develop a depth-averaged, threedimensional mathematical model that accounts explicitly for solid- and fluid-phase forces and interactions. Model input consists of initial conditions, path topography, basal and internal friction angles of solid grains, viscosity of pore fluid, mixture density, and a mixture diffusivity that controls pore pressure dissipation. Because these properties are constrained by independent measurements, the model requires little or no calibration and yields readily testable predictions. In the limit of vanishing Coulomb friction due to persistent high fluid pressure the model equations describe motion of viscous floods, and in the limit of vanishing fluid stress they describe one-phase granular avalanches. Analysis of intermediate phenomena such as debris flows and pyroclastic flows requires use of the full mixture equations, which can simulate interaction of high-friction surge fronts with more-fluid debris that follows. Special numerical methods (described in the companion paper) are necessary to solve the full equations, but exact analytical solutions of simplified equations provide critical insight. An analytical solution for translational motion of a Coulomb mixture accelerating from rest and descending a uniform slope demonstrates that steady flow can occur only asymptotically. A solution for the asymptotic limit of steady flow in a rectangular channel explains why shear may be concentrated in narrow marginal bands that border a plug of translating debris. Solutions for static equilibrium of source areas describe conditions of incipient slope instability, and other static solutions show that nonuniform distributions of pore fluid pressure produce bluntly tapered vertical profiles at the margins of deposits. Simplified equations and solutions may apply in additional situations identified by a scaling analysis. Assessment of dimensionless scaling parameters also reveals that miniature laboratory experiments poorly simulate the dynamics of full-scale flows in which fluid effects are significant. Therefore large geophysical flows can exhibit dynamics not evident at laboratory scales.

  4. Flow of variably fluidized granular masses across three-dimensional terrain: 1. Coulomb mixture theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverson, Richard M.; Denlinger, Roger P.

    2001-01-01

    Rock avalanches, debris flows, and related phenomena consist of grain-fluid mixtures that move across three-dimensional terrain. In all these phenomena the same basic forces govern motion, but differing mixture compositions, initial conditions, and boundary conditions yield varied dynamics and deposits. To predict motion of diverse grain-fluid masses from initiation to deposition, we develop a depth-averaged, three-dimensional mathematical model that accounts explicitly for solid- and fluid-phase forces and interactions. Model input consists of initial conditions, path topography, basal and internal friction angles of solid grains, viscosity of pore fluid, mixture density, and a mixture diffusivity that controls pore pressure dissipation. Because these properties are constrained by independent measurements, the model requires little or no calibration and yields readily testable predictions. In the limit of vanishing Coulomb friction due to persistent high fluid pressure the model equations describe motion of viscous floods, and in the limit of vanishing fluid stress they describe one-phase granular avalanches. Analysis of intermediate phenomena such as debris flows and pyroclastic flows requires use of the full mixture equations, which can simulate interaction of high-friction surge fronts with more-fluid debris that follows. Special numerical methods (described in the companion paper) are necessary to solve the full equations, but exact analytical solutions of simplified equations provide critical insight. An analytical solution for translational motion of a Coulomb mixture accelerating from rest and descending a uniform slope demonstrates that steady flow can occur only asymptotically. A solution for the asymptotic limit of steady flow in a rectangular channel explains why shear may be concentrated in narrow marginal bands that border a plug of translating debris. Solutions for static equilibrium of source areas describe conditions of incipient slope instability, and other static solutions show that nonuniform distributions of pore fluid pressure produce bluntly tapered vertical profiles at the margins of deposits. Simplified equations and solutions may apply in additional situations identified by a scaling analysis. Assessment of dimensionless scaling parameters also reveals that miniature laboratory experiments poorly simulate the dynamics of full-scale flows in which fluid effects are significant. Therefore large geophysical flows can exhibit dynamics not evident at laboratory scales.

  5. System Modeling of Lunar Oxygen Production: Mass and Power Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Linne, Diane L.; Faykus, Eric W.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Green, Robert D.

    2007-01-01

    A systems analysis tool for estimating the mass and power requirements for a lunar oxygen production facility is introduced. The individual modeling components involve the chemical processing and cryogenic storage subsystems needed to process a beneficiated regolith stream into liquid oxygen via ilmenite reduction. The power can be supplied from one of six different fission reactor-converter systems. A baseline system analysis, capable of producing 15 metric tons of oxygen per annum, is presented. The influence of reactor-converter choice was seen to have a small but measurable impact on the system configuration and performance. Finally, the mission concept of operations can have a substantial impact upon individual component size and power requirements.

  6. A precise HST parallax of the cataclysmic variable EX Hydrae, its system parameters, and accretion rate

    E-print Network

    K. Beuermann; Th. E. Harrison; B. E. McArthur; G. F. Benedict; B. T. Gaensicke

    2003-09-19

    Using the HST Fine Guidance Sensor, we have measured a high precision astrometric parallax of the cataclysmic variable EX Hydrae, pi=15.50+-0.29mas. From the wavelength-integrated accretion-induced energy flux, we derive a quiescent accretion luminosity for EX Hya of Lacc = (2.6+-0.6)x10e32 erg. The quiescent accretion rate then is Mdot=(6.2\\+-1.5)x10e-11 (M1/0.5Msun)^(-1.61})Msun/yr. The time-averaged accretion rate, which includes a small correction for the rare outbursts, is 6% higher. We discuss the system parameters of EX Hya and deduce M1=0.4-0.7Msun, M2=0.07-0.10Msun, and i=76.0deg-77.6deg, using recent radial velocity measurements of both components and restrictions imposed by other observational and theoretical constraints. We conclude that the secondary is undermassive, overluminous, and expanded over a ZAMS star of the same mass. Near the upper limit to M1, the accretion rate of the white dwarf coincides with that due to near-equilibrium angular momentum loss by gravitational radiation and angular momentum transfer from the orbit into the spin-up of the white dwarf. Near the lower mass limit, the correspondingly higher accretion rate requires that either an additional angular momentum loss process is acting besides gravitational radiation or that accretion occurs on a near-adiabatic time scale. The latter possibility would imply that EX Hya is in a transient phase of high mass transfer and the associated spin-up of the white dwarf.

  7. Numerical Investigation of Multiple-, Interacting-Scale Variable-Density Ground Water Flow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosler, D.; Ibaraki, M.

    2004-12-01

    The goal of our study is to elucidate the nonlinear processes that are important for multiple-, interacting-scale flow and solute transport in subsurface environments. In particular, we are focusing on the influence of small-scale instability development on variable-density ground water flow behavior in large-scale systems. Convective mixing caused by these instabilities may mix the fluids to a greater extent than would be the case with classical, Fickian dispersion. Most current numerical schemes for interpreting field-scale variable-density flow systems do not explicitly account for the complexities caused by small-scale instabilities and treat such processes as "lumped" Fickian dispersive mixing. Such approaches may greatly underestimate the mixing behavior and misrepresent the overall large-scale flow field dynamics. The specific objectives of our study are: (i) to develop an adaptive (spatial and temporal scales) three-dimensional numerical model that is fully capable of simulating field-scale variable-density flow systems with fine resolution (~1 cm); and (ii) to evaluate the importance of scale-dependent process interactions by performing a series of simulations on different problem scales ranging from laboratory experiments to field settings, including an aquifer storage and freshwater recovery (ASR) system similar to those planned for the Florida Everglades and in-situ contaminant remediation systems. We are examining (1) methods to create instabilities in field-scale systems, (2) porous media heterogeneity effects, and (3) the relation between heterogeneity characteristics (e.g., permeability variance and correlation length scales) and the mixing scales that develop for varying degrees of unstable stratification. Applications of our work include the design of new water supply and conservation measures (e.g., ASR systems), assessment of saltwater intrusion problems in coastal aquifers, and the design of in-situ remediation systems for aquifer restoration. We present preliminary model results for high-resolution simulation of variable-density flow and transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. We explicitly solve the three-dimensional advection equation using mass-conservative, flux-integral techniques and finite-volume formulations that provide unrestricted time-step capabilities similar to those associated with semi-Lagrangian methods. Our implementation of B. P. Leonard's MACHO (Multidimensional Advective-Conservative Hybrid Operator) and COSMIC (Conservative Operator Splitting for Multidimensions with Inherent Constancy) methods is an Nth-order (e.g., 7th-order or higher) advection scheme that significantly reduces numerical dispersion and can be adapted spatially and temporally as the simulation progresses. The ability of these higher-order methods to yield accurate, nonoscillatory concentration profiles is illustrated and compared to traditional implicit solution methods such as central and upwind differencing, and van Leer flux limiters. We also show preliminary results from our implementation of adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) techniques and discuss the interrelationship between AMR and the Nth-order advection schemes.

  8. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets

    E-print Network

    C. Lovis; M. Mayor; F. Pepe; Y. Alibert; W. Benz; F. Bouchy; A. C. M. Correia; J. Laskar; C. Mordasini; D. Queloz; N. C. Santos; S. Udry; J. -L. Bertaux; J. -P. Sivan

    2007-03-01

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 AU (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star.

  9. An extrasolar planetary system with three Neptune-mass planets.

    PubMed

    Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Alibert, Yann; Benz, Willy; Bouchy, François; Correia, Alexandre C M; Laskar, Jacques; Mordasini, Christoph; Queloz, Didier; Santos, Nuno C; Udry, Stéphane; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sivan, Jean-Pierre

    2006-05-18

    Over the past two years, the search for low-mass extrasolar planets has led to the detection of seven so-called 'hot Neptunes' or 'super-Earths' around Sun-like stars. These planets have masses 5-20 times larger than the Earth and are mainly found on close-in orbits with periods of 2-15 days. Here we report a system of three Neptune-mass planets with periods of 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days, orbiting the nearby star HD 69830. This star was already known to show an infrared excess possibly caused by an asteroid belt within 1 au (the Sun-Earth distance). Simulations show that the system is in a dynamically stable configuration. Theoretical calculations favour a mainly rocky composition for both inner planets, while the outer planet probably has a significant gaseous envelope surrounding its rocky/icy core; the outer planet orbits within the habitable zone of this star. PMID:16710412

  10. Tenth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies in Cooperation with the Nineteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Tenth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Nineteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland University College Inn and Conference Center April 15-18, 2002. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the ingest, storage, and management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long-term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long-term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, future of current technology, storage networking with emphasis on IP storage, performance, standards, site reports, and vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on perpendicular magnetic recording, object based storage, storage virtualization and IP storage.

  11. Variability of pigment biomass in the California Current system as determined by satellite imagery. I - Spatial variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Raymond C.; Zhang, Xueyun; Michaelsen, Joel

    1988-01-01

    Spatial variability of chlorophyll in the California Current system was analyzed using Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery. A total of 48 images were analyzed to produce seasonal averages and variances, gradients, and power spectra. Roughly one third to one half of the variance in pigment biomass can be explained by consistent, large-scale gradients. In general, biomass is higher in the north and in nearshore areas. Nearshore areas also have proportionally more small-scale variability than the areas offshore. Slopes of the power spectra for nearshore areas are about -2.2 (for spatial scales of 10-100 km), while slopes for offshore areas are about -3. In addition, the power spectra show evidence of a change in slope at about 10 km, with slopes of about -1 for shorter-length scales. This may indicate that biological processes dominate the smaller scales, while mesoscale eddies and geostrophic currents dominate the larger scales.

  12. A Simple and Quick Chilled Water Loop Balancing for Variable Flow System 

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Y.; Batten, T.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

    2000-01-01

    Chilled Water Loop Balancing for Variable Flow System Yeqiao Zhu, Ph.D. Mingsheng Liu, Ph.D. Tommy Batten Dan Turner, Ph. D. Project Manager Associate Professor Researcher Professor Texas A&M University University of Nabraska Texas A&M University.... Also, more and more constant volume chilled water systems are being converted to the variable flow systems as major energy retrofit items for existing buildings [Zhu, Liu, et al., 1997; Zhu, Turner and Claridge, 1999;l. This gives the building...

  13. Unified System of Mass, Energy, Space, and Time-MEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2015-04-01

    Massenergy and spacetime build up a balance system of universe; massenergy equals negative spacetime. Like mass attract, opposite mass repel; like energy repel, opposite energy attract; like space attract, opposite space repel; like time repel, opposite time attract. The spacetime center of dark massenergy of dark hole system build up a balance system with the massenergy center of stellar matter. It explains of symmetry of CMB. According to observation of flat universe, cosmological constant of Einstein's equation is a negative Einstein's equation of structure of spacetime center which builds up a balance with Einstein's equation of the structure of massenergy center. According to Hubble's redshift equation, Hubble's redshift equals negative gravitational redshift which can be explained by negative Einstein's equation. The universe has 50% of Dark hole system and 50% of the stellar system which instead of 73% of dark energy, 23% of dark matter, and 4% of stellar matter and so on because dark energy and dark matter can be explained by dark massenergy of dark hole. The paper also supposes the black hole of the center of galaxy equals the dark hole, and a dark hole builds up a balance system with sun. The quantum balance systemic equation: E +E' ? = mc2 +m' ?c'2 = 0 ,(c'2 = -(?x) 2/(?t) 2) . http://meeting.aps.org/link/BAPS.2015.MAR.Z23.14 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.APR.Y9.1 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2014.MAR.Y33.9 http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2010.DFD.QE.2

  14. Cataclysmic Variables

    E-print Network

    Robert Connon Smith

    2007-01-23

    Cataclysmic variables are binary stars in which a relatively normal star is transferring mass to its compact companion. This interaction gives rise to a rich range of behaviour, of which the most noticeable are the outbursts that give the class its name. Novae belong to the class, as do the less well known dwarf novae and magnetic systems. Novae draw their energy from nuclear reactions, while dwarf novae rely on gravity to power their smaller eruptions. All the different classes of cataclysmic variable can be accommodated within a single framework and this article will describe the framework, review the properties of the main types of system and discuss models of the outbursts and of the long-term evolution.

  15. Mass spectrometric identification, sequence evolution, and intraspecific variability of dimeric peptides encoded by cockroach akh genes.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Sebastian; Predel, Reinhard

    2015-02-01

    Neuropeptides are structurally the most diverse group of messenger molecules of the nervous system. Regarding neuropeptide identification, distribution, function, and evolution, insects are among the best studied invertebrates. Indeed, more than 100 neuropeptides are known from single species. Most of these peptides can easily be identified by direct tissue or cell profiling using MALDI-TOF MS. In these experiments, protein hormones with extensive post-translational modifications such as inter- and intramolecular disulfides are usually missed. It is evident that an exclusion of these bioactive molecules hinders the utilization of direct profiling methods in comprehensive peptidomic analyses. In the current study, we focus on the detection and structural elucidation of homo- and heterodimeric adipokinetic hormone precursor-related peptides (APRPs) of cockroaches. The physiological relevance of these molecules with highly conserved sequences in insects is still uncertain. Sequence similarities with vertebrate growth hormone-releasing factors have been reported, but remarkably, few data regarding APRP processing exist and these data are restricted to locusts. Here, we elucidated sequences of carbamidomethylated APRP monomers of different cockroaches by means of MALDI-TOF MS(2), and we were able to identify a surprisingly large number of APRP sequences, resulting either from intraspecific amino acid substitutions within the APRP sequences or C-terminal truncated APRPs. PMID:25524231

  16. Design of a ram accelerator mass launch system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aarnio, Michael; Armerding, Calvin; Berschauer, Andrew; Christofferson, Erik; Clement, Paul; Gohd, Robin; Neely, Bret; Reed, David; Rodriguez, Carlos; Swanstrom, Fredrick

    1988-01-01

    The ram accelerator mass launch system has been proposed to greatly reduce the costs of placing acceleration-insensitive payloads into low earth orbit. The ram accelerator is a chemically propelled, impulsive mass launch system capable of efficiently accelerating relatively large masses from velocities of 0.7 km/sec to 10 km/sec. The principles of propulsion are based on those of a conventional supersonic air-breathing ramjet; however the device operates in a somewhat different manner. The payload carrying vehicle resembles the center-body of the ramjet and accelerates through a stationary tube which acts as the outer cowling. The tube is filled with premixed gaseous fuel and oxidizer mixtures that burn in the vicinity of the vehicle's base, producing a thrust which accelerates the vehicle through the tube. This study examines the requirement for placing a 2000 kg vehicle into a 500 km circular orbit with a minimum amount of on-board rocket propellant for orbital maneuvers. The goal is to achieve a 50 pct payload mass fraction. The proposed design requirements have several self-imposed constraints that define the vehicle and tube configurations. Structural considerations on the vehicle and tube wall dictate an upper acceleration limit of 1000 g's and a tube inside diameter of 1.0 m. In-tube propulsive requirements and vehicle structural constraints result in a vehicle diameter of 0.76 m, a total length of 7.5 m and a nose-cone half angle of 7 degrees. An ablating nose-cone constructed from carbon-carbon composite serves as the thermal protection mechanism for atmospheric transit.

  17. Symbolic Tools for Variable Structure Control System Design: the Zero Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Kwatny, Harry G.

    system design. Application of the theory to nonlinear systems beyond text book level require developmentSymbolic Tools for Variable Structure Control System Design: the Zero Dynamics Harry G. Kwatny]. Both approaches to control system design share common elements including certain constructions like

  18. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (?15N and ?13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, ?15N and ?13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  19. A method of variable spacing for controlled plant growth systems in spaceflight and terrestrial agriculture applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, J.

    1986-01-01

    A higher plant growth system for Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) applications is described. The system permits independent movement of individual plants during growth. Enclosed within variable geometry growth chambers, the system allocates only the volume required by the growing plants. This variable spacing system maintains isolation between root and shoot environments, providing individual control for optimal growth. The advantages of the system for hydroponic and aeroponic growth chambers are discussed. Two applications are presented: (1) the growth of soybeans in a space station common module, and (2) in a terrestrial city greenhouse.

  20. The Validity of Individual Rorschach Variables: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses of the Comprehensive System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihura, Joni L.; Meyer, Gregory J.; Dumitrascu, Nicolae; Bombel, George

    2013-01-01

    We systematically evaluated the peer-reviewed Rorschach validity literature for the 65 main variables in the popular Comprehensive System (CS). Across 53 meta-analyses examining variables against externally assessed criteria (e.g., observer ratings, psychiatric diagnosis), the mean validity was r = 0.27 (k = 770) as compared to r = 0.08 (k = 386)…

  1. Variable-rate irrigation management using an expert system in the eastern coastal plain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variable rate irrigation (VRI) systems have the potential to conserve water by spatially allocating limited water resources. These water savings become more important as urban, industrial, and environmental sectors compete with agriculture for available water. In this study, we conducted variable ra...

  2. Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Motor Learning Reduces Eye Movement Variability through

    E-print Network

    Raymond, Jennifer L.

    Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Motor Learning Reduces Eye Movement Variability through Reweighting could reduce the variability of the eye movement responses without altering the average responses. This improvement of eye movement precision was achieved by shifting the reliance of the movements from a more

  3. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system... immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum...

  4. Grand challenges in mass storage: A systems integrators perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Richard R.; Mintz, Daniel G.

    1993-01-01

    Within today's much ballyhooed supercomputing environment, with its CFLOPS of CPU power, and Gigabit networks, there exists a major roadblock to computing success; that of Mass Storage. The solution to this mass storage problem is considered to be one of the 'Grand Challenges' facing the computer industry today, as well as long into the future. It has become obvious to us, as well as many others in the industry, that there is no clear single solution in sight. The Systems Integrator today is faced with a myriad of quandaries in approaching this challenge. He must first be innovative in approach, second choose hardware solutions that are volumetric efficient; high in signal bandwidth; available from multiple sources; competitively priced, and have forward growth extendibility. In addition he must also comply with a variety of mandated, and often conflicting software standards (GOSIP, POSIX, IEEE, MSRM 4.0, and others), and finally he must deliver a systems solution with the 'most bang for the buck' in terms of cost vs. performance factors. These quandaries challenge the Systems Integrator to 'push the envelope' in terms of his or her ingenuity and innovation on an almost daily basis. This dynamic is explored further, and an attempt to acquaint the audience with rational approaches to this 'Grand Challenge' is made.

  5. A high pressure modulated molecular beam mass spectrometric sampling system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.; Miller, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current state of understanding of free-jet high pressure sampling is critically reviewed and modifications of certain theoretical and empirical considerations are presented. A high pressure, free-jet expansion, modulated molecular beam, mass spectrometric sampling apparatus was constructed and this apparatus is described in detail. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the apparatus can be used to sample high temperature systems at pressures up to one atmosphere. Condensible high temperature gaseous species have been routinely sampled and the mass spectrometric detector has provided direct identification of sampled species. System sensitivity is better than one tenth of a part per million. Experimental results obtained with argon and nitrogen beams are presented and compared to theoretical predictions. These results and the respective comparison are taken to indicate acceptable performance of the sampling apparatus. Results are also given for two groups of experiments related to hot corrosion studies. The formation of gaseous sodium sulfate in doped methane-oxygen flames was characterized and the oxidative vaporization of metals was studied in an atmospheric pressure flowing gas system to which gaseous salt partial pressures were added.

  6. Variability of pigment biomass in the California Current system as determined by satellite imagery. II - Temporal variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaelsen, Joel; Zhang, Xueyun; Smith, Raymond C.

    1988-01-01

    Characteristics of temporal variability in the California Current system are analyzed using a 30-month time series of CZCS imagery. About 20-25 percent of the variance is produced by a periodic annual cycle with peak values in winter. Analysis of ship-based chlorophyll measurements indicates that the winter peak is only characteristic of the upper portion of the euphotic zone and that total water column chlorophyll peaks during the spring upwelling season. Satellite studies of intraannual variability are modulated by strong 5- to 6-day oscillation in the availability of usable imagery, resulting from a combination of satellite orbital dynamics, which produces images of the study area roughly 4 out of every 6 days, and an oscillation in cloud cover, which controls the availability of clear imagery. The cloud cover oscillation, which is also present in coastal winds, undoubtedly affects the ocean surface and biases the data obtained by satellites. Analysis of data using a 5-day time step indicates that the predominant mode of nonseasonal variability is characterized by in-phase fluctuations throughout the southern and central California coastal region.

  7. Heat and mass transfer in open-cycle OTEC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bharathan, D.; Kreith, F.; Owens, W.L.; Schlepp, D.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature difference between surface and deep water in the oceans represents a vast resource of thermal energy. A promising method of harnessing this resource is the open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system, which utilizes steam evaporated from the surface water to power the turbine. In this paper the state of the art of heat and mass transfer related to evaporation and condensation of steam at low pressures in OC-OTEC is summarized and relevant research issues are discussed.

  8. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  9. Stochastic variability in stress, sleep duration and sleep quality across the distribution of body mass index: Insights from quantile regression

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Chen, Vivian Y.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study investigates whether sleep and stress are associated with body mass index (BMI) respectively, explores whether the combination of stress and sleep is also related to BMI, and demonstrates a thorough picture of how these associations above vary across the distribution of BMI values. Methods We analyze the data from 3,318 men and 6,689 women in the Philadelphia area using quantile regression (QR) to evaluate the relationships between sleep, stress, and obesity by gender. Results Our substantive findings include: (1) high and/or extreme stress were related to roughly an increase of 1.2 in BMI even after accounting for other covariates; (2) the pathways linking sleep and BMI differed by gender; with BMI for men increasing by 0.77–1 units with reduced sleep duration, and BMI for women declining by 0.12 unit with one units increase in sleep quality; (3) stress and sleep-related variables were confounded but there was little evidence for moderation between these two; (4) the QR results demonstrate that the association between high and/or extreme stress to BMI varied stochastically across the distribution of BMI values, with an upward trend, suggesting that stress played a more important role among adults with higher BMI (i.e., BMI > 26 for both genders); and (5) the QR plots of sleep-related variables show similar patterns, with stronger effects on BMI at the upper end of BMI distribution. Conclusions Our findings indicated that having sufficient and quality sleep and reducing stress may be two intervention strategies that can be promoted among adults in Philadelphia. PMID:23385490

  10. A coarsegrained model of evolution with variable system size

    E-print Network

    major drawback. In all these models the system size is kept constant and species that go extinct extinction event, the number of species in the ecosystem is significantly reduced, and the process the system, but in every time­step there is some growth of new species. 1 #12; The natural way to define

  11. Observed variability of North Atlantic oceanic precipitating systems during winter

    E-print Network

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    using a statistical analysis. Nine winters (from 1987 to 1995) have been considered. Cloud systems of the Arctic Oscillation (AO) is negative (which also corresponds to the Greenland Anticyclone regime tilted weather systems, without any preferential AO phase, are found mostly during the blocking regime

  12. A new method for observing the running states of a single-variable nonlinear system.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yu; Chen, Hong; Chen, Cheng

    2015-03-01

    In order to timely grasp a single variable nonlinear system running states, a new method called Scatter Point method is put forward in this paper. It can be used to observe or monitor the running states of a single variable nonlinear system in real-time. In this paper, the definition of the method is given at first, and then its working principle is expounded theoretically, after this, some physical experiments based on Chua's nonlinear system are conducted. At the same time, many scatter point graphs are measured by a general analog oscilloscope. The motion, number, and distribution of these scatter points shown on the oscilloscope screen can directly reflect the current states of the tested system. The experimental results further confirm that the method is effective and practical, in which the system running states are not easily lost. In addition, this method is not only suitable for single variable systems but also for multivariable systems. PMID:25833428

  13. Analysis and Simulation of Mechanical Trains Driven by Variable Frequency Drive Systems 

    E-print Network

    Han, Xu

    2012-02-14

    Induction motors and Variable Frequency Drives (VFDs) are widely used in industry to drive machinery trains. However, some mechanical trains driven by VFD-motor systems have encountered torsional vibration problems. This vibration can induce large...

  14. Improving Control of a Dual-Duct Single-Fan Variable Air Volume Systems 

    E-print Network

    Wei, G.; Martinez, J.; Minihan, T.; Brundidge, T.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses improved control strategies for dual-duct single-fan variable air volume (VAV) systems. Common control strategy for supply air volume modulation is evaluated, and an improved air volume control strategy that maintains separate...

  15. Method and system to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant

    DOEpatents

    Kumar, Aditya; Shi, Ruijie; Dokucu, Mustafa

    2013-09-17

    System and method to estimate variables in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant are provided. The system includes a sensor suite to measure respective plant input and output variables. An extended Kalman filter (EKF) receives sensed plant input variables and includes a dynamic model to generate a plurality of plant state estimates and a covariance matrix for the state estimates. A preemptive-constraining processor is configured to preemptively constrain the state estimates and covariance matrix to be free of constraint violations. A measurement-correction processor may be configured to correct constrained state estimates and a constrained covariance matrix based on processing of sensed plant output variables. The measurement-correction processor is coupled to update the dynamic model with corrected state estimates and a corrected covariance matrix. The updated dynamic model may be configured to estimate values for at least one plant variable not originally sensed by the sensor suite.

  16. Seasonal variability of water mass distribution in the southeastern Beaufort Sea determined by total alkalinity and ?18O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansard, Bruno; Mucci, Alfonso; Miller, Lisa A.; MacDonald, Robie W.; Gratton, Yves

    2012-03-01

    We examined the seasonal variability of water mass distributions in the southeastern Beaufort Sea from data collected between September 2003 and August 2004. Salinity, total alkalinity (TA) and isotopic composition (?18O) of seawater were used together as tracers of freshwater input, i.e., meteoric water and sea ice meltwater. We used an optimum multiparameter analysis to identify the different water masses, including the Mackenzie River, sea ice melt (SIM), winter polar mixed layer (PML), upper halocline water (UHW) with core salinity of 33.1 psu (Pacific origin) and Atlantic Water. Computed values of CO2 fugacity in seawater (fCO2-sw) show that the surface mixed layer (SML) remains mostly undersaturated (328 ± 55?atm, n = 552) with respect to the average atmospheric CO2 concentration (380 ± 5 ?atm) over the study period. The influence of the Mackenzie River (fCO2-SW > 500 ?atm) was relatively small in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, and significant fractions were only observed on the inner Mackenzie Shelf. The contribution of sea ice melt (fCO2-SW < 300 ?atm) to the SML could reach 30% beyond the shelf break and close to the ice pack in autumn. The density of the PML increased through the winter due to cooling and brine rejection. The winter PML reached a maximum depth of 70 m in late April. The UHW (fCO2-SW > 600 ?atm) was usually located between 120 and 180 m depth, but could contribute to the SML during wind-driven upwelling events, in summer and autumn, and during brine-driven eddies, in winter.

  17. Automated spike preparation system for Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS)

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III; Clark, J.P.

    1990-12-31

    Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry (IDMS) is a method frequently employed to measure dissolved, irradiated nuclear materials. A known quantity of a unique isotope of the element to be measured (referred to as the ``spike``) is added to the solution containing the analyte. The resulting solution is chemically purified then analyzed by mass spectrometry. By measuring the magnitude of the response for each isotope and the response for the ``unique spike`` then relating this to the known quantity of the ``spike``, the quantity of the nuclear material can be determined. An automated spike preparation system was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to dispense spikes for use in IDMS analytical methods. Prior to this development, technicians weighed each individual spike manually to achieve the accuracy required. This procedure was time-consuming and subjected the master stock solution to evaporation. The new system employs a high precision SMI Model 300 Unipump dispenser interfaced with an electronic balance and a portable Epson HX-20 notebook computer to automate spike preparation.

  18. Systems for 42 V mass-market automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keim, Thomas A.

    With the introduction of the Toyota Crown Royal Saloon in August, 2001, 42 V automotive electrical systems made the transition from a technology for the future to present-day production. Nevertheless, there is widespread malaise in the 42 V technical community, stemming from a slower than expected introduction to the marketplace. This paper discusses some of the reasons for the slow adoption of this technology, and indicates a possible way forward. This paper looks beyond the initial uses of 42 V in limited-volume, high-end cars and light trucks, and discusses the prospects for 42 V in mass-market vehicles, given what is presently known about the technology. It is concluded that a case can be made for 42 V, even at some increment in cost. The motivation is improved fuel economy. The cost targets necessary for this benefit to be achieved are discussed, and new components being widely discussed as part of future electrical systems are evaluated for mass-market applications. New developments with higher potential are suggested.

  19. Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Randy Peden; Sanjiv Shah

    2005-07-26

    This report describes complete results of the project entitled ''Enhanced Recovery Utilizing Variable Frequency Drives and a Distributed Power System''. This demonstration project was initiated in July 2003 and completed in March 2005. The objective of the project was to develop an integrated power production/variable frequency drive system that could easily be deployed in the oil field that would increase production and decrease operating costs. This report describes all the activities occurred and documents results of the demonstration.

  20. Transient Finite Element Computations on a Variable Transputer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolinski, Patrick J.; Lapczyk, Ireneusz

    1993-01-01

    A parallel program to analyze transient finite element problems was written and implemented on a system of transputer processors. The program uses the explicit time integration algorithm which eliminates the need for equation solving, making it more suitable for parallel computations. An interprocessor communication scheme was developed for arbitrary two dimensional grid processor configurations. Several 3-D problems were analyzed on a system with a small number of processors.

  1. Variability of African Farming Systems from Phenological Analysis of NDVI Time Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrieling, Anton; deBeurs, K. M.; Brown, Molly E.

    2011-01-01

    Food security exists when people have access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food at all times to meet their dietary needs. The natural resource base is one of the many factors affecting food security. Its variability and decline creates problems for local food production. In this study we characterize for sub-Saharan Africa vegetation phenology and assess variability and trends of phenological indicators based on NDVI time series from 1982 to 2006. We focus on cumulated NDVI over the season (cumNDVI) which is a proxy for net primary productivity. Results are aggregated at the level of major farming systems, while determining also spatial variability within farming systems. High temporal variability of cumNDVI occurs in semiarid and subhumid regions. The results show a large area of positive cumNDVI trends between Senegal and South Sudan. These correspond to positive CRU rainfall trends found and relate to recovery after the 1980's droughts. We find significant negative cumNDVI trends near the south-coast of West Africa (Guinea coast) and in Tanzania. For each farming system, causes of change and variability are discussed based on available literature (Appendix A). Although food security comprises more than the local natural resource base, our results can perform an input for food security analysis by identifying zones of high variability or downward trends. Farming systems are found to be a useful level of analysis. Diversity and trends found within farming system boundaries underline that farming systems are dynamic.

  2. Response Surfaces for Key Controlled Variables in a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell/Gas Turbine System

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, William G.; Banta, Larry; Gorrell, Megan; Restrepo, Bernardo; Tucker, David

    2012-07-01

    Hybrid generation systems have been extensively modeled as a first step toward the development of automatic controls for the system. In most cases, it is impossible to validate mathematical models against real hardware because only a handful of hardware systems exist in the world. Data taken from the existing hardware has demonstrated significant nonlinearity, complex coupling between controlled variables, and sometimes non-intuitive behavior. This work exploits the capability of the HyPer hardware test bed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to generate data from a real recuperated gas turbine coupled with hardware simulations of a fuel cell cathode and appropriate ancillary equipment. Prior work has characterized the system only over a limited range of its operating envelope, due to the inability to manipulate multiple control inputs simultaneously. The work presented here fills the gaps using data from a 34 factorial experiment to generate quasi-continuous response surfaces describing the operating state space of the HyPer system. Polynomial correlation functions have been fitted to the data with excellent agreement. Relationships between the control inputs and critical state variables such as cathode mass flow, cathode temperature, turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures and other key system parameters are presented.

  3. Global Sensitivity Analysis for the Short-term Prediction of System Variables

    E-print Network

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    are derived from DC optimal power flow solutions for day-ahead energy markets. The possible system states--Short-term prediction of system variables with re- spect to load levels is highly important for market operations piecewise linear-affine mapping can be used to predict system patterns corresponding to forecasted load

  4. Estimation of confidence levels for physiology variables measured by a vital signs detection system

    E-print Network

    (USARIEM) is an important part of the WPSM system. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), skin temperatureEstimation of confidence levels for physiology variables measured by a vital signs detection system Quantifying the accuracy of physiological data measured by a Vital Signs Detection System (VSDS) plays a key

  5. Early Pleistocene short-term intermediate water mass variability influences Carbonate Mound development in the NE Atlantic (IODP Site 1317)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raddatz, J.; Rüggeberg, A.; Margreth, S.; Liebetrau, V.; Dullo, W.; Eisenhauer, A.; Iodp Expedition 307 Scientific Party

    2010-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Exp. 307 drilled the 155 m high Challenger Mound in the Porcupine Seabight (SW off Ireland) in order to investigate for the first time sediments from the base of a giant carbonate mound. In this study we focus on sediments from the base of Challenger Mound (Porcupine Seabight, SW off Ireland) IODP Site 1317 in high resolution. The mound initiation and start-up phase coincides with the intensification of the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (INHG) at around 2.6 Ma. Further carbonate mound development seems to be strongly dependent on rapid changes in paleoceanographic and climatic conditions at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary, especially characterized and caused by the interaction of intermediate water masses, the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW), the Eastern North Atlantic Water (ENAW) and the influence of Southern Component Water (SCW). This study is based on well-established proxies such as ?18O and ?13C of planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic foraminifera (Fontbotia wuellerstorfi, Discanomalina coronata, Lobatula lobatula, Lobatula antarctica, and Planulina ariminensis) as well as grain size parameters to identify the paleoenvironmental and paleoecological setting favourable for the initial coral colonization on the mound. Stable oxygen and carbon isotope records of benthic foraminiferal species indicate that L. lobatula provides a reliable isotopic signature for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. In particular, ?18O values of L. lobatula indicate initial mound growth started in a glacial mode with moderate excursions in ?18O values. Bottom water temperatures, calculated using standard equations based on ?18O of foraminiferal tests, range between 7 and 11°C, consistent with the known temperature range conducive for cold-water coral growth and development. Bottom currents transporting intermediate water masses of southern origin (Mediterranean, Bay of Biscay) enhanced at 2.6 Ma supporting first coral settlements with the INHG. The benthic ?13C and the sortable silt records indicate that the early Pleistocene hydrodynamic regime was characterized by weaker current intensities associated with vertical movements of MOW or its replacement by SCW at intermediate depth. After these sluggish phases enhanced MOW flow dominated again and led to stronger current intensities and most probably sediment erosion on Challenger Mound. Erosion in combination with early diagenetic (oxidation) processes overprinted the sediment layers as indicated by dissolved coral skeletons, the increase in Ca-content and sediment density, minimum ?13Cplanktonic values, as well as the occurrence of gypsum and pyrite, implying a careful evaluation of original and overprinted geochemical signals. We conclude that the Challenger Mound development was already influenced by short-term variability of water masses from southern origin and possible erosional events comparable to the late Pleistocene setting.

  6. Design of variable frequency endoscope ultrasonic digital imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ya-nan; Bai, Bao-ping; Chen, Xiao-dong; Zhao, Qiang; Deng, Hao-ran; Wang, Yi; Yu, Dao-yin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presented a real-time endoscope ultrasonic digital imaging system, which was based on FPGA and applied for gastrointestinal examination. Four modules, scan-line data processing module, coordinate transformation and interpolation algorithm module, cache reading and writing control module and transmitting and receiving control module were included in this FPGA based system. Through adopting different frequency ultrasound probes in a single insertion of endoscope, the system showed a high speed data processing mechanism capable of achieving images with various display effects. A high-precision modified coordinate calibration CORDIC (HMCC-CORDIC) algorithm was employed to realize coordinate transformation and interpolation simultaneously, while the precision and reliability of the algorithm could be greatly improved through utilizing the pipeline structure based on temporal logic. Also, system real-time control by computer could be achieved through operating under the condition of USB2.0 interface. The corresponding experimental validations proved the feasibility and the correctness of the proper data processing mechanism, the HMCC-CORDIC algorithm and the USB real-time control. Finally, the specific experimental sample, a tissue mimicking phantom, was imaged in real-time (25 frames per second) by an endoscope ultrasonic imaging system with image size 1024×1024. The requirements for clinical examination could be well satisfied with the imaging parameters discussed above.

  7. Recommendations for the Use of Mass Email The Brandeis University Mass Email system is a tool for requesting and disseminating messages

    E-print Network

    Snider, Barry B.

    ://www.brandeis.edu/events/. Who can use the system? The Mass Email System is available to any University unit (department, office Format 1. A University unit or recognized organization requesting a mass email must supply a valid emailRecommendations for the Use of Mass Email The Brandeis University Mass Email system is a tool

  8. Time Evolution of the Dynamical Variables of a Stochastic System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Pena, L.

    1980-01-01

    By using the method of moments, it is shown that several important and apparently unrelated theorems describing average properties of stochastic systems are in fact particular cases of a general law; this method is applied to generalize the virial theorem and the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to the time-dependent case. (Author/SK)

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE ELIMINATION RATE AND BODY FAT MASS IN A PBPK MODEL FOR TCDD IN PREDICTING THE SERUM TCDD CONCENTRATIONS FROM VETERANS OF OPERATION RANCH HAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Influence of Variable Elimination Rate and Body Fat Mass in a PBPK Model for TCDD in Predicting the Serum TCDD Concentrations from Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand.
    C Emond1,2, LS Birnbaum2, JE Michalek3, MJ DeVito2
    1 National Research Council, National Academy of Scien...

  10. Drive system for the retraction/extension of variable diameter rotor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gmirya, Yuriy (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A drive system for a variable diameter rotor (VDR) system includes a plurality of rotor blade assemblies with inner and outer rotor blade segments. The outer blade segment being telescopically mounted to the inner blade segment. The VDR retraction/extension system includes a drive housing mounted at the root of each blade. The housing supports a spool assembly, a harmonic gear set and an electric motor. The spool assembly includes a pair of counter rotating spools each of which drive a respective cable which extends through the interior of the inboard rotor blade section and around a pulley mounted to the outboard rotor blade section. In operation, the electric motor drives the harmonic gear set which rotates the counter rotating spools. Rotation of the spools causes the cables to be wound onto or off their respective spool consequently effecting retraction/extension of the pulley and the attached outboard rotor blade section relative the inboard rotor blade section. As each blade drive system is independently driven by a separate electrical motor, each independent VDR blade assembly is independently positionable.

  11. Optical mass memory system (AMM-13). AMM-13 system segment specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, G. A.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, design, development, and test requirements for an optical mass data storage and retrieval system prototype (AMM-13) are established. This system interfaces to other system segments of the NASA End-to-End Data System via the Data Base Management System segment and is designed to have a storage capacity of 10 to the 13th power bits (10 to the 12th power bits on line). The major functions of the system include control, input and output, recording of ingested data, fiche processing/replication and storage and retrieval.

  12. Internal combustion engine air intake system with variable effective length

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, H.; Horio, K.; Abe, K.

    1988-04-19

    An air intake system for feeding intake air to combustion chambers of a multicylinder internal combustion engine having two groups of longitudinally spaced engine cylinders is described comprising: a. a longitudinally extending surge tank positioned adjacent the engine cylinders; b. flow control valve means for opening and closing the aperture, the flow control valve means including a butterfly valve pivotally mounted in the aperture of the wall extension of the extension portion; and c. actuator means responsive to engine operating conditions for controlling opening and closing of the butterfly valve to vary the extent of flow communication between the volumetric chambers through the aperture, thereby varying the effective length of the intake system with engine operating conditions.

  13. Zero and root loci of disturbed spring–mass systems

    PubMed Central

    Lecomte, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Models consisting of chains of particles that are coupled to their neighbours appear in many applications in physics or engineering, such as in the study of dynamics of mono-atomic and multi-atomic lattices, the resonances of crystals with impurities and the response of damaged bladed discs. Analytical properties of the dynamic responses of such disturbed chains of identical springs and masses are presented, including when damping is present. Several remarkable properties in the location of the resonances (poles) and anti-resonances (zeros) of the displacements in the frequency domain are presented and proved. In particular, it is shown that there exists an elliptical region in the frequency–disturbance magnitude plane from which zeros are excluded and the discrete values of the frequency and disturbance at which double poles occur are identified. A particular focus is on a local disturbance, such as when a spring or damper is modified at or between the first and last masses. It is demonstrated how, notably through normalization, the techniques and results of the paper apply to a broad category of more complex systems in physics, chemistry and engineering. PMID:24711724

  14. Super Efimov effect for mass-imbalanced systems

    E-print Network

    Sergej Moroz; Yusuke Nishida

    2014-12-24

    We study two species of particles in two dimensions interacting by isotropic short-range potentials with the interspecies potential fine-tuned to a p-wave resonance. Their universal low-energy physics can be extracted by analyzing a properly constructed low-energy effective field theory with the renormalization group method. Consequently, a three-body system consisting of two particles of one species and one of the other is shown to exhibit the super Efimov effect, the emergence of an infinite tower of three-body bound states with orbital angular momentum $l=\\pm1$ whose binding energies obey a doubly exponential scaling, when the two particles are heavier than the other by a mass ratio greater than 4.03404 for identical bosons and 2.41421 for identical fermions. With increasing the mass ratio, the super Efimov spectrum becomes denser which would make its experimental observation easier. We also point out that the Born-Oppenheimer approximation is incapable of reproducing the super Efimov effect, the universal low-energy asymptotic scaling of the spectrum.

  15. Self-Calibrating, Variable-Flow Pumping System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Pumping system provides accurate, controlled flows of two chemical liquids mixed in spray head and react to form rigid or flexible polyurethane or polyisocyanurate foam. Compatible with currently used polyurethane-based coating materials and gas-bubble-forming agents (called "blowing agents" in industry) and expected to be compatible with materials that used in near future. Handles environmentally acceptable substitutes for chlorofluorocarbon foaming agents.

  16. Automatically Finding the Control Variables for Complex System Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gay, Gregory; Menzies, Tim; Davies, Misty; Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Testing large-scale systems is expensive in terms of both time and money. Running simulations early in the process is a proven method of finding the design faults likely to lead to critical system failures, but determining the exact cause of those errors is still time-consuming and requires access to a limited number of domain experts. It is desirable to find an automated method that explores the large number of combinations and is able to isolate likely fault points. Treatment learning is a subset of minimal contrast-set learning that, rather than classifying data into distinct categories, focuses on finding the unique factors that lead to a particular classification. That is, they find the smallest change to the data that causes the largest change in the class distribution. These treatments, when imposed, are able to identify the factors most likely to cause a mission-critical failure. The goal of this research is to comparatively assess treatment learning against state-of-the-art numerical optimization techniques. To achieve this, this paper benchmarks the TAR3 and TAR4.1 treatment learners against optimization techniques across three complex systems, including two projects from the Robust Software Engineering (RSE) group within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center. The results clearly show that treatment learning is both faster and more accurate than traditional optimization methods.

  17. Large-scale variability of wind erosion mass flux rates at Owens Lake 1. Vertical profiles of horizontal mass fluxes of wind-eroded particles with diameter greater than 50 ?m

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gillette, Dale A.; Fryrear, D.W.; Xiao, Jing Bing; Stockton, Paul; Ono, Duane; Helm, Paula J.; Gill, Thomas E; Ley, Trevor

    1997-01-01

    A field experiment at Owens (dry) Lake, California, tested whether and how the relative profiles of airborne horizontal mass fluxes for >50-?m wind-eroded particles changed with friction velocity. The horizontal mass flux at almost all measured heights increased proportionally to the cube of friction velocity above an apparent threshold friction velocity for all sediment tested and increased with height except at one coarse-sand site where the relative horizontal mass flux profile did not change with friction velocity. Size distributions for long-time-averaged horizontal mass flux samples showed a saltation layer from the surface to a height between 30 and 50 cm, above which suspended particles dominate. Measurements from a large dust source area on a line parallel to the wind showed that even though the saltation flux reached equilibrium ?650 m downwind of the starting point of erosion, weakly suspended particles were still input into the atmosphere 1567 m downwind of the starting point; thus the saltating fraction of the total mass flux decreased after 650 m. The scale length difference and ratio of 70/30 suspended mass flux to saltation mass flux at the farthest down wind sampling site confirm that suspended particles are very important for mass budgets in large source areas and that saltation mass flux can be a variable fraction of total horizontal mass flux for soils with a substantial fraction of <100-?m particles.

  18. Fisher's information for the position-dependent mass Schrödinger system

    E-print Network

    B. J. Falaye; F. A. Serrano; Shi-Hai Dong

    2015-09-29

    This study presents the Fisher information for the position-dependent mass Schr\\"odinger equation with hyperbolical potential {$V(x)=-V_0{\\rm csch}^2(ax)$}. The analysis of the quantum-mechanical probability for the ground and exited states $(n=0, 1, 2)$ has been obtained via the Fisher's information. This controls both chemical and physical properties of some molecular systems. The Fisher information is considered only for $x>0$ due to the singular point at $x=0$. We found that Fisher-information-based uncertainty relation and the Cramer-Rao inequality holds. Some relevant numerical results are presented. The results presented shows that the Cramer-Rao and the Heisenberg products in both spaces provide a natural measure for anharmonicity of {$-V_0{\\rm csch}^2(ax)$}

  19. Fisher information for the position-dependent mass Schrödinger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falaye, B. J.; Serrano, F. A.; Dong, Shi-Hai

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the Fisher information for the position-dependent mass Schrödinger equation with hyperbolic potential V (x) = -V0csch2 (ax). The analysis of the quantum-mechanical probability for the ground and exited states (n = 0, 1, 2) has been obtained via the Fisher information. This controls both chemical and physical properties of some molecular systems. The Fisher information is considered only for x > 0 due to the singular point at x = 0. We found that Fisher-information-based uncertainty relation and the Cramer-Rao inequality holds. Some relevant numerical results are presented. The results presented show that the Cramer-Rao and the Heisenberg products in both spaces provide a natural measure for anharmonicity of -V0csch2 (ax).

  20. Physics design of fissile mass-flow monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.K.; March-Leuba, J.; Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Uckan, T.

    1997-09-01

    The system measures the flow rate and uranium-235 content in liquid or gas streams; it does not penetrate the process piping. A moderated fission neutron source is used to periodicially introduce a burst of thermal neutrons into the fluid stream to induce fission; delayed gamma emissions from the resulting fission fragments are detected by high-efficiency scintillators downstream of the neutron source. The fluid flow rate is measure from the time between initiation of the thermal neutron burst and detection of the fission product gamma emissions, and the U-235 content is inferred from the intensity of the gamma burst detected. Design of the fissile mass flow monitor requires satisfaction of several competing constraints. Efficient operation of the monitor requires that source-induced fission rate and detection efficiency be maximized while the source-induced background rate is simultaneoulsy minimized. Near optical nuclear design of the system was achieved using numerous Monte Carlo calculations and measurements. This paper addresses calculational aspects of the physics design for the system applied to UF{sub 6} gas.

  1. AGC 226067: A possible interacting low-mass system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, E. A. K.; Cannon, J. M.; Rhode, K. L.; Janesh, W. F.; Janowiecki, S.; Leisman, L.; Giovanelli, R.; Haynes, M. P.; Oosterloo, T. A.; Salzer, J. J.; Zaidi, T.

    2015-08-01

    We present Arecibo, GBT, VLA, and WIYN/pODI observations of the ALFALFA source AGC 226067. Originally identified as an ultra-compact high velocity cloud and candidate Local Group galaxy, AGC 226067 is spatially and kinematically coincident with the Virgo cluster, and the identification by multiple groups of an optical counterpart with no resolved stars supports the interpretation that this systems lies at the Virgo distance (D = 17 Mpc). The combined observations reveal that the system consists of multiple components: a central H i source associated with the optical counterpart (AGC 226067), a smaller H i-only component (AGC 229490), a second optical component (AGC 229491), and extended low-surface brightness H i. Only ~1/4 of the single-dish H i emission is associated with AGC 226067; as a result, we find MHI/Lg ~ 6M?/L? which is lower than previous work. At D = 17 Mpc, AGC 226067 has an H i mass of 1.5 × 107M? and Lg = 2.4 × 106L?, AGC 229490 (the H i-only component) has MHI = 3.6 × 106M?, and AGC 229491 (the second optical component) has Lg = 3.6 × 105L?. The nature of this system of three sources is uncertain: AGC 226067 and AGC 229490 may be connected by an H i bridge, and AGC 229490 and AGC 229491 are separated by only 0.5'. The current data do not resolve the H i in AGC 229490 and its origin is unclear. We discuss possible scenarios for this system of objects: an interacting system of dwarf galaxies, accretion of material onto AGC 226067, or stripping of material from AGC 226067.

  2. Time-Variable Phenomena in the Jovian System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S. (editor); West, Robert A. (editor); Rahe, Jurgen (editor); Pereyda, Margarita

    1989-01-01

    The current state of knowledge of dynamic processes in the Jovian system is assessed and summaries are provided of both theoretical and observational foundations upon which future research might be based. There are three sections: satellite phenomena and rings; magnetospheric phenomena, Io's torus, and aurorae; and atmospheric phenomena. Each chapter discusses time dependent theoretical framework for understanding and interpreting what is observed; others describe the evidence and nature of observed changes or their absence. A few chapters provide historical perspective and attempt to present a comprehensive synthesis of the current state of knowledge.

  3. Simulation of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Boost Converter of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohyama, Kazuhiro; Sakamoto, Tsuyoshi; Arinaga, Shinji; Yamashita, Yukio

    This paper proposes variable-speed wind generation system using the boost converter. The proposed system has three speed control modes for the wind velocity. The control mode of low wind velocity regulates the armature current of the generator with the boost converter to control the speed of wind turbine. The control mode of middle wind velocity regulates the DC link voltage with the vector controlled inverter to control the speed of wind turbine. The control mode of high wind velocity regulates the pitch angle of the wind turbine with the pitch angle control system to control the speed of wind turbine. The hybrid of three control modes extends the variable-speed range. The proposed system simplifies the maintenance and improves the reliability and reduces the cost in compare with the variable-speed wind generation system using PWM converter. This paper describes the control strategy and modeling for simulation using Matlab Simulink of the proposed system. Also this paper describes the control strategy and modeling of variable-speed wind generation system using PWM converter. The steady state and transient responses for wind velocity changes are simulated using the Matlab Simulink. This paper verifies the fundamental performance of the system using boost converter by discussing the simulation results of the both systems.

  4. High Mass X-ray Binaries: Progenitors of double neutron star systems

    E-print Network

    Chaty, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    In this review I briefly describe the nature of the three kinds of High-Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs), accreting through: (i) Be circumstellar disc, (ii) supergiant stellar wind, and (iii) Roche lobe filling supergiants. A previously unknown population of HMXBs hosting supergiant stars has been revealed in the last years, with multi-wavelength campaigns including high energy (INTEGRAL, Swift, XMM, Chandra) and optical/infrared (mainly ESO) observations. This population is divided between obscured supergiant HMXBs, and supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs), characterized by short and intense X-ray flares. I discuss the characteristics of these types of supergiant HMXBs, propose a scenario describing the properties of these high-energy sources, and finally show how the observations can constrain the accretion models (e.g. clumpy winds, magneto-centrifugal barrier, transitory accretion disc, etc). Because they are the likely progenitors of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs), and also of double neutron star systems,...

  5. Deep ocean mass fluxes in the coastal upwelling off Mauritania from 1988 to 2012: variability on seasonal to decadal timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, G.; Romero, O.; Merkel, U.; Donner, B.; Iversen, M.; Nowald, N.; Ratmeyer, V.; Ruhland, G.; Klann, M.; Wefer, G.

    2015-11-01

    A more than two-decadal sediment trap record from the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystem (EBUE) off Cape Blanc, Mauritania, is analyzed with respect to deep ocean mass fluxes, flux components and their variability on seasonal to decadal timescales. The total mass flux revealed interannual fluctuations which were superimposed by fluctuations on decadal timescales possibly linked to the Atlantic Multidedadal Oscillation (AMO). High winter fluxes of biogenic silica (BSi), used as a measure of marine production mostly by diatoms largely correspond to a positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index during boreal winter (December-March). However, this relationship is weak. The highest positive BSi anomaly was in winter 2004-2005 when the NAO was in a neutral state. More episodic BSi sedimentation events occurred in several summer seasons between 2001 and 2005, when the previous winter NAO was neutral or even negative. We suggest that distinct dust outbreaks and deposition in the surface ocean in winter but also in summer/fall enhanced particle sedimentation and carbon export on rather short timescales via the ballasting effect, thus leading to these episodic sedimentation events. Episodic perturbations of the marine carbon cycle by dust outbreaks (e.g. in 2005) weakened the relationships between fluxes and larger scale climatic oscillations. As phytoplankton biomass is high throughout the year in our study area, any dry (in winter) or wet (in summer) deposition of fine-grained dust particles is assumed to enhance the efficiency of the biological pump by being incorporated into dense and fast settling organic-rich aggregates. A good correspondence between BSi and dust fluxes was observed for the dusty year 2005, following a period of rather dry conditions in the Sahara/Sahel region. Large changes of all fluxes occurred during the strongest El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in 1997-1999 where low fluxes were obtained for almost one year during the warm El Niño and high fluxes in the following cold La Niña phase. Bakun (1990) suggested an intensification of coastal upwelling due to increased winds ("Bakun upwelling intensification hypothesis", Cropper et al., 2014) and global change. We did not observe an increase of any flux component off Cape Blanc during the past two and a half decades which might support this hypothesis. Furthermore, fluxes of mineral dust did not show any positive or negative trends over time which would have suggested enhanced desertification or "Saharan greening" during the last few decades.

  6. System for throttling and compensation for variable feedstock properties

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, J. W.

    1981-05-05

    Apparatus is shown for adjusting the feed rate of pulverized feed material into a pressurized container. The apparatus also has utility for compensating for variations in the permeability of the feed material. A rotor that includes sprues with provision for controlling the pressure distribution along the sprues is located within the pressurized container. The rotor hub is connected to a drive means and a material supply means which extend through the wall of the container. A line for controlling pressure along the sprues by gas injection is connected to a chamber between sections of the sprue for controlling gas pressure at that point. The gas pressure control line is connected to a pressurized gas source and a control system external to the rotor. 10 figs.

  7. Rorschach intercoder reliability for protocol-level comprehensive system variables in an international sample.

    PubMed

    Sahly, Jennifer; Shaffer, Thomas W; Erdberg, Philip; O'Toole, Siobhan

    2011-11-01

    This study examines the intercoder reliability of Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS; Exner, 2001) protocol-level variables. A large international sample was combined to obtain intercoder agreement for 489 Rorschach protocols coded using the CS. Intercoder agreement was calculated using an Iota coefficient, a statistical coefficient similar to kappa that is corrected for chance. Iota values for the variables analyzed ranged from .31 to 1.00, with 2 in the poor range of agreement, 4 in the fair range, 25 in the good range, and 116 in the excellent range of agreement. Discrepancies between variables are discussed. PMID:21999382

  8. Plasma and Magnetic Field Characteristics of Solar Coronal Mass Ejections in Relation to Geomagnetic Storm Intensity and Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui; Yang, Zhongwei; Zhu, Bei; Liu, Yi A.; Luhmann, Janet G.; Richardson, John D.

    2015-08-01

    The largest geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 24 so far occurred on 2015 March 17 and June 22 with {D}{st} minima of -223 and -195 nT, respectively. Both of the geomagnetic storms show a multi-step development. We examine the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the driving coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in connection with the development of the geomagnetic storms. A particular effort is to reconstruct the in situ structure using a Grad-Shafranov technique and compare the reconstruction results with solar observations, which gives a larger spatial perspective of the source conditions than one-dimensional in situ measurements. Key results are obtained concerning how the plasma and magnetic field characteristics of CMEs control the geomagnetic storm intensity and variability: (1) a sheath-ejecta-ejecta mechanism and a sheath-sheath-ejecta scenario are proposed for the multi-step development of the 2015 March 17 and June 22 geomagnetic storms, respectively; (2) two contrasting cases of how the CME flux-rope characteristics generate intense geomagnetic storms are found, which indicates that a southward flux-rope orientation is not a necessity for a strong geomagnetic storm; and (3) the unexpected 2015 March 17 intense geomagnetic storm resulted from the interaction between two successive CMEs plus the compression by a high-speed stream from behind, which is essentially the “perfect storm” scenario proposed by Liu et al. (i.e., a combination of circumstances results in an event of unusual magnitude), so the “perfect storm” scenario may not be as rare as the phrase implies.

  9. Minimum fuel control of a vehicle with a continuously variable transmission. [control system simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burghart, J. H.; Donoghue, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    The design and evaluation of a control system for a sedan with a heat engine and a continuously variable transmission, is considered in a effort to minimize fuel consumption and achieve satisfactory dynamic response of vehicle variables as the vehicle is driven over a standard driving cycle. Even though the vehicle system was highly nonlinear, attention was restricted to linear control algorithms which could be easily understood and implemented demonstrated by simulation. Simulation results also revealed that the vehicle could exhibit unexpected dynamic behavior which must be taken into account in any control system design.

  10. An Increase in the Mass of Planetary Systems around Lower-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulders, Gijs D.; Pascucci, Ilaria; Apai, Dániel

    2015-12-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0–2.8 R?) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger (>2.8 R?) planets. We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass–radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complete for all spectral types, the average heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets increases roughly inversely with stellar mass from 4 M? in F stars to 5 M? in G and K stars to 7 M? in M stars. This trend stands in stark contrast with observed protoplanetary disk masses that decrease toward lower mass stars, and provides a challenge for current planet formation models. Neither models of in situ formation nor migration of fully formed planets are consistent with these results. Instead, these results are indicative of large-scale inward migration of planetary building blocks—either through type-I migration or radial drift of dust grains—that is more efficient for lower mass stars, but does not result in significantly larger or smaller planets.

  11. The MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Kevin

    2014-10-01

    It has recently been discovered that 10 - 50% of M dwarfs host Earth-size planets in their habitable zones. Furthermore, the nearest potentially habitable super-Earths orbit M dwarfs, meaning that these systems likely represent our best chance to discover habitable worlds in the coming decade. The ultraviolet (UV) spectrum incident upon Earth-like planets drives the dissociation of water and CO2, the production of O2 and ozone, and may determine their ultimate habitability. At present, we lack the observational and theoretical basis to predict the energetic radiation spectrum (X-ray through UV) of an M dwarf. UV variability of low-mass exoplanet host stars, in particular the possibly sterilizing effect of flare activity, is almost completely unexplored observationally. This proposal aims to acquire the critical UV observations of low-mass host stars now, providing a treasury database for studies of exemplary nearby exoplanetary systems and potentially habitable worlds not yet discovered. Building on our successful pilot program of spectrally and temporally resolved UV radiation fields, we propose the MUSCLES Treasury Survey: a UV survey of nearby low-mass exoplanetary host stars. Using HST-COS and STIS, we will observe the 1150 - 5700A fluxes, reconstruct the important Ly-alpha emission lines, and use these data to estimate the extreme-UV (200 - 912A) irradiances incident upon exoplanetary atmospheres. The UV data will be complemented with contemporaneous X-ray and ground-based observations as well as new M dwarf atmosphere models to constrain atmospheric heating rates and provide a baseline for long-term ground-based studies of these systems.

  12. Orbital Stability of Multi-Planet Systems: Behavior at High Masses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Sarah J.; Kratter, Kaitlin M.

    2015-12-01

    We explore the relationships between planet separation, mass, and stability timescale in high mass multi-planet systems containing planet masses and multiplicities relevant for planetary systems detectable via direct imaging. Extrapolating empirically derived relationships between planet mass, separation, and stability timescale derived from lower mass planetary systems misestimate the stability timescales for higher mass planetary systems by more than an order of magnitude at close separations near the two body Hill stability limit. We also find that characterizing critical separations in terms of period ratio produces a linear relationship between log-timescale and separation with the same slope for planet-star mass ratios comparable to or exceeding Jupiter’s, but this slope steepens for lower mass planetary systems. We discuss possible mechanisms for instability that result in this behavior including perturbing adjacent planet pairs into an overlap regime between 1st and sometimes 2nd order mean motion resonances.

  13. Evaluation of Application Accuracy and Performance of a Hydraulically Operated Variable-Rate Aerial Application System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An aerial variable-rate application system consisting of a DGPS-based guidance system, automatic flow controller, and hydraulically controlled pump/valve was evaluated for response time to rapidly changing flow requirements and accuracy of application. Spray deposition position error was evaluated ...

  14. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a variable-speed wind generation system where fuzzy logic principles are used to optimize efficiency and enhance performance control. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided pulse width modulated converter system which either pump...

  15. Systems With Variable Composition: The Chemical Potential Chemistry CHEM 213W

    E-print Network

    Ronis, David M.

    Systems With Variable Composition: The Chemical Potential Chemistry CHEM 213W David Ronis Mc or 2) by changing the composition through chemical reaction. Nonetheless, as far as state functions the composition of the system. For example, you may add compounds with different types of bonds

  16. A Method to Study the Effect of Renewable Resource Variability on Power System Dynamics

    E-print Network

    Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro

    .g., synchronous generator speeds, system fre- quency, or bus voltages, must remain at all times. To address- tricity generation on power system dynamics, with a focus on time-scales involving electromechanical, then it may be concluded that variability arising from in renewable-based electricity generation does not have

  17. Variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners' Development of the Chinese Numeral Classifier System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Lu, Xiaofei

    2013-01-01

    This study examined variability in Chinese as a Foreign Language (CFL) learners' development of the Chinese numeral classifier system from a dynamic systems approach. Our data consisted of a longitudinal corpus of 657 essays written by CFL learners at lower and higher intermediate levels and a corpus of 100 essays written by native speakers (NSs)…

  18. Mass Deacidification Systems: Planning and Managerial Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turko, Karen

    Library administrators, faced with the problems of acid-paper deterioration, are examining mass deacidification procedures. Mass deacidification of acidic books while they are still physically sound and not yet brittle is the most cost-effective corrective action to extend the life of the paper. There are currently at least five mass

  19. Topological gaps without masses in driven graphene-like systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iadecola, Thomas; Neupert, Titus; Chamon, Claudio

    2014-03-01

    We illustrate the possibility of realizing band gaps in graphene-like systems that fall outside the existing classification of gapped Dirac Hamiltonians in terms of masses. As our primary example we consider a band gap arising due to time-dependent distortions of the honeycomb lattice. By means of an exact, invertible, and transport-preserving mapping to a time-independent Hamiltonian, we show that the system exhibits Chern-insulating phases with quantized Hall conductivities +/-e2 / h . The chirality of the corresponding gapless edge modes is controllable by both the frequency of the driving and the manner in which sublattice symmetry is broken by the dynamical lattice modulations. We demonstrate that, while these phases are in the same topological sector as the Haldane model, they are nevertheless separated from the latter by a gap-closing transition unless an extra parameter is added to the Hamiltonian. Finally, we discuss a promising possible realization of this physics in photonic lattices. This work is supported in part by DOE Grant DEF-06ER46316 (T.I. and C.C.).

  20. Cold Mass Support System for he D0 Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Squires, B.; /Fermilab

    1993-08-09

    The support system is designed to support the gravitational, magnetic, and thermal contraction loads associated with the cold mass weighing 1.46 metric tons (3210 Ibm). The loading constraints are listed in Table 1. The support system consists of axial members (axial supports) to provide longitudinal stiffness and nearly tangential members (radial supports) to provide radial stiffness. The members connect the outer support cylinder to the flat annular bulkheads of the vacuum vessel. See Figures 1 through 3 for additional details on the supports. Six axial compression-tension supports are located on the chimney end of the cryostat only. Six radial tension supports are located on each end. Both types of members are fabricated of Inconel 718 and have a design safety factor of 4 on the ultimate strength at 300 K. The axial supports are also designed for a buckling safety factor of 4 for the operating loads. Shipping stops will be installed to prevent the axial supports from going into compression during transportation. Axial and radial contraction of the coil support cylinder is accommodated by spherical bearings on both ends ofeach support member.

  1. Mass transport model through the skin by microencapsulation system.

    PubMed

    Carreras, Núria; Alonso, Cristina; Martí, Meritxell; Lis, Manel J

    2015-01-01

    Skin drug delivery can be subdivided into topical and transdermal administration. Transdermal administration can take advantage of chemical and physical strategies that can improve skin permeability and allow drug penetration. In this study, the development of a skin penetration profile was carried out by an in vitro technique for a microencapsulated system of ibuprofen. Release experiments were performed using percutaneous absorption tests to determine the evolution of the principle present in each of the different skin compartments as a function of time. A general kinetic model for a microencapsulated structure as a mass transport system through the skin was applied: [Formula: see text] This model could predict the penetration profile of encapsulated substances through skin from biofunctional textiles as well as estimate the dosage profile of the active principle. The apparent diffusion coefficients found were 1.20?×?10(-7?)cm/s for the stratum corneum and higher for the rest of the skin 6.67?×?10(-6?)cm/s. PMID:26004367

  2. [Preparedness of health system in Israel for mass emergencies].

    PubMed

    Navrátil, Václav; Navrátil, Leoš

    2015-01-01

    The vast number of outbreaks of tension on the planet shows that it is impossible to underestimate the preparation level of population protection in emergencies. The possibility of a terrorist attack, including the use of particularly toxic or biological substances cannot be excluded or totally prevented at this point. In fact, there may not only be a terrorist attack. Rampant population migration increases the risk of the transmission of infectious diseases, even to considerable distances from the states where the epidemiological situation might not be completely under control. The current state of the Czech healthcare system in terms of preparedness for mass emergencies is insufficient and requires prompt correction, though not through hastily adopted measures. Ideally, looking into the success of the Israeli preparedness system, where the public has been exposed to high levels of threat from a variety of causes for decades, could greatly aid the Czech Republic in moving forward effectively. The number of victims of terrorist attacks there outpaces 10000, a fact that shows Israel is experienced in responding to emergency incidents. PMID:26311029

  3. Identification of a wide, low-mass multiple system containing the brown dwarf 2MASS J0850359+105716

    E-print Network

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.

    We report our discovery of NLTT 20346 as an M5+M6 companion system to the tight binary (or triple) L dwarf 2MASS J0850359+105716. This nearby (~31 pc), widely separated (~7700 AU) quadruple system was identified through a ...

  4. Myological variability in a decoupled skeletal system: batoid cranial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N; Grubbs, R Dean

    2014-08-01

    Chondrichthyans (sharks, batoids, and chimaeras) have simple feeding mechanisms owing to their relatively few cranial skeletal elements. However, the indirect association of the jaws to the cranium (euhyostylic jaw suspension) has resulted in myriad cranial muscle rearrangements of both the hyoid and mandibular elements. We examined the cranial musculature of an abbreviated phylogenetic representation of batoid fishes, including skates, guitarfishes and with a particular focus on stingrays. We identified homologous muscle groups across these taxa and describe changes in gross morphology across developmental and functional muscle groups, with the goal of exploring how decoupling of the jaws from the skull has effected muscular arrangement. In particular, we focus on the cranial anatomy of durophagous and nondurophagous batoids, as the former display marked differences in morphology compared to the latter. Durophagous stingrays are characterized by hypertrophied jaw adductors, reliance on pennate versus fusiform muscle fiber architecture, tendinous rather than aponeurotic muscle insertions, and an overall reduction in mandibular kinesis. Nondurophagous stingrays have muscles that rely on aponeurotic insertions onto the skeletal structure, and display musculoskeletal specialization for jaw protrusion and independent lower jaw kinesis, relative to durophagous stingrays. We find that among extant chondrichthyans, considerable variation exists in the hyoid and mandibular muscles, slightly less so in hypaxial muscles, whereas branchial muscles are overwhelmingly conserved. As chondrichthyans occupy a position sister to all other living gnathostomes, our understanding of the structure and function of early vertebrate feeding systems rests heavily on understanding chondrichthyan cranial anatomy. Our findings highlight the incredible variation in muscular complexity across chondrichthyans in general and batoids in particular. PMID:24652648

  5. Gerotor and bearing system for whirling mass orbital vibrator

    DOEpatents

    Brett, James Ford; Westermark, Robert Victor; Turner, Jr., Joey Earl; Lovin, Samuel Scott; Cole, Jack Howard; Myers, Will

    2007-02-27

    A gerotor and bearing apparatus for a whirling mass orbital vibrator which generates vibration in a borehole. The apparatus includes a gerotor with an inner gear rotated by a shaft having one less lobe than an outer gear. A whirling mass is attached to the shaft. At least one bearing is attached to the shaft so that the bearing engages at least one sleeve. A mechanism is provided to rotate the inner gear, the mass and the bearing in a selected rotational direction in order to cause the mass, the inner gear, and the bearing to backwards whirl in an opposite rotational direction. The backwards whirling mass creates seismic vibrations.

  6. Reco level Smin and subsystem Smin: improved global inclusive variables for measuring the new physics mass scale in MET events at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Konar, Partha; Kong, Kyoungchul; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Park, Myeonghun; /Florida U.

    2011-08-11

    The variable {radical}s{sub min} was originally proposed in [1] as a model-independent, global and fully inclusive measure of the new physics mass scale in missing energy events at hadron colliders. In the original incarnation of {radical}s{sub min}, however, the connection to the new physics mass scale was blurred by the effects of the underlying event, most notably initial state radiation and multiple parton interactions. In this paper we advertize two improved variants of the {radical}s{sub min} variable, which overcome this problem. First we show that by evaluating the {radical}s{sub min} variable at the RECO level, in terms of the reconstructed objects in the event, the effects from the underlying event are significantly diminished and the nice correlation between the peak in the {radical}s{sub min}{sup (reco)} distribution and the new physics mass scale is restored. Secondly, the underlying event problem can be avoided altogether when the {radical}s{sub min} concept is applied to a subsystem of the event which does not involve any QCD jets. We supply an analytic formula for the resulting subsystem {radical}s{sub min}{sup (sub)} variable and show that its peak exhibits the usual correlation with the mass scale of the particles produced in the subsystem. Finally, we contrast {radical}s{sub min} to other popular inclusive variables such as H{sub T}, M{sub Tgen} and M{sub TTgen}. We illustrate our discussion with several examples from supersymmetry, and with dilepton events from top quark pair production.

  7. THE EVOLUTION OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS WITH TIME-DEPENDENT STELLAR MASS LOSS RATES

    E-print Network

    Bloch, Anthony

    THE EVOLUTION OF PLANETARY SYSTEMS WITH TIME-DEPENDENT STELLAR MASS LOSS RATES Kassandra R systems, this paper generalizes previous studies of orbital evolution in planetary systems with stellar evolution for two planet systems with stellar mass loss. Here we focus on a simple model consisting

  8. Optimal control of singularly perturbed nonlinear systems with state-variable inequality constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Corban, J. E.

    1990-01-01

    The established necessary conditions for optimality in nonlinear control problems that involve state-variable inequality constraints are applied to a class of singularly perturbed systems. The distinguishing feature of this class of two-time-scale systems is a transformation of the state-variable inequality constraint, present in the full order problem, to a constraint involving states and controls in the reduced problem. It is shown that, when a state constraint is active in the reduced problem, the boundary layer problem can be of finite time in the stretched time variable. Thus, the usual requirement for asymptotic stability of the boundary layer system is not applicable, and cannot be used to construct approximate boundary layer solutions. Several alternative solution methods are explored and illustrated with simple examples.

  9. A study of engine variable geometry systems for an advanced high subsonic long range commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compagnon, M. A.

    1973-01-01

    Several variable geometry high Mach inlet concepts, aimed at meeting a system noise objective of 15 EPNdB below FAR part 36, for a long range, Mach 0.9 advanced commercial transport are assessed and compared to a fixed geometry inlet with multiple splitters. The effects of a variable exhaust nozzle (mixed exhaust engine) on noise, inlet geometry requirements, and economics are also presented. The best variable geometry inlet configuration identified is a variable cowl design which relies on a high throat Mach number for additional inlet noise suppression only at takeoff, and depends entirely on inlet wall treatment for noise suppression at approach power. Relative economic penalties as a function of noise level are also presented.

  10. Control design variable linking for optimization of structural/control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jin, Ik Min; Schmit, Lucien A.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented to integrate the design space of structural/control system optimization problems in the case of linear state feedback control. Conventional structural sizing variables and elements of the feedback gain matrix are both treated as strictly independent design variables in optimization by extending design variable linking concepts to the control gains. Several approximation concepts including new control design variable linking schemes are used to formulate the integrated structural/control optimization problem as a sequence of explicit nonlinear mathematical programming problems. Examples which involve a variety of behavior constraints, including constraints on dynamic stability, damped frequencies, control effort, peak transient displacement, acceleration, and control force limits, are effectively solved by using the method presented.

  11. The Attributes of a Variable-Diameter Rotor System Applied to Civil Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Scott; Mark, Hans; Aguilera, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The attributes of a variable diameter rotor concept applied to civil tiltrotor aircraft are investigated using the V/STOL aircraft sizing and performance computer program (VASCOMP). To begin, civil tiltrotor viability issues that motivate advanced rotor designs are discussed. Current work on the variable diameter rotor and a theoretical basis for the advantages of the rotor system are presented. The size and performance of variable diameter and conventional tiltrotor designs for the same baseline mission are then calculated using a modified NASA Ames version of VASCOMP. The aircraft are compared based on gross weight, fuel required, engine size, and autorotative performance for various hover disk loading values. Conclusions about the viability of the resulting designs are presented and a program for further variable diameter rotor research is recommended.

  12. An Increase in the Mass of Planetary Systems around Lower-Mass Stars

    E-print Network

    Mulders, Gijs D; Apai, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Trends in the planet population with host star mass provide an avenue to constrain planet formation theories. We derive the planet radius distribution function for Kepler stars of different spectral types, sampling a range in host star masses. We find that M dwarf stars have 3.5 times more small planets (1.0-2.8 R_Earth) than main-sequence FGK stars, but two times fewer Neptune-sized and larger planets (>2.8 R_Earth). We find no systematic trend in the planet size distribution between spectral types F, G, and K to explain the increasing occurrence rates. Taking into account the mass-radius relationship and heavy-element mass of observed exoplanets, and assuming those are independent of spectral type, we derive the inventory of the heavy-element mass locked up in exoplanets at short orbits. The overall higher planet occurrence rates around M stars are not consistent with the redistribution of the same mass into more, smaller planets. At the orbital periods and planet radii where Kepler observations are complet...

  13. AeroPropulsoServoElasticity: Dynamic Modeling of the Variable Cycle Propulsion System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2012-01-01

    This presentation was made at the 2012 Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference and it covers research work for the Dynamic Modeling of the Variable cycle Propulsion System that was done under the Supersonics Project, in the area of AeroPropulsoServoElasticity. The presentation covers the objective for the propulsion system dynamic modeling work, followed by the work that has been done so far to model the variable Cycle Engine, modeling of the inlet, the nozzle, the modeling that has been done to model the affects of flow distortion, and finally presenting some concluding remarks and future plans.

  14. The RenewElec Project: Variable Renewable Energy and the Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Apt, Jay

    2014-02-14

    Variable energy resources, such as wind power, now produce about 4% of U.S. electricity. They can play a significantly expanded role if the U.S. adopts a systems approach that considers affordability, security and reliability. Reaching a 20-30% renewable portfolio standard goal is possible, but not without changes in the management and regulation of the power system, including accurately assessing and preparing for the operational effects of renewable generation. The RenewElec project will help the nation make the transition to the use of significant amounts of electric generation from variable and intermittent sources of renewable power.

  15. Symmetry breaking, mixing, instability, and low-frequency variability in a minimal Lorenz-like system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucarini, Valerio; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2009-08-01

    Starting from the classical Saltzman two-dimensional convection equations, we derive via a severe spectral truncation a minimal 10 ODE system which includes the thermal effect of viscous dissipation. Neglecting this process leads to a dynamical system which includes a decoupled generalized Lorenz system. The consideration of this process breaks an important symmetry and couples the dynamics of fast and slow variables, with the ensuing modifications to the structural properties of the attractor and of the spectral features. When the relevant nondimensional number (Eckert number Ec) is different from zero, an additional time scale of O(Ec-1) is introduced in the system, as shown with standard multiscale analysis and made clear by several numerical evidences. Moreover, the system is ergodic and hyperbolic, the slow variables feature long-term memory with 1/f3/2 power spectra, and the fast variables feature amplitude modulation. Increasing the strength of the thermal-viscous feedback has a stabilizing effect, as both the metric entropy and the Kaplan-Yorke attractor dimension decrease monotonically with Ec. The analyzed system features very rich dynamics: it overcomes some of the limitations of the Lorenz system and might have prototypical value in relevant processes in complex systems dynamics, such as the interaction between slow and fast variables, the presence of long-term memory, and the associated extreme value statistics. This analysis shows how neglecting the coupling of slow and fast variables only on the basis of scale analysis can be catastrophic. In fact, this leads to spurious invariances that affect essential dynamical properties (ergodicity, hyperbolicity) and that cause the model losing ability in describing intrinsically multiscale processes.

  16. An expert system/ion trap mass spectrometry approach for life support systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Peter T.; Wong, Carla M.; Yost, Richard A.; Johnson, Jodie V.; Yates, Nathan A.; Story, Michael

    1992-01-01

    Efforts to develop sensor and control system technology to monitor air quality for life support have resulted in the development and preliminary testing of a concept based on expert systems and ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS). An ITMS instrument provides the capability to identify and quantitate a large number of suspected contaminants at trace levels through the use of a variety of multidimensional experiments. An expert system provides specialized knowledge for control, analysis, and decision making. The system is intended for real-time, on-line, autonomous monitoring of air quality. The key characteristics of the system, performance data and analytical capabilities of the ITMS instrument, the design and operation of the expert system, and results from preliminary testing of the system for trace contaminant monitoring are described.

  17. Accumulation Rate Variability and Winter Mass Balance Estimates using High Frequency Ground-Penetrating Radar and Snow Pit Stratigraphy on the Juneau Icefield, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braddock, S. S.; Boucher, A. L.; Sandler, H. C.; McNeil, C.; Campbell, S. W.; Kreutz, K. J.

    2012-12-01

    In July 2012, 200 km of 400 MHz ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles were collected across the Juneau Icefield, Alaska. The goal was to determine if spatial accumulation rate variability and winter mass balance estimates could be improved by linking stratigraphic features between yearly-excavated snow pits through GPR. Profiles were collected along the centerline and cross sections of the main branch, northwest, and Southwest branch of the Taku Glacier as well as the Mathes, Llewellyn, and Demorest Glaciers. Over 650 km^2 of area and 1000 m of elevation range were covered during this pilot project linking sixteen snow pits with GPR data across the icefield. The field work was conducted as part of the Juneau Icefield Research Program (JIRP) with hopes of continuing this method in future years if first year results show promise. As an annually operated field research and education program, JIRP creates a unique opportunity to provide significant future contributions to Alaska mass balance records if the program is continued. Signal penetration reached ? 25 m with maximum depths reached at higher elevations of the icefield. Conversely, minimal penetration occurred in wetter regions at lower elevations, likely caused by volume scattering from free water within the firn and ice. Ice lenses and the annual layer located in mass balance snow pits correlated well with continuous stratigraphy imaged in GPR profiles suggesting that the lenses are relatively uninterrupted across the icefield and that GPR may be an appropriate tool for extrapolating point mass balance pit depths in this part of Alaska. The Northwest and Southwest Branches of the Taku Glacier show a strong stratigraphic thinning gradient, west to east; the main trunk of the Taku Glacier which originates from the Mathes-Llewellyn ice divide showed a similar thinning from the divide to the ELA. The thinning displayed by all three glacier systems matches a typical gradient from accumulation zone to ELA. However, it is also likely that a local influx of accumulation at the higher elevations of the Southwest and Northwest Branches result from their close proximity of the ocean. Beyond mass balance estimates, radar profiles also revealed ablation horizons underlying the annual layer near the ELA. Monitoring the location of this ablation horizon relative to the annual balance reflector may be helpful in quantifying changes in the ELA at the end of each previous melt season. Perched water tables were also imaged in several locations which may be suitable for future hydrological studies focused on delineation of sub-glacial drainage systems and their impact on local glacier dynamics. This is a particularly interesting finding considering the unprecedented recent jokulhlaup of the Mendenhall Glacier and re-routing of the primary water drainage at the Llewellyn Glacier terminus in 2011.

  18. Observation of Fe(V)=O using variable-temperature mass spectrometry and its enzyme-like C-H and C=C oxidation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Irene; Mathieson, Jennifer S.; Güell, Mireia; Ribas, Xavi; Luis, Josep M.; Cronin, Leroy; Costas, Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Oxo-transfer chemistry mediated by iron underpins many biological processes and today is emerging as synthetically very important for the catalytic oxidation of C-H and C=C moieties that are hard to activate conventionally. Despite the vast amount of research in this area, experimental characterization of the reactive species under catalytic conditions is very limited, although a Fe(V)=O moiety was postulated. Here we show, using variable-temperature mass spectrometry, the generation of a Fe(V)=O species within a synthetic non-haem complex at -40 °C and its reaction with an olefin. Also, with isotopic labelling we were able both to follow oxygen-atom transfer from H2O2/H2O through Fe(V)=O to the products and to probe the reactivity as a function of temperature. This study pioneers the implementation of variable-temperature mass spectrometry to investigate reactive intermediates.

  19. SUPER-KEPLERIAN FREQUENCIES IN ACCRETION DISKS. IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS AND SPIN MEASUREMENTS OF COMPACT OBJECTS FROM X-RAY VARIABILITY STUDIES

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, S. A.; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Milsom, John A.

    2009-09-20

    The detection of fast quasi-periodic variability from accreting black holes and neutron stars has been used to constrain their masses, radii, and spins. If the observed oscillations are linear modes in the accretion disks, then bounds can be placed on the properties of the central objects by assuming that these modes are locally sub-Keplerian. If, on the other hand, the observed oscillations correspond to nonlinear resonances between disk modes, then the properties of the central objects can be measured by assuming that the resonant modes are excited at the same radial annulus in the disk. In this paper, we use numerical simulations of vertically integrated, axisymmetric hydrodynamic accretion disks to provide examples of situations in which the assumptions implicit in both methods are not satisfied. We then discuss our results for the robustness of the mass and spin measurements of compact objects from variability studies.

  20. Rms-flux relation and fast optical variability simulations of the nova-like system MV Lyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrotka, A.; Mineshige, S.; Ness, J.-U.

    2015-03-01

    The stochastic variability (flickering) of the nova-like system (subclass of cataclysmic variable) MV Lyr yields a complicated power density spectrum with four break frequencies. Scaringi et al. analysed high-cadence Kepler data of MV Lyr, taken almost continuously over 600 d, giving the unique opportunity to study multicomponent Power Density Spectra (PDS) over a wide frequency range. We modelled this variability with our statistical model based on disc angular momentum transport via discrete turbulent bodies with an exponential distribution of the dimension scale. Two different models were used, a full disc (developed from the white dwarf to the outer radius of ˜1010 cm) and a radially thin disc (a ring at a distance of ˜1010 cm from the white dwarf) that imitates an outer disc rim. We succeed in explaining the two lowest observed break frequencies assuming typical values for a disc radius of 0.5 and 0.9 times the primary Roche lobe and an ? parameter of 0.1-0.4. The highest observed break frequency was also modelled, but with a rather small accretion disc with a radius of 0.3 times the primary Roche lobe and a high ? value of 0.9 consistent with previous findings by Scaringi. Furthermore, the simulated light curves exhibit the typical linear rms-flux proportionality linear relation and the typical log-normal flux distribution. As the turbulent process is generating fluctuations in mass accretion that propagate through the disc, this confirms the general knowledge that the typical rms-flux relation is mainly generated by these fluctuations. In general, a higher rms is generated by a larger amount of superposed flares which is compatible with a higher mass accretion rate expressed by a larger flux.

  1. Effect of rainfall spatial variability and sampling on salinity prediction in an estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Emad; Larson, Boone F.; Nuttle, William K.; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Nelson, Brian R.; Meselhe, Ehab A.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2008-02-01

    SummaryReliable and accurate forecasts of salinity changes are essential for the success of current and future management scenarios aimed at restoring and sustaining natural resources of coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Because of the physical complexity of such ecosystems, information on uncertainty associated with salinity forecasts should be assessed and incorporated into management and restoration decisions. This study focuses on the impact of spatial variability and limited sampling of rainfall on salinity prediction in an estuarine system. The analysis is conducted on the Barataria basin, which is a wetland-dominated estuarine system located directly west of the Mississippi Delta complex on the United States coast of south Louisiana. The basin has been experiencing significant losses of wetland at a rate of nearly 23 km 2/year. Radar-rainfall data with high spatial resolution are used to simulate various scenarios of hypothetical rain gauge sampling densities over the basin. A mass-balance hydrologic salinity model is used to assess the effect of reduced rainfall sampling on salinity prediction in the basin. The results indicated that, due to the critical role played by rainfall in determining the overall balance of the basin freshwater budget, a high degree of uncertainty exists in salinity predictions when using typical average rain gauge densities (e.g., 1.3 gauges/1000 km 2 in the US). These uncertainties decline sharply as the number of available gauges is increased beyond the typically available density. Uncertainties in salinity predictions in the Barataria basin are larger in inland locations and smaller near the mouth of the basin, where salinity conditions in the coastal waters of the Gulf of Mexico exert a large influence. Rainfall uncertainties also affected parameter estimation during model calibration, where the estimation of some parameters exhibited significant levels of bias and random scatter. The study highlights the necessity of improving rainfall monitoring especially in estuarine systems that are controlled by rainfall as a main source of freshwater and where the management of freshwater supply is a viable option.

  2. Arctic decadal variability: An auto-oscillatory system of heat and fresh water exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dukhovskoy, Dmitry S.; Johnson, Mark A.; Proshutinsky, Andrey

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a mechanism of decadal variability in the Artic Ocean-GIN Sea (Greenland, Iceland and Norwegian Seas) atmosphere-ice-ocean system. We hypothesize that Arctic variability is regulated by heat and freshwater exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the GIN Sea. The interaction between basins is weak during anticyclonic circulation regimes (low AO/NAO) and strong during cyclonic circulation regimes (high AO/NAO). Regime shifts are controlled by the system itself through oceanic and atmospheric gradients (dynamic height and surface air temperature) that increase during the anticyclonic regime and decrease during the cyclonic regime. This conceptual mechanism for Arctic decadal variability has been reproduced in a model experiment. Both model results and observational data support the suggested mechanism.

  3. Polymers and nanomedicine: considerations on variability and reproducibility when combining complex systems.

    PubMed

    Luxenhofer, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Hot topics in polymer science in the recent years and decades included macromolecular engineering enabled by controlled and living polymerization, use of polymers in biomedical applications. Control over polymerization and the structure of polymers increased tremendously. Despite the increased control over various polymerization techniques, polymers are intrinsically statistical in nature leading to a structural variability. As researchers combine polymers and biological systems, we combine two complex systems. Interestingly though, only the study of biological assays is subject to systematic scrutiny with respect to their reproducibility and variability. Here, it is argued that polymer synthesis should also be considered with systematic variability analysis, in particular in connection with downstream processes such as biological assays. PMID:26465193

  4. Abiotic variability among different aquatic systems of the central Amazon floodplain during drought and flood events.

    PubMed

    Affonso, A G; Queiroz, H L; Novo, E M L M

    2015-11-01

    This paper examines water properties from lakes, (depression lakes, sensu Junk et al., 2012), channels (scroll lakes with high connectivity, sensu Junk et al., 2012) and paleo-channels (scroll lakes with low connectivity-sensu Junk et al., 2012, locally called ressacas) located in Mamirauá Sustainable Development Reserve, in Central Amazon floodplain, Amazonas, Brazil. We analysed surface temperature, conductivity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, transparency, suspended inorganic and organic matter, chlorophyll-a, pheophytin, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, organic and inorganic carbon in 2009 high water phase, 2009 and 2010 low water phases. Multivariate statistical analyses of 24 aquatic systems (6 ressacas, 12 lakes and 6 channels, 142 samples) were applied to the variables in order to: 1) quantify differences among aquatic system types; 2) assess how those differences are affected in the different phases of the hydrological year. First, we analysed the entire set of variables to test for differences among phases of the hydrological year and types of aquatic systems using a PERMANOVA two-way crossed design. The results showed that the all measured limnological variables are distinct regarding both factors: types of aquatic systems and hydrological phases. In general, the magnitude and amplitude of all variables were higher in the low water phase than in the high water phase, except for water transparency in all aquatic system's types. PERMANOVA showed that the differences between aquatic system's types and hydrological phases of all variables were highly significant for both main factors (type and phase) and for the type x phase interaction. Limnological patterns of Amazon floodplain aquatic systems are highly dynamic, dependent on the surrounding environment, flood pulse, main river input and system type. These patterns show how undisturbed systems respond to natural variability in such a diverse environment, and how distinct are those aquatic systems, especially during the low water phase. Aquatic systems in Mamirauá floodplain represent limnological patterns of almost undisturbed areas and can be used as future reference for comparison with disturbed areas, such as those of the Lower Amazon, and as a baseline for studies on the effects of anthropogenic influences and climate change and on Amazon aquatic ecosystem. PMID:26602352

  5. A Convective Mass Flux Scaling Modification to the Slingo Diagnostic Cloud Fraction Scheme: Impacts on Tropical Intraseasonal Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridout, J. A.; Flatau, M. K.; Wang, Z.; Li, W.

    2012-12-01

    The Slingo diagnostic cloud fraction scheme has been used operationally for numerical weather prediction for a number of years in the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS). Recent comparisons of cloud cover predicted by this scheme, however, in prototypes of the Navy Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM), with corresponding derived fields from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) have prompted an examination of its representation of convective clouds, which in the case of deep convection appear much too extensive. This discrepancy is not obtained when the Emanuel convective parameterization is replaced with the Simplified Arakawa Schubert convective scheme. It is argued that the skill of the Slingo scheme becomes particularly open to question in the low-rainfall rate portion of the spectrum. Although various studies have addressed this issue in different ways, a simple scaling adjustment is described in this work that parameterizes the limiting cloud fraction in terms of the convective cloud base mass flux, while maintaining the logarithmic rainfall rate dependence of the original Slingo scheme. It is shown that this modification leads to comparable deep convective cloud cover predictions with both convective parameterizations. Impacts of the modification on tropical intraseasonal behavior in extended integrations of NAVGEM are described.

  6. The master transit time distribution of variable flow systems Ingo Heidbchel,1

    E-print Network

    Troch, Peter

    The master transit time distribution of variable flow systems Ingo Heidbüchel,1 Peter A. Troch,1; published 15 June 2012. [1] The transit time of water is an important indicator of catchment functioning. The next water input pulse can exhibit a totally different distribution of transit times. The distribution

  7. Development and Testing of a Variable Conductance Thermal Acquisition, Transport, and Switching System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugby, David C.; Farmer, Jeffery T.; Stouffer, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and testing of a scalable thermal management architecture for instruments, subsystems, or systems that must operate in severe space environments with wide variations in sink temperature. The architecture involves a serial linkage of one or more hot-side variable conductance heat pipes (VCHPs) to one or more cold-side loop heat pipes (LHPs). The VCHPs provide wide area heat acquisition, limited distance thermal transport, modest against gravity pumping, concentrated LHP startup heating, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The LHPs provide localized heat acquisition, long distance thermal transport, significant against gravity pumping, and high switching ratio variable conductance operation. The single-VCHP, single-LHP system described herein was developed to maintain thermal control of a small robotic lunar lander throughout the lunar day-night thermal cycle. It is also applicable to other variable heat rejection space missions in severe environments. Operationally, despite a 60-70% gas blocked VCHP condenser during ON testing, the system was still able to provide 2-4 W/K ON conductance, 0.01 W/K OFF conductance, and an end-to-end switching ratio of 200-400. The paper provides a detailed analysis of VCHP condenser performance, which quantified the gas blockage situation. Future multi-VCHP/multi-LHP thermal management system concepts that provide power/transport length scalability are also discussed.

  8. Variable mode bi-directional and uni-directional computer communication system

    DOEpatents

    Cornett, Frank N.; Jenkins, Philip N.; Bowman, Terrance L.; Placek, Joseph M.; Thorson, Gregory M.

    2004-12-14

    A variable communication systems comprising a plurality of transceivers and a control circuit connected to the transceivers to configure the transceivers to operate in a bi-directional mode and a uni-directional mode at different times using different transfer methods to transfer data.

  9. FUZZY LOGIC BASED INTELLIGENT CONTROL OF A VARIABLE SPEED CAGE MACHINE WIND GENERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a demonstration of the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable-speed wind generation system. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to either a double-sided pulse-width modulation converte...

  10. Precision zonal management systems for resilient cereal yields and ecosystem services under variable climates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing climatic variability is likely to increase production risks in cereal production and to exacerbate harmful biogeochemical impacts of these systems. Reduced tillage and continuous living cover (e.g., cover crops) may help manage these effects, but both impose other costs and risks. Conside...

  11. The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale: A Measurement System for Global Variables in Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantt, Linda M.

    2009-01-01

    The Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale (FEATS) is a measurement system for applying numbers to global variables in two-dimensional art (drawing and painting). While it was originally developed for use with the single-picture assessment ("Draw a person picking an apple from a tree" [PPAT]), researchers can also apply many of the 14 scales of the…

  12. Pacemaker Control of Heart Rate Variability: A Cyber Physical System Perspective

    E-print Network

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    50 Pacemaker Control of Heart Rate Variability: A Cyber Physical System Perspective PAUL BOGDAN Mellon University Cardiac diseases, like those related to abnormal heart rate activity, have an enormous pacemakers ignore the fractal nature of heart rate activity. The purpose of this article is to present

  13. Self-Learning Variable Structure Control for a Class of Sensor-Actuator Systems

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Sanfeng; Li, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Lou, Yuesheng; Liang, Yongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Variable structure strategy is widely used for the control of sensor-actuator systems modeled by Euler-Lagrange equations. However, accurate knowledge on the model structure and model parameters are often required for the control design. In this paper, we consider model-free variable structure control of a class of sensor-actuator systems, where only the online input and output of the system are available while the mathematic model of the system is unknown. The problem is formulated from an optimal control perspective and the implicit form of the control law are analytically obtained by using the principle of optimality. The control law and the optimal cost function are explicitly solved iteratively. Simulations demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed method. PMID:22778633

  14. 25?MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50?km fiber channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25?MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300?MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25?Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12?hours with a final secret key rate of 52?kbps over 50?km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions.

  15. 25?MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50?km fiber channel.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25?MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300?MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25?Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12?hours with a final secret key rate of 52?kbps over 50?km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions. PMID:26419413

  16. White dwarf + red dwarf binary systems and the period gap of cataclysmic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojkhanskaja, N. F.

    2007-07-01

    Cataclysmic variables (CV) and pre-cataclysmic binaries (PCB) are discussed. The main difference between them (accretion or its absence) is shown to be a consequence of the evolutionary process and the properties of their progenitors. Both types of system have a bimodal distribution of their periods, but the extrema are in counterphase. Luminosity-effective temperature diagrams for the primary components are used to show that both systems have approximately the same age, which conflicts with the notion of PCBs as precursors of CVs. Calculations of the maximum distance between components for which the system remains stable show that CVs have passed this limit, while PCBs maintain their stability during this evolution. It is suggested that, after ejecting a common shell, future CVs immediately become semi-detached systems. It this is so, then there must be cataclysmic variables which are the central stars of planetary nebulae.

  17. 25?MHz clock continuous-variable quantum key distribution system over 50?km fiber channel

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Duan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Dakai; Peng, Jinye; Zeng, Guihua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a practical continuous-variable quantum key distribution system is developed and it runs in the real-world conditions with 25?MHz clock rate. To reach high-rate, we have employed a homodyne detector with maximal bandwidth to 300?MHz and an optimal high-efficiency error reconciliation algorithm with processing speed up to 25?Mbps. To optimize the stability of the system, several key techniques are developed, which include a novel phase compensation algorithm, a polarization feedback algorithm, and related stability method on the modulators. Practically, our system is tested for more than 12?hours with a final secret key rate of 52?kbps over 50?km transmission distance, which is the highest rate so far in such distance. Our system may pave the road for practical broadband secure quantum communication with continuous variables in the commercial conditions. PMID:26419413

  18. Investigation on multi-variable decoupled temperature control system for enamelling machine with heated air circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Qin, Le; Zou, Shipeng; Long, Shijun

    2014-04-01

    A lots of problems may occur frequently when controlling the temperature of the enamelling machine oven in the real industrial process, such as multi-variable coupled problem. an experimental rig with triple inputs and triple outputs was devised and a simulation modeling was established accordingly in this study,. the temperature control system based on the feedforward compensation algorithm was proposed. Experimental results have shown that the system is of high efficiency, good stability and promising application.

  19. Variable-speed wind power system with improved energy capture via multilevel conversion

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Robert W.; Al-Naseem, Osama A.; Fingersh, Lee Jay

    2005-05-31

    A system and method for efficiently capturing electrical energy from a variable-speed generator are disclosed. The system includes a matrix converter using full-bridge, multilevel switch cells, in which semiconductor devices are clamped to a known constant DC voltage of a capacitor. The multilevel matrix converter is capable of generating multilevel voltage wave waveform of arbitrary magnitude and frequencies. The matrix converter can be controlled by using space vector modulation.

  20. Investigation on multi-variable decoupled temperature control system for enamelling machine with heated air circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang; Qin, Le; Zou, Shipeng; Long, Shijun

    2014-04-11

    A lots of problems may occur frequently when controlling the temperature of the enamelling machine oven in the real industrial process, such as multi-variable coupled problem. an experimental rig with triple inputs and triple outputs was devised and a simulation modeling was established accordingly in this study,. the temperature control system based on the feedforward compensation algorithm was proposed. Experimental results have shown that the system is of high efficiency, good stability and promising application.

  1. Trajectory controllability of semilinear systems with multiple variable delays in control

    SciTech Connect

    Klamka, Jerzy E-mail: Michal.Niezabitowski@polsl.pl; Niezabitowski, Micha? E-mail: Michal.Niezabitowski@polsl.pl

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, finite-dimensional dynamical control system described by semilinear differential state equation with multiple variable delays in control are considered. The concept of controllability we extend on trajectory controllability for systems with multiple point delays in control. Moreover, remarks and comments on the relationships between different concepts of controllability are presented. Finally, simple numerical example, which illustrates theoretical considerations is also given. The possible extensions are also proposed.

  2. Can Mira Variables Tell us the Chemical Abundances in Stellar Systems?

    E-print Network

    Michael Feast; Patricia Whitelock

    1999-11-20

    A period-metallicity relation for oxygen-rich Miras derived from globular clusters is applied to similar variables in the galactic Bulge. The metallicity distribution in the Bulge thus obtained is in good agreement with that derived from K giants. This suggests that the periods of Miras are useful indicators of metallicity distributions, at least in old systems such as galactic bulges. For systems such as the LMC the situation is not yet clear.

  3. Low-frequency variability in the arctic atmosphere, sea ice, and upper-ocean climate system

    SciTech Connect

    Bitz, C.M.; Battisti, D.S.; Moritz, R.E.; Beesley, J.A.

    1996-02-01

    The low-frequency natural variability of the arctic climate system is modeled using a single-column, energy balance model of the atmosphere, sea ice, and upper-ocean system. Variability in the system is induced by forcing with realistic, random perturbations in the atmospheric energy transport and cloudiness. The model predicts that the volume of perennial sea ice varies predominantly on decadal timescales, while other arctic climate variables vary mostly on intraannual and interannual timescales. The variance of the simulated sea ice volume is most sensitive to perturbations of the atmospheric forcing in late spring, at the onset of melt. The variance of the simulated sea ice volume is most sensitive to perturbations of the atmospheric forcing in the late spring, at the onset of melt. The variance of sea ice volume increases with the mean sea ice thickness and with the number of layers resolved in the sea ice model. This suggests that much of the simulated variance develops when the surface temperature decouples from the sea ice interior during the late spring, when melting snow abruptly exposes the sea ice surface and decreases the surface albedo. The minimum model requirements to simulate the natural variability in the arctic climate are identified. The implications of the low-frequency, natural variability in sea ice volume for detecting a climate change are discussed. Finally, calculations suggest that the variability in the thermodynamic forcing of the polar cap could lead to a freshening in North Atlantic that is comparable to the freshening associated with the Great Salinity Anomaly. 28 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Electronic drive and acquisition system for mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Rembrandt Thomas (Inventor); Mojarradi, Mohammad (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor); Darrach, Murray R. (Inventor); MacAskill, John (Inventor); Tran, Tuan (Inventor); Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Madzunkov, Stojan M. (Inventor); Blaes, Brent R. (Inventor); Thomas, John L. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention discloses a mixed signal RF drive electronics board that offers small, low power, reliable, and customizable method for driving and generating mass spectra from a mass spectrometer, and for control of other functions such as electron ionizer, ion focusing, single-ion detection, multi-channel data accumulation and, if desired, front-end interfaces such as pumps, valves, heaters, and columns.

  5. Modeling the seasonal variability of a coupled Arctic ice-ocean system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hakkinen, Sirpa; Mellor, George L.

    1992-01-01

    The seasonal variability of the ice-ocean system in the Arctic Basin and the Norwegian, Greenland, and Barents Seas was modeled using a three-dimensional coupled ice-ocean model developed at Princeton University. The snow-ice model uses a three-level thermodynamic scheme similar to Semtner's (1976), but is extended to include the effect of leads. It is shown that simulations using the climatological monthly forcing fields produce a realistic seasonal variability of the ice cover. The ice thickness had a considerable sensitivity to the choice of the long-wave back radiation scheme, but these effects can be reduced through dynamical factors.

  6. IDENTIFICATION OF A WIDE, LOW-MASS MULTIPLE SYSTEM CONTAINING THE BROWN DWARF 2MASS J0850359+105716

    SciTech Connect

    Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Bochanski, John J.; Looper, Dagny L.; West, Andrew A.; Van der Bliek, Nicole S.

    2011-03-15

    We report our discovery of NLTT 20346 as an M5+M6 companion system to the tight binary (or triple) L dwarf 2MASS J0850359+105716. This nearby ({approx}31 pc), widely separated ({approx}7700 AU) quadruple system was identified through a cross-match of proper motion catalogs. Follow-up imaging and spectroscopy of NLTT 20346 revealed it to be a magnetically active M5+M6 binary with components separated by {approx}2'' (50-80 AU). Optical spectroscopy of the components shows only moderate H{alpha} emission corresponding to a statistical age of {approx}5-7 Gyr for both M dwarfs. However, NLTT 20346 is associated with the XMM-Newton source J085018.9+105644, and based on X-ray activity the age of NLTT 20346 is between 250 and 450 Myr. Strong Li absorption in the optical spectrum of 2MASS J0850+1057 indicates an upper age limit of 0.8-1.5 Gyr, favoring the younger age for the primary. Using evolutionary models in combination with an adopted system age of 0.25-1.5 Gyr indicates a total mass for 2MASS J0850+1057 of 0.07 {+-} 0.02 M{sub sun}, if it is a binary. NLTT 20346/2MASS J0850+1057 joins a growing list of hierarchical systems containing brown dwarf binaries and is among the lowest binding energy associations found in the field. Formation simulations via gravitational fragmentation of massive extended disks have successfully produced a specific analog to this system.

  7. An Observational and Computational Variable Tagging System for Climate Change Informatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouchard, L. C.; Lenhardt, W.; Branstetter, M. L.; Runciman, A.; Wang, D.; Kao, S.; King, A. W.; Climate Change Informatics Team

    2010-12-01

    As climate change science uses diverse data from observations and computational results to model and validate earth systems from global to local scale, understand complex processes, and perform integrated assessments, adaptable and accessible information systems that integrate these observations and model results are required. The data processing tasks associated with the simultaneous use of observation and modeling data are time-consuming because scientists are typically familiar with one or the other, but rarely both. Each data domain has its own portal, its own metadata formats, and its own query-building methods for obtaining datasets. The exact definition of variables and observational parameters may require substantial searches for unfamiliar topics. The dearth of formal descriptions such as ontologies compounds the problem and negatively impacts the advancement of science for each aspect of studying climate change. Our Observational and Computational Variable Tagging System aims to address these challenges through facilitating the quick identification of datasets of interest across archives by associating variables with tags or keywords from a controlled vocabulary. The prototype currently offers the ability to search by tags, variable names, and annotations. Names, plain text descriptions, units, dimensions, and a link to each dataset are returned. The information is aggregated from various locations at the source of origin. Keywords from NASA’s Global Change Master Directory provide built-in suggestions for tags. These features ensure accuracy and disambiguation. For the target application, the system tags variables and stores data from the Community Climate System Model (CCSM), International Boundary Water Commission, US Geological Survey, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and NASA. Our tagging system allows users to identify variable names and descriptions of observational and computational data from a single Web interface. Our system provides an easy-to-use cross-referencing tool to help overcome an important barrier to inter-disciplinary research in climate change science. As proof-of-concept, the tagging system targets a use case based on comparison of model results against observational data to validate trends for river stream flows in the forthcoming CCSM4. Existing climate models have no ability to account for damming and other man-made stream flow obstructions. However, observational data report on dammed rivers: there is no account of how an un-managed river would fare. One solution to this problem is to use both observational data and historical portions of model data to find regions where observed stream flow and model results are highly correlated. Based on these regions, an anticipated outcome is model refinement. Another potential outcome is the discovery of un-managed rivers that may be good candidates for correctly predicting stream flow under climate change conditions.

  8. Adaptive variable structure hierarchical fuzzy control for a class of high-order nonlinear dynamic systems.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Mohammad; Teshnehlab, Mohammad; Aliyari Shoorehdeli, Mahdi

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a novel adaptive hierarchical fuzzy control system based on the variable structure control is developed for a class of SISO canonical nonlinear systems in the presence of bounded disturbances. It is assumed that nonlinear functions of the systems be completely unknown. Switching surfaces are incorporated into the hierarchical fuzzy control scheme to ensure the system stability. A fuzzy soft switching system decides the operation area of the hierarchical fuzzy control and variable structure control systems. All the nonlinearly appeared parameters of conclusion parts of fuzzy blocks located in different layers of the hierarchical fuzzy control system are adjusted through adaptation laws deduced from the defined Lyapunov function. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy control system reduces the number of rules and consequently the number of tunable parameters with respect to the ordinary fuzzy control system. Global boundedness of the overall adaptive system and the desired precision are achieved using the proposed adaptive control system. In this study, an adaptive hierarchical fuzzy system is used for two objectives; it can be as a function approximator or a control system based on an intelligent-classic approach. Three theorems are proven to investigate the stability of the nonlinear dynamic systems. The important point about the proposed theorems is that they can be applied not only to hierarchical fuzzy controllers with different structures of hierarchical fuzzy controller, but also to ordinary fuzzy controllers. Therefore, the proposed algorithm is more general. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method four systems (two mechanical, one mathematical and one chaotic) are considered in simulations. Simulation results demonstrate the validity, efficiency and feasibility of the proposed approach to control of nonlinear dynamic systems. PMID:25528291

  9. Reresentation of the interannual variability of equatorial Pacific air-sea CO2 flux in the lasted earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Fang; Li, Yangchun; Wang, Bin; Huang, Wenyu; Shi, Yanyan

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the interannual variability of the air-sea CO2 flux over the equatorial Pacific in the latest earth system models (ESMs; we choose 16 models with enough outputs of variables closely associated with the air-sea CO2 flux variation for analyzing). Our results show that, about half of the models analyzed here have weaker interannual variability of the air-sea CO2 flux over the equatorial Pacific compared with the previous observational results, although the 16 models are capable to illustrate the spatial distribution character of the air-sea CO2 flux over the equatorial Pacific. For the possible reason for the weak interannual variation of the air-sea CO2 flux over the equatorial Pacific in the models, we first examine the ENSO mode of the equatorial Pacific air-sea CO2 flux, with the considering of that the equatorial Pacific air-sea CO2 flux variation is dominated by El Niño events. Then we briefly analyze the variables which jointly influence the air-sea CO2 flux interannual variability (such as, sea surface temperature (SST) , dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surface ocean, upward ocean mass transport (WMO), and net primary productivity of carbon by phytoplankton (NPP)). Nine of the 16 models are capable to represent the ENSO mode of the air-sea CO2 flux over the equatorial Pacific, the other seven of them are incapable to represent this important character. Incapacity of representing the ENSO mode of the air-sea CO2 flux in some models implies the limitation in depicting the response of air-sea CO2 flux to the El Niño events over the equatorial Pacific, which contributes to weak interannual variability of air-sea CO2 flux to some extent. The variations of DIC, NPP and WMO have large divergences in the 16 models over the central-eastern equatorial Pacific. Improvement of the depiction of physical and biological fields are important for accurate interannual variation of the equatorial air-sea CO2 flux.

  10. Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies Held in Cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (Editor); Hariharan, P. C. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains copies of those technical papers received in time for publication prior to the Sixth Goddard Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies which is being held in cooperation with the Fifteenth IEEE Symposium on Mass Storage Systems at the University of Maryland-University College Inn and Conference Center March 23-26, 1998. As one of an ongoing series, this Conference continues to provide a forum for discussion of issues relevant to the management of large volumes of data. The Conference encourages all interested organizations to discuss long term mass storage requirements and experiences in fielding solutions. Emphasis is on current and future practical solutions addressing issues in data management, storage systems and media, data acquisition, long term retention of data, and data distribution. This year's discussion topics include architecture, tape optimization, new technology, performance, standards, site reports, vendor solutions. Tutorials will be available on shared file systems, file system backups, data mining, and the dynamics of obsolescence.

  11. The Search for Candidate Relevant Subsets of Variables in Complex Systems.

    PubMed

    Villani, M; Roli, A; Filisetti, A; Fiorucci, M; Poli, I; Serra, R

    2015-01-01

    We describe a method to identify relevant subsets of variables, useful to understand the organization of a dynamical system. The variables belonging to a relevant subset should have a strong integration with the other variables of the same relevant subset, and a much weaker interaction with the other system variables. On this basis, extending previous work on neural networks, an information-theoretic measure, the dynamical cluster index, is introduced in order to identify good candidate relevant subsets. The method does not require any previous knowledge of the relationships among the system variables, but relies on observations of their values over time. We show its usefulness in several application domains, including: (i) random Boolean networks, where the whole network is made of different subnetworks with different topological relationships (independent or interacting subnetworks); (ii) leader-follower dynamics, subject to noise and fluctuations; (iii) catalytic reaction networks in a flow reactor; (iv) the MAPK signaling pathway in eukaryotes. The validity of the method has been tested in cases where the data are generated by a known dynamical model and the dynamical cluster index is applied in order to uncover significant aspects of its organization; however, it is important that it can also be applied to time series coming from field data without any reference to a model. Given that it is based on relative frequencies of sets of values, the method could be applied also to cases where the data are not ordered in time. Several indications to improve the scope and effectiveness of the dynamical cluster index to analyze the organization of complex systems are finally given. PMID:26545160

  12. Identification of a Wide, Low-Mass Multiple System Containing the Brown Dwarf 2MASS J0850359+105716

    E-print Network

    Faherty, Jacqueline K; Bochanski, John J; Looper, Dagny L; West, Andrew A; van der Bliek, Nicole S

    2010-01-01

    We report our discovery of NLTT 20346 as an M5+M6 companion system to the tight binary (or triple) L dwarf 2MASS J0850359+105716. This nearby (~31 pc), widely separated (~7700 AU) quadruple system was identified through a cross-match of proper motion catalogs. Follow-up imaging and spectroscopy of NLTT 20346 revealed it to be a magnetically active M5+M6 binary with components separated by ~2" (50-80 AU). Optical spectroscopy of the components show only moderate Halpha emission corresponding to a statistical age of ~5 - 7 Gyr for both M dwarfs. However NLTT 20346 is associated with the XMM-Newton source J085018.9+105644, and based on X-ray activity the age of NLTT 20346 is between 250-450 Myr. Strong Li absorption in the optical spectrum of 2MASS J0850+1057 indicates an upper age limit of 0.8 - 1.5 Gyr favoring the younger age for the primary. Using evolutionary models in combination with an adopted system age of 0.25-1.5 Gyr indicates a total mass for 2MASS J0850+1057 of 0.07+/-0.02 Msun if it is a binary. NL...

  13. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE): Unified Stability System (USS). Description and Users' Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.; Behbehani, Roxanna

    1990-01-01

    NASA initiated the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) to establish a boundary layer transition database for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper surface gloves were fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The development of an improved laminar boundary layer stability analysis system called the Unified Stability System (USS) is documented and results of its use on the VSTFE flight data are shown. The USS consists of eight computer codes. The theoretical background of the system is described, as is the input, output, and usage hints. The USS is capable of analyzing boundary layer stability over a wide range of disturbance frequencies and orientations, making it possible to use different philosophies in calculating the growth of disturbances on sweptwings.

  14. Design of quantum efficiency measurement system for variable doping GaAs photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang; Yang, Kai; Liu, HongLin; Chang, Benkang

    2008-03-01

    To achieve high quantum efficiency and good stability has been a main direction to develop GaAs photocathode recently. Through early research, we proved that variable doping structure is executable and practical, and has great potential. In order to optimize variable doping GaAs photocathode preparation techniques and study the variable doping theory deeply, a real-time quantum efficiency measurement system for GaAs Photocathode has been designed. The system uses FPGA (Field-programmable gate array) device, and high speed A/D converter to design a high signal noise ratio and high speed data acquisition card. ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) core processor s3c2410 and real-time embedded system are used to obtain and show measurement results. The measurement precision of photocurrent could reach 1nA, and measurement range of spectral response curve is within 400~1000nm. GaAs photocathode preparation process can be real-time monitored by using this system. This system could easily be added other functions to show the physic variation of photocathode during the preparation process more roundly in the future.

  15. A Study of the Mass Loss Rates of Symbiotic Star Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korreck, K. E.; Kellogg, E.; Sokoloski, J. L.

    2007-01-01

    The amount of mass loss in symbiotic systems is investigated, specifically mass loss via the formation of jets in R Aquarii (R Aqr). The jets in R Aqr have been observed in the X-ray by Chandra over a four year time period. The jet changes on times scales of a year and new outflows have been observed. Understanding the amount of mass and the frequency of ejection further constrain the ability of the white dwarf in the system to accrete enough mass to become a Type la supernova progenitor. The details of multi-wavelength studies, such as speed, density and spatial extent of the jets will be discussed in order to understand the mass balance in the binary system. We examine other symbiotic systems to determine trends in mass loss in this class of objects.

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-04-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA) production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  17. Influence of climate variability on water partitioning and effective energy and mass transfer (EEMT) in a semi-arid critical zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Rios, X.; Brooks, P. D.; Troch, P. A.; McIntosh, J.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-08-01

    The Critical Zone (CZ) is the heterogeneous, near-surface layer of the planet that regulates life-sustaining resources. Previous research has demonstrated that a quantification of the influxes of effective energy and mass (EEMT) to the CZ can predict its structure and function. In this study, we quantify how climate variability in the last three decades (1984-2012) has affected water availability and the temporal trends in EEMT. This study takes place in the 1200 km2 upper Jemez River Basin in northern New Mexico. The analysis of climate, water availability, and EEMT was based on records from two high elevation SNOTEL stations, PRISM data, catchment scale discharge, and satellite derived net primary productivity (MODIS). Records from the two SNOTEL stations showed clear increasing trends in winter and annual temperatures (+1.0-1.3 °C decade-1; +1.2-1.4 °C decade-1, respectively), decreasing trends in winter and annual precipitation (-41.6-51.4 mm decade-1; -69.8-73.2 mm decade-1, respectively) and maximum Snow Water Equivalent (SWE; -33.1-34.7 mm decade-1). The water partitioning fluxes at the basin scale showed statistically significant decreasing trends in precipitation (-61.7 mm decade-1), discharge (-17.6 mm decade-1) and vaporization (-45.7 mm decade-1). Similarly Q50, an indicator of snowmelt timing, is occurring 4.3 days decade-1 earlier. Results from this study indicated a decreasing trend in water availability, a reduction in forest productivity (4 g C m-2 per 10 mm of reduction in Precipitation) and EEMT (1.2-1.3 MJ m2 decade-1). These changes in EEMT point towards a hotter, drier and less productive ecosystem which may alter critical zone processes in high elevation semi-arid systems.

  18. Evidence evaluation in fingerprint comparison and automated fingerprint identification systems--Modeling between finger variability.

    PubMed

    Egli Anthonioz, N M; Champod, C

    2014-02-01

    In the context of the investigation of the use of automated fingerprint identification systems (AFIS) for the evaluation of fingerprint evidence, the current study presents investigations into the variability of scores from an AFIS system when fingermarks from a known donor are compared to fingerprints that are not from the same source. The ultimate goal is to propose a model, based on likelihood ratios, which allows the evaluation of mark-to-print comparisons. In particular, this model, through its use of AFIS technology, benefits from the possibility of using a large amount of data, as well as from an already built-in proximity measure, the AFIS score. More precisely, the numerator of the LR is obtained from scores issued from comparisons between impressions from the same source and showing the same minutia configuration. The denominator of the LR is obtained by extracting scores from comparisons of the questioned mark with a database of non-matching sources. This paper focuses solely on the assignment of the denominator of the LR. We refer to it by the generic term of between-finger variability. The issues addressed in this paper in relation to between-finger variability are the required sample size, the influence of the finger number and general pattern, as well as that of the number of minutiae included and their configuration on a given finger. Results show that reliable estimation of between-finger variability is feasible with 10,000 scores. These scores should come from the appropriate finger number/general pattern combination as defined by the mark. Furthermore, strategies of obtaining between-finger variability when these elements cannot be conclusively seen on the mark (and its position with respect to other marks for finger number) have been presented. These results immediately allow case-by-case estimation of the between-finger variability in an operational setting. PMID:24447455

  19. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a)...

  20. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a)...

  1. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6050 Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system. (a)...

  2. Estimating Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Green Roof Systems: Current Modeling Capabilities and Limitations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Tabares Velasco, P. C.

    2011-04-01

    This presentation discusses estimating heat and mass transfer processes in green roof systems: current modeling capabilities and limitations. Green roofs are 'specialized roofing systems that support vegetation growth on rooftops.'

  3. System and measurement method for binocular pupillometry to study pupil size variability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective and noninvasive examination of pupil size variability can be used to assess the activity of the autonomous nervous system. We designed a system that enables binocular, fast, and accurate recordings of different types of pupil variabilities, which are synchronous with other biosignals. This type of measurement system is needed to extend the scope of pupillometry applications. Methods In the proposed system, the left and right eyes are independently and interchangeably illuminated to generate alternating images, which are successively acquired by a single camera. The system is composed of four functional modules: the image acquisition module, the image processing unit, the light stimulator, and the controller. The proposed image processing algorithm approximates the shape of the pupil using the best-fit ellipse. The user control panel (controller) precisely sets the stimuli parameters and controls the entire measurement procedure. Results The computer-based binocular system records the pupil size during the pupil light reflexes (direct and indirect) and spontaneous pupil size fluctuations, at a sampling rate up to 75 Hz, with a resolution better than 0.02 mm. Our initial laboratory tests confirmed that the new system is fast and precise (system accuracy better than 0.5% and repeatability better than 4%). Conclusions The proposed system’s unique geometry and construction, and the method it uses to detect images from each eye, allows us to monitor the right and left eyes using a single camera with no overlap between the images. The system does not require a very experienced operator, because it is relatively simple and easy to use. Importantly, it is comfortable for the subjects. Additionally, the presented system can operate with other bio-measurement systems using a synchronous signal. These system capabilities can expand the scope of pupillometry research applications. PMID:24899167

  4. Using expert systems to implement a semantic data model of a large mass storage system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelofs, Larry H.; Campbell, William J.

    1990-01-01

    The successful development of large volume data storage systems will depend not only on the ability of the designers to store data, but on the ability to manage such data once it is in the system. The hypothesis is that mass storage data management can only be implemented successfully based on highly intelligent meta data management services. There now exists a proposed mass store system standard proposed by the IEEE that addresses many of the issues related to the storage of large volumes of data, however, the model does not consider a major technical issue, namely the high level management of stored data. However, if the model were expanded to include the semantics and pragmatics of the data domain using a Semantic Data Model (SDM) concept, the result would be data that is expressive of the Intelligent Information Fusion (IIF) concept and also organized and classified in context to its use and purpose. The results are presented of a demonstration prototype SDM implemented using the expert system development tool NEXPERT OBJECT. In the prototype, a simple instance of a SDM was created to support a hypothetical application for the Earth Observing System, Data Information System (EOSDIS). The massive amounts of data that EOSDIS will manage requires the definition and design of a powerful information management system in order to support even the most basic needs of the project. The application domain is characterized by a semantic like network that represents the data content and the relationships between the data based on user views and the more generalized domain architectural view of the information world. The data in the domain are represented by objects that define classes, types and instances of the data. In addition, data properties are selectively inherited between parent and daughter relationships in the domain. Based on the SDM a simple information system design is developed from the low level data storage media, through record management and meta data management to the user interface.

  5. 21 CFR 866.6050 - Ovarian adnexal mass assessment score test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...system. (a) Identification. An ovarian/adnexal mass assessment test system is a device that measures one or more proteins in serum or plasma. It yields a single result for the likelihood that an adnexal pelvic mass in a woman, for whom...

  6. Development of a variable stiffness external fixation system for stabilization of segmental defects of the tibia.

    PubMed

    Tencer, A F; Claudi, B; Pearce, S; Bucholz, R W; Johnson, K D

    1984-01-01

    The mechanical properties of a variable stiffness external fixation system were explored. Initial testing of a unilateral fixator configuration demonstrated that system rigidity could be increased by maximizing pin separation distance in the fracture component and the number of pins used while minimizing pin separation distance across the fracture site and the sidebar offset distance from bone. A triangulated system composed of half pin frames mounted anteriorly and medially on the tibial aspects and linked by crossbars was devised. Progressive disassembly of the frame was shown to result in progressive decreases in fixator rigidity in all planes. PMID:6491789

  7. Photometric and polarimetric variability and mass-loss rate of the massive binary Wolf-Rayet star HDE 311884 (WN6 + 05: V)

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.F.J.; Drissen, L.; Robert, C.; Lamontagne, R.; Coziol, R. )

    1990-02-01

    Photometric and polarimetric monitoring of the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) + O-type binary system HDE 311884 = WR 47 over many orbital cycles shows the clear effects of phase-dependent electron scattering of O-star light as the orbiting O companion shines through varying column density of W-R stellar wind material. In contrast to this wind-type eclipse, the stars themselves do not quite eclipse. Both photometry and polarimetry give a consistent estimate of the mass-loss rate of the W-R component: at about 0.00003 solar mass/yr. The orbital inclination, i = 70 deg, along with the previously published velocity orbit, yields high masses: M(WN6) = 48 solar masses and M(O5:V) = 57 solar masses. 33 refs.

  8. Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal Mass of the Fluid

    E-print Network

    Modeling of Vertical Ground Loop Heat Exchangers with Variable Convective Resistance and Thermal-term behavior of ground loop heat exchangers (GLHE) is critical to the design and energy analysis of ground. 2002), have been used for dimensioning vertical ground heat exchangers. Direct numerical solutions, e

  9. Phase-variable restriction/modification systems are required for Helicobacter pylori colonization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background One mechanism utilized by bacterial pathogens for host adaptation and immune evasion is the generation of phenotypic diversity by the phasevarion that results from the differential expression of a suite of genes regulated by the activity of a phase-variable methyltransferase within a restriction modification (RM) system. Phasevarions are active in Helicobacter pylori, however there have been no studies investigating the significance of phase-variable RM systems on host colonization. Methods Two mutant types incapable of phase variation were constructed; a clean deletion mutant (‘DEL’) and a mutant (‘ON’) where the homopolymeric repeat was replaced with a non-repeat synonymous sequence, resulting in expression of the full-length protein. The resulting mutants were assessed for their colonisation ability in the mouse model. Results Five phase-variable genes encoding either methyltransferases or members of RM systems were found in H. pylori OND79. Our mutants fell into three categories; 1, those with little effect on colonization, 2, those where expression of the full-length protein was detrimental, 3, those where both mutations were detrimental. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that phase-variable methyltransferases are critical to H. pylori colonization, suggesting that genome methylation and generation of epigenetic diversity is important for colonization and pathogenesis. The third category of mutants suggests that differential genome methylation status of H. pylori cell populations, achieved by the phasevarion, is essential for host adaptation. Studies of phase-variable RM mutants falling in the two other categories, not strictly required for colonization, represent a future perspective to investigate the role of phasevarion in persistence of H. pylori. PMID:25349630

  10. Multiple-Zone Variable Refrigerant Flow System Modeling and Equipment Performance Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Rice, C Keith

    2012-01-01

    We developed a variable refrigerant flow (VRF) vapor compression system model, which has five indoor units, one outdoor unit and one water heater. The VRF system can run simultaneous space conditioning (cooling or heating) and water heating. The indoor units and outdoor unit use fin-&-tube coil heat exchangers, and the water heater uses a tube-in-tube heat exchanger. The fin-&-tube coil heat exchangers are modeled using a segment-by-segment approach and the tube-in-tube water heater is modeled using a phase-by-phase approach. The compressor used is a variable-speed rotary design. We calibrated our model against a manufacturer s product literature. Based on the vapor compression system model, we investigated the methodology for generating VRF equipment performance maps, which can be used for energy simulations in TRNSYS and EnergyPlus, etc. In the study, the major independent variables for mapping are identified and the deviations between the simplified performance map and the actual equipment system simulation are quantified.

  11. Development of Parametric Mass and Volume Models for an Aerospace SOFC/Gas Turbine Hybrid System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tornabene, Robert; Wang, Xiao-yen; Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2005-01-01

    In aerospace power systems, mass and volume are key considerations to produce a viable design. The utilization of fuel cells is being studied for a commercial aircraft electrical power unit. Based on preliminary analyses, a SOFC/gas turbine system may be a potential solution. This paper describes the parametric mass and volume models that are used to assess an aerospace hybrid system design. The design tool utilizes input from the thermodynamic system model and produces component sizing, performance, and mass estimates. The software is designed such that the thermodynamic model is linked to the mass and volume model to provide immediate feedback during the design process. It allows for automating an optimization process that accounts for mass and volume in its figure of merit. Each component in the system is modeled with a combination of theoretical and empirical approaches. A description of the assumptions and design analyses is presented.

  12. Viewing Events in the Center-of-Mass System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    In elementary physics, collisions are usually studied by employing the conservation of momentum, and sometimes also the conservation of kinetic energy. However, in nuclear reactions, changes of mass that complicate the situation often occur. To illustrate the latter, we shall cite two examples of endoergic nuclear reactions, i.e., those for which…

  13. Modelling mass casualty decontamination systems informed by field exercise data.

    PubMed

    Egan, Joseph R; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-10-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  14. The water column distribution of carbonate system variables at the ESTOC site from 1995 to 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Dávila, M.; Santana-Casiano, J. M.; Rueda, M. J.; Llinás, O.

    2010-03-01

    The accelerated rate of increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and the substantial fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions absorbed by the oceans are affecting the anthropocenic properties of seawater. Long-term time series are a powerful tool for investigating any change in ocean bio-geochemistry and its effects on the carbon cycle. We have evaluated the ESTOC (European Station for Time series in the Ocean at the Canary islands) observations of measured pH (total scale at 25 °C) and total alkalinity plus computed total dissolved inorganic carbon CO2 concentration (CT) from 1995 to 2004 for surface and deep waters, by following all changes in response to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The experimental values for the partial surface pressure of CO2 from 1995 to 2008 were also taken into consideration. The data were treated to better understand the fundamental processes controlling vertical distributions in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the accumulation of anthropogenic CO2, CANT. CT at constant salinity, NCT, increased at a rate of 1 ?mol kg-1 yr-1 in the first 200 m, linked to an fCO2 increase of 1.7±0.7 ?atm yr-1 in both the atmosphere and the ocean. Consequently, the ESTOC site has also become more acidic, -0.0018±0.0003 units yr-1 over the first 100 m, whereas the carbonate ion concentrations and CaCO3 saturation states have also decreased over time. The rate of change is to be observed over the first 1000 m, where at 300, 600, and 1000 m the NCT increases at a rate of 0.69, 0.61 and 0.48 ?mol kg-1 yr-1, respectively. The vertical distribution of the carbonate system variables are affected by the water mass structure and, to a different extent, controlled by the production/decomposition of organic matter, the formation/dissolution of carbonates, and differences in their respective pre-formed values. At 3000 m, 30% of the inorganic carbon production is related to the dissolution of calcium carbonate, with a total of 35% at the bottom. The total column inventory of anthropogenic CO2 for the decade was 66±3 mol m-2. A model fitting indicated that the column inventory of CANT increased from 61.7 mol m-2 in the year 1994 to 70.2 mol m-2 in 2004. The ESTOC site is presented by way of a reference site to follow CANT changes in the North Atlantic Sub-tropical gyre.

  15. Variable interval time/temperature (VITT) defrost-control-system evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-08-12

    Two variable-interval-time/temperature (VITT) heat pump defrost control systems are analyzed to determine if systems manufactured by Honeywell and Ranco qualify for credit for heat pumps with demand defrost control. The operation of the systems is described. VITT controls are not demand defrost control systems but utilize demand defrost control as backup systems in most Ranco models and all Honeywell models. The evaluations and results, intended to provide DOE information in making its determinations regarding credits for the control systems are discussed. The evaluation methodology utilizes a modified version of the Heat Pump Seasonal Performance Model (HPSPM) and the important modifications are discussed in Appendix A. Appendix B contains a detailed listing and discussion of the HPSPM output. (MCW)

  16. Impact of Radiation Hardness and Operating Temperatures of Silicon Carbide Electronics on Space Power System Mass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of silicon carbide (SiC) electronics operating temperatures on Power Management and Distribution (PMAD), or Power Conditioning (PC), subsystem radiator size and mass requirements was evaluated for three power output levels (100 kW(e) , 1 MW(e), and 10 MW(e)) for near term technology ( i.e. 1500 K turbine inlet temperature) Closed Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT) power systems with a High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) heat source. The study was conducted for assumed PC radiator temperatures ranging from 370 to 845 K and for three scenarios of electrical energy to heat conversion levels which needed to be rejected to space by means of the PC radiator. In addition, during part of the study the radiation hardness of the PC electronics was varied at a fixed separation distance to estimate its effect on the mass of the instrument rated reactor shadow shield. With both the PC radiator and the conical shadow shield representing major components of the overall power system the influence of the above on total power system mass was also determined. As expected, results show that the greatest actual mass savings achieved by the use of SiC electronics occur with high capacity power systems. Moreover, raising the PC radiator temperature above 600 K yields only small additional system mass savings. The effect of increased radiation hardness on total system mass is to reduce system mass by virtue of lowering the shield mass.

  17. Quantum key distribution over 25 km with an all-fiber continuous-variable system Jrme Lodewyck,1,2

    E-print Network

    Cerf, Nicolas

    Quantum key distribution over 25 km with an all-fiber continuous-variable system Jérôme Lodewyck,1 of a reverse-reconciliated coherent-state continuous-variable quantum key distribution system, with which we experimental aspects required for a field implementation of a quantum key distribution setup. Real-time reverse

  18. Energy studies on central and variable refrigerant flow air-conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, H.; Nitamakwuavan, S.; Jalaludin, A. F.

    2012-06-01

    Air-conditioning is a major contributor to energy end-use in commercial buildings. Different types of airconditioning systems are installed in commercial buildings including packaged systems, split units and central systems. With the advancement in control technology and the demand for energy efficient systems, variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air-conditioning system is seen to be a solution to the load-matching problem for airconditioning systems. In a VRF system, the volume or flow rate of the refrigerant is accurately matched to the required cooling load thereby saving energy and providing more accurate control. This study aims to determine the performance of the VRF system used in an actual building by calculating the Coefficient of Performance (COP) of the system. The COP is then compared to the COP of a centralized chilled water system used in the same building. The results showed that the COPs determined for the VRF and central systems are 3.3 and 2.0 respectively. The results also indicated that replacing older central system with a VRF system could lead to an energy savings of up to 39.5%.

  19. Computer-aided detection of breast masses on mammograms: performance improvement using a dual system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jun; Sahiner, Berkman; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Chan, Heang-Ping; Helvie, Mark A.; Roubidoux, Marilyn A.; Petrick, Nicholas; Ge, Jun; Zhou, Chuan

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a computer-aided detection (CAD) system for breast masses on mammograms. In this study, our purpose was to improve the performance of our mass detection system by using a new dual system approach which combines a CAD system optimized with "average" masses with another CAD system optimized with subtle masses. The latter system is trained to provide high sensitivity in detecting subtle masses. For an unknown mammogram, the two systems are used in parallel to detect suspicious objects. A feed-forward backpropagation neural network trained to merge the scores of the two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers from the two systems makes the final decision in differentiation of true masses from normal tissue. A data set of 86 patients containing 172 mammograms with biopsy-proven masses was partitioned into a training set and an independent test set. This data set is referred to as the average data set. A second data set of 214 prior mammograms was used for training the second CAD system for detection of subtle masses. When the single CAD system trained on the average data set was applied to the test set, the Az for false positive (FP) classification was 0.81 and the FP rates were 2.1, 1.5 and 1.3 FPs/image at the case-based sensitivities of 95%, 90% and 85%, respectively. With the dual CAD system, the Az was 0.85 and the FP rates were improved to 1.7, 1.2 and 0.8 FPs/image at the same case-based sensitivities. Our results indicate that the dual CAD system can improve the performance of mass detection on mammograms.

  20. A regional landslide warning system based on spatially variable rainfall thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segoni, Samuele; Rossi, Guglielmo; Rosi, Ascanio; Catani, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall is widely recognized as one of the major causes for landsliding. When studying the conditions of triggering of mass movements at regional scale, a process-based approach is seldom possible because of the complexity in the spatial organization of the involved independent variables (e.g. soil properties). Therefore, empirical methods based on the definition of triggering thresholds are usually employed for the definition of warning systems or for landslide hazard assessments. Such thresholds are defined by observing the characteristics of past rainfall events that have resulted in landslides and selecting the lower bound envelope curve in intensity-duration plots depicting such events. These curves, generally represented by power-law type functions linking, e.g., intensity and duration of the critical rainfall, define the lowest level above which landslides should be expected. In the present work, concerning the territory of Tuscany (ab. 23,000 km2), a similar approach is adopted and described which presents some improvements with respect to traditional methods. First of all, the strong variability of environmental, meteorological and geological factors within the study area, together with evidences from available data on triggering conditions, imply that a single general threshold would be affected by a too large degree of overestimation of hazard and suggest the adoption of locally defined thresholds. The studied area was then partitioned in 25 Alert Zones and each of them has been analyzed separately to provide distinct rainfall thresholds. Secondly, to handle the amount of available data (the analysis regards the period 2000-2007 and involves 408 rainfall events, which were registered by a network of 332 rain-gauges and that caused 2132 landslides), a software has been developed for automatically analyzing rainfall patterns and defining such thresholds. In particular, the automated analysis performs the following tasks: i) Defining, for every rain-gauge registration, the critical Intensity (I) and Duration (D) of the triggering event, its return time and the amount of antecedent rain; ii) Designating the most proper rain-gauge to represent every single landslide (the choice is performed combining geographic position and return times of the recorded rainfall); iii) Plotting the corresponding ID values on a log-log graph. iv) Automatic drawing of the rainfall threshold using a geometric criterion (lower-bound line of the plotted points) or a statistical predictor. By means of this automated procedure, multiple thresholds (differentiated on the basis of the severity of the event or the amount of antecedent rain) can be defined and different alarm levels set up. Varying the criteria the automated analysis is based upon, different thresholds can be obtained, all of them calibrated only with the past rainfalls that did trigger landslides. To select the most effective one, a calibration based upon rainfalls not connected with landslides was also performed: the 8-years rain-gauges measurements were compared to the thresholds and the one which minimizes the false positives (rainfall events beyond the threshold without associated landslides) was chosen to represent the rainfall conditions that should trigger landslides in that alert zone. This procedure allows to balance the thresholds between false positives (occurring when a threshold is too low) and missed alarms (related to excessively high thresholds). The results have been validated using rainfall registrations and landslides occurred during the period 2008 - 2009. Results were quite satisfactory and therefore the thresholds will soon be combined into a standard open procedure with a high degree of automation for the use of civil protection agencies in Tuscany.

  1. Design of a multilevel Active Power Filter for More Electrical Airplane variable frequency systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Joel Filipe; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Busarello, Tiago Davi Curi

    This paper presents the design and simulation of an Aeronautical Active Power Filter (AAPF) for a Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF) advanced aircraft electric power system. The purposes of the AAPF are to mitigate current harmonics, to improve the source power factor and to mitigate the effects of unbalanced loads. Regarding the fact that the Aircraft Electrical Power System (AEPS) frequency may vary between 360 Hz and 900 Hz, and the load dynamics is often modified, an enhanced filtering technique is required. The designed AAPF topology is an asymmetrical multilevel inverter (AMI), which control strategy is based on the Conservative Power Theory (CPT) and synchronized by a Kalman Filter Phase-Locked Loop (KF-PLL). The above configuration renders the AAPF very robust and effective to its purpose. Accurate simulation results on Matlab/Simulink platform verify the feasibility of the proposed AAPF and the high performance of the control strategy during steady-state and dynamic operations.

  2. Quantum Hacking on Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution System using a Wavelength Attack

    E-print Network

    Jing-Zheng Huang; Christian Weedbrook; Zhen-Qiang Yin; Shuang Wang; Hong-Wei Li; Wei Chen; Guang-Can Guo; Zheng-Fu Han

    2013-07-24

    The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which can allow the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final key shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be added before performing the monitoring detection.

  3. Quantum hacking of a continuous-variable quantum-key-distribution system using a wavelength attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jing-Zheng; Weedbrook, Christian; Yin, Zhen-Qiang; Wang, Shuang; Li, Hong-Wei; Chen, Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Han, Zheng-Fu

    2013-06-01

    The security proofs of continuous-variable quantum key distribution are based on the assumptions that the eavesdropper can neither act on the local oscillator nor control Bob's beam splitter. These assumptions may be invalid in practice due to potential imperfections in the implementations of such protocols. In this paper, we consider the problem of transmitting the local oscillator in a public channel and propose a wavelength attack which allows the eavesdropper to control the intensity transmission of Bob's beam splitter by switching the wavelength of the input light. Specifically we target continuous-variable quantum key distribution systems that use the heterodyne detection protocol using either direct or reverse reconciliation. Our attack is proved to be feasible and renders all of the final keys shared between the legitimate parties insecure, even if they have monitored the intensity of the local oscillator. To prevent our attack on commercial systems, a simple wavelength filter should be randomly added before performing monitoring detection.

  4. Optimized Fan Control In Variable Air Volume HVAC Systems Using Static Pressure Resets: Strategy Selection and Savings Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Kimla, John

    2010-07-14

    The potential of static pressure reset (SPR) control to save fan energy in variable air volume HVAC systems has been well documented. Current research has focused on the creation of reset strategies depending on specific system features...

  5. MASS2, Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions, User Guide and Reference

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-07-01

    The Modular Aquatic Simulation System in Two Dimensions (MASS2) is a two-dimensional, depth-averaged hydrodynamics and transport model. The model simulates time varying distributions of depth-averaged velocities, water surface elevations, and water quality constituents. This manual documents the use of MASS2. It is the second of two reports on MASS2. The first report documents the theory and numerical methods used in MASS2, and is often referred to herein as the Theory Manual. MASS2 is applicable to a wide variety of environmental analyses of rivers and estuaries where vertical variations in the water column are negligible or unimportant.

  6. NSSDC Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies for Space and Earth Science Applications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobler, Benjamin (editor); Hariharan, P. C. (editor); Blasso, L. G. (editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and viewgraphs from the conference are presented. This conference served as a broad forum for the discussion of a number of important issues in the field of mass storage systems. Topics include magnetic disk and tape technologies, optical disks and tape, software storage and file management systems, and experiences with the use of a large, distributed storage system. The technical presentations describe, among other things, integrated mass storage systems that are expected to be available commercially. Also included is a series of presentations from Federal Government organizations and research institutions covering their mass storage requirements for the 1990's.

  7. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Anindya Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  8. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R B; Nandy, Partha P; Yadav, R C; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system. PMID:25832222

  9. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  10. Plasmid-borne prokaryotic gene expression: Sources of variability and quantitative system characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagh, Sangram; Mazumder, Mostafizur; Velauthapillai, Tharsan; Sardana, Vandit; Dong, Guang Qiang; Movva, Ashok B.; Lim, Len H.; McMillen, David R.

    2008-02-01

    One aim of synthetic biology is to exert systematic control over cellular behavior, either for medical purposes or to “program” microorganisms. An engineering approach to the design of biological controllers demands a quantitative understanding of the dynamics of both the system to be controlled and the controllers themselves. Here we focus on a widely used method of exerting control in bacterial cells: plasmid vectors bearing gene-promoter pairs. We study two variants of the simplest such element, an unregulated promoter constitutively expressing its gene, against the varying genomic background of four Escherichia coli cell strains. Absolute protein numbers and rates of expression vary with both cell strain and plasmid type, as does the variability of expression across the population. Total variability is most strongly coupled to the cell division process, and after cell size is scaled away, plasmid copy number regulation emerges as a significant effect. We present simple models that capture the main features of the system behavior. Our results confirm that complex interactions between plasmids and their hosts can have significant effects on both expression and variability, even in deliberately simplified systems.

  11. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system.

    PubMed

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-10-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario - St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (F ST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (F ST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (F ST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R (2)  = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  12. Landscape variability explains spatial pattern of population structure of northern pike (Esox lucius) in a large fluvial system

    PubMed Central

    Ouellet-Cauchon, Geneviève; Mingelbier, Marc; Lecomte, Frédéric; Bernatchez, Louis

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been investigating the influence of contemporary environmental factors on population genetic structure, but few have addressed the issue of spatial patterns in the variable intensity of factors influencing the extent of population structure, and particularly so in aquatic ecosystems. In this study, we document the landscape genetics of northern pike (Esox lucius), based on the analysis of nearly 3000 individuals from 40 sampling sites using 22 microsatellites along the Lake Ontario – St. Lawrence River system (750 km) that locally presents diverse degrees of interannual water level variation. Genetic structure was globally very weak (FST = 0.0208) but spatially variable with mean level of differentiation in the upstream section of the studied area being threefold higher (FST = 0.0297) than observed in the downstream sector (FST = 0.0100). Beside interannual water level fluctuation, 19 additional variables were considered and a multiple regression on distance matrices model (R2 = 0.6397, P < 0.001) revealed that water masses (b = 0.3617, P < 0.001) and man-made dams (b = 0.4852, P < 0.005) reduced genetic connectivity. Local level of interannual water level stability was positively associated to the extent of genetic differentiation (b = 0.3499, P < 0.05). As water level variation impacts on yearly quality and localization of spawning habitats, our study illustrates how temporal variation in local habitat availability, caused by interannual water level fluctuations, may locally decrease population genetic structure by forcing fish to move over longer distances to find suitable habitat. This study thus represents one of the rare examples of how environmental fluctuations may influence spatial variation in the extent of population genetic structure within a given species. PMID:25614787

  13. 16 Years of Ulysses Interstellar Dust Measurements in the Solar System: I. Mass Distribution and Gas-to-Dust Mass Ratio

    E-print Network

    Krüger, Harald; Gruen, Eberhard; Sterken, Veerle J

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1990s, contemporary interstellar dust (ISD) penetrating deep into the heliosphere was identified with the in-situ dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. Between 1992 and the end of 2007 Ulysses monitored the ISD stream. The interstellar grains act as tracers of the physical conditions in the local interstellar medium surrounding our solar system. Earlier analyses of the Ulysses ISD data measured between 1992 and 1998 implied the existence of 'big' ISD grains [up to 10^-13kg]. The derived gas-to-dust-mass ratio was smaller than the one derived from astronomical observations, implying a concentration of ISD in the very local interstellar medium. We analyse the entire data set from 16 yr of Ulysses ISD measurements in interplanetary space. This paper concentrates on the overall mass distribution of ISD. An accompanying paper investigates time-variable phenomena in the Ulysses ISD data, and in a third paper we present the results from dynamical modelling of the ISD flow applied to Ulysses. We...

  14. The relationship of conodont biofacies to spatially variable water mass properties in the Late Pennsylvanian Midcontinent Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Achim D.; Barrick, James E.; Algeo, Thomas J.

    2015-03-01

    Molybdenum and uranium enrichment factors and nitrogen isotopes suggest that an interplay of open ocean upwelling and riverine runoff led to distinct spatial and secular variations in water mass properties within the epicontinental Late Pennsylvanian Midcontinent Sea of North America. In particular, the intensity of continental runoff influenced the flux of bulk organic matter to the sediment. Benthic anoxia appears to have been controlled by the vertical density gradient in the water column associated with continental runoff combined with the advection of basinal water. Anoxic conditions were stronger in proximal (i.e., more shoreward) areas of the Midcontinent Shelf, indicating that anoxia did not develop primarily due to upwelling of nutrient-rich waters along the southern shelf margin, as previously suggested. Changes in water mass redox conditions not only drove authigenic enrichment of redox-sensitive trace elements across the basin but also had a strong effect on the spatial distribution of various conodont taxa. Our analysis suggests that the widely accepted depth-stratification model for the distribution of conodonts is incomplete. Conodont biofacies distributions seem to have been controlled by physicochemical properties of the water mass (e.g., salinity, temperature, nutrients, turbidity, and/or dissolved oxygen levels) that may correspond less directly to water depth. The proximity to terrestrial freshwater influx and the strength of anoxia/euxinia in the subpycnoclinal water mass played significant roles in the spatial and temporal distributions of conodont taxa.

  15. The effect of including molecular opacities of variable composition on the evolution of intermediate-mass AGB stars

    E-print Network

    Fishlock, C K; Stancliffe, R J

    2013-01-01

    Calculations from stellar evolutionary models of low- and intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars provide predictions of elemental abundances and yields for comparison to observations. However, there are many uncertainties that reduce the accuracy of these predictions. One such uncertainty involves the treatment of low-temperature molecular opacities that account for the surface abundance variations of C, N, and O. A number of prior calculations of intermediate-mass AGB stellar models that incorporate both efficient third dredge-up and hot bottom burning include a molecular opacity treatment which does not consider the depletion of C and O due to hot bottom burning. Here we update the molecular opacity treatment and investigate the effect of this improvement on calculations of intermediate-mass AGB stellar models. We perform tests on two masses, 5 M$_{\\odot}$ and 6 M$_{\\odot}$, and two metallicities, $Z~=~0.001$ and $Z~=~0.02$, to quantify the variations between two opacity treatments. We find t...

  16. A variable for measuring masses at hadron colliders when missing energy is expected; mT2: the truth behind the glamour

    E-print Network

    Barr, Alan; Lester, Christopher G.; Stephens, Phil

    and Phil Stephens Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UK E-mail: barr@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk, lester@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk and stephens@hep.phy.cam.ac.uk Received 25 April 2003, in final form 26 June 2003 Published 18... : NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 29 (2003) 2343–2363 PII: S0954-3899(03)62652-6 A variable for measuring masses at hadron colliders when missing energy is expected; mT 2: the truth behind the glamour Alan Barr, Christopher Lester...

  17. On-line mass storage system functional design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Earnest, D.

    1975-01-01

    A functional system definition for an on-line high density magnetic tape data storage system is provided. This system can be implemented in a multi-purpose, multi-host environment, and satisfy the requirements of economical data storage in the range of 2 to 50 billion bytes.

  18. Predicting the Effects of Short-Term Photovoltaic Variability on Power System Frequency for Systems with Integrated Energy Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traube, Joshua White

    The percentage of electricity supplied by photovoltaic (PV) generators is steadily rising in power systems worldwide. This rise in PV penetration may lead to larger fluctuations in power system frequency due to variability in PV generator output at time scales that fall between the inertial damping and automatic generation control (AGC) responses of power systems. To reduce PV generator variability, active power controls can be implemented in the power electronic inverters that interface PV generators to the power system. Although various types of active power controls have been developed, no standard methodology exists for evaluating the effectiveness of these controls at improving power system frequency regulation. This dissertation presents a method for predicting the effects of short-term PV variability on power system frequency for a PV generator with active power control provided by integrated energy storage. A custom model of a PV generator with integrated energy storage is implemented in a power system dynamic simulator and validated through experiments with a grid emulator. The model is used to predict the effects of short-term PV variability on the frequency of the IEEE 9-bus test power system modified to include a PV generator with integrated energy storage. In addition, this dissertation utilizes linear analysis of power system frequency control to predict worst-case frequency deviations as a function of the amount of energy storage integrated into PV generators. Through simulation and emulation on a scaled experimental prototype, the maximum frequency deviation caused by the PV generator with a small amount of integrated energy storage is found to be approximately 33% lower than the maximum frequency deviation caused by the PV generator alone. Through linear analysis it is shown that by adding only 36.7 kWh of integrated energy storage to a 1.2 MW PV system, the worst-case frequency deviation on the IEEE 9-bus test system can be reduced 65% from 0.45 Hz to 0.16 Hz. The techniques presented enable estimation of the maximum PV penetration or minimum integrated energy storage requirement to meet a frequency regulation target for a particular power system. Integrated energy storage can then be compared to other active power controls in order to choose a method that meets frequency control requirements at minimum cost.

  19. Variable Renewable Generation can Provide Balancing Control to the Electric Power System (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    As wind and solar plants become more common in the electric power system, they may be called on to provide grid support services to help maintain system reliability. For example, through the use of inertial response, primary frequency response, and automatic generation control (also called secondary frequency response), wind power can provide assistance in balancing the generation and load on the system. These active power (i.e., real power) control services have the potential to assist the electric power system in times of disturbances and during normal conditions while also potentially providing economic value to consumers and variable renewable generation owners. This one-page, two-sided fact sheet discusses the grid-friendly support and benefits renewables can provide to the electric power system.

  20. Connecting Atlantic temperature variability and biological cycling in two earth system models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Dunne, John P.; Msadek, Rym

    2014-05-01

    Connections between the interdecadal variability in North Atlantic temperatures and biological cycling have been widely hypothesized. However, it is unclear whether such connections are due to small changes in basin-averaged temperatures indicated by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) Index, or whether both biological cycling and the AMO index are causally linked to changes in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). We examine interdecadal variability in the annual and month-by-month diatom biomass in two Earth System Models with the same formulations of atmospheric, land, sea ice and ocean biogeochemical dynamics but different formulations of ocean physics and thus different AMOC structures and variability. In the isopycnal-layered ESM2G, strong interdecadal changes in surface salinity associated with changes in AMOC produce spatially heterogeneous variability in convection, nutrient supply and thus diatom biomass. These changes also produce changes in ice cover, shortwave absorption and temperature and hence the AMO Index. Off West Greenland, these changes are consistent with observed changes in fisheries and support climate as a causal driver. In the level-coordinate ESM2M, nutrient supply is much higher and interdecadal changes in diatom biomass are much smaller in amplitude and not strongly linked to the AMO index.